WorldWideScience

Sample records for charge state ion

  1. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  2. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  3. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkov, G. Yu., E-mail: gyushkov@mail.ru; Nikolaev, A. G.; Frolova, V. P. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  4. High-Intensity, High Charge-State Heavy Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J

    2004-01-01

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions will be reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. The benefits and limitations for these type sources will be described, for both dc and pulsed applications. Possible future improvements in these type sources will also be discussed.

  5. MULTIPLY CHARGED IONS COLLISIONS WITH ATOMS INTO EXCITED STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanGuangyan

    1990-01-01

    The emission spectra in collisions between Ions and Atoms have been measured by an Optical Multichannel Analysis System (OMA).The experimental results demonstrate that there are two channels of excitation in collision between single charged ions and atoms and three channels of excitation in collision between double charged ions and atoms.Emission cross cestions and excitation cross sections have been obtained.K.Kadota et al and R.Shingal et al suggested that,under the appropriate conditions,the H42+-Li and He2++Na collision systems can be used efficiently to produce a laser of Lyman-α(30,4nm) and Lyman-β(25.6nm)lines via cascade to He+(2P)state.

  6. Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Sha; Zhang-Min, Li; Xiao-Hong, Guo; Lun-Cai, Zhou; Guo-Zhu, Cai; Liang-ting, Sun; Xue-Zhen, Zhang; Huan-Yu, Zhao; Xi-Meng, Chen; Hong-Wei, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (E max = 3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998 %) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Low-energy state-selective charge transfer by multiply charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubinski, G; Juhasz, Z; Morgenstern, R; Hoekstra, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a combined rf-guided ion beam and photon emission spectroscopy method, which facilitates state-selective charge-transfer measurements at energies of direct relevance for astrophysics and fusion-plasma diagnostics and modeling. Ion energies have been varied from 1000 eV/amu down to energie

  8. Analysis of Ion Charge States in Solar Wind and CMEs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arati Dasgupta; J. M. Laming

    2008-03-01

    We discuss needs in dielectronic recombination data motivated by recent work directed at a quantitative understanding of ion charge states of various elements observed in situ in the solar wind and CMEs. The competing processes of ionization and recombination lead to departures from collision ionization equilibrium. The use of this as a diagnostic of acceleration and heating processes of the solar wind and CMEs is sensitive to the accuracy of the atomic rates in a way that steady state ionization equilibrium plasmas are not. The most pressing need is dielectronic recombination rates for ions Fe8+-12+. These are among the dominant species observed in various regions of the solar wind and CMEs, and in remotely sensed EUV spectra.

  9. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  10. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  11. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  12. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  13. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. I. Experimental results on the transmission of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Gruber, Elisabeth; Smejkal, Valerie; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    We report on energy loss measurements of slow (v ≪v0 ), highly charged (Q >10 ) ions upon transmission through a 1-nm-thick carbon nanomembrane. We emphasize here the scaling of the energy loss with the velocity and charge exchange or loss. We show that a weak linear velocity dependence exists, whereas charge exchange dominates the kinetic energy loss, especially in the case of a large charge capture. A universal scaling of the energy loss with the charge exchange and velocity is found and discussed in this paper. A model for charge-state-dependent energy loss for slow ions is presented in paper II in this series [R. A. Wilhelm and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 052709 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052709].

  14. Theory for charge states of energetic oxygen ions in the earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fluxes of geomagnetically trapped energetic oxygen ions have been studied in detail. Ion distributions in radial locations below the geostationary orbit, energy spectra between 1 keV and 100 MeV, and the distribution over charge states have been computed for equatorially mirroring ions. Both ionospheric and solar wind oxygen ion sources have been considered, and it is found that the charge state distributions in the interior of the radiation belts are largely independent of the charge state characteristics of the sources. In the MeV range, oxygen ions prove to be a more sensitive probe for radiation belt dynamics than helium ions and protons.

  15. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9689 Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing ...PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration Neil S. Spinner,* Katherine M. Hinnant...geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available

  16. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  17. Charge transfer to ground-state ions produces free electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, D.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sakakibara, Y.; Takanashi, T.; Ito, Y.; Maliyar, G. G.; Motomura, K.; Nagaya, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Asa, K.; Sato, Y.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Schöffler, M.; Kastirke, G.; Hergenhahn, U.; Stumpf, V.; Gokhberg, K.; Kuleff, A. I.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Ueda, K.

    2017-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization of an isolated atom typically leads to Auger decay. In an environment, for example, a liquid or a van der Waals bonded system, this process will be modified, and becomes part of a complex cascade of relaxation steps. Understanding these steps is important, as they determine the production of slow electrons and singly charged radicals, the most abundant products in radiation chemistry. In this communication, we present experimental evidence for a so-far unobserved, but potentially very important step in such relaxation cascades: Multiply charged ionic states after Auger decay may partially be neutralized by electron transfer, simultaneously evoking the creation of a low-energy free electron (electron transfer-mediated decay). This process is effective even after Auger decay into the dicationic ground state. In our experiment, we observe the decay of Ne2+ produced after Ne 1s photoionization in Ne-Kr mixed clusters.

  18. Probing lithium-ion batteries' state-of-charge using ultrasonic transmission - Concept and laboratory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Lukas; Bach, Tobias; Virsik, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Angelika; Müller, Jana; Staab, Torsten E. M.; Sextl, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    For electrically powered applications such as consumer electronics and especially for electric vehicles a precise state-of-charge estimation for their lithium-ion batteries is desired to reduce aging, e.g. avoiding detrimental states-of-charge. Today, this estimation is performed by battery management systems that solely rely on charge bookkeeping and cell voltage measurements. In the present work we introduce a new, physical probe for the state-of-charge based on ultrasonic transmission. Within the simple experimental setup raised cosine pulses are applied to lithium-ion battery pouch cells, whose signals are sensitive to changes in porosity of the graphite anode during charging/dis-charging and, therefore, to the state-of-charge. The underlying physical principle can be related to Biot's theory about propagation of waves in fluid saturated porous media and by including scattering by boundary layers inside the cell.

  19. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energydistributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Mraz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-03-23

    The charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured and analyzed at different oxygen and argon pressures in the range 0.5 8.0 mTorr. A significant reduction of the ion energy was detected as the pressure was increased, most pronounced in an argon environment and for the higher charge states. The corresponding average charge state decreased from 1.87 to 1.0 with increasing pressure. The IEDs of all metal ions in oxygen were fitted with shifted Maxwellian distributions. The results show that it is possible to obtain a plasma composition with a narrow charge-state distribution as well as a narrow IED. These data may enable tailoring thin-film properties through selecting growth conditions that are characterized by predefined charge state and energy distributions.

  20. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Ar{sup q+} {minus} Ar collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-12-31

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar{sup q+} -- Ar (8{le}q{le}16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar{sup 8-16+}, recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar{sup 10-16+}, there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy.

  1. Charge state studies of low energy heavy ions passing through hydrogen and helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, W; Buchmann, L; Chen, A A; D'Auria, J M; D'Onofrio, A; Engel, S; Gialanella, L; Greife, U; Hunter, D; Hussein, A; Hutcheon, D A; Olin, A; Ottewell, D; Rogalla, D; Rogers, J; Romano, M; Roy, G; Terrasi, F

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the charge state distribution of low energy (<1.5 MeV/u), low Z (<13) heavy ions passing through hydrogen and helium gas of varying target pressure have been performed using separate windowless gas target systems at TRIUMF and the University of Naples. Semi-empirical relationships have been deduced to estimate the equilibrium charge state distributions as a function of beam energy. From these distributions, cross-sections for the relevant charge changing reactions have been deduced.

  2. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  3. Laser Plasmas : Multiple charge states of titanium ions in laser produced plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shukla; S Bandhyopadhyay; V N Rai; A V Kilpio; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An intense laser radiation (1012 to 1014 W/cm-2) focused on the solid target creates a hot (≥ 1 keV) and dense plasma having high ionization state. The multiple charged ions with high current densities produced during laser matter interaction have potential application in accelerators as an ion source. This paper presents generation and detection of highly stripped titanium ions (Ti) in laser produced plasma. An Nd:glass laser (KAMETRON) delivering 50 J energy ( = 0.53 m) in 2.5 ns was focused onto a titanium target to produce plasma. This plasma was allowed to drift across a space of ∼ 3 m through a diagnostic hole in the focusing mirror before ions are finally detected with the help of electrostatic ion analyzer. Maximum current density was detected for the charge states of +16 and +17 of Ti ions for laser intensity of ∼ 1014 W/cm-2.

  4. Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa, Brian K.; Vetter, Paul A.

    2003-01-03

    The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions.

  5. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  6. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  7. Charge states distribution of 3350 keV He ions channeled in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bentini, G G; Bianconi, M; Lotti, R; Lulli, G

    2002-01-01

    When an ion beam is aligned along a major crystalline axis the dominant interaction is with valence electrons. In this condition the charge exchange processes mostly concern the interaction between the incident ion and a quasi-free electron gas and a strong reduction of the charge-changing probabilities is expected. In this work, 3350 keV He sup + and He sup 2 sup + ions were aligned at small tilt angles about the axis of a 4650 A silicon crystalline membrane. The charge state distribution (CSD) of the transmitted ions was detected by an electro-magnetic analyzer having a very small acceptance angle. In these conditions the equilibration of the CSD was not yet reached and this allowed, making use of simple approximations, for the measurement of the valence electron loss cross-section.

  8. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  9. Average charge states of heavy and superheavy ions passing through a rarified gas : Theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Shevelko, V. P.; Borschevsky, A.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu.; Yakushev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The average charge states (q) over bar of heavy and superheavy ions (atomic numbers Z = 80-114) passing through He gas are studied experimentally and theoretically. Experimental data were measured at the gas-filled recoil separator, i.e., the TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) a

  10. Decay rates of large-l Rydberg states of multiply charged ions approaching solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Mirkovic, M. A.; Bozanic, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the ionization of large-l multiply charged Rydberg ions approaching solid surfaces within the framework of decay model and applying the etalon equation method. The radial coordinate rho of the active electron is treated as a variational parameter and therefore the parabolic symmetry is preserved in this procedure. The complex eigenenergies are calculated from which the energy terms and the ionization rates are derived. We find that the large-l Rydberg states decay at approximately the same ion-surface distances as the low-l states oriented toward the vacuum and considerably closer to the surface comparing to the low-l states oriented towards the surface.

  11. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  12. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  13. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, B.; Ruan, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O{sup 7+}, 620 eμA of Ar{sup 11+}, 430 eμA of Ar{sup 12+}, 430 eμA of Xe{sup 20+}, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  14. A Numerical Model for Ion Charge Distribution of Plasmas in Collisional Radiative Steady State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yaoyong; GUO Yonghui; QIU Aici; KUAI Bin

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model for the charge state distribution of plasmas in a collisional ra-diative steady state (CRSS) is established by averaging over the atomic process rate coefficients in universal kinetic equations.It is used to calculate the mean ion charge and ion population for a given temperature and density of the plasmas,ranging from low Z to high Z elements.The comparisons of the calculated results with those of other non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics codes show that this model possesses acceptable precision.Furthermore,the NLTE effects are investigated by virtue of the model,and the differences between CRSS and LTE models for low density plasmas are quite evident.

  15. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Xu; Binghe Liu; Dayong Hu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the ...

  16. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available...15 1 1.0 Background and Motivation Lithium-ion batteries are a popular choice of power source for a variety of...military systems due to their promise of high power and high energy density. However, safety remains a significant concern, as battery failure leads

  17. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  18. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...... that the concept of the preequilibrium near-surface stopping S* can be applied successfully to describe the dependence of the ion-induced electron yields on the projectile atomic number Z(P) and on the charge states q(i) of the incoming ions. We discuss the implementation of this concept into Schou's transport...

  19. Formation and decay of the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions interacting with solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, M A; Nedeljkovic, N N; Bozanic, D K, E-mail: gmirkomarko@sezampro.rs

    2010-11-01

    Processes of formation and decay of the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping solid surfaces with intermediate velocities (v {approx} 1 a.u.) represent complex quantum events that require a detailed quantum description. We have developed a two-state vector model for the population process, with the functions {Psi}{sub 1} and {Psi}{sub 2} for definition of the state of a single active electron. The electron exchange between the solid and the moving ion is described by a mixed flux through a plane positioned between them. For the low values of the angular momentum quantum numbers l the radial electronic coordinate {rho} can be neglected, whereas for the large-l values a wide space region around the projectile trajectory was taken into account. The reionization of the previously populated states is considered as a decay of the wave function {Psi}{sub 2}. The corresponding decay rates are obtained by an appropriate etalon equation method: in the large-l case the radial electronic coordinate {rho} is treated as a variational parameter. The theoretical predictions based on that population-reionization mechanism are compared with the available beam-foil experimental data, as well as the experimental data obtained in the interaction of multiply charged ions with micro-capillary foil. Generally, the model reproduces the experimentally observed non-linear trend of the l distributions from l = 0 to l{sub max} = n - 1.

  20. A compact electron beam ion source with integrated Wien filter providing mass and charge state separated beams of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Peng, H; Zschornack, G; Sykora, S

    2009-06-01

    A Wien filter was designed for and tested with a room temperature electron beam ion source (EBIS). Xenon charge state spectra up to the charge state Xe46+ were resolved as well as the isotopes of krypton using apertures of different sizes. The complete setup consisting of an EBIS and a Wien filter has a length of less than 1 m substituting a complete classical beamline setup. The Wien filter is equipped with removable permanent magnets. Hence total beam current measurements are possible via simple removal of the permanent magnets. In dependence on the needs of resolution a weak (0.2 T) or a strong (0.5 T) magnets setup can be used. In this paper the principle of operation and the design of the Wien filter meeting the requirements of an EBIS are briefly discussed. The first ion beam extraction and separation experiments with a Dresden EBIS are presented.

  1. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  2. Adding high time resolution to charge-state-specific ion energy measurements for pulsed copper vacuum arc plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Koichi; Zhou, Xue; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    Charge-state-resolved ion energy-time-distributions of pulsed Cu arc plasma were obtained by using direct (time dependent) acquisition of the ion detection signal from a commercial ion mass-per-charge and energy-per-charge analyzer. We find a shift of energies of Cu2+, Cu3+ and Cu4+ ions to lower values during the first few hundred microseconds after arc ignition, which is evidence for particle collisions in the plasma. The generation of Cu1+ ions in the later part of the pulse, measured by the increase of Cu1+ signal intensity and an associated slight reduction of the mean charge state point to charge exchange reactions between ions and neutrals. At the very beginning of the pulse, when the plasma expands into vacuum and the plasma potential strongly fluctuates, ions with much higher energy (over 200 eV) were observed. Early in the pulse, the ion energies observed are approximately proportional to the ion charge state, and we conclude that the acceleration mechanism is primarily based on acceleration in an e...

  3. Highly charged ions in Penning traps, a new tool for resolving low lying isomeric states

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Ettenauer, S; Simon, V V; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Andreoiu, C; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly charged ions greatly increases the precision and resolving power, in particular for short-lived species produced at on-line radio-isotope beam facilities, achievable with Penning trap mass spectrometers. This increase in resolving power provides a new and unique access to resolving low-lying long-lived ($T_{1/2} > 50$ ms) nuclear isomers. Recently, the $111.19(22)$ keV (determined from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy) isomeric state in $^{78}$Rb has been resolved from the ground state, in a charge state of $q=8+$ with the TITAN Penning trap at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The energy level of the isomer was measured to be $108.7(6.4)$ keV above the ground state. The extracted masses for both the ground and isomeric states, and their difference, agree with the AME2003 and Nuclear Data Sheet values. This proof of principle measurement demonstrates the feasibility of using Penning trap mass spectrometers coupled to charge breeders to study nuclear isomers and opens a new route for isomer searches.

  4. State-Of-Charge Estimation of Li-Ion Battery Using Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Li-ion battery is studied base on its equivalent circuit PNGV model. The model parameters are identified by HPPC test. The discrete state space equation is established according to the model. The basic theory of extended Kalman filter algorithm is studied and then the filtering algorithm is set up under the noisy environments. Finally, a kind of electric car is used for testing under the UDDS driving condition. The difference between the simulation value using extended Kalman filter under the noisy environment and the theoretical value is compared. The result indicated that the extended Kalman filter keeps an excellent precision in state of charge estimation of Li-ion battery and performs well when disturbance happens.

  5. Average charge states of heavy and superheavy ions passing through a rarified gas: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Shevelko, V. P.; Borschevsky, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu.; Yakushev, A.

    2013-10-01

    The average charge states q¯ of heavy and superheavy ions (atomic numbers Z=80-114) passing through He gas are studied experimentally and theoretically. Experimental data were measured at the gas-filled recoil separator, i.e., the TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) at GSI Darmstadt, for ion energies of a few hundred keV/u at gas pressures of 0.2 to 2.0 mbar. An attempt is made to describe experimental q¯ values by means of atomic calculations of the binding energies and electron-loss and electron-capture cross sections. The influence of the gas-density effect is included in the calculations. The calculated q¯ reproduce the experimental values for elements with Z=80-114 within 20%. A comparison with different semiempirical models is presented as well, including a local fit of high accuracy, which is often used in superheavy-element experiments to estimate the average charge states of heavy ions, e.g., at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. The q¯ values for elements with Z=115, 117, 119, and 120 at He-gas pressure of 0.8 mbar are predicted.

  6. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  7. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  8. X-Ray Spectroscopy: An Experimental Technique to Measure Charge State Distribution Right at the Ion-Solid Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Charge state distributions of $^{56}$Fe and $^{58}$Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.44 - 2.69 MeV/u using a novel method from the x-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk show Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the x-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state right at the interaction zone or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower projectile mean charge states compare to x-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for energies $\\geq$ 2 MeV/u.

  9. Ionic Charge State Distribution of Au Plasma for 7-Ion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present work extends the previous work[2] on 5-ion system to consider 7-ion system (i.e., Au47+ ~ Au53+). It is found that more highly charged ions, e.g., Au53+, Au54+ etc., could be able to be neglected, however, less highly charged ions, e.g., Au47+, Au46+ etc., are rather important. Therefore, a new idea to consider 8-ion system, i.e., Au46+ ~ Au53+, is under way. As a supplement, we discuss the simultaneous reaction, which would be important in this sort of works.

  10. New charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries based on the integration of Taguchi method and state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh Tu; Chen, Xiaopeng; Shen, Weixiang; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new charging strategy of lithium-polymer batteries (LiPBs) has been proposed based on the integration of Taguchi method (TM) and state of charge estimation. The TM is applied to search an optimal charging current pattern. An adaptive switching gain sliding mode observer (ASGSMO) is adopted to estimate the SOC which controls and terminates the charging process. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed charging strategy can successfully charge the same types of LiPBs with different capacities and cycle life. The proposed charging strategy also provides much shorter charging time, narrower temperature variation and slightly higher energy efficiency than the equivalent constant current constant voltage charging method.

  11. Energy loss and charge state dependency of swift Nq+ ions scattered off a Pt(110)(1 x 2) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, A; Hatke, N; Jensen, J; Plachke, D; Carstanjen, HD; Heiland, W

    2003-01-01

    We present new surface scattering results combining measurements of energy loss and charge state distributions of 0.7-1.4 MeV Nq+ (q = 1, 2) ions. The energy range is still below the bulk stopping power maximum and charge exchange occurs. The projectiles scatter from a Pt(110)(1 x 2) single crystal

  12. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  13. The beam commissioning of a CW high charge state heavy ion RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K.; Lu, Y. R.; Yin, X. J.; Yang, Y. Q.; Gao, S. L.; Wang, Z.; He, Y.; Liu, G.; Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.; Chen, C. E.

    2015-09-01

    The SSC-LINAC project is launched at Institute of Modern Physics in China to develop one new linear accelerator (LINAC) injector for separated sector cyclotron (SSC). It includes a high charge state ion source, a CW RFQ and a DTL section, and is designed to accelerate ions up to 580 keV/u. Now the ion source and the RFQ cavity have been installed in the main hall and the beam commissioning has been carried out. Two kinds of ions have been tested, 16O5+ and 40Ar8+. The experiment result of 16O5+ is: the measured beam current is 180 μA at entrance of RFQ and 150 μA at exit of RFQ. The output energy of 16O5+ is 141.89 keV/u. The measured beam current is 210 μA at entrance of RFQ and 198 μA at exit of RFQ for 40Ar8+. The output energy of 40Ar8+ is 142.78 keV/u. The experiment results agree with the design parameters of RFQ very well. This paper presents: the design consideration of beam dynamics, RF and cooling structure design; measurement of the cold model; high power test of RFQ and beam commissioning result.

  14. The beam commissioning of a CW high charge state heavy ion RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, K. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lu, Y.R., E-mail: yrlu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yin, X.J.; Yang, Y.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, S.L.; Wang, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, X.H.; Yuan, Y.J.; Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, C.E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-09-11

    The SSC-LINAC project is launched at Institute of Modern Physics in China to develop one new linear accelerator (LINAC) injector for separated sector cyclotron (SSC). It includes a high charge state ion source, a CW RFQ and a DTL section, and is designed to accelerate ions up to 580 keV/u. Now the ion source and the RFQ cavity have been installed in the main hall and the beam commissioning has been carried out. Two kinds of ions have been tested, {sup 16}O{sup 5+} and {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}. The experiment result of {sup 16}O{sup 5+} is: the measured beam current is 180 μA at entrance of RFQ and 150 μA at exit of RFQ. The output energy of {sup 16}O{sup 5+} is 141.89 keV/u. The measured beam current is 210 μA at entrance of RFQ and 198 μA at exit of RFQ for {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}. The output energy of {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+} is 142.78 keV/u. The experiment results agree with the design parameters of RFQ very well. This paper presents: the design consideration of beam dynamics, RF and cooling structure design; measurement of the cold model; high power test of RFQ and beam commissioning result.

  15. Local state-of-charge mapping of lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Jagjit [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Remillard, Jeffrey; O' Neill, Ann; Bernardi, Dawn; Ro, Tina; Nietering, Kenneth E.; Miller, Ted J. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Go, Joo-Young [SB LiMotive, R and D Team, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-09

    Current lithium-ion battery technology is gearing towards meeting the robust demand of power and energy requirements for all-electric transportation without compromising on the safety, performance, and cycle life. The state-of-charge (SOC) of a Li-ion cell can be a macroscopic indicator of the state-of-health of the battery. The microscopic origin of the SOC relates to the local lithium content in individual electrode particles and the effective ability of Li-ions to transport or shuttle between the redox couples through the cell geometric boundaries. Herein, micrometer-resolved Raman mapping of a transition-metal-based oxide positive electrode, Li{sub 1-x}(Ni{sub y}Co{sub z}Al{sub 1-y-z})O{sub 2}, maintained at different SOCs, is shown. An attempt has been made to link the underlying changes to the composition and structural integrity at the individual particle level. Furthermore, an SOC distribution at macroscopic length scale of the electrodes is presented. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Bound state properties and photodetachment of the negatively charged hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2015-05-01

    Absorption of infrared and visible radiation from stellar emission spectra by the negatively charged hydrogen ions H- is considered. The explicit formula for the photodetachment cross-section of the negatively charged hydrogen ion(s) is derived. Photodetachemnt cross-sections of the {∞}H-, {3}H- (or T-), {2}H- (or D-) and {1}H- ions are determined to high accuracy and for a large number of photo-electron momenta/energies. We introduce criteria which can be used to evaluate the overall quality of highly accurate wave functions of the hydrogen ion(s). One of these criteria is based on highly accurate calculations of the lowest order QED corrections in the negatively charged hydrogen ions, including {1}H- (protium), {2}H- (deuterium), {3}H- (tritium) and model ion with the infinitely heavy nucleus {∞}H-. An effective approach has been developed to calculate three-body integrals with the Bessel functions of different orders. Some preliminary evaluations of the phototdetachment cross-sections of the negatively charged hydrogen ions are performed. Inverse bremsstrahlung in the field of the neutral hydrogen atom is briefly discussed.

  17. Optimization of a charge-state analyzer for electron cyclotron resonance ion source beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saminathan, S.; Beijers, J. P. M.; Kremers, H. R.; Mironov, V.; Mulder, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed experimental and simulation study of the extraction of a 24 keV He+ beam from an ECR ion source and the subsequent beam transport through an analyzing magnet is presented. We find that such a slow ion beam is very sensitive to space-charge forces, but also that the neutralization of the b

  18. A Single Charge State ECR Ion Source%单粒子态ECR离子源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉彬; 刘占稳; 赵红卫; 丁俊章; 曹云; 张子民; 张雪珍; 郭晓虹

    1999-01-01

    A compact 2.45GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for high beam current of single charge state has been built at Institute of Modern Physics. A mixed ion( )beam current of 90mA is delivered from a single aperture of φ6mm with rf power 600W at extraction voltage 22kV. This paper introduces the source structure, the magnetic configuration, the test results and the relation between the magnetic configuration and total beam current. In addition, the magnetic configuration is also compared with that of the other 2.45GHz ECR ion sources built in different laboratories. Finally, some conclusions are presented.%介绍了一台2.45GHz电子回旋共振(ECR)单电荷离子源的磁场场形,以及它和总束流的关系. 并且比较了国际上现有的几台同类型离子源的磁场场形. 由此得出了关于2.45GHz ECR 离子源磁场场形的一些结论.

  19. ECR Ion Source of High Charge States%高电荷态ECR离子源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子民; 刘占稳; 赵红卫

    2000-01-01

    介绍了目前ECR离子源的发展状况和国际上几台典型的ECR离子源.%Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is the most efficient facility for producing highly charged ions.So far more than 1 emA of O6+ and 0.02eμA of U55+ have been delivered by ECR ion source. In this paper the latest develop-ment of ECR ion source is presented and several typical ECR ion sources in the world is introduced.

  20. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-14

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  1. State-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries: A particle filter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Tsai, Yiting; Gopaluni, R. Bhushan; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of lithium-ion batteries are complex and are often approximated by models consisting of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the internal ionic concentrations and potentials. The Pseudo two-dimensional model (P2D) is one model that performs sufficiently accurately under various operating conditions and battery chemistries. Despite its widespread use for prediction, this model is too complex for standard estimation and control applications. This article presents an original algorithm for state-of-charge estimation using the P2D model. Partial differential equations are discretized using implicit stable algorithms and reformulated into a nonlinear state-space model. This discrete, high-dimensional model (consisting of tens to hundreds of states) contains implicit, nonlinear algebraic equations. The uncertainty in the model is characterized by additive Gaussian noise. By exploiting the special structure of the pseudo two-dimensional model, a novel particle filter algorithm that sweeps in time and spatial coordinates independently is developed. This algorithm circumvents the degeneracy problems associated with high-dimensional state estimation and avoids the repetitive solution of implicit equations by defining a 'tether' particle. The approach is illustrated through extensive simulations.

  2. Aerosol charging state at an urban site: new analytical approach and implications for ion-induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was determined using an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. We extrapolated the charging state and calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 1.3 % ± 0.4 % at 2 nm and 1.3 % ± 0.5 % at 1.5 nm, on average. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for a new particle formation event, at a given size and polarity. We improve the uncertainty assessment and fitting technique used previously with an Ion-DMPS. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the behaviour of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  3. First state selective electron capture measurements with trapped highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, F.W.; Woestenenk, G.R.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first state selective electron capture cross section measurements at eV energies are reported for collisions between C4+ ions and H-2 molecules. The cross sections are measured in a crossed beam experiment by means of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. The ion beams are decelerated in an octopole ion

  4. Luminescence from the ligand to metal charge transfer state of the neptunyl (V) ion and its complexes in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Rebecca; Sykes, Daniel; Faulkner, Stephen [University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, Mansfield Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Natrajan, Louise S; Livens, Francis R [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Taylor, Robin J, E-mail: Stephen.Faulkner@chem.ox.ac.uk [Central Laboratory, National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    The photophysical properties of the neptunyl (V) ion in aqueous solution have been studied using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. While any f-f transitions in emission are too weak to detect using available technology, the ligand to metal charge transfer state is emissive in the visible part of the spectrum. Both the aquo ion and its complexes with bidentate ligands exhibit biexponential decay kinetics, which can be rationalised by slow exchange on the timescale of the experiment.

  5. Solid-state NMR Study of Ion Adsorption and Charge Storage in Graphene Film Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Bo, Zheng; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-12-01

    Graphene film has been demonstrated as promising active materials for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), mainly due to its excellent mechanical flexibility and freestanding morphology. In this work, the distribution and variation pattern of electrolyte ions in graphene-film based EDLC electrodes are investigated with a 11B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. For neutral graphene films soaked with different amounts of electrolytes (1 M TEABF4/ACN), weakly and strongly adsorbed anions are identified based on the resonances at different 11B chemical shifts. Unlike other porous carbonaceous materials, the strongly adsorbed anions are found as the major electrolyte anions components in graphene films. Further measurements on the ion population upon charging are carried out with applying different charging voltages on the graphene films. Results indicate that the charging process of graphene-film based EDLCs can be divided into two distinct charge storage stages (i.e., ejection of co-ions and adsorption of counter-ions) for different voltages. The as-obtained results will be useful for the design and fabrication of high performance graphene-film based EDLCs.

  6. Dynamics of the Rydberg state population of slow highly charged ions impinging a solid surface at arbitrary collision geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljković, N. N.; Majkić, M. D.; Božanić, D. K.; Dojčilović, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the population dynamics of the intermediate Rydberg states of highly charged ions (core charge Z\\gg 1, principal quantum number {n}{{A}}\\gg 1) interacting with solid surfaces at arbitrary collision geometry. The recently developed resonant two-state vector model for the grazing incidence (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 215202) is extended to the quasi-resonant case and arbitrary angle of incidence. According to the model, the population probabilities depend both on the projectile parallel and perpendicular velocity components, in a complementary way. A cascade neutralization process for {{{Xe}}}Z+ ions, for Z=15{--}45, interacting with a conductive-surface is considered by taking into account the population dynamics. For an arbitrary collision geometry and given range of ionic velocities, a micro-staircase model for the simultaneous calculation of the kinetic energy gain and the charge state of the ion in front of the surface is proposed. The relevance of the obtained results for the explanation of the formation of nanostructures on solid surfaces by slow highly charged ions for normal incidence geometry is briefly discussed.

  7. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status.

  8. Magnetic latitude dependence of oxygen charge states in the global magnetosphere: Insights into solar wind-originating ion injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. C.; Livi, S. A.; Vines, S. K.; Goldstein, J.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the sources and subsequent evolution of plasma in a magnetosphere holds intrinsic importance for magnetospheric dynamics. Previous studies have investigated the balance of ionospheric-originating heavy ions (low charge state) from those of solar wind origin (high charge state) in the magnetosphere of Earth. These studies have suggested a variety of entry mechanisms for solar wind ions to penetrate into the magnetosphere. Following from recently published distributions for oxygen charge states observed by the Polar spacecraft, this paper investigates oxygen charge state flux distributions versus L shell and magnetic latitude. By showing these distributions in this frame, and binning by various proxies for magnetospheric dynamics (Dst, AE, VSW∗BZ, Pdyn), insight has been gained into the underlying physics at play for oxygen injection. Ionospheric-originating oxygen is observed to depend predominantly on Dst, whereas solar wind-originating oxygen is observed to have a strong dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure (Pdyn) at the flanks and on VSW∗BZ at the dayside. This suggests that both Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and reconnection play major roles in solar wind ion penetration into a magnetosphere. Additionally, the near-Earth magnetotail reconnection site does not seem to be a major injection site of solar wind-originating plasma in the 1 to 200 keV/e energy range.

  9. Survival Of Large-l Rydberg States Of Highly Charged Ions In The Vicinity Of Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, M. A.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Božanic, D. K.

    2010-07-01

    The probabilities for ionization of large-l multiply charged Rydberg ions approaching metallic surfaces at thermal velocities in the normal incidence geometry were calculated. The ionization process was treated within the framework of decay model using the appropriate etalon equation method for solving the complex energy eigenvalue problem. It is shown that, in contrast to corresponding low-l states, the large-l Rydberg states exhibit non-zero survival probabilities.

  10. A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Mahner, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam life-time, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) electron capture from the electron beam of the electron cooler and (iii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring as to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocks made of low beam-induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.

  11. Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Andersen, Amity; Du, Dan; Zhang, Weiying; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the controlled deposition of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12O403- and PMo12O402-, onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces via soft landing of mass-selected ions. Utilizing in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electronic structure calculations, we examine the structure and charge retention of supported multiply-charged POM anions and characterize the redox properties of the modified surfaces. SAMs of alkylthiol (HSAM), perfluorinated alkylthiol (FSAM), and alkylthiol terminated with NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM) are chosen as model substrates for soft landing to examine the factors which influence the immobilization and charge retention of multiply charged anionic molecules. The distribution of charge states of POMs on different SAM surfaces are determined by comparing the IRRAS spectra with vibrational spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). In contrast to the results obtained previously for multiply charged cations, soft landed anions are found to retain charge on all three SAM surfaces. This charge retention is attributed to the substantial electron binding energy of the POM anions. Investigation of redox properties by CV reveals that, while surfaces prepared by soft landing exhibit similar features to those prepared by adsorption of POM from solution, the soft landed POM2- has a pronounced shift in oxidation potential compared to POM3- for one of the redox couples. These results demonstrate that ion soft landing is uniquely suited for precisely controlled preparation of substrates with specific electronic and chemical properties that cannot be achieved using conventional deposition techniques.

  12. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  13. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  14. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  15. State of charge modeling of lithium-ion batteries using dual exponential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Jung; Lee, Kung-Yen; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chen, Jau-Horng; Chiu, Wei-Li; Huang, Chih-Fang; Wu, Shuen-De

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed by fitting the discharging curve of LiFePO4 batteries and used to investigate the relationship between the state of charge and the closed-circuit voltage. The proposed mathematical model consists of dual exponential terms and a constant term which can fit the characteristics of dual equivalent RC circuits closely, representing a LiFePO4 battery. One exponential term presents the stable discharging behavior and the other one presents the unstable discharging behavior and the constant term presents the cut-off voltage.

  16. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions passing through carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, M., E-mail: imai@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sataka, M.; Matsuda, M.; Okayasu, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawatsura, K. [Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1001 (Japan); Takahiro, K. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Komaki, K. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shibata, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions were studied experimentally for 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions after passing through carbon foils. Measured charge-state distribution established the equilibrium at a target thickness of 10 μg/cm{sup 2} and this remained unchanged until a maximum target thickness of 98 μg/cm{sup 2}. The equilibrium charge-state distribution, the equilibrium mean charge-state, and the width and skewness of the equilibrium distribution were compared with predictions using existing semi-empirical formulae as well as simulation results, including the ETACHA code. It was found that charge-state distributions, mean charge states, and distribution widths for C{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, and C{sup 4+} incident ions merged into quasi-equilibrium values at a target thickness of 5.7 μg/cm{sup 2} in the pre-equilibrium region and evolved simultaneously to the ‘real equilibrium’ values for all of the initial charge states, including C{sup 5+} and C{sup 6+} ions, as previously demonstrated for sulfur projectile ions at the same velocity (Imai et al., 2009). Two kinds of simulation, ETACHA and solution of rate equations taking only single electron transfers into account, were used, and both of them reproduced the measured charge evolution qualitatively. The quasi-equilibrium behavior could be reproduced with the ETACHA code, but not with solution of elementary rate equations.

