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Sample records for charge sensitive amplifier

  1. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  2. Resistor-less charge sensitive amplifier for semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelczar, K., E-mail: krzysztof.pelczar@doctoral.uj.edu.pl; Panas, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new concept of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier without a high-value resistor in the feedback loop is presented. Basic spectroscopic parameters of the amplifier coupled to a coaxial High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) are discussed. The amplifier signal input is realized with an n-channel J-FET transistor. The feedback capacitor is discharged continuously by the second, forward biased n-channel J-FET, driven by an RC low–pass filter. Both the analog—with a standard spectroscopy amplifier and a multi-channel analyzer—and the digital—by applying a Flash Analog to Digital Converter—signal readouts were tested. The achieved resolution in the analog and the digital readouts was 0.17% and 0.21%, respectively, at the Full Width at Half Maximum of the registered {sup 60}Co 1332.5 keV gamma line.

  3. A low noise charge sensitive amplifier for use in vacuum photo diode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, R.

    1982-08-01

    The amplifier described consists of a charge sensitive pre-amplifier optimised for low noise with low values of input shunt capacitance, and a shaping amplifier providing both differentiation and integration. Amplifier gain is adjustable up to a maximum of approximately 100 μV/electron with a rise time of 2 μS to the peak of the output voltage, and with an open circuit input noise level of 150 electrons RMS. (author)

  4. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Hack, M.; Lewis, A.

    1992-04-01

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is ∼ 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼ 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is ∼ 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 μsec

  5. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Pessina, G, E-mail: claudio.gotti@mib.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126, Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a 'recipe' to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  6. Prospects for charge sensitive amplifiers in scaled CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Paul; De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2002-03-01

    Due to its low cost and flexibility for custom design, monolithic CMOS technology is being increasingly employed in charge preamplifiers across a broad range of applications, including both scientific research and commercial products. The associated detectors have capacitances ranging from a few tens of fF to several hundred pF. Applications call for pulse shaping from tens of ns to tens of μs, and constrain the available power per channel from tens of μW to tens of mW. At the same time a new technology generation, with changed device parameters, appears every 2 years or so. The optimum design of the front-end circuitry is examined taking into account submicron device characteristics, weak inversion operation, the reset system, and power supply scaling. Experimental results from recent prototypes will be presented. We will also discuss the evolution of preamplifier topologies and anticipated performance limits as CMOS technology scales down to the 0.1 μm/1.0 V generation in 2006.

  7. Prospects for charge sensitive amplifiers in scaled CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Paul; De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2002-01-01

    Due to its low cost and flexibility for custom design, monolithic CMOS technology is being increasingly employed in charge preamplifiers across a broad range of applications, including both scientific research and commercial products. The associated detectors have capacitances ranging from a few tens of fF to several hundred pF. Applications call for pulse shaping from tens of ns to tens of μs, and constrain the available power per channel from tens of μW to tens of mW. At the same time a new technology generation, with changed device parameters, appears every 2 years or so. The optimum design of the front-end circuitry is examined taking into account submicron device characteristics, weak inversion operation, the reset system, and power supply scaling. Experimental results from recent prototypes will be presented. We will also discuss the evolution of preamplifier topologies and anticipated performance limits as CMOS technology scales down to the 0.1 μm/1.0 V generation in 2006

  8. Reset charge sensitive amplifier for NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Liu, Xiyao; Luo, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The time constant of the output signal of the front-end readout circuit of a traditional gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure is affected by temperature, measurement environment and the signal transmission cable, so it is difficult to get a good resolution spectrum, especially at higher counting rates. In this paper, a reset charge sensitive amplifier (RCSA) is designed for the gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure. The designed RCSA outputs a step signal, thus enabling the acquisition of double-exponential signals with a stable time constant by using the next stage of a CR differentiating circuit. The designed RCSA is mainly composed of a basic amplifying circuit, a reset circuit and a dark current compensation circuit. It provides the output step signal through the integration of the PMT output charge signal. When the amplitude of the step signal exceeds a preset voltage threshold, it triggers the reset circuit to generate a reset pulse (about 5 µs pulse width) to reset the output signal. Experimental results demonstrated that the designed RCSA achieves a charge sensitivity of 4.26×10 10 V/C, with a zero capacitance noise of 51.09 fC and a noise slope of 1.98 fC/pF. Supported by the digital shaping algorithm of the digital multi-channel analyzer (DMCA), it can maintain good energy resolution with high counting rates up to 150 kcps and with a temperature range from −19 °C to 50 °C. - Highlights: • A new reset type charge sensitive amplifier for gamma-ray spectrometer based on a photomultiplier tube is proposed. • Reset circuit formed by constant current source output a fixed width pulse to reset charge sensitive amplifier. • Photomultiplier tube dark current compensation circuit could increase the pulse through rate by decreasing reset frequency. • This amplifier outputs a step function signal that could match next stage circuit easily

  9. Charge-sensitive and shaping amplifier microassemblies for dosimetry and spectrometry on CZT-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevertaylo, V.L.; Zaitsevsky, I.L.; Tarasenko, L.I.; Perevertaylo, A.V.; Shkirenko, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Developments of new spectrometric channel electronics on the basis of microassemblies, which allowed to reduce the noise and increase of signal-to-noise ratio, lowering power consumption and dimensions. The complete line of front-end electronics for CZT detectors implemented as micro-assemblies is described, the design concept, operation details and application features of charge sensitive amplifier and shaping amplifier microassemblies are discussed, and the results obtained when registering low energy X-ray spectra are shown. It has a high energy resolution δE at the level of the leading companies. For direct detection with silicon p-i-n-diode new electronic channel can resolve 241 Am peaks up to 8 keV with a resolution of about 2 keV at room temperature. New electronics is universal and can be used with different semiconductor detectors - Si, CdZnTe, Scintillator-photodiode, as shown in the spectra. Low power consumption and reduced dimensions allows the using in portable equipment. Manufacturability of micro assembly opens up the possibility for mass production and low cost opens up the possibility to supply them with detectors as S tart kit f or the construction of radiometric and spectrometric devices

  10. Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) in cold gas of Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechetoille, E; Mathez, H; Zoccarato, Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on a 8-channel low noise Front-End electronic coupled to a Liquid Argon (LAr) TPC (Time Projection Chamber). Each channel consists of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA), a band pass filter and a 50 Ohms buffer as line driver. A serial link based on a 'i2c-like' protocol, provides multiple configuration features to the circuit by accessing slow control registers. In this paper, we describe the CSA, the shaper and the slow control part. The feedback network of the CSA is made of a capacitance and a resistor. Their values are respectively 250 fF and 4 MΩ. An input referred noise of, at most, 1500 e- rms must be achieved at -100 deg. C with an input detector capacitance of 250 pF to ensure a correct measurement of the minimal signal of 18000e- (2.88 fC). The power consumption in this cryogenic setup must be less than 40 mW from a 3.3 V power supply.

  11. Amplified Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Vacancy Spins in Nanodiamonds Using All-Optical Charge Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, David A; Grote, Richard R; Parks, Samuel M; Bassett, Lee C

    2018-04-23

    Nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers offer a versatile platform for sensing applications spanning from nanomagnetism to in vivo monitoring of cellular processes. In many cases, however, weak optical signals and poor contrast demand long acquisition times that prevent the measurement of environmental dynamics. Here, we demonstrate the ability to perform fast, high-contrast optical measurements of charge distributions in ensembles of NV centers in nanodiamonds and use the technique to improve the spin-readout signal-to-noise ratio through spin-to-charge conversion. A study of 38 nanodiamonds with sizes ranging between 20 and 70 nm, each hosting a small ensemble of NV centers, uncovers complex, multiple time scale dynamics due to radiative and nonradiative ionization and recombination processes. Nonetheless, the NV-containing nanodiamonds universally exhibit charge-dependent photoluminescence contrasts and the potential for enhanced spin readout using spin-to-charge conversion. We use the technique to speed up a T 1 relaxometry measurement by a factor of 5.

  12. High sensitivity amplifier/discriminator for PWC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.

    1983-01-01

    The facility support group at Fermilab is designing and building a general purpose beam chamber for use in several locations at the laboratory. This pwc has 128 wires per plane spaced 1 mm apart. An initial production of 25 signal planes is anticipated. In proportional chambers, the size of the signal depends exponentially on the charge stored per unit of length along the anode wire. As the wire spacing decreases, the capacitance per unit length decreases, thereby requiring increased applied voltage to restore the necessary charge per unit length. In practical terms, this phenomenon is responsible for difficulties in constructing chambers with less than 2 mm wire spacing. 1 mm chambers, therefore, are frequently operated very near to their breakdown point and/or a high gain gas containing organic compounds such as magic gas is used. This argon/iso-butane mixture has three drawbacks: it is explosive when exposed to the air, it leaves a residue on the wires after extended use and is costly. An amplifier with higher sensitivity would reduce the problems associated with operating chambers with small wire spacings and allow them to be run a safe margin below their breakdown voltage even with an inorganic gas mixture such as argon/CO2, this eliminating the need to use magic gas. Described here is a low cost amplifier with a usable threshold of less than 0.5 μA. Data on the performance of this amplifier/discriminator in operation on a prototype beam chamber are given. This data shows the advantages of the high sensitivity of this design

  13. Development of Charge Sensitive Preamplifier and Readout Integrate Circuit Board for High Resolution Detector using ASIC Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. M.; Yang, J. Y.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [RadTek Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    - Design of discrete type charge sensitive amplifier for high resolution semi-conductor sensor - Design and develop the test board for the performance of charge sensitive amplifier with sensor - Performance of electrical test for the sensor and charge sensitive amplifier - Development of prototype 8 x 8 array type detector module - Noise equivalent charge test for the charge sensitive amplifier - Design and development of Micro SMD discrete type amplifier applying ASIC procedure - Development of Hybrid type charge sensitive amplifier including shape

  14. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) reveals that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Salt stress, alkali stress, Gossypium hirsutum L., DNA methylation, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). INTRODUCTION. DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic mecha- nisms among eukaryotes that can modulate gene expression without the changes of DNA sequence.