  17. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, N.; Rybalchenko, A.; Shevelko, V. P.; Al-Turany, M.; Kollegger, T.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  18. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed.

  19. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  20. Temperature dependency of state of charge inhomogeneities and their equalization in cylindrical lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, P. J.; Erhard, S. V.; Rheinfeld, A.; Rieger, B.; Hoster, H. E.; Jossen, A.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of cell temperature on the current density distribution and accompanying inhomogeneities in state of charge (SOC) during cycling is analyzed in this work. To allow for a detailed insight in the electrochemical behavior of the cell, commercially available 26650 cells were modified to allow for measuring local potentials at four different, nearly equidistant positions along the electrodes. As a follow-up to our previous work investigating local potentials within a cell, we apply this method for studying SOC deviations and their sensitivity to cell temperature. The local potential distribution was studied during constant current discharge operations for various current rates and discharge pulses in order to evoke local inhomogeneities for temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 40 °C. Differences in local potentials were considered for estimating local SOC variations within the electrodes. It could be observed that even low currents such as 0.1C can lead to significant inhomogeneities, whereas a higher cell temperature generally results in more pronounced inhomogeneities. A rapid SOC equilibration can be observed if the variation in the SOC distribution corresponds to a considerable potential difference defined by the open circuit voltage of either the positive or negative electrode. With increasing temperature, accelerated equalization effects can be observed.

  1. On state-of-charge determination for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery through its life remains challenging in battery research. Although improved precisions continue to be reported at times, almost all are based on regression methods empirically, while the accuracy is often not properly addressed. Here, a comprehensive review is set to address such issues, from fundamental principles that are supposed to define SOC to methodologies to estimate SOC for practical use. It covers topics from calibration, regression (including modeling methods) to validation in terms of precision and accuracy. At the end, we intend to answer the following questions: 1) can SOC estimation be self-adaptive without bias? 2) Why Ah-counting is a necessity in almost all battery-model-assisted regression methods? 3) How to establish a consistent framework of coupling in multi-physics battery models? 4) To assess the accuracy in SOC estimation, statistical methods should be employed to analyze factors that contribute to the uncertainty. We hope, through this proper discussion of the principles, accurate SOC estimation can be widely achieved.

  2. Study on charge equilibration time of highly charged ions in carbon foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yan; Xiao Guo-Qing; Xu Hu-Shan; Sun Zhi-Yu; Zhao Yong-Wao; Hu Zheng-Guo; Xu Hua-Gen; Huang Wian-Heng; Wang Yu-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Charge state distribution of 0.8MeV/u uranium ions after transmission through a thin carbon foil has been studied.It is observed that the charge state distribution is equilibrated after the uranium ions have passed through a 15 μg/cm2 carbon foil.The equilibrated average charge state is 33.72 and the charge equilibration time of uranium ions in carbon foil is less than 5.4fs.

  3. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed.

  4. Acceleration and Utilization of Highly Stripped Charge State Heavy Ions at HI-13 Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Even higher linear energy transfer (LET) values of the heavy ions are necessary as the investigationsof single event effects (SEE) of satellite devices are developing rapidly. For example, the researches aredeveloped from the single-event upset (SEU) which needs comparatively low LET values towards singleevent latch up (SEL) and single event burnout (SEB) which requires high LET values, namely LET’s arehigher than 80 MeV mg-1,cm-2 and range of the ions in the silicon should be large than 20 micrometers,

  5. Hydration of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S; Weiss, Alexander K H; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M

    2011-08-01

    Based on a series of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulations, the broad spectrum of structural and dynamical properties of hydrates of trivalent and tetravalent ions is presented, ranging from extreme inertness to immediate hydrolysis. Main group and transition metal ions representative for different parts of the periodic system are treated, as are 2 threefold negatively charged anions. The results show that simple predictions of the properties of the hydrates appear impossible and that an accurate quantum mechanical simulation in cooperation with sophisticated experimental investigations seems the only way to obtain conclusive results.

  6. Extremely supercharged proteins in mass spectrometry: profiling the pH of electrospray generated droplets, narrowing charge state distributions, and increasing ion fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Donald, William A

    2015-03-21

    The effects of 12 acids, 4 solvents, and 8 low-volatility additives that increase analyte charging (i.e., superchargers) on the charge state distributions (CSDs) of protein ions in ESI-MS were investigated. We discovered that (i) relatively low concentrations [5% (v/v)] of 1,2-butylene carbonate (and 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one) can be added to ESI solutions to form higher charge states of cytochrome c and myoglobin ions than by using more traditional additives (e.g., propylene carbonate, sulfolane, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol) under these conditions and (ii) the width of CSDs narrow as the effectiveness of superchargers increase, which concentrates protein ions into fewer detection channels. The use of strong acids (pKa values 0) results in significantly higher protein ion charging, less acid adduction, and narrower CSDs, indicating that protein ion supercharging in ESI can be significantly limited by the binding of conjugate base anions of acids that neutralize charge sites and broaden CSDs. The extent of protein charging as a function of acid identity (HA) does not strongly correlate with gas-phase proton transfer data (i.e., gas-phase basicity and proton affinity values for HA and A(-)), solution-phase protein secondary structures (as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy), and/or acid molecule volatility data. For protein-denaturing solutions, these data were used to infer that the "effective" pH of ESI generated droplets near the moment of ion formation can be ∼0, which is ca. 1 to 3 pH units lower than the pH of the solutions prior to ESI. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of [ubiquitin, 17H](17+) resulted in the identification of 223 cleavages, 74 of 75 inter-residue sites, and 92% ECD fragmentation efficiency, which correspond to highest of these values that have been obtained by ECD of a single isolated charge state of ubiquitin.

  7. Kalman filter for onboard state of charge estimation and peak power capability analysis of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Wei, Jingwen; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the continuous and instantaneous load capability of a battery, this paper describes a joint estimator for state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-function (SOF) of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) based on Kalman filter (KF). The SOC is a widely used index for remain useful capacity left in a battery. The SOF represents the peak power capability of the battery. It can be determined by real-time SOC estimation and terminal voltage prediction, which can be derived from impedance parameters. However, the open-circuit-voltage (OCV) of LiFePO4 is highly nonlinear with SOC, which leads to the difficulties in SOC estimation. To solve these problems, this paper proposed an onboard SOC estimation method. Firstly, a simplified linearized equivalent-circuit-model is developed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of a battery, where the OCV is regarded as a linearized function of SOC. Then, the system states are estimated based on the KF. Besides, the factors that influence peak power capability are analyzed according to statistical data. Finally, the performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments conducted on a LiFePO4 LIBs under different operating currents and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for battery onboard SOC and SOF estimation.

  8. Charge state distribution and emission characteristics in a table top reflex discharge—Effect of ion confinement and electrons accelerated across the sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak, E-mail: deepak.kumar@eli-beams.eu; Englesbe, Alexander; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Tabletop reflex discharges in a Penning geometry have many applications including ion sources and eXtreme Ultra-Violet (XUV) sources. The presence of primary electrons accelerated across the cathode sheaths is responsible for the distribution of ion charge states and of the unusually high XUV brightness of these plasmas. Absolutely calibrated space resolved XUV spectra from a table top reflex discharge operating with Al cathodes and Ne gas are presented. The spectra are analyzed with a new and complete model for ion charge distribution in similar reflex discharges. The plasma in the discharge was found to have a density of ∼10{sup 18 }m{sup −3} with a significant fraction >0.01 of fast primary electrons. The implications of the new model on the ion states achievable in a tabletop reflex plasma discharge are also discussed.

  9. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  10. Recoil-ion charge-state-resolved electron-production cross sections at 55° for 1 MeV/u C5+ on He and Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, F.; Breinig, M.; Desai, D. D.; Wig, A.; Straus, L.

    1996-08-01

    Recoil-ion charge-state-resolved doubly differential cross sections for ejecting electrons at ~55° with respect to the incident beam direction in collisions between 1 MeV/u C5+ projectiles and Ar and He targets have been measured. Electrons with kinetic energies between 100 and 1250 eV have been detected. A prominent feature in the electron energy distributions is the binary-encounter peak. Experimental results are compared with binary-encounter electron production cross sections obtained using the impulse approximation and with theoretical predictions from many-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. An enhancement in the fraction of electrons detected with singly charged He recoil ions and a corresponding decrease in the fraction detected in coincidence with doubly charged He recoil ions as a function of the electron energy have been observed near the binary-encounter electron energy. This structure has been predicted by recent many-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations.

  11. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  12. Robust Online State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Based on Error Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable state of charge (SOC estimation is a key enabling technique for large format lithium-ion battery pack due to its vital role in battery safety and effective management. This paper tries to make three contributions to existing literatures through robust algorithms. (1 Observer based SOC estimation error model is established, where the crucial parameters on SOC estimation accuracy are determined by quantitative analysis, being a basis for parameters update. (2 The estimation method for a battery pack in which the inconsistency of cells is taken into consideration is proposed, ensuring all batteries’ SOC ranging from 0 to 1, effectively avoiding the battery overcharged/overdischarged. Online estimation of the parameters is also presented in this paper. (3 The SOC estimation accuracy of the battery pack is verified using the hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The experimental results at various dynamic test conditions, temperatures, and initial SOC difference between two cells demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  13. Heavy Coronal Ions in the Heliosphere: I. Global Distribution of Charge-states of C, N, O, Mg, Si and S

    CERN Document Server

    Grzedzielski, S; Bzowski, M; Izmodenov, V

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Investigate/Study de-charging of solar wind C, N, O, Mg, Si and S ions and assess fluxes of resulting ENA in the heliosphere. Methods: The model treats the heavy ions as test particles convected by (and in a particular case also diffusing through) a hydrodynamically calculated background plasma flow, from 1 AU to the termination shock (TS), to heliosheath (HS) and finally to heliospheric tail (HT). The ions undergo radiative and dielectronic recombinations, charge exchanges, photo- and electron impact ionizations with plasma particles, interstellar neutral atoms (calculated on a Monte-Carlo model) and solar photons. Results: Highly-charged heavy coronal ions flowing with the solar wind undergo successive de-ionizations, mainly in the heliosheath, leading to charge-states much lower than in the supersonic solar wind. If Coulomb scattering is the main ion energy loss mechanism, the end product of these deionizations are fluxes of ENA of ~1 keV/nucleon originating in the upwind heliosheath that for C, Mg, ...

  14. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap): An experimental realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  16. Adiabatic calorimetry test of the reaction kinetics and self-heating model for 18650 Li-ion cells in various states of charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Wang, Yih-Wen; Shu, Chi-Min

    2016-06-01

    Use of adiabatic calorimetry to characterise thermal runaway of Li-ion cells is a crucial technique in battery safety testing. Various states of charge (SoC) of Li-ion cells were investigated to ascertain their thermal runaway features using a Vent Sizing Package 2 (VSP2) adiabatic calorimeter. To evaluate the thermal runaway characteristics, the temperature-pressure-time trajectories of commercial cylindrical cells were tested, and it was found that cells at a SoC of greater than 50% were subject to thermal explosion at elevated temperatures. Calorimetry data from various 18650 Li-ion cells with different SoC were used to calculate the thermal explosion energies and chemical kinetics; furthermore, a novel self-heating model based on a pseudo-zero-order reaction that follows the Arrhenius equation was found to be applicable for studying the exothermic reaction of a charged cell.

  17. Excited state charge transfer reaction in (mixed solvent + electrolyte) systems: Role of reactant-solvent and reactant-ion interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harun Al Rasid Gazi; Ranjit Biswas

    2011-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) in two sets of mixed solvents, (1-propanol + ethyl acetate) and (propylene carbonate + acetonitrile), in the absence and presence of a strong electrolyte, lithium perchlorate. These two sets of mixed solvent systems represent binary solvent mixtures of low and high polarities, respectively. Density, sound velocity and viscosity measurements indicate that these two mixed solvent systems are structurally different. Stronger ion-reactant interaction is evidenced in the mole fraction independence of emission frequencies in electrolyte solutions of low polar binary solvent mixtures. For both these mixtures, the reaction driving force (- ) decreases with increase in mole fraction of the relatively less polar solvent component of the mixture. Interestingly, - increases significantly on addition of electrolyte in low polar mixtures and exhibits mixture composition dependence but, in contrast, - in high polar mixtures does not sense variation in mixture composition in presence of electrolyte. This insensitivity to mixture composition for high polar mixtures is also observed for the measured reaction time constant. In addition, the reaction time constant does not sense the presence of electrolyte in the high polar solvent mixtures. The reaction time constant in low polar mixtures, which becomes faster on addition of electrolyte, lengthens on increasing the mole fraction of the relatively less polar solvent component of the mixture. These observations have been qualitatively explained in terms of the measured solvent reorganization energy and reaction driving force by using expressions from the classical theory of electron transfer reaction.

  18. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  19. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  20. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is preferent

  1. Kinetic energy and charge state effects in the X-ray emission of Mo surface induced by Xeq+(q=25,29) ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    L-shell X-ray spectra of Mo surface induced by Xe25+ and Xe29+ were measured. The X-ray intensity was obtained in the kinetic energy range of the incident ions from 350 to 600 keV. The relationship of X-ray intensity with kinetic energy of the projec-tile and its charge state were studied,and the simple explanation was given.

  2. Low-charge-state RFQ injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Preliminary design work was done for a short, normally-conducting RFQ entrance section for a low-charge-state linac. Early results indicate that a low- frequency (12 MHz) RFQ, operated on a high-voltage platform, and injected with a pre-bunched beam, can provide ATLAS quality beams of ions of charge-to-mass ratio less than 1/132.

  3. Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.

  4. Production of highly charged argon ions from a room temperature electron beam ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tie-Shan; PENG Hai-Bo; Ovsyannikov V P; Kentsch U; Ullmann F; CHENG Rui; Zschornack G

    2008-01-01

    In this work.highly charged ions have been extracted from the advanced Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS-A) developed in a scientific cooperation between the Dresden University of Technology and the DREEBIT GmbH Dresden.The charge state distributions of ions extracted from the EBIS-A are measured in and extracted in the leaky mode.3×105 Ar18+ ions per pulse are extracted in the pulse mode.The ion charge state distribution is a function of the ionization time.

  5. The Solar Connection of Enhanced Heavy Ion Charge States in the Interplanetary Medium: Implications for the Flux-Rope Structure of CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Reinard, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a set of 54 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events whose solar sources are very close to the disk center (within +/- 15deg from the central meridian). The ICMEs consisted of 23 magnetic-cloud (MC) events and 31 non-MC events. Our analyses suggest that the MC and non-MC ICMEs have more or less the same eruption characteristics at the Sun in terms of soft X-ray flares and CMEs. Both types have significant enhancements in ion charge states, although the non-MC structures have slightly lower levels of enhancement. The overall duration of charge-state enhancement is also considerably smaller than that in MCs as derived from solar wind plasma and magnetic signatures. We find very good correlation between the Fe and O charge-state measurements and the flare properties such as soft X-ray flare intensity and flare temperature for both MCs and non-MCs. These observations suggest that both MC and non-MC ICMEs are likely to have a flux-rope structure and the unfavorable observational geometry may be responsible for the appearance of non-MC structures at 1 AU. We do not find any evidence for an active region expansion resulting in ICMEs lacking a flux-rope structure because the mechanism of producing high charge states and the flux-rope structure at the Sun is the same for MC and non-MC events.

  6. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  7. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  8. Magnetic hyperfine structure of the ground-state doublet in highly charged ions $^{229}$Th$^{89+,87+}$ and the Bohr-Weisskopf effect

    CERN Document Server

    Tkalya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine (MHF) structure of the $5/2^+$(0.0 eV) ground state and the low-lying $3/2^+$(7.8 eV) isomeric state of the $^{229}$Th nucleus in highly charged ions Th$^{89+}$ and Th$^{87+}$ is calculated. The distribution of the nuclear magnetization (the Bohr-Weisskopf effect) is accounted for in the framework of the collective nuclear model with the wave functions of the Nilsson model for the unpaired neutron. The deviations of the MHF structure for the ground and isomeric states from their values in the model of point-like nuclear magnetic dipole are calculated. The influence of the mixing of the states with the same quantum number $F$ on the energy of sublevels is studied. Taking into account the mixing of states, the probabilities of the transitions between the components of MHF structure are found.

  9. Magnetic hyperfine structure of the ground-state doublet in highly charged ions 89+,87+229Th and the Bohr-Weisskopf effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalya, E. V.; Nikolaev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Background: The search for new opportunities to investigate the low-energy level in the 229Th nucleus, which is nowadays intensively studied experimentally, has motivated us to theoretical studies of the magnetic hyperfine (MHF) structure of the 5 /2+ (0.0 eV) ground state and the low-lying 3 /2+ (7.8 eV) isomeric state in highly charged 89+229Th and 87+229Th ions. Purpose: The aim is to calculate, with the maximal precision presently achievable, the energy of levels of the hyperfine structure of the 229Th ground-state doublet in highly charged ions and the probability of radiative transitions between these levels. Methods: The distribution of the nuclear magnetization (the Bohr-Weisskopf effect) is accounted for in the framework of the collective nuclear model with Nilsson model wave functions for the unpaired neutron. Numerical calculations using precise atomic density functional theory methods, with full account of the electron self-consistent field, have been performed for the electron structure inside and outside the nuclear region. Results: The deviations of the MHF structure for the ground and isomeric states from their values in a model of a pointlike nuclear magnetic dipole are calculated. The influence of the mixing of the states with the same quantum number F on the energy of sublevels is studied. Taking into account the mixing of states, the probabilities of the transitions between the components of the MHF structure are calculated. Conclusions: Our findings are relevant for experiments with highly ionized 229Th ions in a storage ring at an accelerator facility.

  10. In-Trap Spectroscopy of Charge-Bred Radioactive Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, A.; Grossheim, A.; Leach, K. G.; Alanssari, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Gallant, A. T.; Holl, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Frekers, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of in-trap nuclear decay spectroscopy of highly charged radioactive ions and describe its successful application as a novel spectroscopic tool. This is demonstrated by a measurement of the decay properties of radioactive mass A=124 ions (here, In124 and Cs124) in the electron-beam ion trap of the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. By subjecting the trapped ions to an intense electron beam, the ions are charge bred to high charge states (i.e., equivalent to the removal of N-shell electrons), and an increase of storage times to the level of minutes without significant ion losses is achieved. The present technique opens the venue for precision spectroscopy of low branching ratios and is being developed in the context of measuring electron-capture branching ratios needed for determining the nuclear ground-state properties of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta (ββ) decay.

  11. Surface nanostructures by single highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, S; Heller, R; El-Said, A S; Meissl, W; Aumayr, F

    2009-06-03

    It has recently been demonstrated that the impact of individual, slow but highly charged ions on various surfaces can induce surface modifications with nanometer dimensions. Generally, the size of these surface modifications (blisters, hillocks, craters or pits) increases dramatically with the potential energy of the highly charged ion, while the kinetic energy of the projectile ions seems to be of little importance. This paper presents the currently available experimental evidence and theoretical models and discusses the circumstances and conditions under which nanosized features on different surfaces due to the impact of slow highly charged ions can be produced.

  12. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  13. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS.

  14. Heavy Coronal Ions in the Heliosphere: I. Global Distribution of Charge-states of C, N, O, Mg, Si and S

    OpenAIRE

    Grzedzielski, S.; Wachowicz, M. E.; Bzowski, M.; Izmodenov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Investigate/Study de-charging of solar wind C, N, O, Mg, Si and S ions and assess fluxes of resulting ENA in the heliosphere. Methods: The model treats the heavy ions as test particles convected by (and in a particular case also diffusing through) a hydrodynamically calculated background plasma flow, from 1 AU to the termination shock (TS), to heliosheath (HS) and finally to heliospheric tail (HT). The ions undergo radiative and dielectronic recombinations, charge exchanges, photo- and ...

  15. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  16. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  17. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  18. Laserspray ionization imaging of multiply charged ions using a commercial vacuum MALDI ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutan, Ellen D; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-11-06

    This is the first report of imaging mass spectrometry (MS) from multiply charged ions at vacuum. Laserspray ionization (LSI) was recently extended to applications at vacuum producing electrospray ionization-like multiply charged ions directly from surfaces using a commercial intermediate pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) MS instrument. Here, we developed a strategy to image multiply charged peptide ions. This is achieved by the use of 2-nitrophloroglucinol as matrix for spray deposition onto the tissue section and implementation of "soft" acquisition conditions including lower laser power and ion accelerating voltages similar to electrospray ionization-like conditions. Sufficient ion abundance is generated by the vacuum LSI method to employ IMS separation in imaging multiply charged ions obtained on a commercial mass spectrometer ion source without physical instrument modifications using the laser in the commercially available reflection geometry alignment. IMS gas-phase separation reduces the complexity of the ion signal from the tissue, especially for multiply charged relative to abundant singly charged ions from tissue lipids. We show examples of LSI tissue imaging from charge state +2 of three endogenous peptides consisting of between 1 and 16 amino acid residues from the acetylated N-terminal end of myelin basic protein: mass-to-charge (m/z) 795.81 (+2) molecular weight (MW) 1589.6, m/z 831.35 (+2) MW 1660.7, and m/z 917.40 (+2) MW 1832.8.

  19. Charge breeding of radioactive ions with EBIS and EBIT

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    A charge state breeder, which transforms externally injected singly charged ions to a higher charge state q+, is an important tool which has applications within atomic, nuclear and even particle physics. The charge breeding concept of radioactive ions has already been demonstrated at REX-ISOLDE/CERN with the use of an Electron beam Ion Source (EBIS) and at several facilities employing Electron Resonance Cyclotron Ion Sources (ECRIS). As will be demonstrated in this paper, EBIS and Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), are well suited for the task as they are capable of delivering clean, highly charged beams within a short transformation time. The increasing demand for highly charged ions of all kind of elements and isotopes, stable and radioactive, to be used for low-energy experiments such as TITAN at TRIUMF and MATS at FAIR, but also for post-acceleration to higher energies, is now pushing the development of the breeders. The next challenge will be to satisfy the needs, for example space-charge capacity, of the s...

  20. A New Technique for Diagnosing Multi-charged Ion Beams Produced by ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZimin; ZhaoHongwei; CaoYun; MaLei; MaBaohua; LiJinyu; WangHui; FengYucheng; DuJunfeng

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the transmission properties of multi-charged ion beams between the ECR ion source and the analyzing magnet, a new diagnostic system composed of three Wien-filters with three single-wires has been built and installed on the IMP ECR source test bcnch. The single-wire is used to measure the beam profile and the beam density distribution, and the Wien-filter is used to measure the charge state distribution of ion beam.

  1. Frequency metrology using highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the scaling laws of relativistic fine structure splitting, many forbidden optical transitions appear within the ground state configurations of highly charged ions (HCI). In some hydrogen-like ions, even the hyperfine splitting of the 1s ground state gives rise to optical transitions. Given the very low polarizability of HCI, such laser-accessible transitions are extremely impervious to external perturbations and systematics that limit optical clock performance and arise from AC and DC Stark effects, such as black-body radiation and light shifts. Moreover, AC and DC Zeeman splitting are symmetric due to the much larger relativistic spin-orbit coupling and corresponding fine-structure splitting. Appropriate choice of states or magnetic sub-states with suitable total angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers can lead to a cancellation of residual quadrupolar shifts. All these properties are very advantageous for the proposed use of HCI forbidden lines as optical frequency standards. Extremely magnified relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, and nuclear size contributions to the binding energies of the optically active electrons make HCI ideal tools for fundamental research, as in proposed studies of a possible time variation of the fine structure constant. Beyond this, HCI that cannot be photoionized by vacuum-ultraviolet photons could also provide frequency standards for future lasers operating in that range.

  2. Handbook for highly charged ion spectroscopic research

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, Roger; Currell, Fred; Martinson, Indrek; Hagmann, Siegbert

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged ions are key research objects in atomic physics. Precision spectroscopy of such ions provides a powerful tool for exploring relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects. Additionally, the interaction of high-energy heavy-ions with matter is itself a topic of importance in many areas of applied physics, including fusion and plasma physics, accelerator physics, materials science and semiconductor device preparation and behavior. This work provides a complete overview of modern methods of studying highly charged ions. With chapters covering everything from the essential backgro

  3. Parity nonconservation in dielectronic recombination of multiply charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, M G; Currell, F J

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a parity nonconserving (PNC) asymmetry in the cross section of dielectronic recombination of polarized electrons on multiply charged ions with Z>40. This effect is strongly enhanced for close doubly-excited states of opposite parity in the intermediate compound ion. Such states are known for He-like ions. However, these levels have large energy and large radiative widths which hampers observation of the PNC asymmetry. We argue that accidentally degenerate states of the more complex ions may be more suitable for the corresponding experiment.

  4. Energies and radiative and Auger rates of doubly-excited states of multiply charged Be-like ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟秉聪; 陈信义

    1995-01-01

    The energy levels, radiative and Auger rates of Be-iike ions are calculated using the conventional configuration-interaction method. The Be-like ions are different from He-like ions because the excited electrons in the former deviate from O(4) symmetry.

  5. Estimation method of state-of-charge for lithium-ion battery used in hybrid electric vehicles based on variable structure extended kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Ma, Zilin; Tang, Gongyou; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Nong

    2016-07-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5% to 10% comparing with the range of 20% to 30% using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  6. Estimation Method of State-of-Charge For Lithium-ion Battery Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Variable Structure Extended Kalman Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong; MA Zilin; TANG Gongyou; CHEN Zheng; ZHANG Nong

    2016-01-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5%to 10%comparing with the range of 20%to 30%using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  7. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S

    2013-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  8. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-04-18

    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  9. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    OpenAIRE

    S. GamminoINFN, LNS, Catania

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyc...

  10. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  11. The ECRIS charge state breeding project at TRIUMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, F; Baartman, R; Bricault, P; Jayamanna, K; McDonald, M; Schmor, P; Spanjers, T; Yuan, D H L; Lamy, T

    2008-02-01

    The performance of charge state breeding with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source intended to increase the charge state of online produced radioactive ions at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF has been investigated. A 14 GHz PHOENIX from PANTECHNIK has been setup on a test bench. Singly charged ions have been produced with several ion sources typical for the on-line operation and were injected into the charge breeder. The main purpose of the tests has been the optimization of the efficiency for the charge breeding into the desired charge state. Maximum efficiencies reached so far with the standard one step deceleration of the ions in front of the plasma are up to about 6% for noble gas ions and about 3.5% for alkalines. As ion optics simulations show, the acceptance can be increased by a two step deceleration. In order to meet the velocity acceptance of the accelerator at different A/q values a similar two gap acceleration system for the highly charged ions has been installed to allow the source to run at different voltages. For the further beam transport to the accelerator, cross sections for charge exchange of the highly charged ions with the residual gas have been determined.

  12. Laserspray ionization on a commercial atmospheric pressure-MALDI mass spectrometer ion source: selecting singly or multiply charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Charles N; Larsen, Barbara S; Trimpin, Sarah

    2010-06-15

    Multiply charged ions, similar to those obtained with electrospray ionization, are produced at atmospheric pressure (AP) using standard MALDI conditions of laser fluence and reflective geometry. Further, the charge state can be switched to singly charged ions nearly instantaneously by changing the voltage applied to the MALDI target plate. Under normal AP-MALDI operating conditions in which a voltage is applied to the target plate, primarily singly charged ions are observed, but at or near zero volts, highly charged ions are observed for peptides and proteins. Thus, switching between singly and multiply charged ions requires only manipulation of a single voltage. As in ESI, multiple charging, produced using the AP-MALDI source, allows compounds with molecular weights beyond the mass-to-charge limit of the mass spectrometer to be observed and improves the fragmentation relative to singly charged ions.

  13. Comparison of Nonlinear Filtering Methods for Estimating the State of Charge of Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation is of great significance for the lithium-ion battery to ensure its safety operation and to prevent it from overcharging or overdischarging. To achieve reliable SoC estimation for Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery cell, three filtering methods have been compared and evaluated. A main contribution of this study is that a general three-step model-based battery SoC estimation scheme has been proposed. It includes the processes of battery data measurement, parametric modeling, and model-based SoC estimation. With the proposed general scheme, multiple types of model-based SoC estimators have been developed and evaluated for battery management system application. The detailed comparisons on three advanced adaptive filter techniques, which include extend Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and adaptive extend Kalman filter (AEKF, have been implemented with a Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model-based SoC estimation approach with AEKF algorithm, which uses the covariance matching technique, performs well with good accuracy and robustness; the mean absolute error of the SoC estimation is within 1% especially with big SoC initial error.

  14. Measurement of Metastable Lifetimes of Highly-Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is part of a series of measurements of metastable lifetimes of highly-charged ions (HCIs) which contribute to optical absorption, emission and energy balance in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), stellar atmospheres, etc. Measurements were carried out using the 14-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at the JPL HCI facility. The ECR provides useful currents of charge states such as C(sup(1-6)+), Mg(sup(1-6)+) and Fe(sup(1-17)+). In this work the HCI beam is focused into a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap for measuring lifetimes via optical decays.

  15. Measurements of aerosol charging states in Helsinki, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was measured with an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. Based on the charging states, we calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 0.8 % ± 0.9 %. We review the role of ion-induced nucleation and propose different explanations for a low ion-induced nucleation participation in urban areas. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for an event, and a given size. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small cluster ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the variation of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  16. Comparisons of Modeling and State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Order and Integral Order Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly manage lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles (EVs, it is essential to build the battery model and estimate the state of charge (SOC. In this paper, the fractional order forms of Thevenin and partnership for a new generation of vehicles (PNGV models are built, of which the model parameters including the fractional orders and the corresponding resistance and capacitance values are simultaneously identified based on genetic algorithm (GA. The relationships between different model parameters and SOC are established and analyzed. The calculation precisions of the fractional order model (FOM and integral order model (IOM are validated and compared under hybrid test cycles. Finally, extended Kalman filter (EKF is employed to estimate the SOC based on different models. The results prove that the FOMs can simulate the output voltage more accurately and the fractional order EKF (FOEKF can estimate the SOC more precisely under dynamic conditions.

  17. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M; Versolato, O O; Windberger, A; Brunner, F R; Ballance, T; Eberle, S N; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; Hansen, A K; Gingell, A D; Drewsen, M; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2012-08-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H(2) partial pressure of about 10(-15) mbar (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been set up to provide cold Be(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions.

  18. Experimental recombination rates for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold Schuch [Dept. of Atomic Physics, Stockholm Univ., Frescativ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies of recombination between free electrons and highly charged ions using electron coolers of heavy-ion storage rings have produced accurate rate coefficients of interest for plasma modeling and diagnostics. Some surprises were discovered which can lead to revisions of recombination models. With bare ions one finds at low energy a strong and puzzling deviation from radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic recombination with C3+, N4+ show that jj coupling gives essential contributions to the cross section also for light ions. (author)

  19. MeV ion cluster interaction with solids: explosion, charge states and secondary emissions; Interaction d`ions agregats de quelques MeV avec des cibles solides: dissociation, etats de charge et emissions secondaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunelle, A.; Della Negra, S.; Depauw, J.; Jacquet, D.; Le Beyec, Y.; Pautrat, M. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of fast carbon cluster projectiles with solid target has been studied. It has been shown that the average ionization state of the constituents of carbon clusters coming out from thin amorphous carbon targets, is significantly lower than the exciting charge state of the single carbon atom at the same velocity. This effect increases with the size of the cluster and decreases with the target thickness. We have followed the evolution of secondary H{sup +} emission, from the exit side of the foil in the the forward direction, as a function of the target thickness and size and velocity of cluster projectile. At 2 MeV/atom, C{sub 10} and C{sub 5} cluster constituents are still close enough after 30 nm of amorphous carbon to induce H{sup +} emission as if all the constituents were concentrated in a `point-charge`. When decreasing the velocity by a factor of 1.4, because of increased multiple scattering and Coulomb explosion effects, this point-charge behaviour is not observed any more. (authors) 1 fig.

  20. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar photovoltaic charging of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Thomas L.; Kelly, Nelson A.

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) charging of batteries was tested by using high efficiency crystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules to recharge lithium-ion battery modules. This testing was performed as a proof of concept for solar PV charging of batteries for electrically powered vehicles. The iron phosphate type lithium-ion batteries were safely charged to their maximum capacity and the thermal hazards associated with overcharging were avoided by the self-regulating design of the solar charging system. The solar energy to battery charge conversion efficiency reached 14.5%, including a PV system efficiency of nearly 15%, and a battery charging efficiency of approximately 100%. This high system efficiency was achieved by directly charging the battery from the PV system with no intervening electronics, and matching the PV maximum power point voltage to the battery charging voltage at the desired maximum state of charge for the battery. It is envisioned that individual homeowners could charge electric and extended-range electric vehicles from residential, roof-mounted solar arrays, and thus power their daily commuting with clean, renewable solar energy.

  2. Effect of charge compensator ions (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) on Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ phosphors by solid-state reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad

    2016-09-01

    The Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ and Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+, R+ (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. The crystal structures of sintered phosphors were an akermanite-type structure which belongs to the tetragonal crystallography. The prepared phosphors were excited at 350 nm, and their corresponding emission spectrum were recorded at blue (482 nm) and yellow (575 nm) region due to the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions, respectively, of Dy3+ ions. Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates have been calculated for each sample and its value exhibited that overall emission is near white light. The possible mechanisms of discussed white light emitting phosphors were also investigated. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, color purity, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) were calculated. Values of color purity, CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. With incorporating (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) as charge compensator ions, the emission intensity of Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ can be obviously enhanced. The results indicate that prepared phosphors may be a potential application in display devices.

  3. Charge-state and element-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Robert; Anders, André

    2014-01-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al$^{+}$ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr$^{2+}$ ions were dominating in Ar and N$_2$ and Cr$^{+}$ in O$_2$ atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were mainly thermalised. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen an...

  4. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-03-13

    Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy.

  5. Particle-filtering-based failure prognosis via sigma-points: Application to Lithium-Ion battery State-of-Charge monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, David E.; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a novel prognostic method that allows a proper characterization of the uncertainty associated with the evolution in time of nonlinear dynamical systems. The method assumes a state-space representation of the system, as well as the availability of particle-filtering-based estimates of the state posterior density at the moment in which the prognostic algorithm is executed. Our proposal significantly improves all particle-filtering-based prognosis frameworks currently available in two main aspects. First, it provides a correction for the expression that is used for the computation of the Time-of-Failure (ToF) probability mass function in the context of online monitoring schemes. Secondly, it presents a method for improved characterization of the tails of the ToF probability mass function via sequential propagation of sigma-points and the computation of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The proposed algorithm is tested and validated using experimental data related to the problem of Lithium-Ion battery State-of-Charge prognosis.

  6. Ion specific effects on charged interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Medda, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The physico-chemical phenomena occurring at charged interfaces are specifically affected by the type and the concentration of electrolytes. This has implications both in living and in inorganic systems. The discovery of the ‘ion specific effects’ dates back to Hofmeister (1888), who observed the specific effect of salts in promoting egg white proteins precipitation. Nowadays we are aware that ion specific effects are ubiquitous in all fields of science and technology where electrolytes play a...