  15. Electron beam charge state amplifier (EBQA)--a conceptual evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooling, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept is presented for stripping low-energy, radioactive ions from 1+ to higher charge states. Referred to as an Electron Beam Charge State Amplifier (EBQA), this device accepts a continuous beam of singly-charged, radioactive ions and passes them through a high-density electron beam confined by a solenoidal magnetic field. Singly-charged ions may be extracted from standard Isotope-Separator-Online (ISOL) sources. An EBQA is potentially useful for increasing the charge state of ions prior to injection into post-acceleration stages at ISOL radioactive beam facilities. The stripping efficiency from q=1+ to 2+ (η 12 ) is evaluated as a function of electron beam radius at constant current with solenoid field, injected ion energy, and ion beam emittance used as parameters. Assuming a 5 keV, 1 A electron beam, η 12 = 0.38 for 0.1 keV, 132 Xe ions passing through an 8 Tesla solenoid, 1 m in length. Multi-pass configurations to achieve 3+ or 4+ charge states are also conceivable. The calculated efficiencies depend inversely on the initial ion beam emittances. The use of a helium-buffer-gas, ion-guide stage to improve the brightness of the 1+ beams [1] may enhance the performance of an EBQA

  16. Localization of the cochlear amplifier in living sensitive ears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianying Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To detect soft sounds, the mammalian cochlea increases its sensitivity by amplifying incoming sounds up to one thousand times. Although the cochlear amplifier is thought to be a local cellular process at an area basal to the response peak on the spiral basilar membrane, its location has not been demonstrated experimentally. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a sensitive laser interferometer to measure sub-nanometer vibrations at two locations along the basilar membrane in sensitive gerbil cochleae, here we show that the cochlea can boost soft sound-induced vibrations as much as 50 dB/mm at an area proximal to the response peak on the basilar membrane. The observed amplification works maximally at low sound levels and at frequencies immediately below the peak-response frequency of the measured apical location. The amplification decreases more than 65 dB/mm as sound levels increases. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the cochlea amplifier resides at a small longitudinal region basal to the response peak in the sensitive cochlea. These data provides critical information for advancing our knowledge on cochlear mechanisms responsible for the remarkable hearing sensitivity, frequency selectivity and dynamic range.

  17. How to interpret Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) profiles?

    OpenAIRE

    Fulneček, Jaroslav; Kovařík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation plays a key role in development, contributes to genome stability, and may also respond to external factors supporting adaptation and evolution. To connect different types of stimuli with particular biological processes, identifying genome regions with altered 5-methylcytosine distribution at a genome-wide scale is important. Many researchers are using the simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method that is ...

  18. Wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier for extremely high sensitivity continuous measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier based on the series of an integrator and a differentiator stage, having an additional feedback loop to discharge the standing current from the device under test (DUT) to ensure an unlimited measuring time opportunity when compared to switched discharge configurations while maintaining a large signal amplification over the full bandwidth. The amplifier shows a flat response from 0.6 Hz to 1.4 MHz, the capability to operate with leakage currents from the DUT as high as tens of nanoamperes, and rail-to-rail dynamic range for sinusoidal current signals independent of the DUT leakage current. Also available is a monitor output of the stationary current to track experimental slow drifts. The circuit is ideal for noise spectral and impedance measurements of nanodevices and biomolecules when in the presence of a physiological medium and in all cases where high sensitivity current measurements are requested such as in scanning probe microscopy systems.

  19. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-12-31

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs.

  20. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs

  1. How to interpret methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulneček, Jaroslav; Kovařík, Aleš

    2014-01-06

    DNA methylation plays a key role in development, contributes to genome stability, and may also respond to external factors supporting adaptation and evolution. To connect different types of stimuli with particular biological processes, identifying genome regions with altered 5-methylcytosine distribution at a genome-wide scale is important. Many researchers are using the simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method that is particularly useful in studies of epigenetic variation. However, electrophoretic patterns produced by the method are rather difficult to interpret, particularly when MspI and HpaII isoschizomers are used because these enzymes are methylation-sensitive, and any C within the CCGG recognition motif can be methylated in plant DNA. Here, we evaluate MSAP patterns with respect to current knowledge of the enzyme activities and the level and distribution of 5-methylcytosine in plant and vertebrate genomes. We discuss potential caveats related to complex MSAP patterns and provide clues regarding how to interpret them. We further show that addition of combined HpaII + MspI digestion would assist in the interpretation of the most controversial MSAP pattern represented by the signal in the HpaII but not in the MspI profile. We recommend modification of the MSAP protocol that definitely discerns between putative hemimethylated mCCGG and internal CmCGG sites. We believe that our view and the simple improvement will assist in correct MSAP data interpretation.

  2. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  3. Design of a charge sensitive preamplifier on high resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Rescia, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A low noise, fast charge sensitive preamplifier was designed on high resistivity, detector grade silicon. It is built at the surface of a fully depleted region of n-type silicon. This allows the preamplifier to be placed very close to a detector anode. The preamplifier uses the classical input cascode configuration with a capacitor and a high value resistor in the feedback loop. The output stage of the preamplifier can drive a load up to 20pF. The power dissipation of the preamplifier is 13mW. The amplifying elements are ''Single Sided Gate JFETs'' developed especially for this application. Preamplifiers connected to a low capacitance anode of a drift type detector should achieve a rise time of 20ns and have an equivalent noise charge (ENC), after a suitable shaping, of less than 50 electrons. This performance translates to a position resolution better than 3μm for silicon drift detectors. 6 refs., 9 figs

  4. Methylation sensitive-sequence related amplified polymorphism (MS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is a simple but an efficient gene amplification marker system for both .... Each polymorphic band reflecting different methylation status at the ... After boiling for 5 min in the water, the .... CpG dinucleotides in the open reading frame of a testicular germ cell-.

  5. Charge-sensitive preamplifier IC for silicon calorimetry at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Chekhovsky, V.A.; Emel'yanchik, I.F.; Shumeiko, N.M.; Golutvin, I.A.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Dvornikov, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    Four versions of a fast monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) were designed using microwave BJT-JFET technology. The best one has a 3.5 ns rise time for input detector capacitance C d =100 pF and approximately 8 mW power dissipation for 5 V supply voltage. The ENC performance at shaping time 30 ns is 1350 e+17 e/pF for C d up to 600 pF. Crosstalk in a four-channel amplifier made in the same chip was measured to be about -46 dB for C d =100 pF. The linear output voltage swing is 0.8 V for voltage supply 5 V. The IC has revealed good radiation hardness to neutron irradiation. ((orig.))

  6. Simulation of Cascaded Longitudinal-Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (Fast) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Cascaded Longitudinal Space Charge Amplifiers (LSCA) have been proposed as a mechanism to generate density modulation over a board spectral range. The scheme has been recently demonstrated in the optical regime and has confirmed the production of broadband optical radiation. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performance of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility to produce broadband ultraviolet radiation. Our studies are carried out using elegant with included tree-based grid-less space charge algorithm.

  7. Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Christian; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Rasmussen, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A model for Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers is described and numerically investigated in the small-signal regime. The amplified spontaneous emission in the ytterbium-band and the quenching process between excited erbium ions are included in the model. For pump wavelengths...

  8. Conformation sensitive charge transport in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattias Andersson, L.; Hedström, Svante; Persson, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Temperature dependent charge carrier mobility measurements using field effect transistors and density functional theory calculations are combined to show how the conformation dependent frontier orbital delocalization influences the hole- and electron mobilities in a donor-acceptor based polymer. A conformationally sensitive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital results in an electron mobility that decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature, while a conformationally stable highest occupied molecular orbital is consistent with a conventional hole mobility behavior and also proposed to be one of the reasons for why the material works well as a hole transporter in amorphous bulk heterojunction solar cells

  9. Optical Sensitivity of a Monolithic Integrated InP PIN-HEMT-HBT Transimpedance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Matiss, A.; Janssen, G.; Bertenburg, R. M.; Brockerhoff, W.; Tegude, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    To improve sensitivity of optical receivers, a special integration concept is chosen that includes a pinphotodiode, high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) on a single substrate. This work focuses on the optimization of the amplifier design to achieve lowest input noise currents of a transimpedance amplifier, and thus highest receiver sensitivity. The respective advantages of the components used are investigated with respect...

  10. Extinction Ratio and Gain Optimization of Dual- Pump Degenerate-Idler Phase Sensitive Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Seoane, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Numerical optimization of dual-pump degenerateidler phase sensitive amplifiers is performed for Al-doped and standard highly nonlinear fibers. Design considerations for operating the PSAs at an optimum combination of gain and extinction ratio are discussed.......Numerical optimization of dual-pump degenerateidler phase sensitive amplifiers is performed for Al-doped and standard highly nonlinear fibers. Design considerations for operating the PSAs at an optimum combination of gain and extinction ratio are discussed....

  11. Simulation of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier for coherent radiation generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A., E-mail: aliaksei.halavanau@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Northern Illinois, Center for Accelerator & Detector Development, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Piot, P. [Department of Physics and Northern Illinois, Center for Accelerator & Detector Development, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as harmful in free-electron lasers as they can seed unfavorable energy modulations that can result in density modulations with associated emittance dilution. This “micro-bunching instabilities” is naturally broadband and could possibly support the generation of coherent radiation over a broad region of the spectrum. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beam lines capable of controlling LSC induced density modulations. In the present paper we refine these previous investigations by combining a grid-less space charge algorithm with the popular particle-tracking program ELEGANT. This high-fidelity model of the space charge is used to benchmark conventional LSC models. We finally employ the developed model to investigate the performance of a cascaded LSC amplifier using beam parameters comparable to the ones achievable at Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility currently under commissioning at Fermilab.

  12. Sensitive pre-amplifier to load for Pin diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobo V, R. Y.; Hernandez D, V.; Ramirez J, F. J.

    2013-10-01

    The electronic instrumentation is indispensable for the measurement and characterization of the radiation. By means of this essential characteristics of the radiation are determined, as activity and their energy components. The nuclear instrumentation is based on the technical characteristics of the radiation detectors and the electronic devices associates (amplifiers, ana logical and digital converters, multichannel analyzers, etc.) The radiation detectors are very important instruments in fields as the nuclear physics, medicine, radiological protection, industry and in other fields, since they are the only method to capture the radiation and to be able to quantify it in precise form. To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, as the semiconductor type, inside them are the photodiodes type Pin. In this work the results that were obtained of the design, simulation, construction and tests of a preamplifier that was designed starting from a photodiode type Pin are presented. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits, in this were carried out many tests being obtained a compact design and achieving the best necessary characteristics for its optimization. With the results of the simulation phase the electronics phase was built, which was couples to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system was evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows obtaining, in a multichannel analyzer, the pulses height spectrum, with a good resolution and with this was calibrated the multichannel analyzer

  13. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  14. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2011-03-01

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  15. Generation of attosecond soft x-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dohlus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA, operating in soft x-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane and a short radiator undulator in the end. The broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond x-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft x-ray free-electron laser facility FLASH would allow one to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM long x-ray pulses with the peak power at the 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%.