  7. Charge Exchange Effect on Space-Charge-Limited Current Densities in Ion Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2002-01-01

    The article theoretically studied the charge-exchange effects on space charge limited electron and ion current densities of non-relativistic one-dimensional slab ion diode, and compared with those of without charge exchange.

  8. Production of Charge in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, Scott; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic-Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that pictures where balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  9. State-Selective and Total Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Collisions of Multiply Charged Ions with Helium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    The four-body boundary corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is used to calculate the single electron capture cross sections for collisions between fully stripped ions (He2+, Be4+, B5+ and C6+) and helium target at intermediate and high impact energies. The main goal of this study is to assess the usefulness of the CB1-4B method at intermediate and high impact energies for these collisions. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  10. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  11. Controlled charge exchange between alkaline earth metals and their ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the prospects of realizing controlled charge exchange via magnetic Feshbach resonances in cold and ultracold collisions of atoms and ions. In particular, we focus on near-resonant charge exchange in heteroisotopic combinations of alkaline earth metals, such as 9Be++10 Be9 Be+10Be+ , which exhibit favorable electronic and hyperfine structure. The quantum scattering calculations are performed for a range of initial states and experimentally attainable magnetic fields in standard coupled-channel Feshbach projection formalism, where higher-order corrections such as the mass-polarization term are explicitely included. In addition, we predict a number of magnetic Feshbach resonances for different heteronuclear isotopic combinations of the listed and related alkaline earth elements. Our results imply that near-resonant charge-exchange could be used to realize atom-ion quantum gates, as well as controlled charge transfer in optically trapped cold quantum gases. This work is partially supported by ARO.

  12. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  13. Highly-charged-ion-induced electron emission from C-60 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Kowarik, G.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    The secondary electron yields as a result of highly charged ions impinging on clean Au(111) and thin films of C-60 on Au have been measured. This has been done for film thicknesses of one to five monolayers and several charge states of Ar and Xe ions. For all ions an increase of 35% in the secondary

  14. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Variale; G Brautti; T Clauser; A Rainò; V Stagno; G Lamanna; V Valentino; A Boggia; Y Boimelshtein; P Logatchov; B Skarbo; M Tiunov

    2002-11-01

    The ‘charge state breeder’, BRIC (breeding ion charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction of a charge breeder for the SPES project. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion chamber, of a rf-quadrupole aiming at filtering the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this paper, the breeder design, the simulation results of the electron and ion beam propagation and the construction problems of the device will be reported.

  15. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  16. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Observer with Grey Prediction for the Estimation of the State-of-Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state-of-charge (SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries that combines a fuzzy sliding mode observer (FSMO with grey prediction. Unlike the existing methods based on a conventional first-order sliding mode observer (SMO and an adaptive gain SMO, the proposed method eliminates chattering in SOC estimation. In this method, which uses a fuzzy inference system, the gains of the SMO are adjusted according to the predicted future error and present estimation error of the terminal voltage. To forecast the future error value, a one-step-ahead terminal voltage prediction is obtained using a grey predictor. The proposed estimation method is validated through two types of discharge tests (a pulse discharge test and a random discharge test. The SOC estimation results are compared to the results of the conventional first-order SMO-based and the adaptive gain SMO-based methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only reduces chattering, but also improves estimation accuracy.

  17. Influence of memory effect on the state-of-charge estimation of large-format Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Jiulin; Zheng, Jianming; Jiang, Jiuchun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the influence of the memory effect of LiFePO4 cathodes in large-format full batteries. The electrochemical performance of the electrodes used in these batteries was also investigated separately in half-cells to reveal their intrinsic properties. We noticed that the memory effect of LiFePO4/graphite cells depends not only on the maximum state of charge reached during the memory writing process, but is also affected by the depth of discharge reached during the memory writing process. In addition, the voltage deviation in a LiFePO4/graphite full battery is more complex than in a LiFePO4/Li half-cell, especially for a large-format battery, which exhibits a significant current variation in the region near its terminals. Therefore, the memory effect should be taken into account in advanced battery management systems to further extend the long-term cycling stabilities of Li-ion batteries using LiFePO4 cathodes.

  18. State of charge estimation of Li-ion batteries in an electric vehicle based on a radial-basis-function neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Jun; Shao Sai; Guan Wei; Wang Lu

    2012-01-01

    The on-line estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries is important for the reliable running of the pure electric vehicle in practice.Because a nonlinear feature exists in the batteries and the radial-basis-function neural network (RBF NN) has good characteristics to solve the nonlinear problem,a practical method for the SOC estimation of batteries based on the RBF NN with a small number of input variables and a simplified structure is proposed.Firstly,in this paper,the model of on-line SOC estimation with the RBF NN is set.Secondly,four important factors for estimating the SOC are confirmed based on the contribution analysis method,which simplifies the input variables of the RBF NN and enhances the real-time performance of estimation.Finally,the pure electric buses with LiFePO4Li-ion batteries running during the period of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo are considered as the experimental object.The performance of the SOC estimation is validated and evaluated by the battery data from the electric vehicle.

  19. Charge-dependent dissociation of insulin cations via ion/ion electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Huang, Teng-Yi; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-10-01

    The dissociation reactions of various charge states of insulin cations obtained directly from nano-electrospray were investigated as a result of ion/ion electron transfer from azobenzene anions. Data were collected with and without simultaneous ion trap collisional excitation of the first generation charge-reduced product during the ion/ion reaction period. Neither separation of the two constituent chains nor cleavages within the loop defined by the disulfide bridges were observed under normal electron transfer dissociation (ETD) conditions for any of the charge states studied. However, substantial sequence coverage (exocyclic region: 82.6%; entire protein: 38.8%) outside the ring structure was obtained for insulin +6, while only limited coverage (exocyclic: 43.5%; entire protein: 20.4%) was observed for insulin +5 and no dissociation, aside from low abundance side-chain losses, was noted for insulin +4 and +3 in the normal ETD spectra. When the first generation charge-reduced precursor ions were subjected to collisional activation during the ion/ion reaction period, higher sequence coverages were obtained for both insulin +5 (entire protein: 34.7%) and +4 (entire protein: 20.4%) with backbone cleavages occurring within the loop defined by the disulfide bonds. Dissociation of insulin +3 was not significantly improved by the additional activation. Separation of the two constituent chains resulting from cleavages of both of the two disulfide bridges that link the chains was observed for insulin +6, +5, and +4 when the charge-reduced species were activated. The dissociation of disulfide linkages in this study suggests that as the charge state decreases, disulfide bond cleavages dominate over N-C[alpha] bond cleavages in the electron transfer dissociation process.

  20. Electron impact ionization of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K L

    1992-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections can provide valuable information about the charge-state and power balance of highly charged ions in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the present work, a novel technique based on x-ray measurements has been used to infer the ionization cross section of highly charged lithiumlike ions on the Livermore electron beam ion trap. In particular, a correspondence is established between an observed x ray and an ionization event. The measurements are made at one energy corresponding to approximately 2.3 times the threshold energy for ionization of lithiumlike ions. The technique is applied to the transition metals between Z=22 (titanium, Ti[sup 19+]) and Z=26 (iron, Fe[sup 23+]) and to Z=56 (barium, Ba[sup 53+]). The results for the transition metals, which have an estimated 17-33% uncertainty, are in good overall agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave calculation. However, less good agreement is found for barium, which has a larger uncertainty. Methods for properly accounting for the polarization in the x-ray intensities and for inferring the charge-state abundances from x-ray observations, which were developed for the ionization measurements, as well as an x-ray model that assists in the proper interpretation of the data are also presented.

  1. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  2. Charge Exchange Collisions between Ultracold Fermionic Lithium Atoms and Calcium Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Shinsuke; Saito, Ryoichi; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    An observation of charge exchange collisions between ultracold fermionic 6Li atoms and 40Ca+ ions is reported. The reaction product of the charge exchange collision is dentified via mass spectrometry where the motion of the ions is excited parametrically. We measure the cross section of the charge exchange collisions between the 6Li atoms in the ground state and the 40Ca+ ions in the ground and metastable excited states. Investigation of the inelastic collision characteristics in the atom-ion mixture is an important step toward ultracold chemistry based on ultracold atoms and ions.

  3. Dielectronic recombination of multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Fou, C.M.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.

    1986-09-01

    Using a merged electron-ion merged beam apparatus in conjunction with the ORNL EN Tandem Van de Graaff, we have measured dielectronic recombination in ..delta..n = 0 transitions for a number of Li-liked (B/sup 2 +/, C/sup 3 +/, N/sup 4 +/, and O/sup 5 +/), Be-like (C/sup 2 +/, N/sup 3 +/, and O/sup 4 +/), B-like (N/sup 2 +/, O/sup 3 +/, and F/sup 4 +/), and Na-like (P/sup 4 +/, S/sup 5 +/, and Cl/sup 6 +/) ions. The results are compared with theory which includes field enhancement and extension of the more highly charged ions is discussed. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  5. Formation and fragmentation of quadruply charged molecular ions by intense femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Nobuaki

    2010-07-22

    We investigated the formation and fragmentation of multiply charged molecular ions of several aromatic molecules by intense nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses of 1.4 mum with a 130 fs pulse duration (up to 2 x 10(14) W cm(-2)). Quadruply charged states were produced for 2,3-benzofluorene and triphenylene molecular ion in large abundance, whereas naphthalene and 1,1'-binaphthyl resulted only in up to triply charged molecular ions. The laser wavelength was nonresonant with regard to the electronic transitions of the neutral molecules, and the degree of fragmentation was strongly correlated with the absorption of the singly charged cation radical. Little fragmentation was observed for naphthalene (off-resonant with cation), whereas heavy fragmentation was observed in the case of 1,1'-binaphthyl (resonant with cation). The degree of H(2) (2H) and 2H(2) (4H) elimination from molecular ions increased as the charge states increased in all the molecules examined. A striking difference was found between triply and quadruply charged 2,3-benzofluorene: significant suppression of molecular ions with loss of odd number of hydrogen was observed in the quadruply charged ions. The Coulomb explosion of protons in the quadruply charged state and succeeding fragmentation resulted in the formation of triply charged molecular ions with an odd number of hydrogens. The hydrogen elimination mechanism in the highly charged state is discussed.

  6. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  7. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  8. Highly charged ions as a basis of optical atomic clockwork of exceptional accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevianko, Andrei; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2012-11-02

    We propose a novel class of atomic clocks based on highly charged ions. We consider highly forbidden laser-accessible transitions within the 4f(12) ground-state configurations of highly charged ions. Our evaluation of systematic effects demonstrates that these transitions may be used for building exceptionally accurate atomic clocks which may compete in accuracy with recently proposed nuclear clocks.

  9. (The physics of highly charged ions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1990-10-12

    The Fifth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions drew more than 200 participants, providing an excellent overview of this growing field. Important technical developments and experimental results in electron-ion collisions were reported. The merging of fast ion beams from accelerators or storage rings with advanced high-intensity electron-beam targets has yielded data of unprecedented quality on radiative and dielectronic recombination, providing stringent tests of theory. Long-awaited technical innovations in electron-impact excitation measurements were also reported. The level of activity in multicharged ion-surface interactions has increased. More sophisticated experimental studies of the neutralization process have shown the inadequacy of previously accepted mechanisms, and theoretical activity in this area is just being initiated. The IAEA meetings addressed atomic and molecular data needs for fusion research, with ITER providing a key focus. Such data are especially critical to modeling and diagnostics of the edge plasma. The ALADDIN data base system has been universally accepted and has streamlined the exchange of numerical data among data centers and the fusion community. The IAEA continues to play a pivotal role in the identification of data needs, and in the coordination of data compilation and research activities for fusion applications.

  10. An electrostatic deceleration lens for highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, J; Roy, A; Kanjilal, D; Ahuja, R; Safvan, C P

    2010-04-01

    The design and implementation of a purely electrostatic deceleration lens used to obtain beams of highly charged ions at very low energies is presented. The design of the lens is such that it can be used with parallel as well as diverging incoming beams and delivers a well focused low energy beam at the target. In addition, tuning of the final energy of the beam over a wide range (1 eV/q to several hundred eV/q, where q is the beam charge state) is possible without any change in hardware configuration. The deceleration lens was tested with Ar(8+), extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, having an initial energy of 30 keV/q and final energies as low as 70 eV/q have been achieved.

  11. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  13. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  14. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, W.; Wang, G. C. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  15. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  16. Influence of the density of states on the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution of the emitted fragments in nuclear heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleya, N. L.; Souza, S. R.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    The fragmentation of thermalized sources is studied using a version of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model which employs state densities that take the pairing gap in the nuclear levels into account. Attention is focused on the properties of the charge distributions observed in the breakup of the source. Since the microcanonical version of the model used in this study provides the primary fragment excitation energy distribution, one may correlate the reduction of the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution with the increasing occupation of high-energy states. Thus, in the framework of this model, such staggering tends to disappear as a function of the total excitation energy of the source, although the energy per particle may be small for large systems. We also find that, although the deexcitation of the primary fragments should, in principle, blur these odd-even effects as the fragments follow their decay chains, the consistent treatment of pairing may significantly enhance these staggering effects on the final yields. In the framework of this model, we find that odd-even effects in the charge distributions should be observed in the fragmentation of relatively light systems at very low excitation energies. Our results also suggest that the odd-even staggering may provide useful information on the nuclear state density.

  17. The Solar Connection of Enhanced Heavy Ion Charge States in the Interplanetary Medium: Implications for the Flux-rope Structure of CMEs

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, N; Akiyama, S; Xie, H; Yashiro, S; Reinard, A A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a set of 54 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events whose solar sources are very close to the disk center (within 15 degrees from the central meridian). The ICMEs consisted of 23 magnetic cloud (MC) events and 31 non-MC events. Our analyses suggest that the MC and non-MC ICMEs have more or less the same eruption characteristics at the Sun in terms of soft X-ray flares and CMEs. Both types have significant enhancements in charge states, although the non-MC structures have slightly lower levels of enhancement. The overall duration of charge state enhancement is also considerably smaller than that than that in MCs as derived from solar wind plasma and magnetic signatures. We find very good correlation between the Fe and O charge state measurements and the flare properties such as soft X-ray flare intensity and flare temperature for both MCs and non-MCs. These observations suggest that both MC and non-MC ICMEs are likely to have a flux-rope structure and the unfavorable observational ge...

  18. Quantitative evaluation of charge-reduction effect in cluster constituent ions passing through a foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A., E-mail: chiba.atsuya@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Narumi, K.; Yamada, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, kita-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Swift cluster ions, which cause characteristic irradiation effects on a solid surface, have a possibility of establishing a new ion irradiation technique for high-sensitivity surface analysis and innovative surface modification. However, the mechanism of cluster irradiation effects has not been understood completely. We have focused on the charge reduction effect in some physical phenomena and performed a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the charge state and the interatomic distance of the constituent ions moving in the solid. This technique is based on the refined analysis of the divergence angle of the constituent ions resulting from the foil-induced dissociation of the two-atomic molecular ion. The results derived from this analytical approach clearly showed the correlation between the average charge and the interatomic distance of the constituent ions and implied that the average charge of the constituent ions emerging from the foil varies according to the interatomic distance at the instant of cluster dissociation.

  19. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  20. Water and Ion Permeation through Electrically Charged Nanopore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Li; ZUO Guang-Hong; GONG Xiao-Jing; LU Hang-Jun; WANG Chun-Lei; WU Ke-Fei; WAN Rong-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ The behaviour of water and small solutes in confined geometries is important to a variety of chemical and nanofluidic applications. Here we investigate the permeation and distribution of water and ions in electrically charged carbon cylindrical nanopore during the osmotic process using molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulations, charges are distributed uniformly on the pores with diameter of 0.9 nm. For nanopores with no charge or a low charge, ions are difficult to enter. With the increasing of charge densities on the pores, ions will appear inside the nanopores because of the large electronic forces between the ions and the charged pores. Different ion entries induce varying effects on osmotic water flow. Our simulations reveal that the osmotic water can flow through the negatively charged pore occupied by K+ ions, while water flux through the positively charged pores will be disrupted by Cl- ions inside the pores. This may be explained by the different radial distributions of K+ions and Cl- ions inside the charged nanopores.

  1. Highly charged ions impinging on a stepped metal surface under grazing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, A; Niemann, D; Stolterfoht, N; Heiland, W

    2003-01-01

    We report on energy loss measurements and charge state distributions for 60 keV N6+ and 75 keV N5+ ions scattered off a Pt(110)(1x2) single crystal surface. In particular, the influence of surface steps on the energy loss and the outgoing charge states is discussed. The scattering angle and the angl

  2. Measurements of Ion Selective Containment on the RF Charge Breeder Device BRIC

    CERN Document Server

    Variale, Vincenzo; Batazova, Marina; Boggia, Antonio; Clauser, Tarcisio; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Rainò, Antonio; Shiyankov, Sergey; Skarbo, Boris A; Valentino, Vincenzo; Verrone, Grazia

    2005-01-01

    The "charge state breeder" BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a Radio Frequency (RF) Quadrupole aiming to filtering the unwanted elements and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this contribution, the measurements of the selective effect on the ion charge state containement of the RF quadrupole field, applied on the ion chamber, will be reported and discussed. The ion charge state analisys of the ions trapped in BRIC seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that the s...

  3. Tuning Charge Transfer in Ion-Surface Collisions at Hyperthermal Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunxi; Giapis, Konstantinos P

    2016-05-18

    Charge exchange in ion-surface collisions may be influenced by surface adsorbates to alter the charge state of the scattered projectiles. We show here that the positive-ion yield, observed during ion scattering on metal surfaces at low incident energies, is greatly enhanced by adsorbing electronegative species onto the surface. Specifically, when beams of N(+) and O(+) ions are scattered off of clean Au surfaces at hyperthermal energies, no positive ions are observed exiting. Partial adsorption of F atoms on the Au surface, however, leads to the appearance of positively charged primary ions scattering off of Au, a direct result of the increase in the Au work function. The inelastic energy losses for positive-ion exits are slightly larger than the corresponding ionization energies of the respective N and O atoms, which suggest that the detected positive ions are formed by surface reionization during the hard collision event.

  4. Recoil-ion charge-state-resolved electron-production cross sections at 55{degree} for 1 MeV/u C{sup 5+} on He and Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segner, F.; Breinig, M.; Desai, D.D.; Wig, A.; Straus, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6377 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Recoil-ion charge-state-resolved doubly differential cross sections for ejecting electrons at {approximately}55{degree} with respect to the incident beam direction in collisions between 1 MeV/u C{sup 5+} projectiles and Ar and He targets have been measured. Electrons with kinetic energies between 100 and 1250 eV have been detected. A prominent feature in the electron energy distributions is the binary-encounter peak. Experimental results are compared with binary-encounter electron production cross sections obtained using the impulse approximation and with theoretical predictions from many-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. An enhancement in the fraction of electrons detected with singly charged He recoil ions and a corresponding decrease in the fraction detected in coincidence with doubly charged He recoil ions as a function of the electron energy have been observed near the binary-encounter electron energy. This structure has been predicted by recent many-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  6. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Gao; Yongzhi Zhang; Hongwen He

    2015-01-01

    Accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1) In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC) battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for mod...

  7. Transfer ionization in collisions with a fast highly charged ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitkiv, A B

    2013-07-26

    Transfer ionization in fast collisions between a bare ion and an atom, in which one of the atomic electrons is captured by the ion whereas another one is emitted, crucially depends on dynamic electron-electron correlations. We show that in collisions with a highly charged ion a strong field of the ion has a very profound effect on the correlated channels of transfer ionization. In particular, this field weakens (strongly suppresses) electron emission into the direction opposite (perpendicular) to the motion of the ion. Instead, electron emission is redirected into those parts of the momentum space which are very weakly populated in fast collisions with low charged ions.

  8. Problems with Accurate Atomic Lfetime Measurements of Multiply Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E

    2009-02-19

    A number of recent atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions have reported uncertainties lower than 1%. Such a level of accuracy challenges theory, which is a good thing. However, a few lessons learned from earlier precision lifetime measurements on atoms and singly charged ions suggest to remain cautious about the systematic errors of experimental techniques.

  9. Highly charged ions from laser-cluster interactions: local-field-enhanced impact ionization and frustrated electron-ion recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Thomas; Ramunno, Lora; Brabec, Thomas

    2007-12-07

    Our molecular dynamics analysis of Xe_{147-5083} clusters identifies two mechanisms that contribute to the yet unexplained observation of extremely highly charged ions in intense laser cluster experiments. First, electron impact ionization is enhanced by the local cluster electric field, increasing the highest charge states by up to 40%; a corresponding theoretical method is developed. Second, electron-ion recombination after the laser pulse is frustrated by acceleration electric fields typically used in ion detectors. This increases the highest charge states by up to 90%, as compared to the usual assumption of total recombination of all cluster-bound electrons. Both effects together augment the highest charge states by up to 120%, in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  10. Ion and water transport in charge-modified graphene nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Yinghua; Chen, Weiyu; Si, Wei; Tan, Qiyan; Chen, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Porous graphene has high mechanical strength and atomic layer thickness, which make it a promising material for material separation and biomolecule sensing. Electrostatic interactions between charges in aqueous solution are a kind of strong long-range interaction which may have great influence on the fluid transport through nanopores. Here, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate ion and water transport through a 1.05-nm-in-diameter monolayer graphene nanopore with its edge charge-modified. From the results, it is found that the nanopores are selective to counterions when they are charged. As the charge amount increases, the total ionic currents show an increase-decrease profile while the co-ion currents monotonously decrease. The co-ions rejection can reach 75% and 90% when the nanopores are negatively and positively charged, respectively. Cl ions current increases and reaches a plateau, and Na+ current decreases with the charge amount in the systems where they act as counterions. Beside...

  11. Experimental results on charge fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Pant, L M; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We present a subset of experimental results on charge fluctuation from the heavy-ion collisions to search for phase transition and location of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Measurements from the heavy-ion experiments at the SPS and RHIC energies observe that total charge fluctuations increase from central to peripheral collisions. The net-charge fluctuations in terms of dynamical fluctuation measure $\

  12. Ion Transport through Diffusion Layer Controlled by Charge Mosaic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic transport behaviors in near interface of the membranes were studied using commercial anion and cation exchange membrane and charge mosaic membrane. Current-voltage curve gave the limiting current density that indicates the ceiling of conventional flux. From chronopotentiometry above the limiting current density, the transition time was estimated. The thickness of boundary layer was derived with conjunction with the conventional limiting current density and the transition time from steady state flux. On the other hand, the charge mosaic membrane was introduced in order to examine the ion transport on the membrane surface in detail. The concentration profile was discussed by the kinetic transport number with regard to the water dissociation (splitting on the membrane surface.

  13. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  14. Modeling Battery Behavior for Accurate State-of-Charge Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Veld, op het J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Danilov, D.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Li-ion is the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications nowadays. Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user's convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. A new SOC indication system, combining the ele

  15. Ion and water transport in charge-modified graphene nanopores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘英华; 李堃; 陈伟宇; 司伟; 谭启檐; 陈云飞

    2015-01-01

    Porous graphene has a high mechanical strength and an atomic-layer thickness that makes it a promising material for material separation and biomolecule sensing. Electrostatic interactions between charges in aqueous solutions are a type of strong long-range interaction that may greatly infl uence fl uid transport through nanopores. In this study, molecular dynamic simulations were conducted to investigate ion and water transport through 1.05-nm diameter monolayer graphene nanopores, with their edges charge-modified. Our results indicated that these nanopores are selective to counterions when they are charged. As the charge amount increases, the total ionic currents show an increase–decrease profile while the co-ion currents monotonically decrease. The co-ion rejection can reach 76.5%and 90.2%when the nanopores are negatively and positively charged, respectively. The Cl−ion current increases and reaches a plateau, and the Na+current decreases as the charge amount increases in systems in which Na+ions act as counterions. In addition, charge modification can enhance water transport through nanopores. This is mainly due to the ion selectivity of the nanopores. Notably, positive charges on the pore edges facilitate water transport much more strongly than negative charges.

  16. An Ion Switch Regulates Fusion of Charged Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepi, Evgenios; Lutz, Silke; Meyer, Sylke; Panzner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Here we identify the recruitment of solvent ions to lipid membranes as the dominant regulator of lipid phase behavior. Our data demonstrate that binding of counterions to charged lipids promotes the formation of lamellar membranes, whereas their absence can induce fusion. The mechanism applies to anionic and cationic liposomes, as well as the recently introduced amphoteric liposomes. In the latter, an additional pH-dependent lipid salt formation between anionic and cationic lipids must occur, as indicated by the depletion of membrane-bound ions in a zone around pH 5. Amphoteric liposomes fuse under these conditions but form lamellar structures at both lower and higher pH values. The integration of these observations into the classic lipid shape theory yielded a quantitative link between lipid and solvent composition and the physical state of the lipid assembly. The key parameter of the new model, κ(pH), describes the membrane phase behavior of charged membranes in response to their ion loading in a quantitative way. PMID:21575575

  17. Optimization of electron-cyclotron-resonance charge-breeder ions : Final CRADA Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.; Physics; Far-Tech, Inc.

    2009-10-09

    Measurements of 1+ beam properties and associated performance of ECR Charge Breeder source determined by total efficiency measurement and charge state distributions from the ECR Charge Breeder. These results were communicated to Far-Tech personnel who used them to benchmark the newly developed programs that model ion capture and charge breeding in the ECR Charge Breeder Source. Providing the basic data described above and in the discussion below to Far-Tech allowed them to improve and refine their calculational tools for ECR ion sources. These new tools will be offered for sale to industry and will also provide important guidance to other research labs developing Charge Breeding ion sources for radioactive beam physics research.

  18. Study on High Intensity High Charge State Lead Ion Beam Production and Optimize%强流高电荷态Pb离子束的产生与优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 李锦钰; 赵环昱; 曹云; 孙良亭; 赵红卫; 张子民

    2005-01-01

    随着原子物理及表面物理研究的发展,高电荷态金属离子束的需求日益增多.近来,在中国科学院近代物理研究所14.5GHz LECR3离子源实验平台上,以炉子法产生的铅离子束作为研究对象,进行了一系列ECR离子源关键参数(如:磁场、炉子功率、掺气等)影响高电荷态铅离子束产额的实验研究,在此基础上,调整优化了LECR3离子源的状态参数,从而获得了强流高电荷态铅离子束18etA 207pb30+和6.7eμA207pb37+.%High charge state metal ion beam is quite effective and essential for new investigations on atomic physics and surface physics. Recently, The high intensity high charge state lead ion beams have been produced with IMP 14.5GHz LECR3, we investigated experimentally influences of some key parameters,such as magnetic field, electrical power on oven, gas mixing etc., on lead ion beam production. Through optimization of the ion source conditions, stable 207Pb30+ beam of 18eμA and 207Pb37+ beam of 6.7eμA have been obtained with oven method at 20kV extraction voltage.

  19. Highly charged ions trapping for lifetime measurements; Piegeage d'ions tres charges pour la mesure de duree de vie d'etats metastables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2007-10-15

    A new experimental setup dedicated to highly charged ion trapping is presented in this work. The final goal is to perform lifetime measurement of metastable states produced by our ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. Lifetimes to be measured are in the range of a few ms and more. We have measured the lifetimes of the M1 transitions of the metastable states of Ar{sup 9+}, Ar{sup 13+} and Ar{sup 14+}. These measurements are useful to test the N-body problem in the relativistic range. The trap we have built, was designed a few years ago at the Weizman Institute in Israel, it allows ions with an energy of several keV to be trapped for lifetimes of about 1 second. This trap was originally designed to study the dynamics of excited molecules. We have shown for the first time how the trap operates and that it can operate with highly charged ions. We have studied the beam dynamics of highly charged ions and the trap has been tested with various species of ions and different charge states: from O{sup +} to O{sup 6+}, from Ar{sup 8+} to Ar{sup 13+}, and from Kr{sup 13+} to Kr{sup 20+}.

  20. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  1. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  2. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spädtke, Peter, E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  3. Charge distribution of Kr ions produced upon photoionization around the 2s edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.C.F., E-mail: toni@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21991-972 (Brazil); Pilling, S. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton, Campinas 13084-971 (Brazil); Almeida, D.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-979 (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Charge spectra of Kr after photoionization of the L shell have been measured. • Multiple photoionization of krypton around the 2s edge is a collective process. • Electron correlation plays an important role in multiple ionization of heavy atoms. - Abstract: Charge state spectra of krypton ions generated after ionization (by a single photon) of the L shell have been measured by using the PEPICO technique. Relative abundances of Kr{sup q+} ions in charge state up to 8+ were obtained using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. A comparison with other experimental and theoretical data is presented.

  4. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  5. Neutralization Of Multiply Charged Rydberg Ions Interacting With Solid Surfaces Under The Grazing Incidence Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, M. D.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Galijas, S. M. D.

    2010-07-01

    We elaborated the time-symmetric, two-state vector model to investigate the intermediate stages of the electron capture into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions interacting with solid surface under the grazing incidence geometry. The neutralization distances for the ions XeZ+ interacting with Al-surface are calculated, for core charges Z ?[5,30]. The corresponding mean neutralization distances are in agreement with the data deduced from the measured kinetic energy gain due to the image acceleration of the ions.

  6. Time-dependent cylindrical and spherical ion-acoustic solitary structures in relativistic degenerate multi-ion plasmas with positively-charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, M. R.; Nahar, L.; Mamun, A. A. [Jahangirnagar University,Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2014-12-15

    The properties of time-dependent cylindrical and spherical, modified ion-acoustic (mIA) solitary structures in relativistic degenerate multi-ion plasmas (containing degenerate electron fluids, inertial positively-, as well as negatively-, charged light ions, and positively-charged static heavy ions) have been investigated theoretically. This investigation is valid for both non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. The well-known reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and the mK-dV equations for studying the basic features of solitary waves. The fundamental characteristics of mIA solitary waves are found to be significantly modified by the effects of the degenerate pressures of the electron and the ion fluids, their number densities, and the various charge states of heavy ions. The relevance of our results in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron stars, which are of scientific interest, is briefly discussed.

  7. Auger neutralization rates of multiply charged ions near metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedeljkovic, N.N.; Janev, R.K.; Lazur, V.Y.

    1988-08-15

    Transition rates for the Auger neutralization processes of multiply charged ions on metal surfaces are calculated in closed analytical form. The core potential of a multiply charged ion is represented by a pseudopotential, which accounts for the electron screening effects and allows transition to the pure Coulomb case (fully stripped ions). The relative importance of various neutralization channels in slow-ion--surface collisions is discussed for the examples of He/sup 2+/+Mo(100) and C/sup 3+/+Mo(100) collisional systems.

  8. Charge reversal Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Savory, Joshua J; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dunk, Paul W; Marshall, Alan G

    2013-02-01

    We report the first charge reversal experiments performed by tandem-in-time rather than tandem-in-space MS/MS. Precursor odd-electron anions from fullerene C(60), and even-electron ions from 2,7-di-tert-butylfluorene-9-carboxylic acid and 3,3'-bicarbazole were converted into positive product ions ((-)CR(+)) inside the magnet of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Charge reversal was activated by irradiating precursor ions with high energy electrons or UV photons: the first reported use of those activation methods for charge reversal. We suggest that high energy electrons achieve charge reversal in one step as double electron transfer, whereas UV-activated (-)CR(+) takes place stepwise through two single electron transfers and formally corresponds to a neutralization-reionization ((-)NR(+)) experiment.

  9. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, F., E-mail: ames@triumf.ca; Marchetto, M.; Mjøs, A.; Morton, A. C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary.

  10. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1 In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2 The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC values. (3 The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC.

  11. Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of state of charge (SOC estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R. In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating R. Combining the positive strategy (i.e., online identification and negative strategy (i.e., fuzzy model, a more reliable and robust SOC estimation algorithm is proposed. The experiment results verify the proposed reliability criterion and SOC estimation method under various conditions for LiFePO4 batteries.

  12. Charge Transfer and Ionization by Intermediate-Energy Heavy Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L. H. [East Carolina University; McLawhorn, S. L. [East Carolina University; McLawhorn, R. A. [East Carolina University; Evans, N. L. [East Carolina University; Justiniano, E. L. B. [East Carolina University; Shinpaugh, J. L. [East Carolina University; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Reinhold, Carlos O [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    The use of heavy ion beams for microbeam studies of mammalian cell response leads to a need to better understand interaction cross sections for collisions of heavy ions with tissue constituents. For ion energies of a few MeV u-1 or less, ions capture electrons from the media in which they travel and undergo subsequent interactions as partially 'dressed' ions. For example, 16 MeV fluorine ions have an equilibrium charge of 7+, 32 MeV sulphur ions have an equilibrium charge of approx. 11+, and as the ion energies decrease the equilibrium charge decreases dramatically. Data for interactions of partially dressed ions are extremely rare, making it difficult to estimate microscopic patterns of energy deposition leading to damage to cellular components. Such estimates, normally obtained by Monte Carlo track structure simulations, require a comprehensive database of differential and total ionisation cross sections as well as charge transfer cross sections. To provide information for track simulation, measurement of total ionisation cross sections have been initiated at East Carolina University using the recoil ion time-of-flight method that also yields cross sections for multiple ionisation processes and charge transfer cross sections; multiple ionisation is prevalent for heavy ion interactions. In addition, measurements of differential ionisation cross sections needed for Monte Carlo simulation of detailed event-by-event particle tracks are under way. Differential, total and multiple ionisation cross sections and electron capture and loss cross sections measured for C+ ions with energies of 100 and 200 keV u-1 are described.

  13. Charge transfer and ionisation by intermediate-energy heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toburen, L H; McLawhorn, S L; McLawhorn, R A; Evans, N L; Justiniano, E L B; Shinpaugh, J L; Schultz, D R; Reinhold, C O

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy ion beams for microbeam studies of mammalian cell response leads to a need to better understand interaction cross sections for collisions of heavy ions with tissue constituents. For ion energies of a few MeV u(-1) or less, ions capture electrons from the media in which they travel and undergo subsequent interactions as partially 'dressed' ions. For example, 16 MeV fluorine ions have an equilibrium charge of 7(+), 32 MeV sulphur ions have an equilibrium charge of approximately 11(+), and as the ion energies decrease the equilibrium charge decreases dramatically. Data for interactions of partially dressed ions are extremely rare, making it difficult to estimate microscopic patterns of energy deposition leading to damage to cellular components. Such estimates, normally obtained by Monte Carlo track structure simulations, require a comprehensive database of differential and total ionisation cross sections as well as charge transfer cross sections. To provide information for track simulation, measurement of total ionisation cross sections have been initiated at East Carolina University using the recoil ion time-of-flight method that also yields cross sections for multiple ionisation processes and charge transfer cross sections; multiple ionisation is prevalent for heavy ion interactions. In addition, measurements of differential ionisation cross sections needed for Monte Carlo simulation of detailed event-by-event particle tracks are under way. Differential, total and multiple ionisation cross sections and electron capture and loss cross sections measured for C(+) ions with energies of 100 and 200 keV u(-1) are described.