  16. A main amplifier circuit and data acquisition system for charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Rui; Ge Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    The charged particle detector array has huge amounts of signal and needs high counting rate. To meet the requirements, a main amplifier and analog-to-digital conversion circuit based on high-speed op-amp chips and ADC chip was designed. A 51-MCU was used to control the circuit of ADC and the USB communication chip. The signals were digitized and uploaded by the MCU-ADC-USB circuit. The whole system has a compact hardware structure and a reasonable controlling software, which meet the design requirements. (authors)

  17. Superoxide dismutase amplifies organismal sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.D.; Meshnick, S.R.; Eaton, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity is often associated with enhanced resistance of cells and organisms to oxidant challenges, few direct tests of the antioxidant importance of this enzyme have been carried out. To assess the importance of SOD in defending against gamma-radiation, we employed Escherichia coli with deficient, normal, and super-normal enzyme activities. Surprisingly, the radiation sensitivity of E. coli actually increases as bacterial SOD activity increases. Elevated intracellular SOD activity sensitizes E. coli to radiation-induced mortality, whereas SOD-deficient bacteria show normal or decreased radiosensitivity. Toxic effects of activated oxygen species are involved in this phenomenon; bacterial SOD activity has no effect on radiation sensitivity under anaerobic conditions or on the lethality of other, non-oxygen-dependent, toxins such as ultraviolet radiation

  18. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is a reliable and excellent choice for fluorescence sensing. One of the key factors influencing the FA value for any molecule is the molar mass of the molecule being measured. As a result, the FA method with functional nucleic acid aptamers has been limited to macromolecules such as proteins and is generally not applicable for the analysis of small molecules because their molecular masses are relatively too small to produce observable FA value changes. We report here a molecular mass amplifying strategy to construct anisotropy aptamer probes for small molecules. The probe is designed in such a way that only when a target molecule binds to the probe does it activate its binding ability to an anisotropy amplifier (a high molecular mass molecule such as protein), thus significantly increasing the molecular mass and FA value of the probe/target complex. Specifically, a mass amplifying probe (MAP) consists of a targeting aptamer domain against a target molecule and molecular mass amplifying aptamer domain for the amplifier protein. The probe is initially rendered inactive by a small blocking strand partially complementary to both target aptamer and amplifier protein aptamer so that the mass amplifying aptamer domain would not bind to the amplifier protein unless the probe has been activated by the target. In this way, we prepared two probes that constitute a target (ATP and cocaine respectively) aptamer, a thrombin (as the mass amplifier) aptamer, and a fluorophore. Both probes worked well against their corresponding small molecule targets, and the detection limits for ATP and cocaine were 0.5 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively. More importantly, because FA is less affected by environmental interferences, ATP in cell media and cocaine in urine were directly detected without any tedious sample pretreatment. Our results established that our molecular mass amplifying strategy can be used to design aptamer probes for rapid, sensitive, and selective

  19. Development of high sensitivity transimpedance amplifier module for self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.K.; Tamboli, P.K.; Antony, J.; Balasubramanian, R.; Agilandaeswari, K.; Pramanik, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes design and development of a Transimpedance Amplifier for amplification of very low current from in core Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND). Measurement of neutron flux is very important for operation, control and protection of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). SPND is used to measure Reactor incore flux/power. Based on sensitivity of emitter material used in SPND, pitch length and neutron flux (power level); the current output from SPND varies from few pA to few μA. The described amplifier is suitable to use for this current range. The amplifier provides a very high gain using a resistive T network feedback topology. The amplifier is designed in two stages using ultra low bias current FET OPAMPs. Design of Transimpedance amplifier is carefully done to include ultra low input bias current, low offset voltage and noise. The amplifier has in built test facility for calibration and on line test facility for measurement of insulation resistance (IR). The amplifier module has on board isolated DC-DC converter circuit complying MIL/STD/461C/D which generate isolated +/-15V and +12V supply to provide parameter to parameter ground isolation and independence among each module/signal.The output from the amplifier is 0V to 6V for 0 to 150%FP. The design is simulated in computer and amplifier used at TAPS-3 was modified as per new design and has been tested at TAPS-3 site. The amplifier performed satisfactorily. The results showed that the IR measurement technique adopted in the design can tolerate lower IR of SPND in existing design. (author)

  20. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  1. Transaction charges allocation using sensitivity factor methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under this framework, the transmission tariff charged for the customers becomes ... Ni et al (2000) applied graph theory to solve the problem of power flow .... The coefficient of linear relationship between the amount of transaction and flow on.

  2. Comparison of charge collection in semiconductor detectors and timing resolution, using a sub-nanosecond transimpedance amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.

    1995-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier, with a risetime of <600 ps and a noise of <1000 RMS electrons in a 500 MHz bandwidth, has been used for comparison of charge collection times in silicon, gallium arsenide and diamond detectors. The use of silicon detectors as trigger counters/hodoscopes is demonstrated, together with measured timing characteristics. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of charge collection in semiconductor detectors and timing resolution, using a sub-nanosecond transimpedance amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudge, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-06-01

    A transimpedance amplifier, with a risetime of <600 ps and a noise of <1000 RMS electrons in a 500 MHz bandwidth, has been used for comparison of charge collection times in silicon, gallium arsenide and diamond detectors. The use of silicon detectors as trigger counters/hodoscopes is demonstrated, together with measured timing characteristics. (orig.).

  4. A relative quantitative Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method for the analysis of abiotic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, Piotr T.; Or?owska, Renata; Niedziela, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Background We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting H...

  5. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  6. A simplified, improved method for making amplifier equivalent noise charge measurements using a new generation digitizing oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1990-10-01

    Historically a variety of methods have been used to measure the equivalent noise charge (ENC) of amplifier/shaper systems for high energy physics. Some of these methods require several pieces of special test equipment and a fair amount of effort. The advent of digitizing oscilloscopes with statistics capabilities makes it possible to perform certain types of noise measurements accurately with very little effort. This paper describes the noise measurement method of a time invariant amplifier/shaper and of a time variant correlated sampling system, using a Tektronix DSA602 Digitizing Signal Analyzer. 4 figs

  7. A Novel Phase-Locking-Free Phase Sensitive Amplifier based Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Niels-Kristian; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Guan, Pengyu

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme for phase regeneration of optical binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) data signals based on phase sensitive amplification without active phase-locking. A delay interferometer (DI) is used to convert a BPSK signal impaired by noise to an amplitude modulated signal followed by cross......-locked pumps. As a result, active phase-stabilization is avoided. A proof-of-principle experiment is carried out with a dual-pump degenerate phase sensitive amplifier (PSA), demonstrating regeneration for a 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero differential BPSK (NRZ-DPSK) data signal degraded by a sinusoidal phase...

  8. Experimental implementation of a nonlinear beamsplitter based on a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yami; Feng, Jingliang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai, E-mail: jtjing@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-03-28

    Beamsplitters have played an important role in quantum optics experiments. They are often used to split and combine two beams, especially in the construct of an interferometer. In this letter, we experimentally implement a nonlinear beamsplitter using a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier, which is based on four-wave mixing in hot rubidium vapor. Here we show that, despite the different frequencies of the two input beams, the output ports of the nonlinear beamsplitter exhibit interference phenomena. We make measurements of the interference fringe visibility and study how various parameters, such as the intensity gain of the amplifier, the intensity ratio of the two input beams, and the one and two photon detunings, affect the behavior of the nonlinear beamsplitter. It may find potential applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing.

  9. Reduction of digital errors of digital charge division type position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritani, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Takenaka, Y.; Mori, C.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that ''digital errors'', i.e. differential non-linearity, appear in a position profile of radiation interactions when the profile is obtained with a digital charge-division-type position-sensitive detector. Two methods are presented to reduce the digital errors. They are the methods using logarithmic amplifiers and a weighting function. The validities of these two methods have been evaluated mainly by computer simulation. These methods can considerably reduce the digital errors. The best results are obtained when both methods are applied. ((orig.))

  10. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Inyong, E-mail: iykwon@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kang, Taehoon, E-mail: thnkang@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wells, Byron T., E-mail: wells@galtresearch.com [Galt LLC, Ypsilanti, MI (United States); D’Aries, Lawrence J., E-mail: lawrence.j.daries.civ@mail.mil [Picatinny Arsenal, Rockaway Township, NJ (United States); Hammig, Mark D., E-mail: hammig@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage. - Highlights: • A modified CSA was implemented for detector capacitance compensation. • Increasing detector capacitance degrades gain and rise time. • A bootstrap amplifier exploiting the Miller effect is described. • It allows using large area radiation sensors for high radiation-interaction rates. • Intensive noise analyses show that SNR is much better with the technique.

  11. Decoherence of odd compass states in the phase-sensitive amplifying/dissipating environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodonov, V.V., E-mail: vdodonov@fis.unb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04455, 70919-970 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Valverde, C. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Universidade Paulista, BR 153, km 7, 74845-090 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Souza, L.S. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Baseia, B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58.051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    We study the evolution of odd compass states (specific superpositions of four coherent states), governed by the standard master equation with phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating terms, in the presence of a Hamiltonian describing a parametric degenerate linear amplifier. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent Wigner function are obtained. The time of disappearance of the so called “sub-Planck structures” is calculated using the negative value of the Wigner function at the origin of phase space. It is shown that this value rapidly decreases during a short “conventional interference degradation time” (CIDT), which is inversely proportional to the size of quantum superposition, provided the anti-Hermitian terms in the master equation are of the same order (or stronger) as the Hermitian ones (governing the parametric amplification). The CIDT is compared with the final positivization time (FPT), when the Wigner function becomes positive. It appears that the FPT does not depend on the size of superpositions, moreover, it can be much bigger in the amplifying media than in the attenuating ones. Paradoxically, strengthening the Hamiltonian part results in decreasing the CIDT, so that the CIDT almost does not depend on the size of superpositions in the asymptotical case of very weak reservoir coupling. We also analyze the evolution of the Mandel factor, showing that for some sets of parameters this factor remains significantly negative, even when the Wigner function becomes positive.

  12. Sensitive electrochemical assaying of DNA methyltransferase activity based on mimic-hybridization chain reaction amplified strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqun; Liu, Yuanjian; Li, Ying; Zhao, Yuewu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2016-08-24

    A mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) amplified strategy was proposed for sensitive electrochemically detection of DNA methylation and methyltransferase (MTase) activity In the presence of methylated DNA, DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) were captured on the electrode by sandwich-type assembly. It then triggered mimic-HCR of two hairpin probes to produce many long double-helix chains for numerous hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting. As a result, the signal for electrochemically detection of DNA MTase activity could be amplified. If DNA was non-methylated, however, the sandwich-type assembly would not form because the short double-stranded DNAs (dsDNA) on the Au electrode could be cleaved and digested by restriction endonuclease HpaII (HapII) and exonuclease III (Exo III), resulting in the signal decrement. Based on this, an electrochemical approach for detection of M.SssI MTase activity with high sensitivity was developed. The linear range for M.SssI MTase activity was from 0.05 U mL(-1) to 10 U mL(-1), with a detection limit down to 0.03 U mL(-1). Moreover, this detecting strategy held great promise as an easy-to-use and highly sensitive method for other MTase activity and inhibition detection by exchanging the corresponding DNA sequence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A fully integrated, monolithic, cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifier using N-channel JFETs and polysilicon resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, T.S.; Guckel, H.; Seefeldt, J.; Ott, G.; Ahn, Y.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated charge preamplifier to be used with small (10--30 mm 2 ) Si(Li) and Ge(Li) X-ray detectors is described. The preamplifier is designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (∼100 K to 160 K) for the best performance. An N-channel JFET process technology for integrated charge sensitive preamplifiers has been developed. The process integrates multiple pinch-off voltage JFETs fabricated in an n-type epitaxial layer on a low resistivity p-type substrate. The process also incorporates polysilicon resistors integrated on the same die as the JFETs. The optimized polysilicon resistors exhibit 1/f noise nearly as good as metal film resistors at the same current. Results for integrated amplifier are discussed