  14. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  15. Charge-transfer spectra of tetravalent lanthanide ions in oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefdraad, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The charge-transfer spectra of Ce4+, Pr4+ and Tb4+ in a number of oxides are reported. It is noted that the position of the first charge-transfer band is fixed for the metal ion in an oxygen coordination of VI, but varies in VIII coordination as a function of the host lattice. It is argued that this

  16. Collision phenomena involving highly-charged ions in astronomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.

    2001-01-01

    A description of the role of highly charged ions in various astronomical objects; includes the use of critical quantities such as cross sections for excitation, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR); and lifetimes, branching ratios, and A-values.

  17. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ayman S.; Wilhelm, Richard A.; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (129Xe Q+ ) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q =15 to Q =36 , the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  18. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ayman S; Wilhelm, Richard A; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-16

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (^{129}Xe^{Q+}) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q=15 to Q=36, the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  19. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murböck, T.; Schmidt, S.; Andelkovic, Z.; Birkl, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Vogel, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 106 Mg+ ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled 24Mg+.

  20. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H.; Muroki, C.; Nambu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  1. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H; Muroki, C; Nambu, M

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  2. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  3. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  4. Characterization of the internal ion environment of biofilms based on charge density and shape of ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Andi; Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Morisaki, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm polymers contain both electrically positively and negatively charged sites. These charged sites enable the biofilm to trap and retain ions leading to an important role of biofilm such as nutrient recycling and pollutant purification. Much work has focused on the ion-exchange capacity of biofilms, and they are known to adsorb ions through an exchange mechanism between the ions in solution and the ions adsorbed to the charged sites on the biofilm polymer. However, recent studies suggest that the adsorption/desorption behavior of ions in a biofilm cannot be explained solely by this ion exchange mechanism. To examine the possibility that a substantial amount of ions are held in the interstitial region of the biofilm polymer by an electrostatic interaction, intact biofilms formed in a natural environment were immersed in distilled water and ion desorption was investigated. All of the detected ion species were released from the biofilms over a short period of time, and very few ions were subsequently released over more time, indicating that the interstitial region of biofilm polymers is another ion reserve. The extent of ion retention in the interstitial region of biofilms for each ion can be determined largely by charge density, |Z|/r, where |Z| is the ion valence as absolute value and r is the ion radius. The higher |Z|/r value an ion has, the stronger it is retained in the interstitial region of biofilms. Ion shape is also a key determinant of ion retention. Spherical and non-spherical ions have different correlations between the condensation ratio and |Z|/r. The generality of these findings were assured by various biofilm samples. Thus, the internal regions of biofilms exchange ions dynamically with the outside environment.

  5. Novel aspects on the irradiation of HOPG surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, R. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shen, Q. [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Wilhelm, R.A. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, R. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ginzel, R.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J.R. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, C. [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Aumayr, F., E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    As a continuation of our previous work, we present new results regarding the interaction of slow highly charged ions with HOPG. Lateral atomic force microscopy measurements with calibrated cantilevers were performed to investigate in more detail the locally enhanced friction at ion impact sites, which has been reported earlier. For very high charge states, apart from ever-present changes in frictional and electronic properties, we find evidence for true topographic surface modifications (hillocks). In complementary studies, we have investigated these structures regarding their conductivity by employing high-resolution conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, we demonstrate the possibility to etch ion-induced surface structures by thermal annealing.

  6. Database for inelastic collisions of lithium atoms with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweinzer, J; Brandenburg, R; Bray, [No Value; Hoekstra, R; Aumayr, F; Janev, RK; Winter, HP

    1999-01-01

    New experimental and theoretical cross-section data for inelastic collision processes of Li atoms in the ground state and excited states (up to n = 4) with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions have been reported since the database assembled by Wutte et al. [ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABL

  7. Absolute cross sections for charge capture from Rydberg targets by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaola, B.D.; Huang, M.; Winecki, S.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Kanai, Y. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lundeen, S.R.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Arko, S.A. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A crossed beam experiment has been used to measure absolute charge capture cross sections in collisions of slow highly charged xenon ions with laser excited Rydberg atoms. The cross sections were measured for scaled projectile velocities {ital nv}{sub {ital p}} from 1.0 to 6.0, for projectile charges of 8, 16, 32, and 40, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number of the target electron. Experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of classical models.

  8. Adsorption of Potassium and Calcium Ions by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHONG-YAN; JIGUO-LIANG

    1992-01-01

    Interactions of potassium and calcium ions with four typical variable charge soils in South China were examined by measuring pK-0.5pCa value with a potassium ion-selective electrode and a calcium ion-selective electrode,and pK value with a potassium ion-selective electrode.The results showed that adsorption of potassium and calcium ions increased with soil suspension pH,and the tendency of the pK-0.5pCa value changing with pH differed with respect to pH range and potassium to calcium ratio.Adsorption of equal amount of calcium and potassium ions led to release of an identical number of protons,suggesting similar adsorption characteristics of these two ions when adsorbed by variable charge soils.Compared with red soil,latosol and lateritic red soil had higher adsorption selectivities for calcium ion.The red soil had a greater affinity for potassium ion than that for calcium ion at low concentration,which seems to result from its possession of 2:1 type minerals,such as vermiculite and mica with a high affinity for potassium ion.The results indicated that adsorption of potassium and calcium ions by the variable charge soils was chiefly caused by the electrostatic attraction between the cations and the soil surfaces.Moreover,it was found that sulfate could affect the adsorption by changing soil surface properties and by forming ion-pair.

  9. Adsorption of Potassium and Sodium Ions by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHONG-YAN; JIGUO-LIANG

    1992-01-01

    Adsorption of potassium and sodium ions by four typical variable charge soils of South China was studied.The results indicated that the variable charge soils saturated with H and Al showed a much higher preference for potassium ions relative to sodium ions,and this tendence could not be changed by such factors as the pH,the concentration of the cations,the dielectric constant of solvent,the accompanying anions and the iron oxide content etc.,suggesting that this difference in affinity is caused by the difference in the nature of the two cations.It was observed that a negative adsorption of sodium ions by latosol and lateritic red soil in a mixed system containing equal amount of potassium and sodium ions at low pH,which is caused by a competitive adsorption of potassium and sodium ions and repulsion of positive charge on the surfaces of soil particles for cations.The adsorption of potassium and sodium ions increased with the decreases in the dielectric constant of solvent and the iron oxide content.Sulfate affected the adsorption of potassium and sodium ions through changing the surface properties of the soils.

  10. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  11. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  12. Effects of Ti charge state, ion size and beam-induced compaction on the formation of Ag metal nanoparticles in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, R. H.; Meldrum, A.; Haglund, R. F.

    2015-04-01

    Metal nanoparticles formed by ion implantation in fused silica exhibit linear and nonlinear optical properties that can be altered by co-doping the silica substrate with transition-metal ions. For example, implantation of scandium in fused silica creates a directional optical dichroism due to the different spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles subsequently formed by Ag ion implantation. In this paper, we show that implantation of titanium ions alters the short- and intermediate-range order in the silica and thereby alters the diffusion and nucleation processes that lead to formation of silver nanoparticles. In particular, the dichroic response observed for Ag nanoparticles in Sc-implanted silica is, with one exception, in Ti-implanted silica. Compaction of the silica due to the ion implantation process appears to be similar for both Sc and Ti implantations, based on the observed shift of the 1,124 cm-1 transverse-optical phonon mode in the infrared reflectance spectrum. However, differences in chemical reactivity, bond lengths and electronic structure of Sc and Ti produce changes in electronic structure and strain that are sensitively reflected in the reflectance spectra of the Ag nanoparticles. These differences lead to modifications in the size, shape and spatial distributions of the silver nanoparticles and offer a powerful means of controlling their optical properties.

  13. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  14. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2016-05-01

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.

  15. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  16. Aberrations due to solenoid focusing of a multiply charged high-current ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, G; Lisi, N; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Tambini, J

    2000-01-01

    At the output of a laser ion source, a high current of highly charged ions with a large range of charge states is available. The focusing of such a beam by magnetic elements causes a nonlinear space-charge field to develop which can induce large aberrations and emittance growth in the beam. Simulation of the beam from the CERN laser ion source will be presented for an ideal magnetic and electrostatic system using a radially symmetric model. In addition, the three dimensional software KOBRA3 is used for the simulation of the solenoid line. The results of these simulations will be compared with experiments performed on the CERN laser ion source with solenoids (resulting in a hollow beam) and a series of gridded electrostatic lenses. (5 refs).

  17. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkout, Vadym D; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2008-12-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap - time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z- ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intact. The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization.

  18. Projectile charge state dependent sputtering of solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hayderer, G

    2000-01-01

    dependence on the ion kinetic energy. This new type of potential sputtering not only requires electronic excitation of the target material, but also the formation of a collision cascade within the target in order to initiate the sputtering process and has therefore been termed kinetically assisted potential sputtering. In order to study defects induced by potential sputtering on the atomic scale we performed measurements of multiply charged Ar ion irradiated HOPG (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite) samples with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The only surface defects found in the STM images are protrusions. The mean diameter of the defects increases with projectile charge state while the height of the protrusions stays roughly the same indicating a possible pre-equilibrium effect of the stopping of slow multiply charged projectiles in HOPG. Total sputter yields for impact of slow singly and multiply charged ions on metal- (Au), oxide- (Al2O3, MgO) and alkali-halide surfaces (LiF) have been measured as a...

  19. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  20. Electroweak Decay Studies of Highly Charged Radioactive Ions with TITAN at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Leach, K G; Klawitter, R; Leistenschneider, E; Lennarz, A; Brunner, T; Frekers, D; Andreiou, C; Kwiatkowski, A A; Dilling, J

    2016-01-01

    Several modes of electroweak radioactive decay require an interaction between the nucleus and bound electrons within the constituent atom. Thus, the probabilities of the respective decays are not only influenced by the structure of the initial and final states in the nucleus, but can also depend strongly on the atomic charge. Conditions suitable for the partial or complete ionization of these rare isotopes occur naturally in hot, dense astrophysical environments, but can also be artificially generated in the laboratory to selectively block certain radioactive decay modes. Direct experimental studies on such scenarios are extremely difficult due to the laboratory conditions required to generate and store radioactive ions at high charge states. A new electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) decay setup with the TITAN experiment at TRIUMF has successfully demonstrated such techniques for performing spectroscopy on the radioactive decay of highly charged ions.

  1. Electrokinetic inversion of ion screening charges in nano-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xin; Ni, Sheng; Zhang, Xingye; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This work studies a counter-intuitive but basic process of ionic screening in nano-fluidic channels. Numerical simulations and perturbation analysis reveal that, under significant electrokinetic transport, the ion screening charges can be locally inverted in the channels: their charge sign becomes the same as that of the channel surface charges. The process is identified to originate from the coupling of longitudinal transport and junction electrostatics. This finding may revise the common understanding of ionic screening in nano-channels and indicates that their ion selectivity can be locally changed by transport. Furthermore, the charge inversion process results in a body force torque on channel fluids, which is a possible mechanism for vortex generation in the channels.

  2. QED corrections to atomic wavefunctions in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Johan

    2015-11-18

    Bound electron states in highly charged ions are strongly influenced by the effects of relativity and quantum electrodynamics (QED). These effects induce shifts of the binding energies as well as corrections to observables related to atomic processes. In this work a numerical procedure is described and implemented in which the QED effects are treated as corrections to relativistic bound-state wavefunctions. This approach, which is based on the recently developed covariant evolution-operator formalism, allows for a merging of QED with the standard methods of many-body perturbation theory. In particular, it enables an evaluation of the combined effect of QED and electron correlation in few-electron systems. Numerical results for this effect are presented for the ground state energy of helium-like ions. A detailed analysis of the contribution from the electron self-energy is carried out in both the Feynman and Coulomb gauge. It is found that the Feynman gauge suffers from large numerical cancellations and acquires significant contributions from terms involving multiple interactions with the nuclear potential (the so-called many-potential terms), while the Coulomb gauge is well suited for an approximate treatment based on terms involving only freely propagating electrons (the zero-potential terms). With the help of QED-corrected wavefunctions it is also possible to compute corrections to observables in basic atomic processes. In this work some of the one-loop QED corrections (those derivable from perturbed wavefunctions and energies) to the differential cross section and distribution of polarization in radiative recombination of initially bare uranium nuclei are evaluated, as well as the corresponding corrections to the ratio τ{sub E1}/τ{sub M2} of the electric dipole and magnetic quadrupole transition amplitudes in the 2p{sub 3/2}→1s radiative decay of hydrogenlike uranium. The results from these calculations are all of the expected magnitude, namely on the order

  3. Charge Breeding and Production of Multiply Charged Ions in EBIS and ECRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, Frederik J C

    2001-01-01

    The REXEBIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed for charge breeding of the exotic and sometimes short-lived isotopes that are produced at ISOLDE for the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. Bunches of singly charged radioactive ions are injected into the EBIS and charge bred to a charge-to-mass ratio of approximately ¼, and thereafter extracted and injected into a short 3-stage LINAC for acceleration to a few MeV/u. This novel concept, employing a Penning trap to bunch and cool the ions from an on-line mass separator in combination with a charge breeding EBIS, should result in an efficient and compact system. The REXEBIS is based on a 0.5 A electron beam produced in the fringe field of a magnetic solenoid, and compressed to a current density of >200 A/cm2. The 2 T magnetic field is provided by a warm-bore superconducting solenoid, thus giving easy accessibility but no cryogenic pumping. The EBIS is switched between 60 kV (ion injection) and ~20 kV (ion extraction). This thesis presents the design and con...

  4. Quasi-solid state polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Effect of the electrolyte components variation on the triiodide ion diffusion properties and charge-transfer resistance at platinum electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazmutdinova, G.; Sensfuss, S.; Schroedner, M. [Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastics Research, Breitscheidstrasse 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Hinsch, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Sastrawan, R. [Freiburg Materials Research Center FMF, Stefan-Meier-Street 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Gerhard, D.; Himmler, S.; Wasserscheid, P. [Friedrich-Alexander-University, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-11-30

    Quasi-solid state polymer electrolytes have been prepared from poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) as gelator for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids (with anions like trifluoromethanesulfonate [EMIM][TfO], bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [EMIM][Tf{sub 2}N]) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for gelation of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide [EMIM][DCA] as well as I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} as the redox couple. All electrolytes exhibit high ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -3} S/cm. The effect of gelation, redox couple concentration, I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} ratio, choice of cations and additives on the triiodide diffusion and charge-transfer resistance of the platinum/electrolyte interface (R{sub ct}) were studied. The apparent diffusion coefficient of triiodide ion (D(I{sub 3}{sup -})) at various iodide/triiodide ratios in liquid and gelified electrolytes has been calculated from measurements of the diffusion limited current (I{sub lim}) in electrochemical cell resembling the set-up of a dye-sensitized solar cell. The charge-transfer resistance of the platinum/electrolyte interface as well as the capacitance of the electrical double layer (C{sub dl}) have been calculated from impedance measurements. Electrolytes with reduced content of polymer (2.5 wt.%) were doped with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles of different sizes (50 nm, 300 nm, 1 {mu}m). The dispersion of the particles proceeds by speedy stirring of the hot electrolyte and the addition of PAN provides a homogeneous suspension. The addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles causes a slight increase of the triiodide diffusion constants. Furthermore the suggested enhancement of the charge transfer rate shows a dependence on the size of the particles. (author)

  5. State-selected ion-molecule reactions with Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions in traps

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xin; Reyes, Juvenal Yosa; Germann, Matthias; Meuwly, Markus; Willitsch, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    State-selected Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions were employed for the first time in ion-molecule reaction studies using the prototypical charge-transfer process $\\mathrm{N_2^++N_2\\rightarrow N_2+N_2^+}$ as an example. By preparing the reactant ions in a well-defined rovibrational state and localizing them in space by sympathetic cooling to millikelvin temperatures in an ion trap, state- and energy-controlled reaction experiments with sensitivities on the level of single ions were performed. The experimental results were interpreted with quasi-classical trajectory simulations on a six-dimensional potential-energy surface which provided detailed insight into translation-to-rotation energy transfer occurring during charge transfer between N$_2$ and N$_2^+$.

  6. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  7. Surface Erosion of GaN Bombarded by Highly Charged 208Pbq+-Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Qing; ZHANG Chong-Hong; YANG Yi-Tao; YAO Cun-Feng; LI Bing-Sheng; JIN Yun-Fan; SUN You-Mei; SONG Shu-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Surface change of gallium nitride specimens after bombardment by highly charged Pbq+-ions (q=25, 35) at room temperature is studied by means of atomic force microscopy. The experimental results reveal that the surface of GaN specimens is significantly etched and erased. An unambiguous step-up is observed. The erosion depth not only strongly depends on the charge state of ions, but also is related to the incident angle of Pbq+ -ions and the ion dose. The erosion depth of the specimens in 60°incidence (tilted incidence) is significantly deeper than that of the normal incidence. The erosion behaviour of specimens has little dependence on the kinetic energy of ion (E,k=360, 700keV). On the other hand, surface roughness of the irradiated area is obviously decreased due to erosion compared with the un-irradiated area. A flat terrace is formed.

  8. Charge states of energetic solar particles. Die Ladungszustaende solarer energetischer Teilchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhn, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dissertation deals with the measurement and interpretation of the charge state of energetic solar particles. Measurements of the C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe ions were carried out with the ULEZEQ sensor on the ISEE-3 satellite. For the first time it was possible to determine the three parameters energy, atomic number and charge state of infalling ions separately and indepedent from each other.

  9. Commercial intermediate pressure MALDI ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometer capable of producing highly charged laserspray ionization ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutan, Ellen D; Wang, Beixi; Trimpin, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The first examples of highly charged ions observed under intermediate pressure (IP) vacuum conditions are reported using laser ablation of matrix/analyte mixtures. The method and results are similar to those obtained at atmospheric pressure (AP) using laserspray ionization (LSI) and/or matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII). Electrospray ionization (ESI), LSI, and MAII are methods operating at AP and have been shown, with or without the use of a voltage or a laser, to produce highly charged ions with very similar ion abundance and charge states. A commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) mass spectrometry (MS) instrument (SYNAPT G2) was used for the IP developments. The necessary conditions for producing highly charged ions of peptides and small proteins at IP appear to be a pressure drop region and the use of suitable matrixes and laser fluence. Ionization to produce these highly charged ions under the low pressure conditions of IP does not require specific heating or a special inlet ion transfer region. However, under the current setup, ubiquitin is the highest molecular weight protein observed. These findings are in accord with the need to provide thermal energy in the pressure drop region, similar to LSI and MAII, to improve sensitivity and extend the types of compounds that produce highly charged ions. The practical utility of IP-LSI in combination with IMS-MS is demonstrated for the analysis of model mixtures composed of a lipid, peptides, and a protein. Further, endogenous multiply charged peptides are observed directly from delipified mouse brain tissue with drift time distributions that are nearly identical in appearance to those obtained from a synthesized neuropeptide standard analyzed by either LSI- or ESI-IMS-MS at AP. Efficient solvent-free gas-phase separation enabled by the IMS dimension separates the multiply charged peptides from lipids that remained on the delipified tissue. Lipid and peptide

  10. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  11. Study on the ECR Ion Source and Application Technology of the Charged Particle Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Lee, K. W.; Jin, J. T.; and others

    2012-12-15

    Recently, Korea has launched the world's top class heavy ion accelerator project, and for the machine it is necessary to develop related physic and technology for the high charge state beam including a 28 GHz superconducting ECR ion source. This study is prepared to support this activity including transport of TRIAC(Tokai Radioactive Accelerator Complex) and development of ECR ion source technology. TRIAC, which was developed by KEK Japan, was a one of a heavy ion accelerator. This work is especially necessary to support the originality of the experiments with the heavy ion accelerator in the future in Korea. New accelerator DIAC will be used to support Korea Rare Isotope Accelerator project, and also will be applied to other heavy ion beam physics and engineering research. Based on the conceptual design results of the 28 GHz superconducting ECR ion source, an engineering design and construction will be started from next fiscal year.

  12. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Prete, G. F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L.; Lunney, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PB 35 (YFL) 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the charge dynamics of heavy ions penetrating solid and gaseous targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostiy, S.

    2007-01-15

    This thesis presents the study of the slowing down process of fast heavy ions inside matter. In the framework of this research, the influence of the target density on the stopping process is investigated. Experiments on the interaction of {sup 48}Ca{sup 6+}-{sup 48}Ca{sup 10+} and {sup 26}Mg{sup 5+} ion beams with initial energies of 11.4 MeV/u and 5.9 MeV/u with solid and gaseous targets have been carried out. A novel diagnostic method, X-ray spectroscopy of K-shell projectile radiation, is used to determine the ion charge state in relation to its velocity during the penetration of fast heavy ions inside the stopping material. A spatially resolved analysis of the projectile and target radiation in solids is achieved for the first time. The application of low-density silica aerogels as stopping media provided a stretching of the ion stopping length by 20 - 100 times in comparison with solid quartz. The Doppler Effect observed on the projectile K-shell spectra is used to calculate the ion velocity in dependence on the ion penetration depth in the target material. A comparative analysis of K{sub {alpha}} spectra of fast heavy ions is performed in solid (silica aerogels) and gaseous targets (Ar and Ne gases) at the same ion energy. It is shown that the dominant role of collisions in dense matter leads to an increase of the effective ionization cross section at high ion velocity and suppression of the electron capture to the projectile ion excited states at low ion velocity. As a result, an increase of the ion charge state in dense matter is observed. The experimentally detected effects are interpreted with numerical calculations of the projectile population kinetics, which are in good agreement with measurements. (orig.)

  14. Design of a 4D Emittance Measurement Device for High Charge State ECR Ion Sources%高电荷态ECR离子源引出束流4D发射度测量仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳阳; 赵红卫; 孙良亭; 杨尧; 王云; 曹云

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of on-line beam quality diagnostics and transverse emittance coupling investigation of the ion beams delivered by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a real-time 4D Pepper Pot type emittance scanner is under development at IMP(Institute of Moden Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The high charge state ECR ion source at IMP could produce CW or pulsed heavy ion beam intensities in the range of 1 eµA∼1 emA with the kinetic energy of 10∼35 keV/q, which needs the design of the Pepper Pot scanner to be optimized accordingly. The Pepper Pot scanner has many features, such as very short response time and wide dynamic working range that the device could be applied. Since intense heavy ion beam bombardment is expected for this device, the structure and the material selection for the device is specially considered during the design, and a feasible solution to analyze the pictures acquired after the data acquisition is also made.%为了进一步探究高电荷态电子回旋共振(ECR)离子源引出束流品质和横向相空间耦合情况,根据中国科学院近代物理研究所高电荷态离子源引出束流发射度测量需求,针对束流流强为1 eµA∼1 emA,能量范围为10∼35 keV/q的直流或脉冲高电荷态重离子束,设计了一台实时四维Pepper-pot发射度测量仪。该Pepper-pot型发射度测量仪具有响应时间快和工作范围宽等特点。针对强流重离子束诊断的特点,在结构与材料选择上做了设计与优化,并对获得图像的处理方法提出了具体的解决办法。

  15. Electron dynamics at surfaces induced by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, R

    1998-01-01

    Energy spectra of electrons resulting from hydrogen-like multiply charged N6+ and Q(7+) ions on various surfaces are presented and discussed. Por metal target surfaces thr formation and decay of hollow atoms during the approach towards the surface is rather well understood in terms of the classical

  16. Theory of a stationary microwave discharge with multiply charged ions in an expanding gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalashov, A. G.; Abramov, I. S.; Golubev, S. V.; Gospodchikov, E. D.

    2016-08-01

    The formation of a jet of a nonequilibrium multiply charged ion plasma is studied in the inhomogeneous gas jet. It is shown that the geometrical divergence of the jet restricts the maximum ion charge state and results in the spatial localization of the discharge. Stationary solutions corresponding to such regimes are constructed. The model proposed can be used to optimize modern experiments on generation of hard UV radiation due to the line emission of multiply ionized atoms in a gas jet heated by high-power millimeter and submillimeter radiation.

  17. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  18. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  19. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-12-17

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  20. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  1. Charged Hadron Multiplicity Distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews facts and problems concerning charge hadron production in high energy collisions. Main emphasis is laid on the qualitative and quantitative description of general characteristics and properties observed for charged hadrons produced in such high energy collisions. Various features of available experimental data, for example, the variations of charged hadron multiplicity and pseudorapidity density with the mass number of colliding nuclei, center-of-mass energies, and the collision centrality obtained from heavy-ion collider experiments, are interpreted in the context of various theoretical concepts and their implications. Finally, several important scaling features observed in the measurements mainly at RHIC and LHC experiments are highlighted in the view of these models to draw some insight regarding the particle production mechanism in heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface

    CERN Document Server

    Wirtz, L

    2001-01-01

    Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the a...

  3. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions∕s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms∕charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV∕u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  4. Systematics of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling on the beam energy has been studied theoretically for several ion-target combinations. Our previous work addressed ions up to krypton, while the present study focuses on heavier ions, especially uranium. Particular attention has been paid to a multiple-peak structure which has been predicted theoretically in our previous work. For high-Z1 and high-Z2 systems, exemplified by U in Au, we identify three maxima in the energy dependence of charge-exchange straggling, while the overall magnitude is comparable with that of collisional straggling. Conversely, for U in C, charge-exchange straggling dominates, but only two peaks lie in the energy range where we presently are able to produce credible predictions. For U-Al we find good agreement with experiment in the energy range around the high-energy maximum. The position of the high-energy peak - which is related to processes in the projectile K shell - is found to scale as Z12 , in contrast to the semi-empirical Z13/2 dependence proposed by Yang et al. Measurements for heavy ions in heavy targets are suggested in order to reconcile a major discrepancy between the present calculations and the frequently-used formula by Yang et al.

  5. On the formation of highly charged gaseous ions from unfolded proteins by electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Lars; Rodriguez, Antony D; Liu, Jiangjiang

    2012-08-07

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of native proteins results in a narrow distribution of low protonation states. ESI for these folded species proceeds via the charged residue mechanism. In contrast, ESI of unfolded proteins yields a wide distribution of much higher charge states. The current work develops a model that can account for this effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ESI for unfolded polypeptide chains involves protein ejection from nanodroplets, representing a type of ion evaporation mechanism (IEM). We point out the analogies between this IEM, and the dissociation of gaseous protein complexes after collisional activation. The latter process commences with unraveling of a single subunit, in concert with Coulombically driven proton transfer. The subunit then separates from the residual complex as a highly charged ion. We propose that similar charge equilibration events accompany the IEM of unfolded proteins, thereby causing the formation of high ESI charge states. A bead chain model is used for examining how charge is partitioned as protein and droplet separate. It is shown that protein ejection from differently sized ESI droplets generates a range of protonation states. The predicted behavior agrees well with experimental data.

  6. Generation of highly charged peptide and protein ions by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted infrared laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Kollas, Oliver; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2007-07-15

    We show that highly charged ions can be generated if a pulsed infrared laser and a glycerol matrix are employed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ion trap. Already for small peptides like bradykinin, doubly protonated ions form the most abundant analyte signal in the mass spectra. The center of the charge-state distribution increases with the size of the analyte. For example, insulin is detected with a most abundant ion signal corresponding to a charge state of four, whereas for cytochrome c, the 10 times protonated ion species produces the most intense signal. Myoglobin is observed with up to 13 charges. The high m/z ratios allow us to use the Paul trap for the detection of MALDI-generated protein ions that are, owing to their high molecular weight, not amenable in their singly protonated charge state. Formation of multiple charges critically depends on the addition of diluted acid to the analyte-matrix solution. Tandem mass spectra generated by collision-induced dissociation of doubly charged peptides are also presented. The findings allow speculations about the involvement of electrospray ionization processes in these MALDI experiments.

  7. Dielectronic recombination measurements of highly-charged heliumlike and neonlike ions using an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Knapp, D.A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, M.H.; Scofield, J.H.; Bennett, C.L.; DeWitt, D.R.; Henderson, J.R.; Lee, P.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Levine, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at LLNL is a unique device designed to measure the interactions of electrons with highly-charged ions. We describe three methods used at EBIT to directly measure the dielectronic recombination (DR) process: the intensity of the stabilizing x-rays is measured as a function of electron beam energy; the ions remaining in a particular ionization state are counted after the electron beam has been held at a fixed electron energy for a fixed time; and high-resolution spectroscopy is used to resolve individual DR satellite lines. In our discussions, we concentrate on the KLL resonances of the heliumlike target ions (V{sup 21+} to Ba{sup 54+}), and the LMM resonances of the neonlike target ions (Xe{sup 44+} to Th{sup 80+}). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Contribution of charge-transfer processes to ion-induced electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesler, M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, UPV/EHU, Apartado 649, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    Charge changing events of ions moving inside metals are shown to contribute significantly to electron emission in the intermediate velocity regime via electrons coming from projectile ionization. Inclusion of equilibrium charge state fractions, together with two-electron Auger processes and resonant-coherent electron loss from the projectile, results in reasonable agreement with previous calculations for frozen protons, though a significant part of the emission is now interpreted in terms of charge exchange. The quantal character of the surface barrier transmission is shown to play an important role. The theory compares well with experimental observations for {ital H} projectiles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Supercharging with m-nitrobenzyl alcohol and propylene carbonate: forming highly charged ions with extended, near-linear conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Catherine C; Williams, Evan R

    2015-04-07

    The effectiveness of the supercharging reagents m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate at producing highly charged protein ions in electrospray ionization is compared. Addition of 5% m-NBA or 15% propylene carbonate increases the average charge of three proteins by ∼21% or ∼23%, respectively, when these ions are formed from denaturing solutions (water/methanol/acetic acid). These results indicate that both reagents are nearly equally effective at supercharging when used at their optimum concentrations. A narrowing of the charge state distribution occurs with both reagents, although this effect is greater for propylene carbonate. Focusing the ion signal into fewer charge states has the advantage of improving sensitivity. The maximum charge state of ubiquitin formed with propylene carbonate is 21+, four charges higher than previously reported. Up to nearly 30% of all residues in a protein can be charged, and the collisional cross sections of the most highly charged ions of both ubiquitin and cytochrome c formed with these supercharging reagents were measured for the first time and found to be similar to those calculated for theoretical highly extended, linear or near-linear conformations. Under native supercharging conditions, m-NBA is significantly more effective at producing high charge states than propylene carbonate.

  10. High resolution charge spectroscopy of heavy ions with FNTD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, J. A.; Kodaira, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.; Akselrod, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the improvement of the heavy charge particle charge resolution of Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detector (FNTD) technology. Fluorescent intensity of individual heavy charge particle tracks is used to construct the spectrum. Sources of spectroscopic line broadening were investigated and several fluorescent intensity correction procedures were introduced to improve the charge resolution down to δZ = 0.25 c.u. and enable FNTD technology to distinguish between all projectile fragments of 290 MeV carbon ions. The benefits of using FNTD technology for fragmentation study include large dynamic range and wide angular acceptance. While we describe these developments in the context of fragmentation studies, the same techniques are readily extended to FNTD LET spectroscopy in general.

  11. 高电荷态重离子束流产生技术的研究%Technique of Producing High Charge State Heavy-ion Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽娟; 范辉; 蔡莉; 王惠; 史淑廷; 郭刚; 刘建成; 陈泉; 沈东军; 惠宁; 王贵良; 孔福全

    2014-01-01

    In order to get the Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator beam with the higher range and LET in silicon , the techniques of beam route simulating and pico-ampere beam diagnosing were developed .The magnetic rigidity simulation and electric rigidity simulation techniques combined with beam spot observing and beam intensity measuring techniques were used for getting 360 MeV 197 Au ion beam with the peak-to-total ratio of 80% in the spectrum .The range of 360 MeV 197 Au in silicon is 30.1μm and the LET is 86.1 MeV · cm2 · mg -1 .This meets the requirement of single-event effect test ,and the beam energy range and LET range in Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator have been obvi-ously enlarged .%为了提高北京HI-13串列加速器束流的硅中射程和LET 值,本文开展了高电荷态束流引出技术及pA级弱束流诊断技术研究。采用电刚度和磁刚度模拟技术,配合pA级弱束流束斑观测和束流强度监测技术,获得能量360 MeV、峰总比80%的197 Au离子束流,其在Si中的表面LET为86.1 MeV · cm2· mg -1、射程为30.1μm ,满足单粒子效应(SEE)实验的要求,拓展了北京 HI-13串列加速器上单粒子效应实验所用离子的能量和LET值范围。

  12. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murböck, T; Schmidt, S; Andelkovic, Z; Birkl, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Vogel, M

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 10(6) Mg(+) ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled (24)Mg(+).

  13. The charge state of iron implanted into sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.; Sklad, P.S.; White, C.W.; Farlow, G.C.; Perez, A.; Kornilios, N.; Marest, G.

    1987-08-01

    Several techniques (RBS, TEM, CEMS) have been used to characterize sapphire single crystals implanted with iron at room temperature to fluences of 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 17/ ions cm/sup -2/. At low fluences the as-implanted iron is found mainly in the ferrous state. As the fluence is increased, Fe/sup 3 +/ and metallic iron clusters became dominant. There is a strong correlation between the probability of finding specific configurations of iron ions within four cation coordination shells and the relative amounts of each charge state observed. The superparamagnetic behavior of the clusters suggest that they are of the order of 2 nm in size but the large amount of irradiation-induced damage and residual stress has prevented their imaging by TEM. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Properties of cold ions produced by synchrotron radiation and by charged particle impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J. C.; Biedermann, C.; Cederquist, H.; O, C.-S.; Short, R. T.; Sellin, I. A.

    1989-04-01

    Argon recoil ions produced by beams of 0.8 MeV/u Cl 5+ have been detected by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques in coincidence with the loss of from one to five projectile electrons. Recoil-ion energies have been determined to be more than an order of magnitude higher than those of highly charged ions produced by unmonochromatized synchrotron radiation. Charge-state distributions, however, show similarities, suggesting that loss of projectile electrons corresponds, in some cases, to inner-shell target ionization producing vacancy cascades. In an essential improvement to the usual multinomial description of ionization in the independent-electron-ejection model, we find the inclusion of Auger vacancy cascades significantly alters the description of the recoil ion spectra corresponding to the projectile-electron loss. These conclusions are consistent with impact parameters inferred from determination of mean recoil energy.

  15. Ultracold, radiative charge transfer in hybrid Yb ion - Rb atom traps

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, B M; Lane, I C; McCann, J F

    2014-01-01

    Ultracold hybrid ion-atom traps offer the possibility of microscopic manipulation of quantum coherences in the gas using the ion as a probe. However, inelastic processes, particularly charge transfer can be a significant process of ion loss and has been measured experimentally for the Yb$^{+}$ ion immersed in a Rb vapour. We use first-principles quantum chemistry codes to obtain the potential energy curves and dipole moments for the lowest-lying energy states of this complex. Calculations for the radiative decay processes cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for the total decay processes. Comparing the semi-classical Langevin approximation with the quantum approach, we find it provides a very good estimate of the background at higher energies. The results demonstrate that radiative decay mechanisms are important over the energy and temperature region considered. In fact, the Langevin process of ion-atom collisions dominates cold ion-atom collisions. For spin dependent processes \\cite{kohl13} the...

  16. A novel approach to kinetic energy release distribution and charge state distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kaidee [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: lee@nsrrc.org.tw

    2005-06-15

    When a swarm of ions are accelerated by a pulsed electric field for a common duration before entering an electrostatically dispersive energy analyzer, they will be sorted according to their charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In other words, the apparent kinetic energy upon which an ion will be registered in an apparent 'energy' spectrum thus obtained is proportional to its q/m ratio. For ions of a fixed mass m, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a charge state distribution spectrum. For ions of a fixed charge q, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a mass spectrum. In essence, an energy analyzer becomes both a charge sorter and a mass spectrometer when operated in this mode. In addition, when applied to the detection of photofragment ions, this technique will be able to yield information on the kinetic energy release distribution of the underlying dissociation events.

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  18. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crume, E. C.; Arnurius, D. E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly.

  19. Ionization efficiency studies with charge breeder and conventional electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, H., E-mail: hannu.koivisto@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O.; Toivanen, V.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), Jyväskylä (Finland); Lamy, T.; Angot, J. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, Grenoble INP, 53 rue des martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Patti, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Standylo, L.; Steczkiewicz, O.; Choinski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Radioactive Ion Beams play an increasingly important role in several European research facility programs such as SPES, SPIRAL1 Upgrade, and SPIRAL2, but even more for those such as EURISOL. Although remarkable advances of ECRIS charge breeders (CBs) have been achieved, further studies are needed to gain insight on the physics of the charge breeding process. The fundamental plasma processes of charge breeders are studied in the frame of the European collaboration project, EMILIE, for optimizing the charge breeding. Important information on the charge breeding can be obtained by conducting similar experiments using the gas mixing and 2-frequency heating techniques with a conventional JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS and the LPSC-PHOENIX charge breeder. The first experiments were carried out with noble gases and they revealed, for example, that the effects of the gas mixing and 2-frequency heating on the production of high charge states appear to be additive for the conventional ECRIS. The results also indicate that at least in the case of noble gases the differences between the conventional ECRIS and the charge breeder cause only minor impact on the production efficiency of ion beams.

  20. Quantum-State-Resolved Ion-Molecule Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary; Yang, Tiangang; Campbell, Wesley; Hudson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We propose a method to achieve quantum-state-resolved ion-molecule chemistry by utilizing cryogenic buffer gas cooling techniques and a combination of ion imaging and mass spectrometry of targets in an RF Paul trap. Cold molecular species produced by a cryogenic buffer gas beam (CBGB) are introduced to target ion species in an linear quadrupole trap (LQT) where ion imaging techniques and time of flight mass spectrometry (ToF) are then used to observe the target ions and the charged reaction products [1,2]. By taking advantage of the large ion-neutral interaction cross sections and characteristically long ion trap lifetimes, we can utilize the precision control over quantum states allowed by an ion trap to resolve state-to-state quantum chemical reactions without high-density molecular sample production, well within proposed capabilities. The combination of these two very general cold species production techniques allows for production and observation of a broad range of ion-neutral reactions. We initially plan to study chemical reactions between sympathetically cooled carbon ions (via laser cooled beryllium ions) with buffer gas cooled water. This work is supported by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  1. Surface Disorder of GaN Irradiated by Highly Charged Arq+-Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Qing; ZHANG Chong-Hong; YANG Yi-Tao; YAO Cun-Feng; LI Bing-Sheng; SUN You-Mei; SONG Shu-Jian

    2009-01-01

    The surface damage to gallium nitride films irradiated by Arq+ (6 < q < 16) ions at room temperature is studied by the atomic force microscopy.It is found that when charge state exceeds a threshold value,significant swelling was turned into obvious erosion in the irradiated region.The surface change of the irradiated region strongly depends on the charge state and ion fluence.On the other hand,surface change is less dependent on the kinetic energy nearly in the present experimental range (120keV≤Ek≤220 keV).For q≤14,surface of the irradiated region is covered with an amorphous layer,rough and bulgy.A step-up appears between the irradiated and un-irradiated region. Moreover,the step height and the surface roughness are functions of the ion dose and charge state,and increase with the increase of dose and charge state.Especially at and near boundary,a sharp bump like ridges in irradiated areas is observed,and there appear characteristic grooves in un-irradiated areas.For q=16,surface of the irradiated region was etched and erased.

  2. Influence of solar wind ions on photoemission charging of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouzak, Libor; Richterova, Ivana; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2016-04-01

    The lunar surface covered by a layer of dust grains is exposed to solar wind particles and photons coming from the Sun on the sunlit side. Solar wind ions cause sputtering of dust grains or can be implanted into grains. We suppose that as a consequence of ion implantation, an additional energy is transferred to grains, more valence band electrons are excited, and the photoelectron yield is increased. An increase of the photoelectron current causes the enhanced density of electrons that form a sheet above the illuminated lunar surface. Thus, an influence of solar wind ions on the Debye length and photoelectron sheet formation is expected. We present laboratory estimations of work functions and photoelectron yields of a single micron-sized silica grain before and after ion implantation. The silica grain used as a lunar simulant is caught in the electrodynamic trap. Grain's specific charge is evaluated by an analysis of the grain motion within the trap, while its work function is determined from observations of a time evolution of the charge-to-mass ratio when the grain is irradiated by photons of different emission lines. By comparison of the photoelectron current (from grain) with photon flux (from UV source), we establish the photoelectron yield of the trapped object. The influence of ion implantation is thoroughly analyzed and discussed.

  3. Highly charged ions for atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, M S; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Safronova, U I; Porsev, S G; Kozlov, M G

    2014-07-18

    We propose 10 highly charged ions as candidates for the development of next generation atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation. They have long-lived metastable states with transition wavelengths to the ground state between 170-3000 nm, relatively simple electronic structure, stable isotopes, and high sensitivity to α variation (e.g., Sm(14+), Pr(10+), Sm(13+), Nd(10+)). We predict their properties crucial for the experimental exploration and highlight particularly attractive systems for these applications.

  4. Peripheral collisions of highly charged ions with metal clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng-Jun; Hu Bi-Tao; Luo Xian-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the dynamical classical over-barrier model,the soft collisions between slow highly charged ions(SHCIs)Ar17+ and the large copper clusters under large impact parameters have been studied in this paper.We present the dominant mechanism of the electron transfer between SHCls and a large metal cluster by computational simulation.The evolution of the occupation of projectile ions,KLχ satellite lines,X-ray yields,Auger electron spectrum and scattering angles are provided.

  5. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms.

  6. Evidence of double layer/capacitive charging in carbon nanomaterial-based solid contact polymeric ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Maria; Bishop, Josiah; Walker, Raymart; Acres, Robert G; Bakker, Eric; De Marco, Roland; Crespo, Gaston A

    2016-08-11

    This paper presents the first direct spectroscopic evidence for double layer or capacitive charging of carbon nanomaterial-based solid contacts in all-solid-state polymeric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Here, we used synchrotron radiation-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and SR valence band (VB) spectroscopy in the elucidation of the charging mechanism of the SCs.

  7. Semiconductor characterization by scanning ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vittone, E; Olivero, P; Manfredotti, C; Jaksic, M; Giudice, A Lo; Fizzotti, F; Colombo, E

    2016-01-01

    The acronym IBIC (Ion Beam Induced Charge) was coined in early 1990's to indicate a scanning microscopy technique which uses MeV ion beams as probes to image the basic electronic properties of semiconductor materials and devices. Since then, IBIC has become a widespread analytical technique to characterize materials for electronics or for radiation detection, as testified by more than 200 papers published so far in peer-reviewed journals. Its success stems from the valuable information IBIC can provide on charge transport phenomena occurring in finished devices, not easily obtainable by other analytical techniques. However, IBIC analysis requires a robust theoretical background to correctly interpret experimental data. In order to illustrate the importance of using a rigorous mathematical formalism, we present in this paper a benchmark IBIC experiment aimed to test the validity of the interpretative model based on the Gunn's theorem and to provide an example of the analytical capability of IBIC to characteriz...

  8. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry of phosphorylase B ions generated with supercharging reagents but in charge-reducing buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Christopher J; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Loo, Joseph A; de la Mora, Juan Fernandez

    2010-11-01

    We investigate whether "supercharging" reagents able to shift the charge state distributions (CSDs) of electrosprayed protein ions upward also influence gas-phase protein structure. A differential mobility analyzer and a mass spectrometer are combined in series (DMA-MS) to measure the mass and mobility of monomer and multimeric phosphorylase B ions (monomer molecular weight ∼97 kDa) in atmospheric pressure air. Proteins are electrosprayed from charge-reducing triethylammonium formate in water (pH = 6.8) with and without the addition of the supercharging reagent tetramethylene sulfone (sulfolane). Because the DMA measures ion mobility prior to collisional heating or declustering, it probes the structure of supercharged protein ions immediately following solvent (water) evaporation. As in prior studies, the addition of sulfolane is found to drastically increase both the mean and maximum charge state of phosphorylase B ions. Ions from all protein n-mers were found to yield mobilities that, for a given charge state, were ∼6-10% higher in the absence of sulfolane. We find that the mobility decrease which arises with sulfolane is substantially smaller than that typically observed for folded-to-unfolded transitions in protein ions (where a ∼60% decrease in mobility is typical), suggesting that supercharging reagents do not cause structural protein modifications in solution as large as noted recently by Williams and colleagues [E. R. Williams et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 2010, 21, 1762-1774]. In fact, the measurements described here indicate that the modest mobility decrease observed can be partly attributed to sulfolane trapping within the protein ions during DMA measurements, and probably also in solution. As the most abundant peaks in measured mass-mobility spectra for ions produced with and without sulfolane correspond to non-covalently bound phosphorylase B dimers, we find that in spite of a change in mobility/cross section, sulfolane addition does not

  9. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Multiply Charged Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department has been dedicated to the study of atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. Our program focuses on the charge transfer (electron capture) of multiply charged ions and neutrals important in astrophysics. The electron transfer reactions with atoms and molecules is crucial to the ionization condition of neutral rich photoionized plasmas. With the successful deployment of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory by NASA high resolution VUV and X-ray emission spectra fiom various astrophysical objects have been collected. These spectra will be analyzed to determine the source of the emission and the chemical and physical environment of the source. The proper interpretation of these spectra will require complete knowledge of all the atomic processes in these plasmas. In a neutral rich environment, charge transfer can be the dominant process. The rate coefficients need to be known accurately. We have also extended our charge transfer measurements to KeV region with a pulsed ion beam. The inclusion of this facility into our current program provides flexibility in extending the measurement to higher energies (KeV) if needed. This flexibility enables us to address issues of immediate interest to the astrophysical community as new observations are made by high resolution space based observatories.

  10. Effects of Ions Charge-Mass Ratio on Energy and Energy Spread of Accelerated Ions in Laser Driven Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Hai-Bo; DENG Shi-Qiang; XIE Bai-Song

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ions charge-mass ratio on energy and energy spread of accelerated ions in laser driven plasma are investigated in detail by proposing a simple double-layer model for a foil target driven by an ultrastrong laser.The radiation pressure acceleration mechanism plays an important role on the studied problem.For the ions near the plasma mirror,i.e.electrons layer,the dependence of ions energy on their charge-mass ratio is derived theoretically.It is found that the larger the charge-mass ratio is,the higher the accelerated ions energy gets.For those ions far away from the layer,the dependence of energy and energy spread on ions charge-mass ratio are also obtained by numerical performance.It exhibits that,as ions charge-mass ratio increases,not only the accelerated ions energy but also the energy spread will become large.

  11. Highly charged ion X-rays from Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Boucard, S.; Covita, D. S.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Schlesser, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simons, L.M.; Stingelin, L.; Trassinelli, Martino; Veloso, J.; Wasser, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation from the highly-charged ions contained in the plasma of Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources constitutes a very bright source of X-rays. Because the ions have a relatively low kinetic energy ($\\approx 1$~eV) transitions can be very narrow, containing only small Doppler broadening. We describe preliminary accurate measurements of two and three-electron ions with $Z=16$--18. We show how these measurement can test sensitively many-body relativistic calculations or can be used as X-...

  12. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A. [SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., 1-17-6 Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-0032 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  13. Charge density asymmetry of heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, N.D.; Ivascu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Sandulescu, A. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania))

    1980-01-01

    The generalized liquid-drop model replacing surface energy by double folded Yukawa-plus-exponential function is extended for fusion of heavy ions with different charge densities. Calculated interaction barriers for some 58 pairs of nuclei are in good agreement with experimental ones, within -10% and +7%. For even-even beta-stable nuclei with Z =4-104 the general trend of variation of interaction barriers and fusion Q-values show the regions where the charge density asymmetry cannot be neglected. PES for the entrance channel of the reactions /sup 109/Ag + /sup 40/Ar, /sup 138/Ce + /sup 57/Fe, /sup 144/Nd + /sup 84/Kr and the corresponding charge-equilibrated system have been computed.

  14. Experimental Results on Charge Fluctuations in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a subset of experimental results on charge fluctuation from the heavy-ion collisions to search for phase transition and location of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Measurements from the heavy-ion experiments at the SPS and RHIC energies observe that total charge fluctuations increase from central to peripheral collisions. The net-charge fluctuations in terms of dynamical fluctuation measure ν(+-,dyn are studied as a function of collision energy (sNN and centrality of the collisions. The product of ν(+-,dyn and 〈Nch〉 shows a monotonic decrease with collision energies, which indicates that at LHC energy the fluctuations have their origin in the QGP phase. The fluctuations in terms of higher moments of net-proton, net-electric charge, and net-kaon have been measured for various sNN. Deviations are observed in both Sσ and κσ2 for net-proton multiplicity distributions from the Skellam and hadron resonance gas model for sNN<39 GeV. Higher moment results of the net-electric charge and net-kaon do not observe any significant nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. We also discuss the extraction of the freeze-out parameters using particle ratios and experimentally measured higher moments of net-charge fluctuations. The extracted freeze-out parameters from experimentally measured moments and lattice calculations are found to be in agreement with the results obtained from the fit of particle ratios to the thermal model calculations.

  15. Dynamics of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter A.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams. Here we present experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a FEPS plasma. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Near-complete charge neutralization is established 5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS, and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub- μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS suggest that plasma can be generated for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. This is confirmed by fast photography of the plasma in the 1-meter long FEPS on NDCX-II, where effective charge neutralization of the beam was achieved with the optimized FEPS timing. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0209CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  16. Size-to-charge dispersion of collision-induced dissociation product ions for enhancement of structural information and product ion identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnel, Nathanael F; Russell, David H

    2014-05-20

    Ion mobility is used to disperse product ions formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) on the basis of charge state and size-to-charge ratio. We previously described an approach for combining CID with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) for dispersing fragment ions along charge state specific trend lines (Zinnel, N. F.; Pai, P. J.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3390; Sowell, R. A.; Koeniger, S. L.; Valentine, S. J.; Moon, M. H.; Clemmer, D. E. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15, 1341; McLean, J. A.; Ruotolo, B. T.; Gillig, K. J.; Russell, D. H. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2005, 240, 301), and this approach was used to assign metal ion binding sites for human metallothionein protein MT-2a (Chen, S. H.; Russell, W. K.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 3229). Here, we use this approach to distinguish b-type N-terminal fragment ions from both internal fragment ions and y-type C-terminal fragment ions. We also show that in some cases specific secondary structural elements, viz., extended coils or helices, can be obtained for the y-type fragment ions series. The advantage of this approach is that product ion identity can be correlated to gas-phase ion structure, which provides rapid identification of the onset and termination of extended coil structure in peptides.

  17. l-distributions of the first electron transferred to multiply charged ions interacting with solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, M. A.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the angular momentum distributions of the electron transferred into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping the solid surfaces. The population probabilities are calculated within the framework of two-state-vector model; in the case of large values of the angular momentum quantum numbers l the model takes into account an importance of a wide space region around the projectile trajectory. The reionization of the previously populated states is also taken into account. The corresponding ionization rates are obtained by the appropriate etalon equation method; in the large-l case the radial electronic coordinate rho is treated as variational parameter. The theoretical predictions based on the proposed population-reionization mechanism fit the available beam-foil experimental data; the obtained large-l distributions are also used to elucidate the recent experimental data concerning the multiply charged Rydberg ions interacting with micro-capillary foil.

  18. 基于离散滑模观测器的锂电池荷电状态估计%Charge State Estimation of Li-ion Batteries Based on Discrete-time Sliding Mode Observers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冬; 陈息坤

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is the key technique in the power management system for a li-ion power battery. For the inherent nonlinear property of the li-ion power battery, a method of SOC estimation is proposed applied to batteries, and the design of the algorithm for battery SOC estimation based on discrete-time sliding mode observers (DSMO) is given and the stability proof of DSMO is proven. Based on the Thevenin equivalent model, the detailed procedures of this estimation method are exhibited,and the model parameters are identified at different current rate and ambient temperature. The accuracy, the robustness and the time complexity of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the proposed method are analyzed in this comparative study. Experiments show that the arithmetic of the discrete-time sliding mode observers can be used to compute the battery SOC quickly and accurately with the dynamic error of 3%, and that the feasibility of the proposed algorithm is verified.%锂电池的荷电状态(state of charge,SOC)估计是电池管理系统的重要组成部分,针对锂电池非线性的特性,提出了采用离散滑模观测器估计锂电池荷电状态的方法,给出了离散滑模观测器的设计方法及其稳定性证明。基于锂电池的戴维南等效电路模型,给出了该方法的设计过程,在不同的充放电电流倍率和环境温度下,进行了锂电池模型的参数辨识,通过与常用的扩展卡尔曼滤波法相比较,分析了离散滑模观测器对锂电池SOC估计的精度、鲁棒性和算法复杂度等方面的性能。实验结果表明,采用该算法可实现锂电池SOC快速精确地估计,误差可控制在约3%,验证了该方法的可行性。

  19. Multi-turn injection into a heavy-ion synchrotron in the presence of space charge

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    For heavy-ion synchrotrons an efficient Multi-Turn Injection (MTI) from the injector linac is crucial in order to reach the specified currents using the available machine acceptance. The beam loss during the MTI must not exceed the limits determined by machine protection and by the vacuum requirements. Especially for low energy and intermediate charge state ions, the beam loss at the injection septum can cause a degradation of the vacuum and a corresponding reduction of the beam lifetime. In order to optimize the injection of intense beams a very detailed simulation model was developed. Besides the closed orbit bump, lattice errors, the position of the septum and other aperture limiting components the transverse space charge force is included self-consistently. The space charge force causes a characteristic shift of the optimum tunes and a smoothing of the phase space density.

  20. Laser acceleration of electrons to giga-electron-volt energies using highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S X; Starace, Anthony F

    2006-06-01

    The recent proposal to use highly charged ions as sources of electrons for laser acceleration [S. X. Hu and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245003 (2002)] is investigated here in detail by means of three-dimensional, relativistic Monte Carlo simulations for a variety of system parameters, such as laser pulse duration, ionic charge state, and laser focusing spot size. Realistic laser focusing effects--e.g., the existence of longitudinal laser field components-are taken into account. Results of spatial averaging over the laser focus are also presented. These numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme for laser acceleration of electrons from highly charged ions is feasible with current or near-future experimental conditions and that electrons with GeV energies can be obtained in such experiments.

  1. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron beam ion trap with the electron beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce $K\\alpha$ x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted--wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-$Z$ element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  2. Ion Compensation for Space Charge in the Helical Electron Beams of Gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuilov, V. N.; Semenov, V. E.

    2016-06-01

    We solve analytically the problem about ion compensation for the space charge of a helical electron beam in a gyrotron operated in the long-pulse regime. Elementary processes, which take place during ionization of residual gas in the tube under typical pressures of 10-6-10-7 mm Hg, are considered. It is shown that distribution of the space charge is affected mainly by the electrons of the initial beam and slow-moving ions produced by ionization of the residual gas. Steady-state density of ions in the operating space of the gyrotron after the end of the transitional processes is found, as well as the electron density profile in the channel of electron beam transportation. The results obtained allow us to evaluate the pitch-factor variations caused by partial compensations for the potential "sagging" in the gyrotron cavity, thus being useful for analysis of starting currents, efficiency, and mode competition in high-power gyrotrons.

  3. Energy and charge dependence of the rate of electron-ion recombination in cold magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Schuch, R.; Zong, W.; Justiniano, E.; DeWitt, D.R.; Lebius, H.; Spies, W. [Stockholm Univ., Atomic Physics Dept., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-07-28

    We have measured electron-ion recombination rates for bare ions of D{sup +}, He{sup 2+}, N{sup 7+}, Ne{sup 10+} and Si{sup 14+} in a storage ring. For the multi-charged ions an unexpected energy dependence was found, showing a strong increase of the measured rates over the calculated radiative recombination rate for electron beam detuning energies below the electron beam transverse temperature. The measured enhanced rates increase approximately as Z{sup 2.8} with the charge state Z. A comparison of these rates with theoretical predictions for collisional-radiative recombination in the cold magnetized electron plasma, in particular three-body recombination including radiative de-excitation of electrons in Rydberg levels, is made. (author).

  4. Highly charged ions in a dilute plasma: an exact asymptotic solution involving strong coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lowell S; Dooling, David C; Preston, Dean L

    2006-05-01

    The ion sphere model introduced long ago by Salpeter is placed in a rigorous theoretical setting. The leading corrections to this model for very highly charged but dilute ions in thermal equilibrium with a weakly coupled, one-component background plasma are explicitly computed, and the subleading corrections shown to be negligibly small. This is done using the effective field theory methods advocated by Brown and Yaffe. Thus, corrections to nuclear reaction rates that such highly charged ions may undergo can be computed precisely. Moreover, their contribution to the equation of state can also be computed with precision. Such analytic results for very strong coupling are rarely available, and they can serve as benchmarks for testing computer models in this limit.

  5. Support vector based battery state of charge estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Terry; Wang, Chia-Jiu

    This paper investigates the use of a support vector machine (SVM) to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a large-scale lithium-ion-polymer (LiP) battery pack. The SOC of a battery cannot be measured directly and must be estimated from measurable battery parameters such as current and voltage. The coulomb counting SOC estimator has been used in many applications but it has many drawbacks [S. Piller, M. Perrin, Methods for state-of-charge determination and their application, J. Power Sources 96 (2001) 113-120]. The proposed SVM based solution not only removes the drawbacks of the coulomb counting SOC estimator but also produces accurate SOC estimates, using industry standard US06 [V.H. Johnson, A.A. Pesaran, T. Sack, Temperature-dependent battery models for high-power lithium-ion batteries, in: Presented at the 17th Annual Electric Vehicle Symposium Montreal, Canada, October 15-18, 2000. The paper is downloadable at website http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28716.pdf] aggressive driving cycle test procedures. The proposed SOC estimator extracts support vectors from a battery operation history then uses only these support vectors to estimate SOC, resulting in minimal computation load and suitable for real-time embedded system applications.

  6. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  7. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  8. Ion beam induced charge characterisation of a silicon microdosimeter using a heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Iwan; Siegele, Rainer; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    An ion beam induced charge (IBIC) facility has been added to the existing capabilities of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe and the results of the first measurements are presented. Silicon on insulator (SOI) diode arrays with microscopic junction sizes have recently been proposed as microdosimeters for hadron therapy. A 20 MeV carbon beam was used to perform IBIC imaging of a 10 μm thick SOI device.

  9. Charge state distributions and charge exchange cross sections of carbon in helium at 30-258 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxeiner, Sascha; Seiler, Martin; Suter, Martin; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    With the introduction of helium stripping in radiocarbon (14C) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), higher +1 charge state yields in the 200 keV region and fewer beam losses are observed compared to nitrogen or argon stripping. To investigate the feasibility of even lower beam energies for 14C analyses the stripping characteristics of carbon in helium need to be further studied. Using two different AMS systems at ETH Zurich (myCADAS and MICADAS), ion beam transmissions of carbon ions for the charge states -1, +1, +2 and +3 were measured in the range of 258 keV down to 30 keV. The correction for beam losses and the extraction of charge state yields and charge exchange cross sections will be presented. An increase in population of the +1 charge state towards the lowest measured energies up to 75% was found as well as agreement with previous data from literature. The findings suggest that more compact radiocarbon AMS systems are possible and could provide even higher efficiency than current systems operating in the 200 keV range.

  10. Telecloning Quantum States with Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for telecloning quantum states with trapped ions. The scheme is based on a single ion interacting with a single laser pulse. In the protocol, an ion is firstly measured to determine whether the telecloning succeeds or not, and then another ion is detected to complete the whole procedure. The required experimental techniques are within the scope of what can be obtained in the ion-trap setup.

  11. Electronic transitions in highly charged ion-atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Ullrich, J.; Schuch, R.; Olson, R. E.; Dörner, R.

    1989-09-01

    Three different aspects of electronic transitions in fast, highly charged ion-atom collisions are discussed. First, experimental data and n-CTMC calculations for differential multiple ionization cross sections of 1.4 {MeV}/{u} U 32+on rare gas atoms are presented. It is shown that the electronic motion has a dramatic influence on the kinematics of the emitted particles (in particular the nuclei). The possibility is discussed to measure in fast ionizing processes by a recoil ion-projectile coincidence technique the internal sum momentum of "electron clusters" in atoms. This new "technique" opens a new field of atomic structure research at high-energy heavy-ion accelerators. Second, the use of the H-like heavy ions as projectiles is discussed to measure, through observable interference structures, static and dynamic properties of transiently formed superheavy quasimolecular systems. Third, the "ancient" gas target-solid target difference in the impact-parameter dependence of K-shell ionization in nearly symmetric ion-atom collisions is presented. This severe discrepancy between gas and solid still remains an unsolved fundamental problem in the field of inner-shell ionization in the MO regime.

  12. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTORa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-10-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the Dα spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion Dα spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  13. Charge stripping of U238 ion beam by helium gas stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imao, H.; Okuno, H.; Kuboki, H.; Yokouchi, S.; Fukunishi, N.; Kamigaito, O.; Hasebe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kase, M.; Yano, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a nondestructive, efficient electric-charge-stripping method is a key requirement for next-generation high-intensity heavy-ion accelerators such as the RIKEN Radioactive-Isotope Beam Factory. A charge stripper employing a low-Z gas is an important candidate applicable to high-intensity uranium beams for replacing carbon-foil strippers. In this study, a high-beam-transmission charge-stripping system employing helium gas for U238 beams injected at 10.8MeV/u was developed and demonstrated for the first time. The charge-state evolution measured using helium in a thickness range of 0.24-1.83mg/cm2 is compared with theoretical predictions. Energy attenuation and energy spread due to the helium stripper are also investigated.

  14. Laboratory measurements of K-shell transitions in highly charged iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, René; Rudolph, Jan K.; Bernitt, Sven; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.

    2016-09-01

    The x-ray spectra of celestial sources show a plethora of features originating from highly charged ions. These can be used to determine the flow, temperatures, and abundances of elements in the star, which are needed to benchmark-stellar evolution models. However, the underlying atomic transition data of the ions are often only known by theoretical calculations, thus testing them in laboratory measurements is crucial. We present our measurements of energies, natural linewidths, radiative and Auger decay rates for K-shell transitions in He-like to F-like iron ions. In this experiments, an electron beam ion trap was used to create a target of highly charged ions, which were resonantly excited by monochromatic light from the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. Fluorescence was observed while simultaneously detecting photoionization by the change in the ionic charge state. This method, combined with the high resolution of the monochromator used, yields uncertainties on the ppm-level for the excitation energies and below 10% for the linewidths and transition rates, thus providing a valuable benchmark for atomic theory.

  15. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  16. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  17. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    estimate recombination rates and survival probabilities of a charge state. These are calculated and compared for different ion and electron densities. In a further step the external trap potential and the shape of the electron plasma is included. A full analytic approximation (except for the calculation of the energy loss) of the ion movement in the trap is developed. With this model the time dependence of ion distributions is investigated. (orig.)

  18. Fragmentation of amino acids induced by collisions with low-energy highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, D. G.; Maclot, S.; Domaracka, A.; Adoui, L.; Alcamí, M.; Rousseau, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Huber, B. A.; Martín, F.

    2014-04-01

    Fragmentation of amino acids NH2-(CH2)n-COOH (n=1 glycine; n=2 β-alanine and n=3 γ-aminobutyric acid GABA) following collisions with slow highly charged ions has been studied in the gas phase by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. In the experiments, a multi-coincidence detection method was used to deduce the charge state of the molecules before fragmentation. Quantum chemistry calculations have been carried out in the basis of the density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics. The combination of both methodologies is essential to unambiguously unravel the different fragmentation pathways.

  19. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  20. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L., E-mail: sunlt@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  1. Hydrogenlike highly charged ions for tests of the time independence of fundamental constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, S

    2007-05-04

    Hyperfine transitions in the electronic ground state of cold, trapped hydrogenlike highly charged ions have attractive features for use as frequency standards because the majority of systematic frequency shifts are smaller by orders of magnitude compared to many microwave and optical frequency standards. Frequency measurements of these transitions hold promise for significantly improved laboratory tests of local position invariance of the electron and quark masses.

  2. Charge States of Solar Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Acceleration Times and Coronal Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffolo, D

    1997-01-01

    We examine effects on the charge states of energetic ions associated with gradual solar flares due to shock heating and stripping at high ion velocities. Recent measurements of the mean charges of various elements after the flares of 1992 Oct 30 and 1992 Nov 2 allow one to place limits on the product of the electron density times the acceleration or coronal residence time. In particular, any residence in coronal loops must be for < 0.03 s, which rules out models of coronal transport in loops, such as the bird cage model. The results do not contradict models of shock acceleration of energetic ions from coronal plasma at various solar longitudes.

  3. Characterization of charge-exchange collisions between ultracold $\\rm{^6Li}$ atoms and $\\rm{^{40}Ca^+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, R; Sasakawa, M; Nakai, R; Raoult, M; Silva, H Da; Dulieu, O; Mukaiyama, T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the energy dependence and the internal-state dependence of the charge-exchange collision cross sections in a mixture of $^6$Li atoms and $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions in the collision energy range from 0.2 mK to 1 K. Deliberately excited ion micromotion is used to control the collision energy of atoms and ions. The energy dependence of the charge-exchange collision cross section obeys the Langevin model in the temperature range of the current experiment, and the measured magnitude of the cross section is correlated to the internal state of the $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. Revealing the relationship between the charge-exchange collision cross sections and the interaction potentials is an important step toward the realization of the full quantum control of the chemical reactions at an ultralow temperature regime.

  4. Modelling surface restructuring by slow highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, G.; Tőkési, K.; Betz, G.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2013-12-01

    We theoretically investigate surface modifications on alkaline earth halides due to highly charged ion impact, focusing on recent experimental evidence for both etch pit and nano-hillock formation on CaF2 (A.S. El-Said et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, (2012) 117602 [1]). We discuss mechanisms for converting the projectile potential and kinetic energies into thermal energy capable of changing the surface structure. A proof-of-principle classical molecular dynamics simulation suggests the existence of two thresholds which we associate with etch pit and nano-hillock formation in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  5. Modelling surface restructuring by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, G., E-mail: georg.wachter@tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Tőkési, K. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Betz, G. [Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    We theoretically investigate surface modifications on alkaline earth halides due to highly charged ion impact, focusing on recent experimental evidence for both etch pit and nano-hillock formation on CaF{sub 2} (A.S. El-Said et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, (2012) 117602 [1]). We discuss mechanisms for converting the projectile potential and kinetic energies into thermal energy capable of changing the surface structure. A proof-of-principle classical molecular dynamics simulation suggests the existence of two thresholds which we associate with etch pit and nano-hillock formation in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  6. X-ray characterization of surfaces irradiated with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, J.P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Ion Surface Advanced Processes (ISAP) muE., 2 Square Francois Couperin, 92160 Antony (France)], E-mail: jpbriand920@aol.com; Benhachoum, M. [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    Highly charged ions (HCI) approaching, touching or penetrating dielectric surfaces extract many electrons of the solid leading to the formation of permanent surface modifications. The ions which capture the electrons in their outermost shells form hollow atoms which emit X-rays during their decay to the ground state. In this paper one presents experiments showing that these X-rays) allow diagnosing the electric nature of the surfaces. HCI while modifying the structure of surfaces may then also be used to diagnose these changes on line or off line.

  7. Possibility of resonant capture of antiprotons by highly charged hydrogenlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkin, M.; Lindroth, E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, an experimental setup was proposed by Lapierre et al. [ Physics with ultra slow antiproton beams, AIP Conference Proceedings (2005), Vol. 793, p. 361] which would allow antiprotons and highly charged ions to collide repeatedly in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) due to a nested trap configuration. As mentioned by the authors, such a setup may open the possibility to study antiproton capture into well-defined states through a resonant process which involves simultaneous electron excitation. In the present work, we give some theoretical estimations of the feasibility of that process.

  8. Highly confined ions store charge more efficiently in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, C; Péan, C; Rotenberg, B; Madden, P A; Daffos, B; Taberna, P-L; Simon, P; Salanne, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquids exhibit specific properties when they are adsorbed in nanoporous structures. This is particularly true in the context of supercapacitors, for which an anomalous increase in performance has been observed for nanoporous electrodes. This enhancement has been traditionally attributed in experimental studies to the effect of confinement of the ions from the electrolyte inside sub-nanometre pores, which is accompanied by their partial desolvation. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations of realistic supercapacitors and show that this picture is correct at the microscopic scale. We provide a detailed analysis of the various environments experienced by the ions. We pick out four different adsorption types, and we, respectively, label them as edge, planar, hollow and pocket sites upon increase of the coordination of the molecular species by carbon atoms from the electrode. We show that both the desolvation and the local charge stored on the electrode increase with the degree of confinement.

  9. Soft-X-ray spectra of highly charged Os, Bi, Th, and U ions in an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Fournier, K B; Chen, M H

    2004-12-03

    Systematic variation of the electron-beam energy in an electron-beam ion trap has been employed to produce soft-X-ray spectra of Os, Bi, Th, and U with highest charge states ranging up to Ni-like ions. Guided by relativistic atomic structure calculations, the strongest lines have been identified with {Delta}n = 0 (n = 4 to n' = 4) transitions in Rb- to Cu-like ions. The rather weak 4p-4d transitions are much less affected by QED contributions than the dominant 4s-4p transitions. Our wavelength measurements consequently provide benchmarks with and (almost) without QED. Because the radiative corrections are not very sensitive to the number of electrons in the valence shell, our data, moreover, provide benchmarks for the evaluation of electron-electron interactions.

  10. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  11. Determination of the Ionic Charge States of SEPs Using the University of Chicago IMP-8 Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W.

    We use a new method to calculate the mean ionization charge state of solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed with the University of Chicago Cosmic Ray Nuclear Composition experiment on the IMP-8 satellite. The method, using the time to maximum flux, is demonstrated for several gradual SEP events, including the events on 29 September 1989, 19 October 1989, 24 October 1989, and 6 November 1997. Mean ionic charge states are deduced for heavy ions with energies in the range ~10- 500 MeV/nucleon. The ionic charge determination is made only during the onset of the SEP events. These mean charge states agree well with previous measurements for SEP events both at low energy (~0.5-4 MeV/nucleon reported by ISEE-3) and at higher energies (~200-500 MeV/nucleon reported by LDEF). The mean ionic charge states are then used to determine an average temperature and source region for these particles.