  14. Optimization of the alignment sensitivity and energy stability of the NIF regenerative amplifier cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopps, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    The work to improve the energy stability of the regenerative amplifier ('regen') for the National Ignition Facility is described. This includes a fast feed-forward system, designed to regulate the output energy of the regen by monitoring how quickly a pulse builds up over many round trips. Shot-to-shot energy fluctuations of all elements prior to (and including) the regen may be compensated for in this way, at the expense of a loss of approximately 50%. Also included is a detailed study into the alignment sensitivity of the regen cavity, with the goal of quantifying the effect of misalignment on the output energy. This is done by calculating the displacement of the eigenmode by augmenting the cavity ABCD matrix with the misalignment matrix elements, E, F. In this way, cavity misalignment issues due to thermal loading of the gain medium are investigated. Alternative cavity designs, which reduce the alignment sensitivity and therefore the energy drift over periods of continuous operation, are considered. Alterations to the amplifier head design are also considered

  15. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using extreme ultraviolet interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ=13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high-power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity [S or best energy (BE)], and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (line width roughness, resolution and sensitivity trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). We present early proof-of-principle results for a multiexposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a "Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist™" (PSCAR™). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV-flood exposure (λ=365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR, and EL high-performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7- and 5-nm logic node [16- and 13-nm half-pitch (HP), respectively] for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12- and 11-nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated

  16. [Analysis of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism in wheat genome under the wheat leaf rust stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Hui; Feng, Li-Na; Sun, Yi; Yang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Da-Qun

    2009-03-01

    Intrinsic DNA methylation pattern is an integral component of the epigenetic network in many eukaryotes. DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Biological stress in plant provides an inherent epigenetic driving force of evolution. Study of DNA methylation patterns arising from biological stress will help us fully understand the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and DNA methylation of biological functions. The wheat near-isogenic lines TcLr19 and TcLr41 were resistant to races THTT and TKTJ, respectively, and Thatcher is compatible in the interaction with Puccinia triticina THTT and TKTJ, respectively. By means of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis, the patterns of cytosine methylation in TcLr19, TcLr41, and Thatcher inoculated with P. triticina THTT and TKTJ were compared with those of the untreated samples. All the DNA fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by each or both of isoschizomers, were amplified using 60 pairs of selective primers. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the challenged and unchallenged plants at DNA methylation level. However, epigenetic difference between the near-isogenic line for wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr41 and Thatcher was present.

  17. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) marker to investigate drought-stress response in Montepulciano and Sangiovese grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Emidio; Marconi, Gianpiero

    2014-01-01

    Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) is a technique developed for assessing the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation and has been applied to genomes of several species (Arabidopsis, grape, maize, tomato, and pepper). The technique relies on the use of isoschizomers that differ in their sensitivity to methylation.

  18. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using EUV interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ = 13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity (S or best energy BE) and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (LRS trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). Here we present early proof-of-principle results for a multi-exposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist (PSCAR). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV flood exposure (λ = 365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR and EL high performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7 and 5 nm logic node (16 nm and 13 nm half-pitch HP, respectively) for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12 nm and 11 nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated was compared to the CAR performance at and

  19. Design of A Charge sensitive preamplifier based on DMOS FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanni; Su Hong; Wembe Tafo Evariste

    2010-01-01

    A charge sensitive preamplifier composed of DMOS for silicon, TSi (Li), CdZnTe and CsI detectors etc was proposed in the paper. It used a circuit structure different from traditional one with resistance and capacitance feedback. It was composed of DMOS only so that it can be developed further easily to make Application Specific Integrated Circuit. We also find it has a rise time less than 15ns and good stability from the result of simulation with Multisim. (authors)

  20. A comparison of charged coupled devices and film sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallick, W.O.; Kenyon, R.G.; Lubatti, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The response of a charged coupled device (Fairchild CCD-202) to a Ne light source is studied and compared to the Kodak SO-143 film commonly used for streamer chamber applications. It is found that the CCD-202 cooled to - 10 0 C is considerebly more sensitive than the film. The advantages of using a CCD camera system for streamer chamber and other applications is discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Timing performances of diamond detectors with Charge Sensitive Amplifier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Berretti, M; Minafra, N

    2015-01-01

    Research on particle detector based on synthetic diamonds has always been limited by the cost, quality and availability of the sensitive material. Moreover, the read-out electronics requires particular care due to the small number of electron/hole pairs generated by the passage of a minimum ionizing particle. However, high radiation hardness, low leakage currents and high mobility of the electron/hole pairs make them an attractive solution for the time of flight measurements and the beam monitoring of new high energy physics experiments where the severe radiation environment is a limitation for most of the technologies commonly used in particle detection. In this work we report the results on the timing performance of a 4.5x4.5 mm$^{2}$ scCVD sensor read-out using a charge sensitive amplifier. Both sensors and amplifiers have been purchased from CIVIDEC Instrumentation. The measurement have been performed on minimum ionizing pions in two beam tests at the PSI and CERN-PS facilities with two different detec...

  2. Amplified fluorescent aptasensor through catalytic recycling for highly sensitive detection of ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yin; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes a novel approach utilizing nano-graphite-aptamer hybrid and DNase I for the amplified detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) for the first time. Nano-graphite can effectively quench the fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled OTA specific aptamer due to their strong π-π; stacking interactions; while upon OTA addition, it will bind with aptamer to fold into an OTA-aptamerG-quadruplex structure, which does not adsorb on the surface of nano-graphite and thus retains the dye fluorescence. Meanwhile, the G-quadruplex structure can be cleaved by DNase I, and in such case OTA is delivered from the complex. The released OTA then binds other FAM-labeled aptamers on the nano-graphite surface, and touches off another target recycling, resulting in the successive release of dye-labeled aptamers from the nano-graphite, which leads to significant amplification of the signal. Under the optimized conditions, the present amplified sensing system exhibits high sensitivity toward OTA with a limit of detection of 20nM (practical measurement), which is about 100-fold higher than that of traditional unamplified homogeneous assay. Our developed method also showed high selectivity against other interference molecules and can be applied for the detection of OTA in real red wine samples. The proposed assay is simple, cost-effective, and might open a door for the development of new assays for other biomolecules. This aptasensor is of great practical importance in food safety and could be widely extended to the detection of other toxins by replacing the sequence of the recognition aptamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. msap: a tool for the statistical analysis of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Figueroa, A

    2013-05-01

    In this study msap, an R package which analyses methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP or MS-AFLP) data is presented. The program provides a deep analysis of epigenetic variation starting from a binary data matrix indicating the banding pattern between the isoesquizomeric endonucleases HpaII and MspI, with differential sensitivity to cytosine methylation. After comparing the restriction fragments, the program determines if each fragment is susceptible to methylation (representative of epigenetic variation) or if there is no evidence of methylation (representative of genetic variation). The package provides, in a user-friendly command line interface, a pipeline of different analyses of the variation (genetic and epigenetic) among user-defined groups of samples, as well as the classification of the methylation occurrences in those groups. Statistical testing provides support to the analyses. A comprehensive report of the analyses and several useful plots could help researchers to assess the epigenetic and genetic variation in their MSAP experiments. msap is downloadable from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/) and its own webpage (http://msap.r-forge.R-project.org/). The package is intended to be easy to use even for those people unfamiliar with the R command line environment. Advanced users may take advantage of the available source code to adapt msap to more complex analyses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Classicalization times of parametrically amplified 'Schroedinger cat' states coupled to phase-sensitive reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Valverde, C.; Souza, L.S.; Baseia, B.

    2011-01-01

    The exact Wigner function of a parametrically excited quantum oscillator in a phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating reservoir is found for initial even/odd coherent states. Studying the evolution of negativity of the Wigner function we show the difference between the 'initial positivization time' (IPT), which is inversely proportional to the square of the initial size of the superposition, and the 'final positivization time' (FPT), which does not depend on this size. Both these times can be made arbitrarily long in maximally squeezed high-temperature reservoirs. Besides, we find the conditions when some (small) squeezing can exist even after the Wigner function becomes totally positive. -- Highlights: → We study parametric excitation of a quantum oscillator in phase-sensitive baths. → Exact time-dependent Wigner function for initial even/odd coherent states is found. → The evolution of negativity of Wigner function is compared with the squeezing dynamics. → The difference between initial and final 'classicalization times' is emphasized. → Both these times can be arbitrarily long for rigged reservoirs at infinite temperature.

  5. A novel charge sensitive preamplifier without the feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuccio, G.

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor is presented. No external device or circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The detector leakage and signal current flows away through the gate of the first JFET which works with its gate to source junction slightly forward biased. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is accomplished by an additional feedback loop, which permits to equalize the current flowing through the forward baised gate to source junction and the current coming from the detector. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using an input JFET with a transconductance to gate capacitance ratio of 4 mS/5.4 pF

  6. Coordinate-sensitive charged particle detector for spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko V. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have designed, manufactured and tested a coordinate-sensitive detector for charged particle spectroscopy. The detector can be used in the devices for the elemental analysis of materials, providing simultaneous analysis of all the elemental composition with high sensitivity and precision. The designed device is based on an integrated circuit (IC and a microchannel plate (MCP electron multiplier. The IC is mounted on a ceramic substrate. Ions fall on the MCP mounted above the IC. Giving rise to a pulse which typically exceeds 106 electrons, each ion falls on the detector electrodes and these pulses are counted. In this research, a two stage stack of MCPs (Hamamatsu was used. The MCPs have a channel diameter of 12 μm on a 15 μm pitch. The results of tests carried out in a mass spectrometer are presented. The designed detector is small, light, and low-power.

  7. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    Full Text Available The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investigated in 180 rice landraces under both normal and osmotic conditions via methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP technique. Great alterations (52.9~54.3% of total individual-locus combinations of DNA methylation are recorded when rice encountering the osmotic stress. Although the general level of epigenetic differentiation was very low, considerable level of ΦST (0.134~0.187 was detected on the highly divergent epiloci (HDE. The HDE detected in normal condition tended to stay at low levels in upland rice, particularly the ones de-methylated in responses to osmotic stress. Three out of four selected HDE genes differentially expressed between upland and lowland rice under normal or stressed conditions. Moreover, once a gene at HDE was up-/down-regulated in responses to the osmotic stress, its expression under the normal condition was higher/lower in upland rice. This result suggested expressions of genes at the HDE in upland rice might be more adaptive to the osmotic stress. The epigenetic divergence and its influence on the gene expression should contribute to the higher drought-resistance in upland rice as it is domesticated in the water-limited environment.