  12. Influence of ion size and charge on osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, James; Kim, Daejoong; Maruyama, Shigeo; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2012-04-12

    Osmosis is fundamental to many processes, such as in the function of biological cells and in industrial desalination to obtain clean drinking water. The choice of solute in industrial applications of osmosis is highly important in maximizing efficiency and minimizing costs. The macroscale process of osmosis originates from the nanoscale properties of the solvent, and therefore an understanding of the mechanisms of how these properties determine osmotic strength can be highly useful. For this reason, we have undertaken molecular dynamics simulations to systematically study the influence of ion size and charge on the strength of osmosis of water through carbon nanotube membranes. Our results show that strong osmosis occurs under optimum conditions of ion placement near the region of high water density near the membrane wall and of maintenance of a strong water hydration shell around the ions. The results in turn allow greater insight into the origin of the strong osmotic strength of real ions such as NaCl. Finally, in terms of practical simulation, we highlight the importance of avoiding size effects that can occur if the simulation cell is too small.

  13. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  14. Preparation of cold Mg{sup +}ion clouds for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions at SPECTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazan, Radu Mircea

    2012-02-15

    The bound electrons in hydrogen-like or lithium-like heavy ions experience extremely strong electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding of the nucleus. Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in the lead region provides a sensitive tool to test strong-field quantum electro dynamics (QED), especially in the magnetic sector. Previous measurements on hydrogen-like systems performed in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) or at the experimental storage ring (ESR) were experimentally limited in accuracy due to statistics, the large Doppler broadening and the ion energy. The full potential of the QED test can only be exploited if measurements for hydrogen- and lithium-like ions are performed with accuracy improved by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Therefore, the new Penning trap setup SPECTRAP - dedicated for laser spectroscopy on trapped and cooled highly charged ions - is currently commissioned at GSI Darmstadt. Heavy highly charged ions will be delivered to this trap by the HITRAP facility in the future. SPECTRAP is a cylindrical Penning trap with axial access for external ion injection and radial optical access mounted inside a cold-bore superconducting Helmholtz-type split-coil magnet. To reach the targeted accuracy in laser spectroscopy, an efficient and fast cooling process for the highly charged ions must be employed. This can be realized by sympathetic cooling with a cloud of laser-cooled light ions. Within this thesis work, a laser system and an ion source for the production of such a {sup 24}Mg{sup +} ion cloud was developed and commissioned at SPECTRAP. An all-solid-state laser system for the generation of 279.6 nm light was designed and built. It consists of a fiber laser at 1118.5 nm followed by frequency quadrupling using two successive second-harmonic generation stages with actively stabilized ring resonators and nonlinear crystals. The laser system can deliver more than 15 mW of UV laser power under optimal conditions and requires little

  15. Local solid-state modification of nanopore surface charges

    CERN Document Server

    Kox, Ronald; Chen, Chang; Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; 10.1088/0957-4484/21/33/335703

    2012-01-01

    The last decade, nanopores have emerged as a new and interesting tool for the study of biological macromolecules like proteins and DNA. While biological pores, especially alpha-hemolysin, have been promising for the detection of DNA, their poor chemical stability limits their use. For this reason, researchers are trying to mimic their behaviour using more stable, solid-state nanopores. The most successful tools to fabricate such nanopores use high energy electron or ions beams to drill or reshape holes in very thin membranes. While the resolution of these methods can be very good, they require tools that are not commonly available and tend to damage and charge the nanopore surface. In this work, we show nanopores that have been fabricated using standard micromachning techniques together with EBID, and present a simple model that is used to estimate the surface charge. The results show that EBID with a silicon oxide precursor can be used to tune the nanopore surface and that the surface charge is stable over a...

  16. Atomic data for neutron-capture elements III. Charge transfer rate coefficients for low-charge ions of Ge, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, and Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C

    2011-01-01

    We present total and final-state resolved charge transfer (CT) rate coefficients for low-charge Ge, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, and Xe ions reacting with neutral hydrogen over the temperature range 10^2--10^6 K. Each of these elements has been detected in ionized astrophysical nebulae, particularly planetary nebulae. CT rate coefficients are a key ingredient for the ionization equilibrium solutions needed to determine total elemental abundances from those of the observed ions. A multi-channel Landau Zener approach was used to compute rate coefficients for projectile ions with charges q=2-5, and for singly-charged ions the Demkov approximation was utilized. Our results for five-times ionized species are lower limits, due to the incompleteness of level energies in the NIST database. In addition, we computed rate coefficients for charge transfer ionization reactions between the neutral species of the above six elements and ionized hydrogen. The resulting total and state-resolved CT rate coefficients are tabulated and availa...

  17. Effect of minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (B sub m sub i sub n) on production of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (RAMSES)

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, H; Lee, S M; Higurashi, Y; Nakagawa, T; Kidera, M; Kageyama, T; Kase, M; Yano, Y; Aihara, T

    2002-01-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions (O, Ar and Kr ions) as a function of the minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (B sub m sub i sub n) of the RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source. In this experiment, we found that the optimum value of B sub m sub i sub n exists to maximize the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and the value was almost the same (approx 0.49 T) for various charge state heavy ions.

  18. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions on Al oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, R E; Pomeroy, J M; Sosolik, C E

    2010-03-03

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) carry a large amount of potential energy that can be dissipated within femtoseconds upon interaction with a surface. HCI-insulator collisions result in high sputter yields and surface nanofeature creation due to strong coupling between the solid's electronic system and lattice. For HCIs interacting with Al oxide, combined experiments and theory indicate that defect mediated desorption can explain reasonably well preferential O atom removal and an observed threshold for sputtering due to potential energy. These studies have relied on measuring mass loss on the target substrate or probing craters left after desorption. Our approach is to extract highly charged ions onto the Al oxide barriers of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions and measure the increased conductance in a finished device after the irradiated interface is buried under the top metal layer. Such transport measurements constrain dynamic surface processes and provide large sets of statistics concerning the way individual HCI projectiles dissipate their potential energy. Results for Xe(q +) for q = 32, 40, 44 extracted onto Al oxide films are discussed in terms of postirradiation electrical device characteristics. Future work will elucidate the relationship between potential energy dissipation and tunneling phenomena through HCI modified oxides.

  19. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, A. A., E-mail: abidaliabid1@hotmail.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Z., E-mail: mzk-qau@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yap, S. L. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Terças, H., E-mail: hugo.tercas@tecnico.ul.pt [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Mahmood, S. [Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A2 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q{sub d} = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U{sub 0}) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0.

  20. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  1. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  2. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  3. Charge states and lattice sites of dilute implanted Sn in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølholt, T. E.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Mantovan, R.; Röder, J.; Adoons, V.; Mokhles Gerami, A.; Masenda, H.; Matveyev, Y. A.; Ncube, M.; Unzueta, I.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Gislason, H. P.; Krastev, P.; Langouche, G.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, S.; Zenkevich, A.; ISOLDE Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    The common charge states of Sn are 2+  and 4+. While charge neutrality considerations favour 2+  to be the natural charge state of Sn in ZnO, there are several reports suggesting the 4+  state instead. In order to investigate the charge states, lattice sites, and the effect of the ion implantation process of dilute Sn atoms in ZnO, we have performed 119Sn emission Mössbauer spectroscopy on ZnO single crystal samples following ion implantation of radioactive 119In (T ½  =  2.4 min) at temperatures between 96 K and 762 K. Complementary perturbed angular correlation measurements on 111mCd implanted ZnO were also conducted. Our results show that the 2+  state is the natural charge state for Sn in defect free ZnO and that the 4+  charge state is stabilized by acceptor defects created in the implantation process.

  4. The interactions of high-energy, highly-charged ions with fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1985, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered a new form of carbon, the fullerene, C{sub 60}, which consists of 60 carbon atoms in a closed cage resembling a soccer ball. In 1990, Kritschmer et al. were able to make macroscopic quantities of fullerenes. This has generated intense activity to study the properties of fullerenes. One area of research involves collisions between fullerenes and atoms, ions or electrons. In this paper we describe experiments involving interactions between fullerenes and highly charged ions in which the center-of-mass energies exceed those used in other work by several orders of magnitude. The high values of projectile velocity and charge state result in excitation and decay processes differing significantly from those seen in studies 3 at lower energies. Our results are discussed in terms of theoretical models analogous to those used in nuclear physics and this provides an interesting demonstration of the unity of physics.

  5. Additional considerations about the role of ion size in charge reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Molina, A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R [Grupo de Fisica de Fluidos y Biocoloides, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Quesada-Perez, M, E-mail: almartin@ugr.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Linares, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-10-21

    The effect of the ion size on the charge reversal process is studied via canonical Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a primitive model of electrolyte is used to analyze the electric double layer formed by an asymmetric electrolyte in the presence of a charged planar wall. Different values of ion diameters and surface charge densities are used so as to determine the conditions at which the charge reversal first occurs. For each case, the apparent surface charge density is calculated as a function of the distance from the charged wall for the different electrolyte concentrations in order to establish the minimal salt concentration required for the charge reversal. We will refer to this electrolyte concentration as the reversal concentration and will show how it depends on the surface charge density and on the ion size. From the apparent surface charge density profiles, the distance from the wall at which the charge reversal arises as well as its intensity can be also inferred.

  6. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  7. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M.A., E-mail: dorf1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Zorin, V.G.; Sidorov, A.V.; Bokhanov, A.F.; Izotov, I.V.; Razin, S.V.; Skalyga, V.A. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-01

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available; however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (∼100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (∼10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) with a relatively low electron temperature (∼50–100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (∼1 A/cm{sup 2}) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP.

  8. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zorin, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Sidorov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Bokhanov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Izotov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Razin, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Skalyga, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  9. Vacuum polarization screening corrections to the ground state energy of two-electron ions

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A N; Yerokhin, V A

    1997-01-01

    Vacuum polarization screening corrections to the ground state energy of two-electron ions are calculated in the range $Z=20-100$. The calculations are carried out for a finite nucleus charge distribution.

  10. Design of a two-ion-source (2-IS) beam transport line for the production of multi charged radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, V; Bandyopadhyay, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Polley, A; Nakagawa, T; Kamigaito, O; Goto, A; Yano, Y

    2000-01-01

    A 'two-ion-source' beam transport line between a surface ionization source and a 6.4 GHz on-line Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) for the production of multi-charged radioactive ions has been designed. The 1 sup + ions from the surface ionization source are decelerated and focused onto the ECRIS plasma so that they can be efficiently trapped there and further ionized to charge state q>1 sup +. A scheme for stepwise and gradual deceleration of the 1 sup + ion beam consisting of a multi-electrode decelerator and a tuning electrode placed before the ECRIS has been optimized. The beam dynamics calculations show that the 1 sup + beam decelerated to energies of 20-50 eV could be focused to a spot size smaller than the radial dimensions of the ECR plasma zone.

  11. Charge States of Solar Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Acceleration Times and Transport within the Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, David

    1997-04-01

    We examine effects on the charge states of solar cosmic ray ions due to shock heating or stripping at suprathermal ion velocities. Recent measurements of the mean charges of various elements after the gradual solar flares of 1992 Oct 30 and 1992 Nov 2 allow one to place limits on the product of the electron density times the acceleration or coronal residence time experienced by the escaping ions. In particular, any residence in coronal loops must be for bird cage model) in which escaping ions travel to distant solar longitudes within coronal loops. The results do not contradict models of distributed shock acceleration of energetic ions from coronal plasma at various solar longitudes, followed by prompt injection into the interplanetary medium.

  12. Effects of Charge in Heavy Ions on Solitary Kinetic Alfvén Waves in Double-Ion Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; WU De-Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ After the charge of heavy ions is considered, a Sagdeev equation is obtained for the solitary kinetic Alfvén waves (SKAWs) in a low-β(me/mp<<β<<1 or mp/me>>α>>1), three-component (electrons, protons, and highly charged heavy ions) plasma. Numerical results show that the charge number q of heavy ions can cause the width of the solitary structure to decrease, but increase for the maximum of electron density nem≤1.2 and the initial abundance of heavy ions Cb0 ≤ 0.1. The parallel phase speed of the waves increases with larger q.

  13. Virtual charge state separator as an advanced tool coupling measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaramyshev, S.; Vormann, H.; Adonin, A.; Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Gerhard, P.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Maier, M.; Mickat, S.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.

    2015-05-01

    A new low energy beam transport for a multicharge uranium beam will be built at the GSI High Current Injector (HSI). All uranium charge states coming from the new ion source will be injected into GSI heavy ion high current HSI Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), but only the design ions U4 + will be accelerated to the final RFQ energy. A detailed knowledge about injected beam current and emittance for pure design U4 + ions is necessary for a proper beam line design commissioning and operation, while measurements are possible only for a full beam including all charge states. Detailed measurements of the beam current and emittance are performed behind the first quadrupole triplet of the beam line. A dedicated algorithm, based on a combination of measurements and the results of advanced beam dynamics simulations, provides for an extraction of beam current and emittance values for only the U4 + component of the beam. The proposed methods and obtained results are presented.

  14. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  15. Multi-reference configuration-interaction calculations on multiply charged ions of carbon monosulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Bing; Zhang Yu-Juan

    2013-01-01

    The potential energy curves for neutrals and multiply charged ions of carbon monosulfide are computed with highly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction wavefunctions.The correlations of inner-shell electrons with the scalar relativistic effects are included in the present computations.The spectroscopic constants,dissociation energies,ionization energies for ground and low-lying excited states together with corresponding electronic configurations of ions are obtained,and a good agreement between the present work and existing experiments is found.No theoretical evidence is found for the adiabatically stable CSq+ (q > 2) ions according to the present ab initio calculations.The calculated values for lst-6th ionization energies are 11.25,32.66,64.82,106.25,159.75,and 224.64 eV,respectively.The kinetic energy release data of fragments are provided by the present work for further experimental comparisons.

  16. Ion-induced nucleation of dibutyl phthalate vapors on spherical and nonspherical singly and multiply charged polyethylene glycol ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasibulin, Albert G; de la Mora, Juan Fernandez; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2008-02-14

    Dibutyl phthalate vapor nucleation induced by positive polyethylene glycol (PEG) ions with controlled sizes and charges was experimentally studied. The ions were produced by electrospray ionization, classified in a high-resolution differential mobility analyzer, and studied in a nano condensation nucleus counter of the mixing type. Ionic radii of PEG varied from 0.52 to 1.56 nm, including from singly to quadruply charged ions. Some of these ions are fully stretched chains, other are spherical, and others have intermediate forms, all of them having been previously characterized by mobility and mass spectrometry studies. Activation of PEG1080(+2) requires a supersaturation almost as high as that required for small singly charged ions and higher than for PEG1080(+). This anomaly is explained by the Coulombic stretching of the ion into a long chain, where the two charged centers appear to be relatively decoupled from each other. The critical supersaturation for singly charged spherical ions falls below Thomson's (capillary) theory and even below the already low values seen previously for tetraheptyl ammonium bromide clusters. Spherical PEG4120(+2) falls close to the Thomson curve. The trends observed for slightly nonspherical PEG4120(+3) and highly nonspherical (but not quite linear) PEG4120(+4) are intermediate between those of multiply charged spheres and small singly charged ions.

  17. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  18. Intrinsic slow charge response in the perovskite solar cells: Electron and ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Huiyin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo, E-mail: qbmeng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-10-19

    The intrinsic charge response and hysteresis characteristic in the perovskite solar cell has been investigated by an electrically modulated transient photocurrent technology. An ultraslow charge response process in the timescale of seconds is observed, which can be well explained by the ion migration in the perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film driven by multiple electric fields derived from the heterojunction depletion charge, the external modulation, and the accumulated ion charge. Furthermore, theoretical calculation of charge transport reveals that the hysteresis behavior is also significantly influenced by the interfacial charge extraction velocity and the carrier transport properties inside the cell.

  19. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andelkovic, Z., E-mail: z.andelkovic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, S. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany); Steinmann, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency.

  20. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France)

    2012-11-15

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

  1. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2004-05-28

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data.

  2. Spontaneous Mass and Charge Losses from Single Multi-Megadalton Ions Studied by Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, David Z.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous mass and charge losses from individual multi-megadalton ions have been observed with charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) by trapping single hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids for 3 s. Gradual increases in the oscillation frequency of single ions in the ion trap are attributed mainly to mass loss (probably solvent, water, and/or salt). The total mass lost during the 3 s trapping period peaks at around 20 kDa for 4 MDa HBV T = 4 capsids. Discrete frequency drops punctuate the gradual increases in the oscillation frequencies. The drops are attributed to a sudden loss of charge. In most cases a single positive charge is lost along with some mass (on average around 1000 Da). Charge loss occurs for over 40% of the trapped ions. It usually occurs near the beginning of the trapping event, and it occurs preferentially in regions of the trap with strong electric fields, indicating that external electric fields promote charge loss. This process may contribute to the decrease in m/z resolution that often occurs with megadalton ions.

  3. Charge-transfer energy in closed-shell ion-atom interactions. [for H and Li ions in He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rizzatti, M.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of charge-transfer energy in the interactions between closed-shell ions and atoms is investigated. Ab initio calculations on H(plus)-He and Li(plus)-He are used as a guide for the construction of approximate methods for the estimation of the charge-transfer energy for more complicated systems. For many alkali ion-rate gas systems the charge-transfer energy is comparable to the induction energy in the region of the potential minimum, although for doubly charged alkaline-earth ions in rare gases the induction energy always dominates. Surprisingly, an empirical combination of repulsion energy plus asymptotic induction energy plus asymptotic dispersion energy seems to give a fair representation of the total interaction, especially if the repulsion energy is parameterized, despite the omission of any explicit charge-transfer contribution. More refined interaction models should consider the charge-transfer energy contribution.

  4. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  5. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Simon, V V; Brodeur, M; Chaudhuri, A; Mané, E; Andreoiu, C; Audi, G; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Lapierre, A; Lunney, D; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Ullrich, J; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly-charged ions (HCI), using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly-charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb-isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q = 8 - 12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly-charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivalled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {\\beta} emitter 74Rb (T1/2 = 65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC-value are presented.

  6. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  7. Solar Energetic Particle drifts and the energy dependence of 1 AU charge states

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla, S; Battarbee, M

    2016-01-01

    The event-averaged charge state of heavy ion Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), measured at 1 AU from the Sun, typically increases with the ions' kinetic energy. The origin of this behaviour has been ascribed to processes taking place within the acceleration region. In this paper we study the propagation through interplanetary space of SEP Fe ions, injected near the Sun with a variety of charge states that are uniformly distributed in energy, by means of a 3D test particle model. In our simulations, due to gradient and curvature drifts associated with the Parker spiral magnetic field, ions of different charge propagate with very different efficiencies to an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region. As a result we find that, for many observer locations, the 1 AU event-averaged charge state , as obtained from our model, displays an increase with particle energy E, in qualitative agreement with spacecraft observations. We conclude that drift-associated propagation is a possible explan...

  8. Kinetic theory and atomic physics corrections for determination of ion velocities from charge-exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Chrystal, C.

    2013-09-01

    Charge-exchange spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for determining ion temperatures, densities and rotational velocities in tokamak plasmas. This technique depends on detailed understanding of the atomic physics processes that affect the measured apparent velocities with respect to the true ion rotational velocities. These atomic effects are mainly due to energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-sections, and in the case of poloidal velocities, due to gyro-motion of the ion during the finite lifetime of the excited states. Accurate lifetimes are necessary for correct interpretation of measured poloidal velocities, specially for high density plasma regimes on machines such as ITER, where l-mixing effects must be taken into account. In this work, a full nl-resolved atomic collisional radiative model coupled with a full kinetic calculation that includes the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the ion gyro-motion is presented for the first time. The model directly calculates from atomic physics first principles the excited state lifetimes that are necessary to evaluate the gyro-orbit effects. It is shown that even for low density plasmas where l-mixing effects are unimportant and coronal conditions can be assumed, the nl-resolved model is necessary for an accurate description of the gyro-motion effects to determine poloidal velocities. This solution shows good agreement when compared to three QH-mode shots on DIII-D, which contain a wide range of toroidal velocities and high ion temperatures where greater atomic corrections are needed. The velocities obtained from the model are compared to experimental velocities determined from co- and counter-injection of neutral beams on DIII-D.

  9. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  10. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  11. Producing highly charged ions without solvent using laserspray ionization: a total solvent-free analysis approach at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B; Inutan, Ellen D; Leach, Samantha M; Trimpin, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    First examples of highly charged ions in mass spectrometry (MS) produced from the solid state without using solvent during either sample preparation or mass measurement are reported. Matrix material, matrix/analyte homogenization time and frequency, atmospheric pressure (AP) to vacuum inlet temperature, and mass analyzer ion trap conditions are factors that influence the abundance of the highly charged ions created by laserspray ionization (LSI). LSI, like matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), uses laser ablation of a matrix/analyte mixture from a surface to produce ions. Preparing the matrix/analyte sample without the use of solvent provides the ability to perform total solvent-free analysis (TSA) consisting of solvent-free ionization and solvent-free gas-phase separation using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) MS. Peptides and small proteins such as non-β-amyloid components of Alzheimer's disease and bovine insulin are examples in which LSI and TSA were combined to produce multiply charged ions, similar to electrospray ionization, but without the use of solvent. Advantages using solvent-free LSI and IMS-MS include simplicity, rapid data acquisition, reduction of sample complexity, and the potential for an enhanced effective dynamic range. This is achieved by more inclusive ionization and improved separation of mixture components as a result of multiple charging.

  12. Study on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The charging method of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs significantly affects its commercial application. This paper aims to make three contributions to the existing literature. (1 In order to achieve an efficient charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries with shorter charging time and lower charring loss, the trade-off problem between charging loss and charging time has been analyzed in details through the dynamic programing (DP optimization algorithm; (2 To reduce the computation time consumed during the optimization process, we have proposed a database based optimization approach. After off-line calculation, the simulation results can be applied to on-line charge; (3 The novel database-based DP method is proposed and the simulation results illustrate that this method can effectively find the suboptimal charging strategies under a certain balance between the charging loss and charging time.

  13. Contribution of material’s surface layer on charge state distribution in laser ablation plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaki, Masafumi, E-mail: rogus@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Steski, Dannie; Kanesue, Takeshi [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ikeda, Shunsuke [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To generate laser ablation plasma, a pulse laser is focused onto a solid target making a crater on the surface. However, not all the evaporated material is efficiently converted to hot plasma. Some portion of the evaporated material could be turned to low temperature plasma or just vapor. To investigate the mechanism, we prepared an aluminum target coated by thin carbon layers. Then, we measured the ablation plasma properties with different carbon thicknesses on the aluminum plate. The results showed that C{sup 6+} ions were generated only from the surface layer. The deep layers (over 250 nm from the surface) did not provide high charge state ions. On the other hand, low charge state ions were mainly produced by the deeper layers of the target. Atoms deeper than 1000 nm did not contribute to the ablation plasma formation.

  14. Suprathermal Electrons in the Solar Corona: Can Nonlocal Transport Explain Heliospheric Charge States?

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfven waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturb...

  15. New supercharging reagents produce highly charged protein ions in native mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Catherine C; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R

    2015-11-07

    The effectiveness of two new supercharging reagents for producing highly charged ions by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and reactivities were investigated. In aqueous solution, 2-thiophenone and 4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (HD) at a concentration of 2% by volume can increase the average charge of cytochrome c and myoglobin by up to 163%, resulting in even higher charge states than those that are produced from water/methanol/acid solutions in which these proteins are denatured. The greatest extent of supercharging occurs in pure water, but these supercharging reagents are also highly effective in aqueous solutions containing 200 mM ammonium acetate buffer commonly used in native mass spectrometry (MS). These reagents are less effective supercharging reagents than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate (PC) when ions are formed from water/methanol/acid. The extent to which loss of the heme group from myoglobin occurs is related to the extent of supercharging. Results from guanidine melts of cytochrome c monitored with tryptophan fluorescence show that the supercharging reagents PC, sulfolane and HD are effective chemical denaturants in solution. These results provide additional evidence for the role of protein structural changes in the electrospray droplet as the primary mechanism for supercharging with these reagents in native MS. These results also demonstrate that for at least some proteins, the formation of highly charged ions from native MS is no longer a significant barrier for obtaining structural information using conventional tandem MS methods.

  16. Controlling the quantum state of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, C

    2000-01-01

    brace quadrupole transition enables the transfer of the ion's motional state into the ground state with up to 99.9 % probability. Different aspects of the cooling process are investigated. In particular, a measurement of the length of time that the ion spends on average in the final state after switching off the cooling lasers (heating time) is made. In contrast to prior experiments, this time is found to be orders of magnitude longer than the time required to manipulate the ion's quantum state. By coherently exciting the ion after preparing it in Fock states of motion, the coherence time is probed and found to be on the order of a millisecond, thus allowing the realization of a few quantum gates. Coherence-limiting processes have been investigated, as well as first steps towards extending the experiments to the case of two trapped ions. In addition to the experiments mentioned above, the possibility of performing cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions is explored. How to efficiently couple the quadrupole t...

  17. Relativistic coupled-cluster calculations of transition properties in highly charged inert-gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out an extensive investigation of various spectroscopic properties of highly charged inert-gas ions using a relativistic coupled-cluster method through a one-electron detachment procedure. In particular, we have calculated the atomic states 2 s22 p53/2 2P, 2 s22 p51/2 2P, and 2 s 2 p61/2 2S in F-like inert-gas ions; 3 s23 p53/2 2P, 3 s23 p51/2 2P, and 3 s 3 p61/2 2S states in Cl-like Kr, Xe, and Rn; and 4 s24 p53/2 2P, 4 s24 p51/2 2P, and 4 s 4 p61/2 2S states in Br-like Xe and Rn. Starting from a single-reference Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function, we construct our exact atomic states by including the dynamic correlation effects in an all-order perturbative fashion. Employing this method, we estimate the ionization potential energies of three low-lying orbitals present in their respective closed-shell configurations. Since the considered highly charged inert-gas ions exhibit huge relativistic effects, we have taken into account the corrections due to Breit interaction as well as from the dominant quantum electrodynamic correction such as vacuum polarization and self-energy effects in these systems. Using our calculated relativistic atomic wave functions and energies, we accurately determine various transition properties such as wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and lifetimes of the excited states.

  18. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E.; Sorokin, M.; Facsko, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV 129Xe(33-40)+ and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I9+ and 374 MeV-2.2 GeV 197Au25+. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  19. The axial charges of the hidden-charm pentaquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guang-Juan; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    With the chiral quark model, we have calculated the axial charges of the pentaquark states with $(I,I_3)=(\\frac{1}{2},\\frac{1}{2})$ and $J^{P}=\\frac{1}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$. The $P_c$ states with the same $J^P$ quantum numbers but different color-spin-flavor configurations have very different axial charges, which encode important information on their underlying structures. For some of the $J^{P}=\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm}$ or $\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$ pentaquark states, their axial charges are much smaller than that of the proton.

  20. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds (a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  1. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  2. Surface charging and x-ray emission from insulator surfaces induced by collisions with highly charged ions : relevance to cometary and planetary sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristic X-ray emission lines are detected from simulants of comet surfaces as they undergo collisions with highly charged ions (HCIs). The HCI projectiles are O+2-O+7. Ion energies are varied in the range (2-7)q keV, where q is the ion charge state. The targets are the insulator minerals olivine, augite, and quartz. It is found that the emission of characteristic K-L, K-M X-rays appears to proceed during positive charging of the surface by the HCI beam. When one uses low-energy, flood-gun electrons to neutralize the surface charge, the X-ray emission is eliminated or greatly reduced, depending on the flood-gun current. Acceleration of background electrons onto the charged surface results in excitation of elemental transitions, including the K-L2 and K-L3 target X-ray emission lines of Mg and Si located spectroscopically at 1253.6 and 1739.4 eV, respectively. Also observed are emission lines from O, Na, Ca, Al, and Fe atoms in the target and charge-exchange lines via surface extraction of electrons by the O+q electric field. Good agreement is found in the ratio of the measured X-ray yields for Mg and Si relative to the ratio of their electron-impact K-shell ionization cross sections. The present study may serve as a guide to astronomers as to specific observing X-ray energies indicative of solar/stellar wind or magnetospheric ion interactions with a comet, planetary surface, or circumstellar dust.

  3. Space-charge-dominated mass spectrometry ion sources: Modeling and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman, M; Sunner, J; Vogel, C R

    1991-01-01

    The factors determining the sensitivity of space-charge-dominated (SCD) unipolar ion sources, such as electrospray (ESP) and corona atmospheric pressure ionization (API) have been studied theoretically. The most important parameters are the ion density and ion drift time in the vicinity of the sampling orifice. These are obtained by solving a system of differential equations, "the space-charge problem." For some simple geometries, analytical solutions are known. For a more realistic "needle-in-can" geometry, a solution to the space-charge problem was obtained using a finite-element method. The results illustrate some general characteristics of SCD ion sources. It is shown that for typical operating conditions the minimum voltage required to overcome the space-charge effect in corona API or ESP ion sources constitutes a dominant or significant fraction of total applied voltage. Further, the electric field and the ion density in the region of the ion-sampling orifice as well as the ion residence time in the source are determined mainly by the space charge. Finally, absolute sensitivities of corona API ion sources were calculated by using a geometry-independent treatment of space charge.

  4. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W.

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36 000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H+, 40Ar8+, 129Xe30+, 209Bi33+, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  5. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36 000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H{sup +}, {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}, {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+}, {sup 209}Bi{sup 33+}, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  6. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  7. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    2003-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  8. Recent Excitation, Charge Exchange, and Lifetime Results in Highly Charged Ions Relevant to Stellar, Interstellar, Solar and Comet Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Hossain, S.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Smith, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent JPL absolute excitation and charge exchange cross sections, and measurements of lifetimes of metastable levels in highly-charged ions (HCIs) are reported. These data provide benchmark comparisons to results of theoretical calculations. Theoretical approaches can then be used to calculate the vast array of data which cannot be measured due to experimental constraints. Applications to the X-ray emission from comets are given.

  9. Explosion and final state of the charged black hole bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Montero, Pedro J; Font, José A; Herdeiro, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (BH) is superradiantly unstable against spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field, enclosed in a cavity, with frequency lower than a critical value. We use numerical relativity techniques to follow the development of this unstable system -- dubbed charged BH bomb -- into the non-linear regime, solving the full Einstein--Maxwell--Klein-Gordon equations, in spherical symmetry. We show that: $i)$ the process stops before all the charge is extracted from the BH; $ii)$ the system settles down into a hairy BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. For low scalar field charge, $q$, the final state is approached smoothly and monotonically. For large $q$, however, the energy extraction overshoots and an explosive phenomenon, akin to a $bosenova$, pushes some energy back into the BH. The charge extraction, by contrast, does not reverse.

  10. Modulation and interactions of charged biomimetic membranes with bivalent ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi Badiambile, Adolphe

    biomolecules in a dynamic environment and the lack of appropriate physical and biochemical tools. In contrast, biomimetic membrane models that rely on the amphiphilic properties of phospholipids are powerful tools that enable the study of these molecules in vitro. By having control over the different experimental parameters such as temperature and pH, reliable and repeatable experimental conditions can be created. One of the key questions I investigated in this thesis is related to the clustering mechanism of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 into pools or aggregates that enable independent cellular control of this species by geometric separation. The lateral aggregation of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 and its underlying physical causes is still a matter of debate. In the first part of this thesis I introduce the general information on lipid membranes with a special focus on the PtdIns family and their associated signaling events. In addition, I explain the Langmuir-Blodgett film balance (LB) system as tool to study lipid membranes and lipid interactions. In the second chapter, I describe my work on the lateral compressibility of PtdIns(4, 5)P2, PtdIns and DOPG monolayers and its modulation by bivalent ions using Langmuir monolayers. In addition, a theoretical framework of compressibility that depends on a surface potential induced by a planar layer of charged molecules and ions in the bulk was provided. In the third part, I present my work on the excess Gibbs free energy of the lipid systems PtdIns(4, 5)P2 --POPC, PtdIns(4, 5)P2, and POPC as they are modulated by bivalent ions. In the fourth part, I report on my foray in engineering a light-based system that relies on different dye properties to simulate calcium induced calcium release (CICR) that occurs in many cell types. In the final chapter, I provide a general conclusion and present directions for future research that would build on my findings.

  11. Spectroscopy of few-electron highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbutt, M R

    2000-01-01

    attainable precision is as high as 0.2%. New techniques for measuring QED effects in the ground states of the hydrogen-like ions are proposed, which avoid the need for absolute x-ray calibration. Using the fast-beam laser resonance technique the 1s2p sup 3 P sub 0 - sup 3 P sub 1 fine-structure interval in helium-like Mg sup 1 sup 0 sup + has been measured, with the result nu-tilde sub 0 sub 1 = 833.133 (14) cm sup - sup 1. This measurement is a very sensitive test of the higher-order relativistic and QED terms of the theory for the fine-structure in helium and the light helium-like ions. This theory will be used to obtain a new value for the fine structure constant by comparing its results with precision measurements of the n = 2 fine structure in helium. Although there is a large discrepancy between the present measurement and the current theoretical value for this interval, the discrepancy lies within the estimated size of the unevaluated terms in the theory. A preliminary measurement of the 2s Lamb shift ...

  12. Cluster-assisted generation of multi-charged ions in nanosecond laser ionization of pulsed hydrogen sulfide beam at 1064 and 532 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Dong-Mei; Li Hai-Yang; Luo Xiao-Lin; Liang Feng; Cheng Shuang; Li An-Lin

    2006-01-01

    The multi-charged sulfur ions of Sq+ (q ≤ 6) have been generated when hydrogen sulfide cluster beams are irradiated by a nanosecond laser of 1064 and 532 nm with an intensity of 1010 ~ 1012W·cm-2. S6+ is the dominant multicharged species at 1064 nm, while S4+, S3+ and S2+ ions are the main multi-charged species at 532 nm. A three-step model (i.e., multiphoton ionization triggering, inverse bremsstrahlung heating, electron collision ionizing) is proposed to explain the generation of these multi-charged ions at the laser intensity stated above. The high ionization level of the clusters and the increasing charge state of the ion products with increasing laser wavelength are supposed mainly due to the rate-limiting step, i.e., electron heating by absorption energy from the laser field via inverse bremsstrahlung, which is proportional to λ2, λ being the laser wavelength.

  13. Measurement of short lifetimes in highly-charged ions using a two-foil target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.; Gemmell, D.S. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of the frontiers in the study of the atomic physics of highly-charged ions is the measurement of lifetimes in the 100 fs to 10 ps regime. The standard technique for measuring lifetimes of states in highly-charged ions is the beam-foil time-of-flight method in which the intensity of an emission line is monitored as a function of the separation between the exciting foil and the portion of the beam being viewed by the detector. This method becomes increasingly difficult as the decay lengths of the states of interest become shorter. At a typical beam velocity of 10% of the speed of light, the beam travels 30 microns in a picosecond. The standard beam-foil time-of-flight method necessitates observation of the decay radiation within one or two decay lengths from the foil while preventing the detectors from observing the beam spot at the foil. For short-lived states this requires tight collimation of the detector with a resulting loss in solid angle. We are developing a method for measuring ultrashort atomic lifetimes utilizing a two-foil target. As a specific case to demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we are studying the decay of the 2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} level in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. This level has a calculated lifetime of 9.5 ps which corresponds to a decay length of 380 {mu}m. For krypton, theory predicts that 90% of the 2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} states decay via M2 radiation to the ground state. A measurement of the lifetime of this state would contribute to an important current problem which concerns the understanding of atomic structure when both electron correlations and relativistic effects are simultaneously important.

  14. Solar Energetic Particle Drifts and the Energy Dependence of 1 AU Charge States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.; Battarbee, M.

    2017-01-01

    The event-averaged charge state of heavy ion solar energetic particles (SEPs), measured at 1 au from the Sun, typically increases with the ions’ kinetic energy. The origin of this behavior has been ascribed to processes taking place within the acceleration region. In this paper we study the propagation through interplanetary space of SEP Fe ions, injected near the Sun with a variety of charge states that are uniformly distributed in energy, by means of a 3D test particle model. In our simulations, due to gradient and curvature drifts associated with the Parker spiral magnetic field, ions of different charge propagate with very different efficiencies to an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region. As a result we find that, for many observer locations, the 1 au event-averaged charge state , as obtained from our model, displays an increase with particle energy E, in qualitative agreement with spacecraft observations. We conclude that drift-associated propagation is a possible explanation for the observed distribution of versus E in SEP events, and that the distribution measured in interplanetary space cannot be taken to represent that at injection.

  15. Highly charged ion research at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-01-04

    Spectroscopy performed with the three Livermore electron beam ion traps is reviewed, which is continuing and complementing the innumerable contributions to atomic physics provided over the years by heavy-ion accelerators. Numerous spectrometers were developed that cover the spectral bands from the visible to the hard x ray region. These enabled exhaustive line surveys useful for x-ray astrophysics and for systematic studies along iso-electronic sequences, such as the 4s-4p, 3s-3p, and 2s-2p transitions in ions of the Cu-I, Na-I, and Li-I sequences useful for studying QED and correlation effects as well as for precise determinations of atomic-nuclear interactions. They also enabled measurements of radiative transition probabilities of very long-lived (milli- and microseconds) and very short-live (femtosecond) levels. Because line excitation processes can be controlled by choice of the electron beam energy, the observed line intensities are used to infer cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, resonance excitation, and innershell ionization. These capabilities have recently been expanded to simulate x-ray emission from comets by charge exchange. Specific contributions to basic atomic physics, nuclear physics, and high-temperature diagnostics are illustrated.

  16. Ion-ion reactions for charge reduction of biopolymer at atmospheric pressure ambient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming Zhou; Jian Hua Ding; Xie Zhang; Huan Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization source (EESI) was adapted for ion-ion reaction, which was demonstrated by using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the first ion-ion reaction of biopolymers in the atmospheric pressure ambient.

  17. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  18. Testing spatial α-variation with optical atomic clocks based on highly charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berengut J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review recent works illustrating the potential use of highly charged ions as the basis of optical atomic clocks of exceptional accuracy and very high sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant, α. The tendency towards large transition energies in highly charged ions can be overcome using level crossings, which allow transitions between different orbitals to be within the range of usual lasers. We present simple scaling laws that demonstrate reduced systematics that could be realised in highly charged ion clocks. Such clocks could allow us to corroborate astronomical studies that suggest a spatial gradient in values of α across the Universe.

  19. Nanoscale transformation of sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} of graphite by slow highly charged ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, T. E-mail: meguro@postman.riken.go.jp; Hida, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takai, H.; Maeda, K.; Aoyagi, Y

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale transformation of electronic states by highly charged ion (HCI) impact on graphite surfaces is described. The high potential energy of slow HCI, which induces multiple emission of electrons from the surface, provides a strong modification of the electronic states of the local area upon graphite surfaces. The HCI impact and the subsequent surface treatment either by electron injection from a scanning tunneling microscopy tip or by He-Cd laser irradiation induce a localized transition from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} hybridization in graphite, resulting in the formation of nanoscale diamond-like structures (nanodiamond) at the impact region. From Raman spectroscopic measurements on sp{sup 2} related peaks, it is found that the HCI irradiation creates vacancy complexes in contrast to ions having a lower charge state, which generate single vacancies. It is of interest that a single impact of HCI creates one nanodiamond structure, suggesting potential applications of HCI in nanoscale material processing.

  20. Experiments and Researches on Production of Highly Charged Metallic Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), series of experiments have been done to produce metallic ion beams on the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source. By now, numerous methods have been tested, in which oven heating and MIVOC (Metallic Ion from Volatile Compounds) are both included.According to the experiments, the results show that oven heating is much better than MIVOC. In most of our

  1. Change in the site of electron-transfer reduction of a zinc-quinoxalinoporphyrin/gold-quinoxalinoporphyrin dyad by binding of scandium ions and the resulting remarkable elongation of the charge-shifted-state lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Kei; Garcia, Rachel; Sintic, Paul J; Khoury, Tony; Crossley, Maxwell J; Kadish, Karl M; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2009-10-12

    The site of electron-transfer reduction of AuPQ(+) (PQ = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)quino-xalino[2, 3-b']porphyrin) and AuQPQ(+) (QPQ = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)bisquinoxalino[2,3-b':12,13-b'']porphyrin) is changed from the Au(III) center to the quinoxaline part of the PQ macrocycle in the presence of Sc(3+) in benzonitrile because of strong binding of Sc(3+) to the two nitrogen atoms of the quinoxaline moiety. Strong binding of Sc(3+) to the corresponding nitrogen atoms on the quinoxaline unit of ZnPQ also occurs for the neutral form. The effects of Sc(3+) on the photodynamics of an electron donor-acceptor compound containing a linked Zn(II) and Au(III) porphyrin ([ZnPQ-AuPQ]PF(6)) have been examined by femto- and nanosecond laser flash photolysis measurements. The observed transient absorption bands at 630 and 670 nm after laser pulse irradiation in the absence of Sc(3+) in benzonitrile are assigned to the charge-shifted (CS) state (ZnPQ(*)(+)-AuPQ). The CS state decays through back electron transfer (BET) to the ground state rather than to the triplet excited state. The BET rate was determined from the disappearance of the absorption band due to the CS state. The decay of the CS state obeys first-order kinetics. The CS lifetime was determined to be 250 ps in benzonitrile. Addition of Sc(3+) to a solution of ZnPQ-AuPQ(+) in benzonitrile caused a drastic lengthening of the CS lifetime that was determined to be 430 ns, a value 1700 times longer than the 250 ps lifetime measured in the absence of Sc(3+). Such remarkable prolongation of the CS lifetime in the presence of Sc(3+) results from a change in the site of electron transfer from the Au(III) center to the quinoxaline part of the PQ macrocycle when Sc(3+) binds to the quinoxaline moiety, which decelerate BET due to a large reorganization energy of electron transfer. The change in the site of electron transfer was confirmed by ESR measurements, redox potentials, and UV

  2. Wave packet study of the secondary emission of negatively charged, monoatomic ions from sputtered metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindona, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)]. E-mail: sindona@fis.unical.it; Riccardi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Maletta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Rudi, S.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Falcone, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Secondary emission of Ag{sup -} and Au{sup -} particles, following the sputtering of clean Ag(1 0 0) and Au(1 0 0) targets, respectively, is studied with a Crank-Nicholson wave-packet propagation method. A one-electron pseudo-potential is used to describe the plane metal surface, with a projected band gap, the ejected ion, whose charge state is investigated, and its nearest-neighbor substrate ion, put in motion by the collision cascade generated by the primary ion beam. Time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved backwards in time to determine the evolution of the affinity orbital of the negative particles from an instant when they are unperturbed, at distances of the order of {approx}10{sup 2} a.u. from the surface, to the instant of ejection. The probability that a band electron will be eventually detected in affinity state of the ejected particle is, thus, calculated and compared with the result of another method based on the spectral decomposition of the one-electron Hamiltonian.

  3. Global plasma simulation of charge state distribution inside a 2.45 GHz ECR plasma with experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodendorfer, M; Wurz, P; Hohl, M, E-mail: bodendorfer@ep.isas.jaxa.j [Space Research and Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    For the first time, the charge state distribution inside the MEsskammer fuer FlugzeitInStrumente und Time-Of-Flight (MEFISTO) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and in the extracted ion beam was successfully simulated. A self-consistent ECR plasma ionization model (Hohl M 2002 MEFISTO II: Design, setup, characterization and operation of an improved calibration facility for solar plasma instrumentation PhD Thesis University of Bern) was further developed, recomputing the ion confinement time for every ion species and in every time step based on the actual plasma potential rather than using a prescribed constant ion confinement time. The simulation starts with a user defined set of initial conditions and develops the problem in time space by an adaptive step length fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) solver, considering particle densities based on ionization rates, recombination rates, ion confinement times and plasma potential. At the simulation end, a steady-state ion charge state distribution is reached, which is in excellent agreement with the measured ion beam charge state distribution of the MEFISTO ion source for Ar{sup 1+} to Ar{sup 5+} and in good agreement for Ar{sup 6+}.

  4. Global plasma simulation of charge state distribution inside a 2.45 GHz ECR plasma with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, M.; Wurz, P.; Hohl, M.

    2010-08-01

    For the first time, the charge state distribution inside the MEsskammer für FlugzeitInStrumente und Time-Of-Flight (MEFISTO) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and in the extracted ion beam was successfully simulated. A self-consistent ECR plasma ionization model (Hohl M 2002 MEFISTO II: Design, setup, characterization and operation of an improved calibration facility for solar plasma instrumentation PhD Thesis University of Bern) was further developed, recomputing the ion confinement time for every ion species and in every time step based on the actual plasma potential rather than using a prescribed constant ion confinement time. The simulation starts with a user defined set of initial conditions and develops the problem in time space by an adaptive step length fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) solver, considering particle densities based on ionization rates, recombination rates, ion confinement times and plasma potential. At the simulation end, a steady-state ion charge state distribution is reached, which is in excellent agreement with the measured ion beam charge state distribution of the MEFISTO ion source for Ar1+ to Ar5+ and in good agreement for Ar6+.

  5. Resonant vs. non-resonant neutralization of multiply charged ions in the interaction with solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Galijas, S. M. D.; Obradovic, M. B.

    2008-07-01

    The two-state vector model is used to investigate the intermediate stages of the electron capture into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ArVIII ion, escaping solid surface. Two cases of the ionic velocities are considered: the low velocities (v approx 0 a.u.) and the intermediate velocities (v approx1 a.u.). Within the framework of the two-state vector description of the neutralization dynamics the two wave functions are used to determine the state of a single active electron. The intermediate stages of the process are characterized by the two-amplitude, the neutralization probability and rate. These quantities are obtained in two different analytical forms in the two considered cases of the projectile velocities. The key difference of the intermediate velocity case in respect to the low-velocity case, is the non- resonant character of the electron transitions. The obtained rates in the low velocity case are well localized. The neutralization rates in the intermediate velocity case are oscillatory in character. At larger ion-surface distances R the neutralization is stabilized; the behavior of the rates becomes similar to that obtained for the low ionic velocities.

  6. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Wada, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  7. The description of charge transfer in fast negative ions scattering on water covered Si(100) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Qiu, Shunli; Liu, Pinyang; Xiong, Feifei; Lu, Jianjie; Liu, Yuefeng; Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yiran; Ren, Fei; Xiao, Yunqing; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Ding, Bin; Li, Yuan; Guo, Yanling; Chen, Ximeng

    2016-11-01

    Doping has significantly affected the characteristics and performance of semiconductor electronic devices. In this work, we study the charge transfer processes for 8.5-22.5 keV C- and F- ions scattering on H2O-terminated p-type Si(100) surfaces with two different doping concentrations. We find that doping has no influence on negative-ion formation for fast collisions in this relatively high energy range. Moreover, we build a model to calculate negative ion fractions including the contribution from positive ions. The calculations support the nonadiabatic feature of charge transfer.

  8. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  9. Controlling interlayer interactions in vanadium pentoxide-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposites for enhanced magnesium-ion charge transport and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Archer, Randall B.; Damin, Craig A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Rhodes, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries provide the potential for lower cost and improved safety compared with lithium-ion batteries, however obtaining cathode materials with highly reversible Mg-ion capacities is hindered by the high polarizability of divalent Mg-ions and slow solid-state Mg-ion diffusion. We report that incorporating poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) between the layers of hydrated vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) xerogels results in significantly improved reversible Mg-ion capacities. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the interlayer spacing between V2O5 layers was increased by PEO incorporation. Vibrational spectroscopy supports that the polymer interacts with the V2O5 lattice. The V2O5-PEO nanocomposite exhibited a 5-fold enhancement in Mg-ion capacity, improved stability, and improved rate capabilities compared with V2O5 xerogels. The Mg-ion diffusion coefficient of the nanocomposite was increased compared with that of V2O5 xerogels which is attributed to enhanced Mg-ion mobility due to the shielding interaction of PEO with the V2O5 lattice. This study shows that beyond only interlayer spacing, the nature of interlayer interactions of Mg-ions with V2O5, PEO, and H2O are key factors that affect Mg-ion charge transport and storage in layered materials. The design of layered materials with controlled interlayer interactions provides a new approach to develop improved cathodes for magnesium batteries.

  10. Metal Ions in Unusual Valency States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Robin M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses reactivity of metal ions with the primary products of water radiolysis, hyper-reduced metal ions, zero-valent metal ions, unstable divalent ions from the reduction of bivalent ions, hyper-oxidized metal ions, and metal complexes. (CS)

  11. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  12. Automated charge state determination of complex isotope-resolved mass spectra by peak-target Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Yap, Yee Leng

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a new algorithm for charge state determination of complex isotope-resolved mass spectra. This algorithm is based on peak-target Fourier transform (PTFT) of isotope packets. It is modified from the widely used Fourier transform method because Fourier transform may give ambiguous charge state assignment for low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or overlapping isotopic clusters. The PTFT algorithm applies a novel "folding" strategy to enhance peaks that are symmetrically spaced about the targeted peak before applying the FT. The "folding" strategy multiplies each point to the high-m/z side of the targeted peak by its counterpart on the low-m/z side. A Fourier transform of this "folded" spectrum is thus simplified, emphasizing the charge state of the "chosen" ion, whereas ions of other charge states contribute less to the transformed data. An intensity-dependent technique is also proposed for charge state determination from frequency signals. The performance of PTFT is demonstrated using experimental electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra. The results show that PTFT is robust for charge state determination of low S/N and overlapping isotopic clusters, and also useful for manual verification of potential hidden isotopic clusters that may be missed by the current analysis algorithms, i.e., AID-MS or THRASH.

  13. Asymmetric ion transport through ion-channel-mimetic solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-12-17

    Both scientists and engineers are interested in the design and fabrication of synthetic nanofluidic architectures that mimic the gating functions of biological ion channels. The effort to build such structures requires interdisciplinary efforts at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology. Biological ion channels and synthetic nanofluidic devices have some structural and chemical similarities, and therefore, they share some common features in regulating the traverse ionic flow. In the past decade, researchers have identified two asymmetric ion transport phenomena in synthetic nanofluidic structures, the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. The rectified ionic current is a diode-like current-voltage response that occurs when switching the voltage bias. This phenomenon indicates a preferential direction of transport in the nanofluidic system. The net diffusion current occurs as a direct product of charge selectivity and is generated from the asymmetric diffusion through charged nanofluidic channels. These new ion transport phenomena and the elaborate structures that occur in biology have inspired us to build functional nanofluidic devices for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of biomimetic solid-state nanofluidic devices with asymmetric ion transport behavior. We demonstrate the origin of the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. We also identify several influential factors and discuss how to build these asymmetric features into nanofluidic systems by controlling (1) nanopore geometry, (2) surface charge distribution, (3) chemical composition, (4) channel wall wettability, (5) environmental pH, (6) electrolyte concentration gradient, and (7) ion mobility. In the case of the first four features, we build these asymmetric features directly into the nanofluidic structures. With the final three, we construct

  14. The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng Shui

    The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a commercial 18650 Li-ion cell was studied using three methods: (1) constant current (CC) charging, (2) constant power (CP) charging, and (3) multistage constant current (MCC) charging. The MCC-charging consists of two CC steps, which starts with a low current to charge the initial 10% capacity followed by a high current charging until the cell voltage reaches 4.2 V. Using these methods, respectively, the cell was charged to 4.2 V followed by a constant voltage (CV) charging until the current declined to 0.05 C. Results showed that the cycle life of the cell strongly depended on the charging protocol even if the same charging rate was used. Among these three methods, the CC-method was found to be more suitable for slow charging (0.5 C) while the CP-method was better for fast charging (1 C). Impedance analyses indicated that the capacity loss during cycling was mainly attributed to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as a result of the progressive growth of surface layers on the surface of two electrodes. Fast charging resulted in an accelerated capacity fading due to the loss of Li + ions and the related growth of a surface layer, which was associated with metallic lithium plating onto the anode and a high polarization at the electrolyte-electrode interface. Analyses of the cell electrochemistry showed that use of a reduced current to charge the initial 10% capacity and near the end of charge, respectively, was favorable for long cycle life.

  15. Influence of state of charge on the combustion products of lithium-ion battery cathode%荷电状态对锂离子电池正极燃烧产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 薛庆瑞; 杨凯; 李建玲; 李大贺

    2014-01-01

    运用热重-气相色谱质谱联用系统(TGA-GC-MS)在线检测了商用锂离子电池正极物质在燃烧过程中的质量变化及其气相燃烧产物成分,结合X射线衍射仪对固相燃烧产物成分的测定,分析了荷电状态(State of Charge,SOC)对正极物质燃烧产物的影响.结果表明:商用锂离子电池正板物质的固相燃烧产物为Li3Fe2(PO4)3和Fe2O3,气相燃烧产物为CO和CO2,荷电状态对固相产物的成分无影响,对气相产物的影响较大.荷电量为0时,气相燃烧产物中CO的含量最多,烟气毒性最大.而荷电量为50%时,CO的含量最少,烟气毒性最弱.

  16. Collision induced fragmentation of fast molecular ions in solids and gases. [Review, wake effects, excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, D S

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent high resolution measurements on fragments arising from the collision-induced dissociation of fast (MeV) molecular ions. For solid targets, strong wake effects are observed. For gaseous targets, excited electronic states of the projectile ions play an important role. Measurements of this type provide useful information on the charge states of fast ions traversing matter. The experimental techniques show promise as a unique method for determining the geometrical structures of the molecular-ion projectiles. 41 references.

  17. A New Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model with Ion-Water Interactions for Charge Transport in Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model with ion-water interactions for biological charge transport in ion channels. Due to narrow geometries of these membrane proteins, ion-water interaction is critical for both dielectric property of water molecules in channel pore and transport dynamics of mobile ions. We model the ion-water interaction energy based on realistic experimental observations in an efficient mean-field approach. Variation of a total energy functional of the biological system yields a new PNP-type continuum model. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model with ion-water interaction energy has the new features that quantitatively describe dielectric properties of water molecules in narrow pores and are possible to model the selectivity of some ion channels.

  18. Prospects for Charged Current Deep-Inelastic Scattering off Polarized Nucleons at a Future Electron-Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aschenauer, Elke C; Martini, Till; Spiesberger, Hubert; Stratmann, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed phenomenological study of charged-current-mediated deep-inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarized nucleons at a future Electron-Ion Collider. A new version of the event generator package DJANGOH, extended by capabilities to handle processes with polarized nucleons, is introduced and used to simulate charged current deep-inelastic scattering including QED, QCD, and electroweak radiative effects. We carefully explore the range of validity and the accuracy of the Jacquet-Blondel method to reconstruct the relevant kinematic variables from the measured hadronic final state in charged current events, assuming realistic detector performance parameters. Finally, we estimate the impact of the simulated charged current single-spin asymmetries on determinations of helicity parton distributions in the context of a global QCD analysis at next-to-leading order accuracy.

  19. Microbeam Studies of Diffusion Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection from Stripe-Like Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUO,B.N.; BOUANANI,M.E.; RENFROW,S.N.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; ATON,T.J.; SMITH,E.B.; BAUMANN,R.C.; DUGGAN,J.L.; MCDANIEL,F.D.

    2000-06-14

    To design more radiation tolerant Integrated Circuits (ICs), it is essential to create and test accurate models of ionizing radiation induced charge collection dynamics within microcircuits. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (DTRIBICC), is proposed to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge at the junction. Specially designed stripe-like junctions were experimentally studied using a 12 MeV carbon microbeam with a spot size of 1 {micro}m. The relative arrival time of ion-generated charge is measured along with the charge collection using a multiple parameter data acquisition system. The results show the importance of the diffused charge collection by junctions, which is especially significant in accounting for Multiple Bit Upset (MBUs) in digital devices.

  20. Net-charge probability distributions in heavy ion collisions at chemical freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Braun-Munzinger, P; Karsch, F; Redlich, K; Skokov, V

    2011-01-01

    We explore net charge probability distributions in heavy ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas model. The distributions for strangeness, electric charge and baryon number are derived. We show that, within this model, net charge probability distributions and the resulting fluctuations can be computed directly from the measured yields of charged and multi-charged hadrons. The influence of multi-charged particles and quantum statistics on the shape of the distribution is examined. We discuss the properties of the net proton distribution along the chemical freeze-out line. The model results presented here can be compared with data at RHIC energies and at the LHC to possibly search for the relation between chemical freeze-out and QCD cross-over lines in heavy ion collisions.

  1. STATE OF WATER SORBED ON ION EXCHANGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VenkataramaniB

    1994-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms available in the literatures of Na+-from of Dowex 50W×4 and×8,BioRex-70,Amberlyst-15,Nafion-117,hydrous titanium oxide,crystalline zirconium phosphate and zinc hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ),have been analysed by the D′Arcy and Watt equation.Hydration of Na+ in the ion exchangers is the predominant interaction of sorbed water.The correlation between the hydration numbers and those obtained for electrolyte solution is found in this paper.Qualitative implications of the state of sorbed water in the ion exchangers on its various characteristic quantities like selectivity,are briefly discussed.

  2. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  3. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth R.; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz K.; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy.

  4. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  5. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J

    2012-10-15

    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-).

  6. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; A. Schäfer; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  7. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  8. Ion pair formation and primary charging behavior of titanium oxide (anastase and rutile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourikas, K.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The primary charging behavior of titanium oxide (anatase, rutile, and P25) and the ion pair formation of the electrolyte ions with the surface groups have been extensively studied. A large number of titration and electrokinetic data sets available in the literature have been successfully described,

  9. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, February 16, 1990--February 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from February 16, 1990 through February 15, 1993. This work involves the experimental investigation of atomic interactions in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron-correlation effects. The processes studied are of interest both from fundamental and applied points of view. In the latter case, results are obtained which are relevant to the understanding of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, highly-excited (Rydberg) and continuum states of atoms and ions, atomic structure effects, the interaction of ions with surfaces, and the development of heavy-ion storage-rings. The results obtained have provided the basis for several M.A. thesis projects at Western Michigan and several Ph.D. dissertation projects are currently underway. Summaries of work completed and work in progress are given below in Section II. This research has resulted in 26 papers (in print and in press), 12 invited presentations at national and international meetings, and 28 contributed presentations as detailed in Section III.

  10. Negative Ion CID Fragmentation of O-linked Oligosaccharide Aldoses—Charge Induced and Charge Remote Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doohan, Roisin A.; Hayes, Catherine A.; Harhen, Brendan; Karlsson, Niclas Göran

    2011-06-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation was compared between reducing and reduced sulfated, sialylated, and neutral O-linked oligosaccharides. It was found that fragmentation of the [M - H]- ions of aldoses with acidic residues gave unique Z-fragmentation of the reducing end GalNAc containing the acidic C-6 branch, where the entire C-3 branch was lost. This fragmentation pathway, which is not seen in the alditols, showed that the process involved charge remote fragmentation catalyzed by a reducing end acidic anomeric proton. With structures containing sialic acid on both the C-3 and C-6 branch, the [M - H]- ions were dominated by the loss of sialic acid. This fragmentation pathway was also pronounced in the [M - 2H]2- ions revealing both the C-6 Z-fragment plus its complementary C-3 C-fragment in addition to glycosidic and cross ring fragmentation. This generation of the Z/C-fragment pairs from GalNAc showed that the charges were not participating in their generation. Fragmentation of neutral aldoses showed pronounced Z-fragmentation believed to be generated by proton migration from the C-6 branch to the negatively charged GalNAc residue followed by charge remote fragmentation similar to the acidic oligosaccharides. In addition, A-type fragments generated by charge induced fragmentation of neutral oligosaccharides were observed when the charge migrated from C-1 of the GalNAc to the GlcNAc residue followed by rearrangement to accommodate the 0,2A-fragmentation. LC-MS also showed that O-linked aldoses existed as interchangeable α/β pyranose anomers, in addition to a third isomer (25% of the total free aldose) believed to be the furanose form.

  11. Photoemission spectra of charge density wave states in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Chen, Peng-Jen; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy(ARPES) experiments have reported many exotic properties of cuprates, such as Fermi arc at normal state, two gaps at superconducting state and particle-hole asymmetry at the antinodal direction. On the other hand, a number of inhomogeneous states or so-called charge density waves(CDW) states have also been discovered in cuprates by many experimental groups. The relation between these CDW states and ARPES spectra is unclear. With the help of Gutzwiller projected mean-field theory, we can reproduce the quasiparticle spectra in momentum space. The spectra show strong correspondence to the experimental data with afore-mentioned exotic features in it.

  12. X-ray emission from charge exchange of highly-charged ions in atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, J. B.; Williams, I. D.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2000-01-01

    Charge exchange followed by radiative stabilization are the main processes responsible for the recent observations of X-ray emission from comets in their approach to the Sun. A new apparatus was constructed to measure, in collisions of HCIs with atoms and molecules, (a) absolute cross sections for single and multiple charge exchange, and (b) normalized X-ray emission cross sections.

  13. The charge-energy-mass spectrometer for 0.3-300 keV/e ions on the AMPTE CCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Studemann, W.; Wilken, B.; Hamilton, D. C.; Kremser, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Gliem, F.; Lundgren, R. A.; Rieck, W.; Tums, E. O.; Cain, J. C.; Masung, L. S.; Weiss, W.; Winterhof, P.

    1985-05-01

    The charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft is designed to measure the mass and charge-state compositions as well as the energy spectra and pitch-angle distributions of all major ions from H through Fe with energies from 0.3 to 300 keV/charge and a time resolution of less than 1 min in the Earth's magnetosphere and magnetosheath. It has the sensitivity and resolution to detect artificially injected Li ions. Complementing the hot-plasma composition experiment and the medium-energy particle analyzer, this experiment will provide essential information on outstanding problems related to dynamical processes of space plasmas and of suprathermal ions. The instrument uses a combination of electrostatic deflection, post acceleration, and time of flight versus energy measurements to determine the ionization state Q, mass M, and energy E of the ambient-ion population. Pitch angle and anisotropy measurements are made utilizing the spinning motion of the CCE spacecraft. Isotopes of hydrogen and helium are resolved as are individual elements up to neon and dominant elements up to iron. Because of the intrinsically low instrument background achieved by using fast coincidence techniques combined with electrostatic deflection, the instrument has a large dynamic range and can identify rare elements and ions even in the presence of high-intensity radiation background. To increase significantly the information returned from the experiment within the allocated telemetry, an intelligent on-board data system which is part of the CHEM instrument performs fast M versus M/Q classifications.

  14. Measurements of excitation spectra and level lifetimes for highly charged neon ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友德; 马新文; 杨治虎; 杜一飞; 刘惠萍; 赵孟春; 郭天瑞; 王春芳

    1997-01-01

    Beam foil experiments were carried out for 47 MeV Ne ions passing through C (39 μg/cm2) and Al (3 4mg/cm2) foils. Highly charged H-, He-, Li-, and Be-like ions were obtained after the foils. The excitation spectra and level lifetimes for these ions were measured, and transition configurations for most measured lines were identified

  15. Single and double charge transfer of He(2+) ions with molecules at near-thermal energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, R. E.; Johnsen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Rate coefficients were measured for charge-transfer reactions of He(2+) ions with H2, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and H2O. The experiments were carried out using a selected-ion drift-tube mass spectrometer. Total rate coefficients are found to be very large and are generally close to the limiting Langevin capture rate coefficients or the corresponding ADO-model (Su and Bowers, 1973) coefficients. The product-ion spectra indicate that both single and double charge transfer and possibly transfer ionization occur in these reactions.

  16. High precision wavelength measurements of QED-sensitive forbidden transitions in highly charged argon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganić, I; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; DuBois, R; Fritzsche, S; Shabaev, V M; Orts, R Soria; Tupitsyn, I I; Zou, Y; Ullrich, J

    2003-10-31

    We present the results of an experimental study of magnetic dipole (M1) transitions in highly charged argon ions (Ar X, Ar XI, Ar XIV, Ar XV) in the visible spectral range using an electron beam ion trap. Their wavelengths were determined with, for highly charged ions, unprecedented accuracy up to the sub-ppm level and compared with theoretical calculations. The QED contributions, calculated in this Letter, are found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than the experimental error and are absolutely indispensable to bring theory and experiment to a good agreement. This method shows great potential for the study of QED effects in relativistic few-electron systems.

  17. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series f...

  18. Langevin Poisson-Boltzmann equation: point-like ions and water dipoles near a charged surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, Ekaterina; van Rienen, Ursula; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2011-06-01

    Water ordering near a charged membrane surface is important for many biological processes such as binding of ligands to a membrane or transport of ions across it. In this work, the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory for point-like ions, describing an electrolyte solution in contact with a planar charged surface, is modified by including the orientational ordering of water. Water molecules are considered as Langevin dipoles, while the number density of water is assumed to be constant everywhere in the electrolyte solution. It is shown that the dielectric permittivity of an electrolyte close to a charged surface is decreased due to the increased orientational ordering of water dipoles. The dielectric permittivity close to the charged surface is additionally decreased due to the finite size of ions and dipoles.

  19. Measurement and analyses of the mean effective ion charge in the centre of tokamak discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yong-Zhen; Ding Xuan-Tong; Zhuo Yan

    2007-01-01

    There are two different definitions for specifying the mean effective ion charge Zeff in plasmas: a) from the Spizer electrical resistivity of the plasma and b) from bremsstrahlung radiation losses of the plasma. In this paper Zeff in the centre of tokamak ohmic discharges has been determined from information on sawtooth-relaxations of the steady state plasma, based on the analysis for the power balance of the plasma electrons in the plasma centre during the period of recovery after the sawtooth crashes. This method is found to supply reliable results for tokamak parameters. While its application requires some efforts in data analysis, it can provide a reliable determination of Zeff, independent of the information from bremsstrahlung radiation losses of the plasma.

  20. Recombination-cascade X-ray spectra of highly charged helium-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the relative intensity distribution among the X-ray spectral lines of helium-like ions from the n = 2 states produced through recombination processes such as radiative and charge transfer recombination may be given by considering in detail the radiative cascades following recombination. Model calculations are presented with predicted line ratios for Ar XVII and Fe XXV in recombination-dominated noncoronal plasmas. In particular, compared to coronal intensities, the singlet resonance line (w) should be much weaker relative to the triplet intercombination (x, y) and forbidden (z) lines, yielding large values for the ratio G = (x + y + z)/w. Accurate configuration interaction type wave functions are employed to calculate the eigenenergies, transition probabilities, and cascade coefficients. Certain relevant tokamak and astrophysical observations are discussed.

  1. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Silicon and Iron Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department is dedicated to the study of atomic processes in low temperature plasmas. Our current program is directed to the study of charge transfer of multiply charged ions and neutrals that are of importance to astrophysics at energies less than 1 eV (about 10(exp 4) K). Specifically, we measure the charge transfer rate coefficient of ions such as N(2+), Si(3+), Si(3+), with helium and Fe(2+) with molecular and atomic hydrogen. All these ions are found in a variety of astrophysical plasmas. Their electron transfer reactions with neutral atoms can affect the ionization equilibrium of the plasma.

  2. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  3. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  4. A laser system for the spectroscopy on highly charged ions, tellurium molecules, and Rydberg states of rubidium atoms; Ein Lasersystem zur Spektroskopie von hochgeladenen Ionen, Tellurmolekuelen und Rubidium-Rydberg-Zustaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2014-08-15

    Optical measuring methods allow the detection and identification of the atomic structure with extraordinary precision. Deviations to theoretical predictions can indicate unknown physical effects. Therefore, precise measurements on the atomic structure continue to be of large relevance. In this work, a laser system for precision spectroscopy on Bismuth ({sup 209}Bi{sup 82+}), Tellurium ({sup 130}Te{sub 2}) and Rydberg states of Rubidium ({sup 85}Rb) has been built and characterized. Spectroscopic measurements on Tellurium and Rubidium have been achieved with this setup. The system consists of a two-stage frequency doubled diode laser, stabilized via a cavity and an RF-offsetlock to arbitrary wavelengths with absolute high stability. The setup of the laser system will be presented and the systematic error caused by the refractive index of air inside the transfer cavity will be discussed. A stability of better then 6.14 MHz at 244 nm is obtained for planned experiments on the ground state hyperfine splitting of {sup 209}Bi{sup 82+}. This will allow an increase in precision of more then four orders of magnitude for this measurement. Further increase in precision can be achieved by using an evacuated cavity. The obtained stability is measured by comparison of the laser frequency to absorption lines of Tellurium ({sup 130}Te{sub 2}). Eight reference lines, known from literature, spanning the region from 613720.717 GHz to 616803.545 GHz have been measured. The frequency measurements of three lines, coinciding with the emission spectrum of an argon-ion-laser, show deviations with respect to the published frequencies. Further inconsistencies in literature are cleared. Part of this work is also the precise measurement of 843 Doppler-free {sup 130}Te{sub 2} reference lines spanning the frequency range from 613881.150 GHz to 616614.258 GHz at a precision of better then 4 MHz for most lines. Additionally, measurements on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using

  5. Fast Atomic Charge Calculation for Implementation into a Polarizable Force Field and Application to an Ion Channel Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiker Witter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarization of atoms plays a substantial role in molecular interactions. Class I and II force fields mostly calculate with fixed atomic charges which can cause inadequate descriptions for highly charged molecules, for example, ion channels or metalloproteins. Changes in charge distributions can be included into molecular mechanics calculations by various methods. Here, we present a very fast computational quantum mechanical method, the Bond Polarization Theory (BPT. Atomic charges are obtained via a charge calculation method that depend on the 3D structure of the system in a similar way as atomic charges of ab initio calculations. Different methods of population analysis and charge calculation methods and their dependence on the basis set were investigated. A refined parameterization yielded excellent correlation of R=0.9967. The method was implemented in the force field COSMOS-NMR and applied to the histidine-tryptophan-complex of the transmembrane domain of the M2 protein channel of influenza A virus. Our calculations show that moderate changes of side chain torsion angle χ1 and small variations of χ2 of Trp-41 are necessary to switch from the inactivated into the activated state; and a rough two-side jump model of His-37 is supported for proton gating in accordance with a flipping mechanism.