  8. DNA methylation in sugarcane somaclonal variants assessed through methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, J H M B; Kemper, E L; Costa, J B; Manechini, J R V; Pinto, L R

    2017-05-04

    Micropropagation is an important tool for large-scale multiplication of plant superior genotypes. However, somaclonal variation is one of the drawbacks of this process. Changes in DNA methylation have been widely reported as one of the main causes of somaclonal variations in plants. In order to investigate the occurrence of changes in the methylation pattern of sugarcane somaclonal variants, the MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) technique was applied to micro-propagated plantlets sampled at the third subculture phase. The mother plant, in vitro normal plantlets, and in vitro abnormal plantlets (somaclonal variants) of four sugarcane clones were screened against 16 MSAP selective primers for EcoRI/MspI and EcoRI/HpaII restriction enzymes. A total of 1005 and 1200 MSAP-derived markers with polymorphism percentages of 28.36 and 40.67 were obtained for EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI restriction enzyme combinations, respectively. The genetic similarity between the mother plant and the somaclonal variants ranged from 0.877 to 0.911 (EcoRI/MspI) and from 0.928 to 0.955 (EcoRI/HpaII). Most of the MASPs among mother plant and micro-propagated plantlets were derived from EcoRI/MspI restriction enzymes suggesting alteration due to gain or loss of internal cytosine methylation. A higher rate of loss of methylation (hypomethylation) than gain of methylation (hypermethylation) was observed in the abnormal in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Although changes in the methylation pattern were also observed in the in vitro normal plantlets, they were lower than those observed for the in vitro abnormal plantlets. The MASP technique proved to be a promising tool to early assessment of genetic fidelity of micro-propagated sugarcane plants.

  9. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Huang, Weixia; Xiong, Jie; Tao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Wei, Haibin; Yue, Yunxia; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investigated in 180 rice landraces under both normal and osmotic conditions via methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Great alterations (52.9~54.3% of total individual-locus combinations) of DNA methylation are recorded when rice encountering the osmotic stress. Although the general level of epigenetic differentiation was very low, considerable level of ΦST (0.134~0.187) was detected on the highly divergent epiloci (HDE). The HDE detected in normal condition tended to stay at low levels in upland rice, particularly the ones de-methylated in responses to osmotic stress. Three out of four selected HDE genes differentially expressed between upland and lowland rice under normal or stressed conditions. Moreover, once a gene at HDE was up-/down-regulated in responses to the osmotic stress, its expression under the normal condition was higher/lower in upland rice. This result suggested expressions of genes at the HDE in upland rice might be more adaptive to the osmotic stress. The epigenetic divergence and its influence on the gene expression should contribute to the higher drought-resistance in upland rice as it is domesticated in the water-limited environment.

  10. Smoking before isometric exercise amplifies myocardial stress and dysregulates baroreceptor sensitivity and cerebral oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyfanti, Panagiota; Triantafyllidou, Eleftheria; Papadopoulos, Stavros; Triantafyllou, Areti; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Douma, Stella; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina

    2017-06-01

    This crossover study examined whether acute cardiovascular responses, baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), and brain oxygenation during isometric exercise are altered after cigarette smoking. Twelve young, habitual smokers randomly performed a smoking and a control protocol, during which participants smoked one cigarette (0.9 mg nicotine) or a sham cigarette, before exercise. Testing involved baseline, a 5-minute smoking, a 10-minute post-smoking rest, 3-minute handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction), and recovery. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and cerebral oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were continuously monitored. Double-product, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance and BRS were assessed. During post-smoking rest, systolic or diastolic blood pressure (140.8 ± 12.1/87.0 ± 6.9 vs. 125.9 ± 7.1/77.3 ± 5.5 mm Hg), HR, and double product were higher in the smoking versus the control protocol, whereas BRS was lower (P exercise, smoking resulted in greater HR and double product (17,240 ± 3893 vs. 15,424 ± 3173 mm Hg·bpm) and lower BRS versus the control protocol (P smoking elicited a delayed return of brain oxygenation indices, lower BRS, and higher double product. Smoking a cigarette shortly before the exercise session amplifies myocardial stress and dysregulates autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation during exercise and recovery, even in young habitual smokers, perceived as free from long-term cardiovascular effects of smoking. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Laplace transform method in analysing the effect of amplifier parameter on identification of light charged particles with CsI(Tl) + PD (photodiodes) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua; Su Hong

    1992-01-01

    Laplace transform method is applied to investigate the effect of the choice of amplifier parameter on identification of the light charged particles emitted from 12 C(46.7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of Laplace transformation method in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is discussed as well

  12. A relative quantitative Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method for the analysis of abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Piotr T; Orłowska, Renata; Niedziela, Agnieszka

    2017-04-21

    We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting HpaII and MspI restriction sites in control and stressed samples, and takes advantage of molecular marker profiles generated by EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI MSAP platforms. Five Al-tolerant and five non-tolerant triticale lines were exposed to aluminum stress using the physiologicaltest. Total genomic DNA was isolated from root tips of all tolerant and non-tolerant lines before and after Al stress following metAFLP and MSAP approaches. Based on codes reflecting events affecting cytosines within a given restriction site recognized by HpaII and MspI in control and stressed samples demethylation (DM), de novo methylation (DNM), preservation of methylated sites (MSP), and preservation of nonmethylatedsites (NMSP) were evaluated. MSAP profiles were used for Agglomerative hierarchicalclustering (AHC) based on Squared Euclidean distance and Ward's Agglomeration method whereas MSAP characteristics for ANOVA. Relative quantitative MSAP analysis revealed that both Al-tolerant and non-tolerant triticale lines subjected to Al stress underwent demethylation, with demethylation of CG predominating over CHG. The rate of de novo methylation in the CG context was ~3-fold lower than demethylation, whereas de novo methylation of CHG was observed only in Al-tolerant lines. Our relative quantitative MSAP approach, based on methylation events affecting cytosines within HpaII-MspI recognition sequences, was capable of quantifying de novo methylation, demethylation, methylation, and non-methylated status in control

  13. Continuous-variable Measurement-device-independent Quantum Relay Network with Phase-sensitive Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is now heading towards solving the practical problem of implementing scalable quantum networks. In this paper, we show that a solution can come from deploying an optical amplifier in the CV-MDI system, aiming to establish a high-rate quantum network. We suggest an improved CV-MDI protocol using the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, where the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Despite the possibility that the relay could be completely tampered with and imperfect links are subject to the powerful attacks, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Furthermore, we show that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the inherent imperfections and improve the secret key rate of the CV-MDI system.

  14. The noise analysis and optimum filtering techniques for a two-dimensional position sensitive orthogonal strip gamma ray detector employing resistive charge division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Muller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of an orthogonal strip, two-dimensional position sensitive high purity germanium gamma ray detector is discussed. Position sensitivity is obtained by connecting each electrode strip on the detector to a resistor network. Charge, entering the network, divides in relation to the resistance between its entry point and the virtual earth points of the charge sensitive preamplifiers located at the end of each resistor network. The difference of the voltage pulses at the output of each preamplifier is proportional to the position at which the charge entered the resistor network and the sum of the pulse is proportional to the energy of the detected gamma ray. The analysis and spatial noise resolution is presented for this type of position sensitive detector. The results of the analysis show that the position resolution is proportional to the square root of the filter amplifier's output pulse time constant and that for energy measurement the resolution is maximized at the filter amplifier's noise corner time constant. The design of the electronic noise filtering system for the prototype gamma ray camera was based on the mathematical energy and spatial resolution equations. For the spatial channel a Gaussian trapezoidal filtering system was developed. Gaussian filtering was used for the energy channel. The detector noise model was verified by taking rms noise measurements of the filtered energy and spatial pulses from resistive readout charge dividing detectors. These measurements were within 10% of theory. (Auth.)

  15. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  16. Analysis of DNA methylation of maize in response to osmotic and salt stress based on methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-pu

    2010-01-01

    Water stress is known to alter cytosine methylation, which generally represses transcription. However, little is known about the role of methylation alteration in maize under osmotic stress. Here, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) was used to screen PEG- or NaCl-induced methylation alteration in maize seedlings. The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments relevant to stress were successfully obtained. Two stress-specific fragments from leaves, LP166 and LPS911, shown to be homologous to retrotransposon Gag-Pol protein genes, suggested that osmotic stress-induced methylation of retrotransposons. Three MSAP fragments, representing drought-induced or salt-induced methylation in leaves, were homologous to a maize aluminum-induced transporter. Besides these, heat shock protein HSP82, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 2, Lipoxygenase, casein kinase (CK2), and dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) factor were also homologs of MSAP sequences from salt-treated roots. One MSAP fragment amplified from salt-treated roots, designated RS39, was homologous to the first intron of maize protein phosphatase 2C (zmPP2C), whereas - LS103, absent from salt-treated leaves, was homologous to maize glutathione S-transferases (zmGST). Expression analysis showed that salt-induced intron methylation of root zmPP2C significantly downregulated its expression, while salt-induced demethylation of leaf zmGST weakly upregulated its expression. The results suggested that salinity-induced methylation downregulated zmPP2C expression, a negative regulator of the stress response, while salinity-induced demethylation upregulated zmGST expression, a positive effecter of the stress response. Altered methylation, in response to stress, might also be involved in stress acclimation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the background noise of field effect transistors in MOS complementary technology and application in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuville, E.

    1989-10-01

    A low noise amplifier for use in high energy physics is developed. The origin and the mechanisms of the noise in MOSFET transistors is carried out with the aim of minimizing such effects in amplifiers. The research is applied in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier. The time scale continuous filtering principle is used and allows the detection of particles arriving in the counter in a random distribution. The rules which must be taken into account in the construction of an analog integrated circuit are shown [fr

  18. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor

  19. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented

  20. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented.

  1. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis of Verticillium wilt-stressed cotton (Gossypium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Zhang, M; Chen, H D; Cai, X X; Xu, M L; Lei, K Y; Niu, J H; Deng, L; Liu, J; Ge, Z J; Yu, S X; Wang, B H

    2016-10-06

    In this study, a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis system was used to analyze DNA methylation level in three cotton accessions. Two disease-sensitive near-isogenic lines, PD94042 and IL41, and one disease-resistant Gossypium mustelinum accession were exposed to Verticillium wilt, to investigate molecular disease resistance mechanisms in cotton. We observed multiple different DNA methylation types across the three accessions following Verticillium wilt exposure. These included hypomethylation, hypermethylation, and other patterns. In general, the global DNA methylation level was significantly increased in the disease-resistant accession G. mustelinum following disease exposure. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the disease-sensitive accession PD94042, and a significant decrease was observed in IL41. Our results suggest that disease-resistant cotton might employ a mechanism to increase methylation level in response to disease stress. The differing methylation patterns, together with the increase in global DNA methylation level, might play important roles in tolerance to Verticillium wilt in cotton. Through cloning and analysis of differently methylated DNA sequences, we were also able to identify several genes that may contribute to disease resistance in cotton. Our results revealed the effect of DNA methylation on cotton disease resistance, and also identified genes that played important roles, which may shed light on the future cotton disease-resistant molecular breeding.