  6. Universal state-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.

    2007-01-01

    Many leading semiconductors companies (e.g. Philips, Texas Instruments, Microchip, Maxim, etc.) are paying even more attention to accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) indication. Following the technological revolution and the appearance of more power consuming devices on the automotive electronics and por

  7. Charged Cylindrical Polytropes with Generalized Polytropic Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, M; Noureen, I; Rehman, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with conformally flat condition for the development of general framework of polytropes. We discussed the stability of the model by Whittaker formula and concluded that one of the developed model is physically viable.

  8. Metal ions and RNA folding: a highly charged topic with a dynamic future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Sarah A

    2005-04-01

    Metal ions are required to stabilize RNA tertiary structure and to begin the folding process. How different metal ions enable RNAs to fold depends on the electrostatic potential of the RNA and correlated fluctuations in the positions of the ions themselves. Theoretical models, fluorescence spectroscopy, small angle scattering and structural biology reveal that metal ions alter the RNA dynamics and folding transition states. Specifically coordinated divalent metal ions mediate conformational rearrangements within ribozyme active sites.

  9. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI-96)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaya, Yohko; Kambara, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI-96) which was held on September 23-26, 1996 in Omiya, Saitama, Japan, hosted by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). The first conference of this series was held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. The subject was the "Production and Physics of Highly Charged Ions". The conference has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992) and Vienna, Austria (1994). When the first conference of this series was held, various highly charged ions were available from many heavy ion accelerators, which had been constructed since the 1960's, and ion sources such as EBIS and ECRIS, which were then new facilities. Subsequently, many other experimental techniques have been developed to study or to control highly charged ions, such as ion traps, EBIT's, storage rings, high-brilliance synchrotron radiation, and so forth. Now the properties of highly charged ions themselves and their interactions with various kinds of materials can be studied systematically using ions of any element at various collision energies. These studies will result in a deeper insight into their nature as well as giving us important basic data for use in the fields closely related to atomic physics. About 190 scientists from 18 countries registered at the HCI-96. The number of invited talks was 21 and that of contrib- uted papers 215. In these proceedings, 20 papers of invited talks and 116 papers on contributions are included. They are classified into categories of "Structure and Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions and Fundamental Aspects", "Highly Charged Ions in Plasmas and Strong Fields", "Interactions of Highly Charged Ions with Atoms and Ions", "Dynamic Processes Related to Molecules and Clusters", "Interactions of Highly Charged Ions with

  10. Charge-to-mass-ratio-dependent ion heating during magnetic reconnection in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Craig, D. [Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Temperature evolution during magnetic reconnection has been spectroscopically measured for various ion species in a toroidal magnetized plasma. Measurements are made predominantly in the direction parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. It is found that the increase in parallel ion temperature during magnetic reconnection events increases with the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. This trend can be understood if the heating mechanism is anisotropic, favoring heating in the perpendicular degree of freedom, with collisional relaxation of multiple ion species. The charge-to-mass ratio trend for the parallel temperature derives from collisional isotropization. This result emphasizes that collisional isotropization and energy transfer must be carefully modeled when analyzing ion heating measurements and comparing to theoretical predictions.

  11. Space charge effect on parametric resonances of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, P; De Munshi, D; Dutta, T; Mukherjee, M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a finite number of ions on their parametric resonances inside a Paul trap has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Coulomb coupling among the charged particles results in two distinct phenomena: one is the frequency shift of the trapped ion oscillators and second is the collective oscillation of the trapped ion cloud. We observe both in a linear trap configuration. It is found that the strength and the secular frequency of individual ion-oscillation decrease while the strength of the collective oscillation increases with increasing number of trapped ions. The observation has been modeled by considering the space charge potential as an effective dc potential inside the trap. It describes the observations well within the experimental uncertainties.

  12. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paret, Stefan

    2010-02-22

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  13. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  14. Environment-protected solid-state-based distributed charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Hoatson, Tanya Nicole; Wang, Joie; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    A solid-state-based charge qubit is presented. The system consists of a one-dimensional wire with a pair of qubits embedded at its center. It is shown that the system supports collective states localized in the left and right sides of the wire and therefore, as a whole, performs as a single qubit. The couplings between the ground and excited states of the two central qubits are inversely proportional making them fully asynchronized and allowing for coherent manipulation and gate operations. Initialization and measurement devices, such as leads and charge detectors, connected to the edges of the wire are modeled by a continuum of energy states. The coupling to the continuum is discussed using the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. At weak continuum coupling, all internal states uniformly acquire small decay widths. This changes dramatically as the coupling strength increases: the width distribution undergoes a sharp restructuring and is no longer uniformly divided among the eigenstates. Two broad resonances localized at the ends of the wire are formed. These superradiant states (analogous to Dicke states in quantum optics) effectively protect the remaining internal states from decaying into the continuum and hence increase the lifetime of the qubit. Environmental noise is introduced by considering random Gaussian fluctuations of electronic energies. The interplay between decoherence and superradiance is studied by solving the stochastic Liouville equation. In addition to increasing the lifetime, the emergence of the superradiant states increases the qubit coherence.

  15. Effect of Negatively Charged Ions on the Formation of Microarc Oxidation Coating on 2024 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang; Bailing Jiang; Aiying Wang; Huiying Shi

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of negatively charged ions on the ceramic coating formation on 2024 aluminium alloy during microarc oxidation (MAO) process. On the basis of the experimental results, two steps (the formation of an incipient film without arc presence and the growth of a ceramic coating with arc discharge) of MAO process have been observed. For comparison, four different negatively charged ions studied. It is proved that negatively charged ions strongly participated in the formation of an incipient film with high impedance value at the first step. The growth of ceramic coating depends on the combination between AI of the substrate and O from the electrolyte, and the negatively charged ions are little consumed. As an anodic oxide coating is prepared on the sample surface instead of the incipient film, the first step occurs easily and the growth of ceramic coating is accelerated. Furthermore, the mechanism of negatively charged ions in the formation of the MAO coating has been proposed.

  16. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  17. Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

  18. Fast charge exchange ions in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium as probes for the electrical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilmann, W.; Maszl, C.; von Keudell, A.

    2017-03-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas exhibit a high ionization fraction of the sputtered material and ions with high kinetic energies, which produce thin films with superior quality. These ion energy distribution functions (IEDF) contain energetic peaks, which are believed to be linked to a distinct electrical potential hump {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{ionization}{{zone}}} inside rotating localized ionization zones, so called spokes, at target power densities above 1 kW cm‑2. Any direct measurement of this electrical potential structure is, however, very difficult due to the dynamic nature of the spokes and the very high local power density, which hampers the use of conventional emissive probes. Instead, we use a careful analysis of the IEDFs for singly and doubly charged titanium ions from a HiPIMS plasma at varying target power density. The energy peaks in the IEDFs measured at the substrate depend on the point of ionization and any charge exchange collisions on the path between ionization and impact at the substrate. Thereby, the IEDFs contain a convoluted information about the electrical potential structure inside the plasma. The analysis of these IEDFs reveal that higher ionization states originate at high target power densities from the central part of the plasma spoke, whereas singly charged ions originate from the perimeter of the plasma spoke. Consequently, we observe different absolute ion energies with the energy of Ti2+ being slightly higher than two times the energy of Ti+. Additional peaks are observed in the IEDFs of Ti+ originating from charge exchange reactions from Ti2+ and Ti3+ with titanium neutrals. Based on this analysis of the IEDFs, the structure of the electrical potential inside a spoke is inferred yielding {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{ionization}{{zone}}} = 25 V above the plasma potential, irrespective of target power density.

  19. State-to-state measurements of low-energy ion-molecule and ion-ion collisions by three dimensional momentum imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    While the measurement of total absolute cross sections remains challenging, the insight provided by differential cross sections and branching ratios is invaluable to assess the quality of theoretical predictions. Satisfactory agreement at the latter level gives better confidence in the proper identification of the reaction mechanism and key parameters. The three dimensional imaging of molecular dissociation, and more generally, the determination of all momentum vectors of the reaction products, gives direct access to the differential quantities of interest. For the prototype reaction of a proton colliding with H2, the secondary H2+current may be recorded to provide the total charge transfer yield. The dissociative charge transfer of the product ions with alkali targets leaves a characteristic signature in the total kinetic energy imparted to the H fragments. Its measurement is readily achieved by coincident detection on position sensitive detectors. This allows us to extract vibrational populations as a function of collision energy. A resonant enhancement of the charge transfer around 45 eV/amu is observed, that leaves the molecular ion in its vibrational ground state. Those observations are supported by state-of-the-art calculations. We have similarly explored the ionization of molecular oxygen by proton and alpha particle impact, at velocities characteristic of the solar wind. A somewhat more involved vibrational analysis of the O2+cations indicates a Franck-Condon like vibrational population of the ground electronic state from 50 eV to 10 keV, unlikely to modify the branching ratios of dissociative recombination, itself responsible for airglow emissions. More interestingly, a significant population of the 4Πu excited state is measured at velocities typical of the fast solar wind. Finally, we shall address the implementation of three dimensional imaging in merged ion-ion beam studies. Mutual neutralization involving anions and cations is a very efficient process

  20. Fractional charge and spin states in topological insulator constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the properties of two-dimensional topological insulator constrictions both in the integer and fractional regimes. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, the constriction functions as a spin filter with near-perfect efficiency and can be switched by electric fields only. Domain walls between different topological phases can be created in the constriction as an interface between tunneling, magnetic fields, charge density wave, or electron-electron interaction dominated regions. These domain walls host non-Abelian bound states with fractional charge and spin and result in degenerate ground states with parafermions. If a proximity gap is induced bound states give rise to an exotic Josephson current with 8 π periodicity.

  1. How accurate is Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions near highly charged interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Vaknin, David; Travesset, Alex

    2006-06-20

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface. A lipid phosphate (dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate) was spread as a monolayer at the air-water interface to control surface charge density. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. Five decades in bulk concentrations are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. The increase of Cs+ concentration modifies the contact value potential, thereby causing proton release. This process effectively modifies surface charge density and enables exploration of ion distributions as a function of effective surface charge-density. The experimentally obtained ion distributions are compared to distributions calculated by Poisson-Boltzmann theory accounting for the variation of surface charge density due to proton release and binding. We also discuss the accuracy of our experimental results in discriminating possible deviations from Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

  2. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  3. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  4. Strongly Enhanced Effects of Lorentz-Symmetry Violation in Yb$^+$ and Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S

    2016-01-01

    A Lorentz-symmetry test with Ca$^+$ ions demonstrated the potential of using quantum information inspired technology for tests of fundamental physics. A systematic study of atomic-system sensitivities to Lorentz violation identified the ytterbium ion as an ideal system with high sensitivity as well as excellent experimental controllability. A test of Lorentz-violating physics in the electron-photon sector with Yb$^+$ ions has the potential to reach levels of 10$^{-23}$, five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current best bounds. Similar sensitivities may be also reached with highly charged ions.

  5. Shot-to-shot reproducibility in the emission of fast highly charged metal ions from a laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krása, J; Velyhan, A; Margarone, D; Krouský, E; Krouský, L; Jungwirth, K; Rohlena, K; Ullschmied, J; Parys, P; Ryć, L; Wołowski, J

    2012-02-01

    The generation of fast highly charged metal ions with the use of the sub-nanosecond Prague Asterix Laser System, operated at a fundamental wavelength of 1315 nm, is reported. Particular attention is paid to shot-to-shot reproducibility in the ion emission. Au and Pd targets were exposed to intensities up to 5 × 10(16) W∕cm(2). Above the laser intensity threshold of ∼3 × 10(14) W∕cm(2) the plasma is generated in a form of irregular bursts. The maximum energy of protons constituting the leading edge of the fastest burst reaches a value up to 1 MeV. The fast ions in the following bursts have energy gradually decreasing with the increasing burst number, namely, from a value of about 0.5 MeV∕charge regardless of the atomic number and mass of the ionized species.

  6. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M F Zaki; A Abdel-Naby; A Ahmed Morsy

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as 93Nb, 86Kr and 4He in CR-39 and 4He and 132Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke–Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  7. Particles inside electrolytes with ion-specific interactions, their effective charge distributions, and effective interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingnan; Liang, Yihao; Xing, Xiangjun

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we explore the statistical physics of colloidal particles that interact with electrolytes via ion-specific interactions. Firstly we study particles interacting weakly with electrolyte using linear response theory. We find that the mean potential around a particle is linearly determined by the effective charge distribution of the particle, which depends both on the bare charge distribution and on ion-specific interactions. We also discuss the effective interaction between two such particles and show that, in the far field regime, it is bilinear in the effective charge distributions of two particles. We subsequently generalize the above results to the more complicated case where particles interact strongly with the electrolyte. Our results indicate that in order to understand the statistical physics of non-dilute electrolytes, both ion-specific interactions and ionic correlations have to be addressed in a single unified and consistent framework. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174196 and 91130012).

  8. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  9. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  10. Trapped-ion probing of light-induced charging effects on dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlander, M; Brownnutt, M; Haensel, W; Blatt, R, E-mail: max.harlander@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-09-15

    We use a string of confined {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions to measure perturbations to a trapping potential which are caused by the light-induced charging of an antireflection-coated window and of insulating patches on the ion-trap electrodes. The electric fields induced at the ions' position are characterized as a function of distance to the dielectric and as a function of the incident optical power and wavelength. The measurement of the ion-string position is sensitive to as few as 40 elementary charges per {radical}(Hz) on the dielectric at distances of the order of millimetres, and perturbations are observed for illuminations with light of wavelengths as large as 729 nm. This has important implications for the future of miniaturized ion-trap experiments, notably with regard to the choice of electrode material and the optics that must be integrated in the vicinity of the ion. The method presented here can be readily applied to the investigation of charging effects beyond the context of ion-trap experiments.

  11. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions.

  12. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N{sup 7+} ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar{sup 14+} ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO{sup 2+} and CO{sup 3+} from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO{sup 1+} and CO{sup 2+} molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO{sup 2+} through CO{sup 7+} were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer.

  13. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions. [Cyclotron Inst. , Texas A M Univ. , College Station, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N[sup 7+] ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N[sub 2], O[sub 2], and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar[sup 14+] ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO[sup 2+] and CO[sup 3+] from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO[sup 1+] and CO[sup 2+] molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO[sup 2+] through CO[sup 7+] were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer.

  14. Trapped-Ion State Detection through Coherent Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Leibrandt, D R; Thorpe, M J; Wineland, D J; Rosenband, T

    2011-01-01

    Quantum-limited experiments with trapped atomic ions rely on sensitive methods of detecting an ion's state. Current detection techniques are applicable only to relatively simple systems, which precludes most atomic and molecular species. Here, we demonstrate a technique that can be applied to a larger class of ion systems. We couple a "spectroscopy" ion (Al+) to a "control" ion (Mg+) in the same trap and perform state detection through off-resonant laser excitation of the spectroscopy ion that induces coherent motion. The motional amplitude, dependent on the spectroscopy ion state, is measured either by time-resolved photon counting, or by resolved sideband excitations. The first method provides a simplified way to distinguish "clock" states in Al+, which avoids ground state cooling and sideband transitions. The second method reduces spontaneous emission and optical pumping on the spectroscopy ion, which we demonstrate by nondestructively distinguishing Zeeman sublevels in the 1S0 ground state of Al+.

  15. Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Schmuck, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media. Homogenization analysis is performed for a two-component pe- riodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Three new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to mean pore size; and (iii) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density". The coeffcient tensors in the macroscopic PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problem, and several examples are considered. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by a single tortuosit...

  16. Collisionless damping of dust-acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Plasma Physics Group (PPG), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    The charge variation induced nonlinear dust-acoustic wave damping in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions is considered. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation to be described by a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK-dV) equation the coefficients of which depend sensitively on the nonextensive parameter q. The damping term, solely due to the dust charge variation, is affected by the ion nonextensivity. For the sake of completeness, the possible effects of nonextensivity and collisionless damping on weakly nonlinear wave packets described by the dK-dV equation are succinctly outlined by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger-like equation with a complex nonlinear coefficient.

  17. The dependence of the electronic conductivity of carbon molecular sieve electrodes on their charging states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Elad; Genish, Isaschar; Salitra, Gregory; Soffer, Abraham; Klein, Lior; Aurbach, Doron

    2006-04-13

    The dependence of the electronic conductivity of activated carbon electrodes on their potential in electrolyte solutions was examined. Kapton polymer films underwent carbonization (1000 degrees C), followed by a mild oxidation process (CO(2) at 900 degrees C) for various periods of time, to obtain carbons of different pore structures. A specially designed cell was assembled in order to measure the conductivity of carbon electrodes at different potentials in solutions. When the carbon electrodes possessed molecular sieving properties, a remarkable dependence of their conductivity on their charging state was observed. Aqueous electrolyte solutions containing ions of different sizes were used in order to demonstrate this phenomenon. As the average pore size of the activated carbons was larger, their molecular sieving ability was lower, and the dependence of their conductivity on their charging state regained its classical form. This behavior is discussed herein.

  18. Binding of scandium ions to metalloporphyrin-flavin complexes for long-lived charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Shinya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Tatsuaki; Ohkubo, Kei; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-11-17

    A porphyrin-flavin-linked dyad and its zinc and palladium complexes (MPor-Fl: 2-M, M=2 H, Zn, and Pd) were newly synthesized and the X-ray crystal structure of 2-Pd was determined. The photodynamics of 2-M were examined by femto- and nanosecond laser flash photolysis measurements. Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) in 2-H2 occurred from the singlet excited state of the porphyrin moiety (H2 Por) to the flavin (Fl) moiety to produce the singlet charge-separated (CS) state (1) (H2 Por(.+) -Fl(.-) ), which decayed through back ET (BET) to form (3) [H2 Por]*-Fl with rate constants of 1.2×10(10) and 1.2×10(9)  s(-1) , respectively. Similarly, photoinduced ET in 2-Pd afforded the singlet CS state, which decayed through BET to form (3) [PdPor]*Fl with rate constants of 2.1×10(11) and 6.0×10(10)  s(-1) , respectively. The rate constant of photoinduced ET and BET of 2-M were related to the ET and BET driving forces by using the Marcus theory of ET. One and two Sc(3+) ions bind to the flavin moiety to form the Fl-Sc(3+) and Fl-(Sc(3+) )2 complexes with binding constants of K1 =2.2×10(5)  M(-1) and K2 =1.8×10(3)  M(-1) , respectively. Other metal ions, such as Y(3+) , Zn(2+) , and Mg(2+) , form only 1:1 complexes with flavin. In contrast to 2-M and the 1:1 complexes with metal ions, which afforded the short-lived singlet CS state, photoinduced ET in 2-Pd⋅⋅⋅Sc(3+) complexes afforded the triplet CS state ((3) [PdPor(.+) -Fl(.-) (Sc(3+) )2 ]), which exhibited a remarkably long lifetime of τ=110 ms (kBET =9.1 s(-1) ).

  19. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have we learnt?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kailas

    2001-07-01

    Light charged particles emitted in heavy-ion induced reactions, their spectra and angular distributions measured over a range of energies, carry the signature of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Analysis of data of light charged particles, both inclusive and exclusive measured in coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles.

  20. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2-based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Daniel A; Haasch, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  1. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  2. Ion selection of charge-modified large nanopores in a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijun; Xue, Jianming; Kang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Water desalination becomes an increasingly important approach for clean water supply to meet the rapidly growing demand of population boost, industrialization, and urbanization. The main challenge in current desalination technologies lies in the reduction of energy consumption and economic costs. Here, we propose to use charged nanopores drilled in a graphene sheet as ion exchange membranes to promote the efficiency and capacity of desalination systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the selective ion transport behavior of electric-field-driven KCl electrolyte solution through charge modified graphene nanopores. Our results reveal that the presence of negative charges at the edge of graphene nanopore can remarkably impede the passage of Cl- while enhance the transport of K+, which is an indication of ion selectivity for electrolytes. We further demonstrate that this selectivity is dependent on the pore size and total charge number assigned at the nanopore edge. By adjusting the nanopore diameter and electric charge on the graphene nanopore, a nearly complete rejection of Cl- can be realized. The electrical resistance of nanoporous graphene, which is a key parameter to evaluate the performance of ion exchange membranes, is found two orders of magnitude lower than commercially used membranes. Our results thus suggest that graphene nanopores are promising candidates to be used in electrodialysis technology for water desalinations with a high permselectivity.

  3. Charge Transfer Based Colorimetric Detection of Silver Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Choul; Kim, Kwang Seob; Choi, Soon Kyu; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jae Wook [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We have demonstrated the colorimetric chemosensor for detection of Ag{sup +} via formation of nanoparticles which is based on the intramolecular CT interaction between the electron-rich (2,6-dialkoxynaphthalene; Np) moiety and the electron-deficient (methyl viologen; MV{sup 2+}) moiety of a single sensor molecule. Under irradiation of light, Ag{sup +} was reduced to very small silver nanoparticle by CT interaction in the presence of OEGs as flexible recognition moiety of Ag{sup +} and stabilizer for Ag nanoparticles, thus Ag nanoparticles resulted to reddish brown in the color change of sensor solution, gradually. Therefore, the charge-transfer interaction between an electron-deficient and an electron-rich units existing at a sensor molecule can be regarded as a new and efficient method to construct various colorimetric chemosensors. Donor.acceptor interactions or charge transfer (CT) interactions are an important class of non-covalent interactions and have been widely exploited in self-assembling systems. Beyond molecular chemistry, supramolecular chemistry aims at constituting highly complex, functional chemical systems from components held together by intermolecular forces. Chemosensors are the molecules of abiotic origin that bind selectively and reversibly with the analyte with concomitant change in one or more properties of the system. The recognition and signaling of ionic and neutral species of varying complexity is one of the most intensively studied areas of contemporary supramolecular chemistry.

  4. X-ray resonant photoexcitation: linewidths and energies of Kα transitions in highly charged Fe ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J K; Bernitt, S; Epp, S W; Steinbrügge, R; Beilmann, C; Brown, G V; Eberle, S; Graf, A; Harman, Z; Hell, N; Leutenegger, M; Müller, A; Schlage, K; Wille, H-C; Yavaş, H; Ullrich, J; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R

    2013-09-06

    Photoabsorption by and fluorescence of the Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions are essential mechanisms for x-ray radiation transfer in astrophysical environments. We study photoabsorption due to the main Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions from heliumlike to fluorinelike (Fe24+ to Fe17+) using monochromatic x rays around 6.6 keV at the PETRA III synchrotron photon source. Natural linewidths were determined with hitherto unattained accuracy. The observed transitions are of particular interest for the understanding of photoexcited plasmas found in x-ray binary stars and active galactic nuclei.

  5. Ultracold magnetically tunable interactions without radiative charge transfer losses between Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$, Ba$^+$, and Yb$^+$ ions and Cr atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Tomza, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$, Ba$^+$, and Yb$^+$ ions immersed in an ultracold gas of the Cr atoms are proposed as experimentally feasible heteronuclear systems in which ion-atom interactions at ultralow temperatures can be controlled with magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances without charge transfer and radiative losses. \\textit{Ab initio} techniques are applied to investigate electronic-ground-state properties of the (CaCr)$^+$, (SrCr)$^+$, (BaCr)$^+$, and (YbCr)$^+$ molecular ions. The potential energy curves, permanent electric dipole moments, and static electric dipole polarizabilities are computed. The spin restricted open-shell coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, RCCSD(T), and the multireference configuration interaction method restricted to single and double excitations, MRCISD, are employed. The scalar relativistic effects are included within the small-core energy-consistent pseudopotentials. The leading long-range induction and dispersion interaction co...

  6. Deceleration, precooling, and multi-pass stopping of highly charged ions in Be{sup +} Coulomb crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmöger, L., E-mail: lisa.schmoeger@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Schwarz, M.; Versolato, O. O. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Baumann, T. M.; Piest, B.; Pfeifer, T.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ullrich, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Schmidt, P. O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Institut für Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Welfengarten 1, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Preparing highly charged ions (HCIs) in a cold and strongly localized state is of particular interest for frequency metrology and tests of possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine structure constant. Our versatile preparation technique is based on the generic modular combination of a pulsed ion source with a cryogenic linear Paul trap. Both instruments are connected by a compact beamline with deceleration and precooling properties. We present its design and commissioning experiments regarding these two functionalities. A pulsed buncher tube allows for the deceleration and longitudinal phase-space compression of the ion pulses. External injection of slow HCIs, specifically Ar{sup 13+}, into the linear Paul trap and their subsequent retrapping in the absence of sympathetic cooling is demonstrated. The latter proved to be a necessary prerequisite for the multi-pass stopping of HCIs in continuously laser-cooled Be{sup +} Coulomb crystals.

  7. Deceleration, precooling, and multi-pass stopping of highly charged ions in Be⁺ Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöger, L; Schwarz, M; Baumann, T M; Versolato, O O; Piest, B; Pfeifer, T; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-10-01

    Preparing highly charged ions (HCIs) in a cold and strongly localized state is of particular interest for frequency metrology and tests of possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine structure constant. Our versatile preparation technique is based on the generic modular combination of a pulsed ion source with a cryogenic linear Paul trap. Both instruments are connected by a compact beamline with deceleration and precooling properties. We present its design and commissioning experiments regarding these two functionalities. A pulsed buncher tube allows for the deceleration and longitudinal phase-space compression of the ion pulses. External injection of slow HCIs, specifically Ar(13+), into the linear Paul trap and their subsequent retrapping in the absence of sympathetic cooling is demonstrated. The latter proved to be a necessary prerequisite for the multi-pass stopping of HCIs in continuously laser-cooled Be(+) Coulomb crystals.

  8. Theoretical study of charge transfer dynamics in collisions of C6+ carbon ions with pyrimidine nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchus-Montabonel, M. C.

    2012-07-01

    A theoretical approach of the charge transfer dynamics induced by collision of C6+ ions with biological targets has been performed in a wide collision energy range by means of ab-initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The process has been investigated for the target series thymine, uracil and 5-halouracil corresponding to similar molecules with different substituent on carbon C5. Such a study may be related to hadrontherapy treatments by C6+carbon ions and may provide, in particular, information on the radio-sensitivity of the different bases with regard to ion-induced radiation damage. The results have been compared to a previous analysis concerning the collision of C4+ carbon ions with the same biomolecular targets and significant charge effects have been pointed out.

  9. Surface charging of thick porous water ice layers relevant for ion sputtering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Vorburger, A.; Pommerol, A.; Wurz, P.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.; Brouet, Y.; Tulej, M.; Thomas, N.

    2016-07-01

    We use a laboratory facility to study the sputtering properties of centimeter-thick porous water ice subjected to the bombardment of ions and electrons to better understand the formation of exospheres of the icy moons of Jupiter. Our ice samples are as similar as possible to the expected moon surfaces but surface charging of the samples during ion irradiation may distort the experimental results. We therefore monitor the time scales for charging and discharging of the samples when subjected to a beam of ions. These experiments allow us to derive an electric conductivity of deep porous ice layers. The results imply that electron irradiation and sputtering play a non-negligible role for certain plasma conditions at the icy moons of Jupiter. The observed ion sputtering yields from our ice samples are similar to previous experiments where compact ice films were sputtered off a micro-balance.

  10. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  11. Resonant charge transfer in low-energy ion scattering: Information depth in the reionization regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetzhofer, D; Spitz, M; Taglauer, E; Bauer, P

    2011-11-01

    Time-Of-Flight Low-energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) experiments were performed for He(+) ions scattered from Cu(100) and Cu(0.5)Au(0.5)(100). Probabilities for resonant neutralization and reionization in close collisions were deduced in a wide energy range. To learn about the information depth in LEIS, in a next step ion spectra were analyzed for polycrystalline Cu samples. The relative yield of backscattered projectiles, which have undergone distinct charge exchange processes, was calculated. Results indicate a strong contribution to the ion yield that origins from particles reionized in a close collision in deeper layers when experiments are performed at energies where reionization is prominent. The surface sensitivity of the ion signal at different energies is quantified. Based on these results, the total ion spectrum was quantitatively modelled by two consistent, but different approaches.

  12. Charged cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.; Noureen, I.; Rehman, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in the relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take a charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with a conformally flat condition for the development of a general framework of the polytropes. We discuss the stability of the model by the Whittaker formula and conclude that one of the models developed is physically viable.

  13. Charged cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A.; Noureen, I.; Rehman, M.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-09-15

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in the relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take a charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with a conformally flat condition for the development of a general framework of the polytropes. We discuss the stability of the model by the Whittaker formula and conclude that one of the models developed is physically viable. (orig.)

  14. Grazing incidence collisions of ions and atoms with surfaces: from charge exchange to atomic diffraction; Collisions rasantes d'ions ou d'atomes sur les surfaces: de l'echange de charge a la diffraction atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P

    2006-09-15

    This thesis reports two studies about the interaction with insulating surfaces of keV ions or atoms under grazing incidence. The first part presents a study of charge exchange processes occurring during the interaction of singly charged ions with the surface of NaCl. In particular, by measuring the scattered charge fraction and the energy loss in coincidence with electron emission, the neutralization mechanism is determined for S{sup +}, C{sup +}, Xe{sup +}, H{sup +}, O{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, F{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and He{sup +}. These results show the importance of the double electron capture as neutralization process for ions having too much potential energy for resonant capture and not enough for Auger neutralization. We have also studied the ionisation of the projectile and of the surface, and the different Auger-like neutralization processes resulting in electron emission, population of conduction band or excited state. For oxygen scattering, we have measured an higher electron yield in coincidence with scattered negative ion than with scattered atom suggesting the transient formation above the surface of the oxygen doubly negative ion. The second study deals with the fast atom diffraction, a new phenomenon observed for the first time during this work. Due to the large parallel velocity, the surface appears as a corrugated wall where rows interfere. Similarly to the Thermal Atom Scattering the diffraction pattern corresponds to the surface potential and is sensitive to vibrations. We have study the H-NaCl and He-LiF atom-surface potentials in the 20 meV - 1 eV range. This new method offers interesting perspectives for surface characterisation. (author)

  15. EBIS-A facility for the studies of X-ray emission from solids bombarded by highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaś, D., E-mail: d.banas@ujk.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Jabłoński, Ł. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Jagodziński, P. [Department of Physics, Kielce University of Technology, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Sobota, D.; Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    We report here on the progress in the X-ray spectroscopy program at the EBIS-A facility installed recently at the Institute of Physics of Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. In this facility the beams of low-energy highly charged ions (HCI) produced by the Dresden EBIS-A ion source, after extraction and charge-state separation in the double focusing magnet, are directed to the experimental UHV chamber equipped with a 5-axis universal sample manipulator. The X-rays emitted in interaction of the highly charged ions with solids can be measured by an energy dispersive X-ray silicon drift detector (SDD) and/or a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS) mounted at the experimental chamber. The surface nanostructures formed by an impact of HCI will be studied by the grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) technique and using a multiprobe surface analysis system based on the X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) coupled to the UHV chamber of the EBIS-A facility. In this paper a brief description of the facility, X-ray instrumentation and the surface analysis system is given and the first results are presented.

  16. Charge-exchange Induced Modulation of the Heliosheath Ion Distribution Downstream of the Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the evolution of the solar wind ion distribution function alongthe plasma flow downstream from the termination shock induced by chargeexchange processes with cold interstellar H-atoms. We start from a kineticphase space transport equation valid in the bulk frame of the plasma flowthat takes into account convective changes, cooling processes, energydiffusion and ion injection, and describes solar wind and pick-up ionsas a co-moving, isotropic, joint ion population. From this kinetic transportequation one can ascend to an equation for the pressure moment of the iondistribution function, a so-called pressure transport equation, describingthe evolution of the ion pressure in the comoving rest frame. Assuming thatthe local ion distribution can be represented by an adequate kappa functionwith a kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinate, weobtain an ordinary differential equation for kappa as function of thestreamline coordinate s. With this result then we gain the heliosheath iondistribution function downstream of the termination shock. The latter thencan be used to predict the Voyager-2 measured moments of the distributionfunction like ion density and ion temperature, and it can also be used topredict spectral fluxes of ENA`s originating from these ions and registeredby IBEX-Hi and IBEX-Lo.We especially analyse the solar wind ion temperature decreasemeasured by Voyager-2 between the years 2008 to 2011 and try to explain itas a charge-exchange induced cooling of the ion distribution function duringthe associated ion convection period.

  17. Zero-field NMR and NQR studies of magnetically ordered state in charge-ordered EuPtP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T.; Maruyama, T.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Mitsuda, A.; Umeda, M.; Sugishima, M.; Wada, H.

    2015-03-01

    EuPtP undergoes two valence transitions and has two kinds of valence states of Eu ions at low temperatures. In the charge-ordered state, this compound shows an antiferromagnetic order ascribed to magnetic divalent Eu ions. We investigated the antiferromagnetically ordered state of EuPtP by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement in a zero external magnetic field. The observed 153Eu NMR signals of a magnetic divalent state and Eu,153151 NQR signals of a nonmagnetic trivalent state clearly demonstrate that the spins order in the hexagonal basal plane and the internal magnetic field is not canceled out, even at the Eu3 + layers which are in the middle of magnetic Eu2 + layers. In addition, the observation of 31P and 195Pt NMR spectra allowed us to discuss a possible magnetic structure. We also evaluated the nuclear quadrupole frequencies for both Eu2 + and Eu3 + ion states.

  18. Production of intense highly charged ion beams by IMP 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source has been constructed over the last two years. The source was designed and tested by making use of the latest results from ECR ion source development, such as high mirror magnetic field, large plasma volume, and biased probe. 140μA of O7+, 185μA of Ar11+ and 50 μA of Xe26+ could be produced with a RF power of 800 W. The intense beams of highly charged metallic ions are produced by means of the method of a metal evaporation oven and volatile compound through axial access. The test results are 130μA of Ca11+, 70μA of Ca12+ and 65μA of Fe10+. The ion source has been put into operation for the cyclotron at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

  19. Potential and Kinetic Electron Emissions from HOPG Surface Irradiated by Highly Charged Xenon and Neon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Yu; ZHAO Yong-Tao; SUN Jian-Rong; LI De-Hui; QAYYUM Abdul; LI Jin-Yu; WANG Ping-Zhi; XIAO Guo-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged 129 Xeq+ (q =10-30) and 40Neq+ (q =4-8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are reported. The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions. The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields. Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xeq+-HOPG and Neq+-HOPG combinations. A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission.%@@ Highly charged 129 Xeq+(q =10-30) and 40Neq+(q =4-8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite(HOPG) are reported.The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions.The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields.Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xeq+-HOPG and Neq+-HOPG combinations.A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission.

  20. Radiative charge transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa)$^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, O P; Michels, H J; Smith, W W; Makarov, Oleg P.

    2003-01-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom--ion trap under high vacuum conditions. The collisional cooling of laser pre-cooled Ca$^+$ ions by ultracold Na atoms is being studied. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A$^1\\Sigma^+$ state of the (NaCa)$^+$ molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using Complete Active Space Self-Consistent field and M\\"oller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (CASSCF/MP2) with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G(3df). The semiclassical charge transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The ra...