  2. Low noise amplifier for ZnS(Ag) scintillation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Hoang Cuong

    1998-01-01

    A new pulse amplifier that can be used with standard photomultiplier tubes coupled with Zn(Ag) scintillation chamber is presented. The amplifier based on an IC operational amplifier LF 356N consists of a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier and pulse shaping circuits for optimization of signal to noise ratio. Temperature instability is ≤ 0.05%/ o C. Dynamic range for linear output signals is equal +7 V. The presented amplifier is used in a measuring head for 0.17 L Lucas chambers developed in Department of Nuclear Instruments and Methods of the INCT in laboratory investigations aimed to develop methods and instruments for measurement of radon concentration in the air. The amplifier can also be employed for measurement of ionizing radiation by means of other scintillators coupled to PM tube. The amplifier is followed by a pulse discriminator with adjustable discrimination level. The amplifier output signal and discriminator output pulses are fed to external devices. (author)

  3. High power rf amplifiers for accelerator applications: The large orbit gyrotron and the high current, space charge enhanced relativistic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfield, R.M.; Fazio, M.V.; Rickel, D.G.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Peratt, A.L.; Kinross-Wright, J.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Faehl, R.; Carlsten, B.; Destler, W.W.; Warner, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos is investigating a number of high power microwave (HPM) sources for their potential to power advanced accelerators. Included in this investigation are the large orbit gyrotron amplifier and oscillator (LOG) and the relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). LOG amplifier development is newly underway. Electron beam power levels of 3 GW, 70 ns duration, are planned, with anticipated conversion efficiencies into RF on the order of 20 percent. Ongoing investigations on this device include experimental improvement of the electron beam optics (to allow injection of a suitable fraction of the electron beam born in the gun into the amplifier structure), and computational studies of resonator design and RF extraction. Recent RKA studies have operated at electron beam powers into the device of 1.35 GW in microsecond duration pulses. The device has yielded modulated electron beam power approaching 300 MW using 3-5 kW of RF input drive. RF powers extracted into waveguide have been up to 70 MW, suggesting that more power is available from the device than has been converted to-date in the extractor

  4. Charge-coupled devices as positron sensitive detectors of x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.S.; Zazhivikhin, V.V.; Zajtsev, V.I.; Mishevskij, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental studies on the sensitivity and spatial resolution of devices with a charge link (CLD) within the X-radiation energy range are described. The areas of the device application are considered

  5. A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1993-01-01

    A new method of removing the high value feedback resistor in the charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The circuit analysis of this novel design is described and the measured performances of a practical circuit are provided

  6. Charge migration contribution to the sensitive layer of a silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, N.; Seidman, A.; Rancoita, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated, by comparing the expected peak position (which takes into account the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. The measurement sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one. This effect is accounted for the charge migration to diffusion

  7. Sensitivity and fidelity of DNA microarray improved with integration of Amplified Differential Gene Expression (ADGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ile Kristina E

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ADGE technique is a method designed to magnify the ratios of gene expression before detection. It improves the detection sensitivity to small change of gene expression and requires small amount of starting material. However, the throughput of ADGE is low. We integrated ADGE with DNA microarray (ADGE microarray and compared it with regular microarray. Results When ADGE was integrated with DNA microarray, a quantitative relationship of a power function between detected and input ratios was found. Because of ratio magnification, ADGE microarray was better able to detect small changes in gene expression in a drug resistant model cell line system. The PCR amplification of templates and efficient labeling reduced the requirement of starting material to as little as 125 ng of total RNA for one slide hybridization and enhanced the signal intensity. Integration of ratio magnification, template amplification and efficient labeling in ADGE microarray reduced artifacts in microarray data and improved detection fidelity. The results of ADGE microarray were less variable and more reproducible than those of regular microarray. A gene expression profile generated with ADGE microarray characterized the drug resistant phenotype, particularly with reference to glutathione, proliferation and kinase pathways. Conclusion ADGE microarray magnified the ratios of differential gene expression in a power function, improved the detection sensitivity and fidelity and reduced the requirement for starting material while maintaining high throughput. ADGE microarray generated a more informative expression pattern than regular microarray.

  8. Sensitivity of charge transport measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    an intuitive, visual explanation for experimental misassignment of carrier type in n-type ZnO and agree with published experimental results for holes in a uniform material. These results simplify calculation and plotting of the sensitivities on an N x N grid from a problem of order N5 to one of order N3...

  9. Amplified photoacoustic performance and enhanced photothermal stability of reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods for sensitive photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyungwon; Kumar, Dinesh; Kim, Haemin; Sim, Changbeom; Chang, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jung-Mu; Kim, Hyuncheol; Lim, Dong-Kwon

    2015-03-24

    We report a strongly amplified photoacoustic (PA) performance of the new functional hybrid material composed of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanorods. Due to the excellent NIR light absorption properties of the reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods (r-GO-AuNRs) and highly efficient heat transfer process through the reduced graphene oxide layer, r-GO-AuNRs exhibit excellent photothermal stability and significantly higher photoacoustic amplitudes than those of bare-AuNRs, nonreduced graphene oxide coated AuNRs (GO-AuNRs), or silica-coated AuNR, as demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The linear response of PA amplitude from reduced state controlled GO on AuNR indicates the critical role of GO for a strong photothermal effect of r-GO-AuNRs. Theoretical studies with finite-element-method lab-based simulation reveal that a 4 times higher magnitude of the enhanced electromagnetic field around r-GO-AuNRs can be generated compared with bare AuNRs or GO-AuNRs. Furthermore, the r-GO-AuNRs are expected to be a promising deep-tissue imaging probe because of extraordinarily high PA amplitudes in the 4-11 MHz operating frequency of an ultrasound transducer. Therefore, the r-GO-AuNRs can be a useful imaging probe for highly sensitive photoacoustic images and NIR sensitive therapeutics based on a strong photothermal effect.

  10. DNA methylation changes detected by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism in two contrasting rice genotypes under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensheng; Zhao, Xiuqin; Pan, Yajiao; Zhu, Linghua; Fu, Binying; Li, Zhikang

    2011-09-20

    DNA methylation, one of the most important epigenetic phenomena, plays a vital role in tuning gene expression during plant development as well as in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was performed to profile DNA methylation changes in two contrasting rice genotypes under salt stress. Consistent with visibly different phenotypes in response to salt stress, epigenetic markers classified as stable inter-cultivar DNA methylation differences were determined between salt-tolerant FL478 and salt-sensitive IR29. In addition, most tissue-specific DNA methylation loci were conserved, while many of the growth stage-dependent DNA methylation loci were dynamic between the two genotypes. Strikingly, salt stress induced a decrease in DNA methylation specifically in roots at the seedling stage that was more profound in IR29 than in the FL478. This result may indicate that demethylation of genes is an active epigenetic response to salt stress in roots at the seedling stage, and helps to further elucidate the implications of DNA methylation in crop growth and development. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism-based genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation profiles in Nicotiana tabacum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Wu, J; Lv, Z; Sun, C; Gao, L; Yan, X; Cui, L; Tang, Z; Yan, B; Jia, Y

    2015-11-26

    This study aimed to investigate cytosine methylation profiles in different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivars grown in China. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism was used to analyze genome-wide global methylation profiles in four tobacco cultivars (Yunyan 85, NC89, K326, and Yunyan 87). Amplicons with methylated C motifs were cloned by reamplified polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed. The results show that geographical location had a greater effect on methylation patterns in the tobacco genome than did sampling time. Analysis of the CG dinucleotide distribution in methylation-sensitive polymorphic restriction fragments suggested that a CpG dinucleotide cluster-enriched area is a possible site of cytosine methylation in the tobacco genome. The sequence alignments of the Nia1 gene (that encodes nitrate reductase) in Yunyan 87 in different regions indicate that a C-T transition might be responsible for the tobacco phenotype. T-C nucleotide replacement might also be responsible for the tobacco phenotype and may be influenced by geographical location.

  12. Sensitive determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. by field-amplified, sample-stacking, sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Xu, Yi; Mu, Xiuni; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Lv, Junjiang

    2016-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the toxic components in Tussilago farfara L. Due to the lack of standard substances for quantitative analysis and traces of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in total alkaloids, the full quality control of Tussilago farfara L has been limited. In this study, we aimed to solve the difficulty of determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and identify more components in the total alkaloids. An on-line preconcentration method has been applied to improve determining sensitivity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. in which included field-amplified sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The main parameters that affected separation and stacking efficiency were investigated in details. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors obtained by the developed method for the analytes were from 15- to 12-fold, the limits of detection of senkirkine and senecionine were 2∼5 μg/L. Senkirkine and senecionine have been detected in alkaloids (c) of Tussilago farfara L, along ferulic acid methyl ester and methyl caffeate. The developed method was also applied to the analysis of acid extraction (a) of Tussilago farfara L, and senkirkine could be detected directly. The results indicated that the developed method is feasible for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L with good recoveries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Charge separation sensitized by advanced II-VI semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, David F. [Univ.of California, Merced, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This proposal focuses on how the composition and morphology of pure and alloyed II-VI semiconductor heterostructures control their spectroscopic and dynamical properties. The proposed research will use a combination of synthesis development, electron microscopy, time-resolved electronic spectroscopy and modeling calculations to study these nanostructures. The proposed research will examine the extent to which morphology, compression due to lattice mismatch and alloy effects can be used to tune the electron and hole energies and the spectroscopic properties of II-VI heterojunctions. It will also use synthesis, optical spectroscopy and HRTEM to examine the role of lattice mismatch and hence lattice strain in producing interfacial defects, and the extent to which defect formation can be prevented by controlling the composition profile through the particles and across the interfaces. Finally, we will study the magnitude of the surface roughness in core/shell nanostructures and the role of shell thickness variability on the inhomogeneity of interfacial charge transfer rates.

  14. Switched-capacitor multiply-by-two amplifier with reduced capacitor mismatches sensitivity and full swing sample signal common-mode voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinnan; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao; Nie Kaiming

    2012-01-01

    A switched-capacitor amplifier with an accurate gain of two that is insensitive to component mismatch is proposed. This structure is based on associating two sets of two capacitors in cross series during the amplification phase. This circuit permits the common-mode voltage of the sample signal to reach full swing. Using the charge-complement technique, the proposed amplifier can reduce the impact of parasitic capacitors on the gain accuracy effectively. Simulation results show that as sample signal common-mode voltage changes, the difference between the minimum and maximum gain error is less than 0.03%. When the capacitor mismatch is increased from 0 to 0.2%, the gain error is deteriorated by 0.00015%. In all simulations, the gain of amplifier is 69 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  16. [Analysis of genomic DNA methylation level in radish under cadmium stress by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Li-Wang; Gong, Yi-Qin; Huang, Dan-Qiong; Wang, Feng; He, Ling-Li

    2007-06-01

    The level of cytosine methylation induced by cadmium in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome was analysed using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The MSAP ratios in radish seedling exposed to cadmium chloride at the concentration of 50, 250 and 500 mg/L were 37%, 43% and 51%, respectively, and the control was 34%; the full methylation levels (C(m)CGG in double strands) were at 23%, 25% and 27%, respectively, while the control was 22%. The level of increase in MSAP and full methylation indicated that de novo methylation occurred in some 5'-CCGG sites under Cd stress. There was significant positive correlation between increase of total DNA methylation level and CdCl(2) concentration. Four types of MSAP patterns: de novo methylation, de-methylation, atypical pattern and no changes of methylation pattern were identified among CdCl(2) treatments and the control. DNA methylation alteration in plants treated with CdCl(2) was mainly through de novo methylation.

  17. New non-chemically amplified molecular resist design with switchable sensitivity for multi-lithography applications and nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Guruprasad Reddy, Pulikanti; Nandi, Santu; Yogesh, Midathala; Sharma, Satinder K.; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2017-12-01

    The development of new photoresist materials for multi-lithography applications is crucial but a challenging task for semiconductor industries. During the last few decades, given the need for new resists to meet the requirements of semiconductor industries, several research groups have developed different resist materials for specific lithography applications. In this context, we have successfully synthesized a new molecular non-chemically amplified resist (n-CAR) (C3) based on the functionalization of aromatic hydroxyl core (4,4‧-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)diphenol) with radiation sensitive sulfonium triflates for various lithography applications. While, micron scale features have been developed using i-line (365 nm) and DUVL (254 nm) exposure tools, electron beam studies on C3 thin films enabled us to pattern 20 nm line features with L/3S (line/space) characteristics on the silicon substrate. The sensitivity and contrast were calculated from the contrast curve analysis as 280 µC cm-2 and 0.025 respectively. Being an important parameter for any newly developed resists, the line edge roughness (LER) of 30 nm (L/5S) features were calculated, using SUMMIT metrology package, to be 3.66  ±  0.3 nm and found to be within the acceptable range. AFM analysis further confirmed 20 nm line width with smooth pattern wall. No deformation of patterned features was observed during AFM analysis which indicated good adhesion property between patterned resists and silicon substrates.

  18. Designing charge-sensitive preamplifiers based on low-noise analog integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakhanyan, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The methodology for designing charge-sensitive preamplifiers on the low-noise analog integral circuits, including all the stages: the mathematical synthesis with optimization of the intermediate function; the scheme-technical synthesis with parametric optimization of the scheme and analysis of draft projects with the parameter verification is presented. The designing is conducted on the basis of requirements for signal parameters and noise indices of the preamplifier. The system of automated designing of the charge-sensitive preamplifiers on the low-noise analog integral circuits is developed [ru

  19. Charge collection and absorption-limited x-ray sensitivity of pixellated x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Zahangir; Kasap, S.O.

    2004-01-01

    The charge collection and absorption-limited x-ray sensitivity of a direct conversion pixellated x-ray detector operating in the presence of deep trapping of charge carriers is calculated using the Shockley-Ramo theorem and the weighting potential of the individual pixel. The sensitivity of a pixellated x-ray detector is analyzed in terms of normalized parameters; (a) the normalized x-ray absorption depth (absorption depth/photoconductor thickness), (b) normalized pixel width (pixel size/thickness), and (c) normalized carrier schubwegs (schubweg/thickness). The charge collection and absorption-limited sensitivity of pixellated x-ray detectors mainly depends on the transport properties (mobility and lifetime) of the charges that move towards the pixel electrodes and the extent of dependence increases with decreasing normalized pixel width. The x-ray sensitivity of smaller pixels may be higher or lower than that of larger pixels depending on the rate of electron and hole trapping and the bias polarity. The sensitivity of pixellated detectors can be improved by ensuring that the carrier with the higher mobility-lifetime product is drifted towards the pixel electrodes

  20. Two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode as a charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, K.; Zadro, M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode has been tested for measurement of position and energy of charged particles. Position nonlinearity and resolution, as well as energy resolution and ballistic deficit were measured for 5.486 MeV α-particles. The results obtained for different pulse shaping time constants are presented

  1. The application of Multisim software to the analyzing of the charge-sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chao; Zhao Xiuliang; Yin Chenyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper told the usage of Multisim software in simulating and analyzing a charge-sensitive preamplifier which is a typical circuit in nuclear electronics. At the foundation of theoretic analysis, some basic characteristic were simulated and analyzed. The simulation result was obtained according with the academic result which have very assistant and reference value on theoretic analysis. (authors)

  2. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells: Light harvesting versus charge recombination, a film thickness consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Wei; Wang, Ye Feng; Zeng, Jing Hui; Shi, Feng; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiaxing

    2017-08-01

    Sensitizer loading level is one of the key factors determined the performance of sensitized solar cells. In this work, we systemically studied the influence of photo-anode thicknesses on the performance of the quantum-dot sensitized solar cells. It is found that the photo-to-current conversion efficiency enhances with increased film thickness and peaks at around 20 μm. The optimal value is about twice as large as the dye counterparts. Here, we also uncover the underlying mechanism about the influence of film thickness over the photovoltaic performance of QDSSCs from the light harvesting and charge recombination viewpoint.

  3. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Rehak, Pavel; Xi, Deming

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier.

  4. Operation amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a differential amplifier circuit 1;

  5. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm 2 with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm 2 . Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring

  6. Sensitized charge carrier injection into organic crystals studied by isotope effects in weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bube, W.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Haberkorn, R.; Steffens, E.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field (H approximately 50 Oe) dependence of the rhodamine sensitized triplet exciton density in anthracene crystals is influenced by isotopic substitution. This confirms the hyperfine interaction as mechanism explaining the change of the spin multiplicity in the initially formed singlet state of the radical pair. The isotope effect occurs in the sensitizing dye ( 14 N/ 15 N) rather than at the molecular site of the injected charge within the crystal. This can be understood in terms of the high hopping frequency of the charge carriers as compared to the time constant of the hyperfine induced singlet-triplet transition. Since the dye molecules adsorb in an oriented fashion, the angular dependence of the magnetic field modulation of the triplet exciton density can be interpreted without assuming any additional interactions. (Auth.)

  7. Fast neutron detection using a new pulse shape discrimination technique: Charge sensitive integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.; Tsoupas, N.; Karwowski, H.; Castaneda, C.; Nimnual, S.; Porter, R.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new electronic technique that depends on charge sensitive integration (CSI) has been developed and tested using a CAMAC based pulse shape discrimination system. Neutrons are well separated from γ-ray signals in the 0.1-100 MeV energy range. The new method was compared with the old zero-crossing time-to-amplitude differentiating technique and was found to be comparable in count rate and superior in noise suppression

  8. Amplifier with time-invariant trapezoidal shaping and shape-sensitive pileup rejector for high-rate spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drndarevic, V.; Ryge, P.; Gozani, T.

    1989-01-01

    An amplifier with trapezoidal pulse shaping was developed for high-rate high-energy gamma spectroscopy using NaI(T1) scintillation detectors. It employs a double delay-line technique for producing a nearly triangular pulse shape combined with a linear circuit for producing a flattopped pulse. Good energy resolution and short resolving time make this amplifier especially suitable for high count rate gamma ray spectroscopy. To provide a versatile high-performance system, it includes a pileup rejector based on inspection of a pileup signal obtained by combining the slow output signal and fast-shaped input signal. The trapezoidal shape provides a short resolving time for minimal occurrence of pileup with a width suitable for presentation to a standard multichannel analyzer. The performance of the system was tested, and the results are presented

  9. Theoretical rationalization for reduced charge recombination in bulky carbazole-based sensitizers in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakhot, Yaowarat; Laszlo, Viktor; Chitpakdee, Chirawat; Promarak, Vinich; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Kungwan, Nawee; Kowalczyk, Tim; Irle, Stephan; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn

    2017-05-05

    The search for greater efficiency in organic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and in their perovskite cousins is greatly aided by a more complete understanding of the spectral and morphological properties of the photoactive layer. This investigation resolves a discrepancy in the observed photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of two closely related DSCs based on carbazole-containing D-π-A organic sensitizers. Detailed theoretical characterization of the absorption spectra, dye adsorption on TiO 2 , and electronic couplings for charge separation and recombination permit a systematic determination of the origin of the difference in PCE. Although the two dyes produce similar spectral features, ground- and excited-state density functional theory (DFT) simulations reveal that the dye with the bulkier donor group adsorbs more strongly to TiO 2 , experiences limited π-π aggregation, and is more resistant to loss of excitation energy via charge recombination on the dye. The effects of conformational flexibility on absorption spectra and on the electronic coupling between the bright exciton and charge-transfer states are revealed to be substantial and are characterized through density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) molecular dynamics sampling. These simulations offer a mechanistic explanation for the superior open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the bulky-donor dye sensitizer and provide theoretical justification of an important design feature for the pursuit of greater photocurrent efficiency in DSCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Graetzel, Michael; Cesar, Ilkay

    2008-01-01

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO 2 with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 μm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 μm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the process

  11. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Cesar, Ilkay; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-22

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO(2) with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 µm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 µm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the

  12. Charge and energy transfer interplay in hybrid sensitized solar cells mediated by graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Iuliana; Radoi, Antonio; Mihaila, Mihai; Munteanu, Cornel; Marin, Alexandru; Danila, Mihai; Kusko, Mihaela; Kusko, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a one pot synthesis metod of GQD with controlled size and optoelectronic properties. • An improvement of common N3-DSSC characteristics is achieved when GQDs are used as co-sensitiser. • The role of GQD as cosensitisers in hybrid DSSC was investigated and the interplay between charge and energy transfer phenomena mediated by GQDs was demonstrated. • The GQDs presence determines an inhibition of the recombination processes at the TiO 2 /electrolyte interface. - Abstract: We explored the role of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as co-sensitizers in hybrid dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) architectures, focusing on various concurring mechanisms, such as: charge transfer, energy transfer and recombination rate, towards light harvesting improvement. GQDs were prepared by the hydrothermal method that allows the tuning of electronic levels and optical properties by employing appropriate precursors and synthesis conditions. The aim was to realize a type II alignment for TiO 2 /GQD/dye hybrid configuration, using standard N3 Ru-dye in order to improve charge transfer. When GQDs were used as co-sensitizers together with N3 Ru-dye, an improvement in power conversion efficiency was achieved, as shown by electrical measurements. The experimental analysis indicates that this improvement arises from the interplay of various mechanisms mediated by GQDs: (i) enhancement of charge separation and collection due to the cascaded alignment of the energy levels; (ii) energy transfer from GQDs to N3 Ru-dye due to the overlap between GQD photoluminescence and N3 Ru-dye absorption spectra; and (iii) reduction of the electron recombination to the redox couple due to the inhibition of the back electron transfer to the electrolyte by the GQDs

  13. Analytical bounds on SET charge sensitivity for qubit readout in a solid-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.; Buehler, T.M.; Brenner, R.; Hamilton, A.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quantum Computing promises processing powers orders of magnitude beyond what is possible in conventional silicon-based computers. It harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics directly, exploiting the in built potential of a wave function for massively parallel information processing. Highly ordered and scaleable arrays of single donor atoms (quantum bits, or qubits), embedded in Si, are especially promising; they are a very natural fit to the existing, highly sophisticated, Si industry. The success of Si-based quantum computing depends on precisely initializing the quantum state of each qubit, and on precise reading out its final form. In the Kane architecture the qubit states are read out by detecting the spatial distribution of the donor's electron cloud using a sensitive electrometer. The single-electron transistor (SET) is an attractive candidate readout device for this, since the capacitive, or charging, energy of a SET's metallic central island is exquisitely sensitive to its electronic environment. Use of SETs as high-performance electrometers is therefore a key technology for data transfer in a solid-state quantum computer. We present an efficient analytical method to obtain bounds on the charge sensitivity of a single electron transistor (SET). Our classic Green-function analysis provides reliable estimates of SET sensitivity optimizing the design of the readout hardware. Typical calculations, and their physical meaning, are discussed. We compare them with the measured SET-response data

  14. Interfacial charge separation and photovoltaic efficiency in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Duchanois, Thibaut; Liu, Li; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Haacke, Stefan; Gros, Philippe C

    2016-10-12

    The first combined theoretical and photovoltaic characterization of both homoleptic and heteroleptic Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized photoanodes in working dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been performed. Three new heteroleptic Fe(ii)-NHC dye sensitizers have been synthesized, characterized and tested. Despite an improved interfacial charge separation in comparison to the homoleptic compounds, the heteroleptic complexes did not show boosted photovoltaic performances. The ab initio quantitative analysis of the interfacial electron and hole transfers and the measured photovoltaic data clearly evidenced fast recombination reactions for heteroleptics, even associated with un unfavorable directional electron flow, and hence slower injection rates, in the case of homoleptics. Notably, quantum mechanics calculations revealed that deprotonation of the not anchored carboxylic function in the homoleptic complex can effectively accelerate the electron injection rate and completely suppress the electron recombination to the oxidized dye. This result suggests that introduction of strong electron-donating substituents on the not-anchored carbene ligand in heteroleptic complexes, in such a way of mimicking the electronic effects of the carboxylate functionality, should yield markedly improved interfacial charge generation properties. The present results, providing for the first time a detailed understanding of the interfacial electron transfers and photovoltaic characterization in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells, open the way to a rational molecular engineering of efficient iron-based dyes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  15. Sensitive pre-amplifier to load for Pin diodes; Pre-amplificador sensible a carga para diodos PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo V, R. Y.; Hernandez D, V. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez J, F. J., E-mail: yoshimarv@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The electronic instrumentation is indispensable for the measurement and characterization of the radiation. By means of this essential characteristics of the radiation are determined, as activity and their energy components. The nuclear instrumentation is based on the technical characteristics of the radiation detectors and the electronic devices associates (amplifiers, ana logical and digital converters, multichannel analyzers, etc.) The radiation detectors are very important instruments in fields as the nuclear physics, medicine, radiological protection, industry and in other fields, since they are the only method to capture the radiation and to be able to quantify it in precise form. To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, as the semiconductor type, inside them are the photodiodes type Pin. In this work the results that were obtained of the design, simulation, construction and tests of a preamplifier that was designed starting from a photodiode type Pin are presented. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits, in this were carried out many tests being obtained a compact design and achieving the best necessary characteristics for its optimization. With the results of the simulation phase the electronics phase was built, which was couples to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system was evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows obtaining, in a multichannel analyzer, the pulses height spectrum, with a good resolution and with this was calibrated the multichannel analyzer.

  16. Pulse shape discrimination with silicon detectors using charge and current-sensitive preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H.; Rauly, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Borderie, B.; Chabot, M.; Edelbruck, P.; Lavergne, L.; Le Bris, J.; Le Neindre, N.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Barbey, S.; Becheva, E.; Bzyl, F.R.; D' Esesquelles, P.; Galichet, E.; Lalu, G.; Martinet, G.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Legou, Th.; Tillier, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Carniol, B.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Grevy, S.; Lopez, O.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSI, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, 75 - Paris (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Villeurbanne Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 69 (France); Lanzalone, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, (Italy); Politi, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Rosato, E. [Napoli, Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione INFN (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    For the first time shapes of current pulses from light charged particles and carbon ions are presented. Capabilities for pulse shape discrimination techniques are demonstrated. In this work, charge and current-sensitive preamplifier prototypes for nuclear structure and dynamics experiments have been developed and tested with the aim of improving PSD (pulse shape discrimination) method by studying in detail current signal shapes from particles and ions over a large energy range. Note that current signal shapes have been recently used in atomic cluster studies to identify partitions of carbon cluster fragmentation. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is devoted to characterization of preamplifiers. In section 3, results of on beam tests will be presented, discussed and compared to a simple simulation.

  17. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  18. Some characteristic features of the construction of the amplifying channel for working with semiconductor detectors in the charged particle energy spectrometer. [noise minimization at preamplifier input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyuta, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    A transistorized spectrometric amplifier with a shaper is reported that selects the shape of the frequency characteristic of the amplifying channel for which the primary frequency spectrum of the signal will pass, but where the noise spectrum is limited to the maximum. A procedure is presented for selecting the shaping circuits and their inclusion principles.

  19. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  20. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, S.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. ; SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  1. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  2. Modification of the quantum-mechanical equations for the system of charged Dirac particles by including additional tensor terms of the Pauli type. Pt. 1. [Amplified Bethe-Salpeter, radiative corrections, fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janyszek, H [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland). Instytut Fizyki

    1974-01-01

    A new modified quasirelativistic equation (different from that of Breit) for N charged Dirac particles in the external stationary electromagnetic field is proposed. This equation is an amplified quantum-mechanical Bethe-Salpeter equation obtained by adding (in a semi-phenomenological manner) terms which take into account radiative corrections. The application of this approximate equations is limited to third order terms in the fine structure constant ..cap alpha...

  3. Amplifier Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  4. A study of charge transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized surface conductivity solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Dennis

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell developed by Junghaenel and Tributsch, the so-called Nano Surface Conductivity Solar Cell (NSCSC), was improved from 2% to 3.5% introducing a compact TiO{sub 2} underlayer, modifying the surface of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode, optimizing the deposition process of the electrolyte film, and replacing the platinum counter electrode by a carbon layer. Space-resolved photocurrent images revealed the importance of a homogeneous distribution of the electrolyte film. An uneven dispersion led to localized areas of high and low photocurrents, whereas the latter were attributed to an insufficient concentration of the redox couple. Impedance spectroscopy was performed on cells containing different concentrations of the redox couple. By modeling the spectra using an equivalent circuit with a transmission line of resistive and capacitive elements, the characteristic parameters of electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}, such as diffusion length and electron lifetime were obtained. The measurements indicated that the transport of the positive charge to the counter electrode is the main process limiting the efficiency of the cells. Excess charge carrier decay in functioning devices was analyzed by contactless transient photoconductance measurements in the microwave frequency range (TRMC). The lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers was observed to decrease with increasing applied potential, reaching its maximum close to the opencircuit potential of the cell, where the photocurrent density was minimal, i.e. the potential dependent decay observed was limited by the injection of electrons into the front contact. The functioning of this NSCSC indicated that the transport of the positive charge occurs by solid-state diffusion at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} particles. TRMC measurements on subset devices in the form of sensitized TiO{sub 2} layers revealed charge carrier kinetics strongly dependent on the

  5. Highly Sensitive Bulk Silicon Chemical Sensors with Sub-5 nm Thin Charge Inversion Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Hossain M; Gupta, Niharika; Han, Rui; Desai, Sujay B; Javey, Ali

    2018-03-27

    There is an increasing demand for mass-producible, low-power gas sensors in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. Here, we report chemical-sensitive field-effect-transistors (CS-FETs) based on bulk silicon wafers, wherein an electrostatically confined sub-5 nm thin charge inversion layer is modulated by chemical exposure to achieve a high-sensitivity gas-sensing platform. Using hydrogen sensing as a "litmus" test, we demonstrate large sensor responses (>1000%) to 0.5% H 2 gas, with fast response (<60 s) and recovery times (<120 s) at room temperature and low power (<50 μW). On the basis of these performance metrics as well as standardized benchmarking, we show that bulk silicon CS-FETs offer similar or better sensing performance compared to emerging nanostructures semiconductors while providing a highly scalable and manufacturable platform.

  6. Sensitive determination of neurotransmitters in urine by microchip electrophoresis with multiple-concentration approaches combining field-amplified and reversed-field stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Guan; Chen, Wujuan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yating; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang

    2016-07-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is particularly attractive as it provides high sensitivity and selectivity, short analysis time and low sample consumption. An on-line preconcentration strategy combining field-amplified stacking (FASS) and reversed-field stacking (RFS) was developed for efficient and sensitive analysis of neurotransmitters in real urine samples by MCE with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. In this study, the multiple-preconcentration strategy greatly improves the sensitivity enhancement and surpass other conventional analytical methods for neurotransmitters detection. Under optimal conditions, the separation of three neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin), was achieved within 3min with limits of detection (S/N=3) of 1.69, 2.35, and 2.73nM, respectively. The detection sensitivities were improved by 201-, 182-, and 292-fold enhancement, for the three neurotransmitters respectively. Other evaluation parameters such as linear correlation coefficients were considered as satisfactory. A real urine sample was analyzed with recoveries of 101.8-106.4%. The proposed FASS-RFS-MCE method was characterized in terms of precision, linearity, accuracy and successfully applied for rapid and sensitive determination of three neurotransmitters in human urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. E-mail: faustgr@usc.es; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A

    2003-10-21

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 {mu}m thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm{sup 2} with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm{sup 2}. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  8. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

  9. Sensitivity of the CSR self-interaction to the local longitudinal charge concentration of an electron bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Li, R

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects indicated that the observed emittance growth and energy modulation due to the orbit-curvature-induced bunch self-interaction are sometimes bigger than predictions based on Gaussian longitudinal charge distributions. In this paper, by performing a model study, we show both analytically and numerically that when the longitudinal bunch charge distribution involves concentration of charges in a small fraction of the bunch length, enhancement of the CSR self-interaction beyond the Gaussian prediction may occur. The level of this enhancement is sensitive to the level of the local charge concentration.

  10. DNA methylation levels analysis in four tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus based on fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) during aestivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-03-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating transcriptional change in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, DNA methylation levels of tissues of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were analyzed by the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) technique over three stages of the aestivation cycle. Overall, a total of 26,963 fragments were amplified including 9112 methylated fragments among four sea cucumber tissues using 18 pairs of selective primers. Results indicated an average DNA methylation level of 33.79% for A. japonicus. The incidence of DNA methylation was different across tissue types in the non-aestivation stage: intestine (30.16%), respiratory tree (27.61%), muscle (27.94%) and body wall (56.25%). Our results show that hypermethylation accompanied deep-aestivation in A. japonicus, which suggests that DNA methylation may have an important role in regulating global transcriptional suppression during aestivation. Further analysis indicated that the main DNA modification sites were focused on intestine and respiratory tree tissues and that full-methylation but not hemi-methylation levels exhibited significant increases in the deep-aestivation stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  12. Fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (FL-MS-AFLP) analysis for quantitative determination of DNA methylation and demethylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinji; Shinmura, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Goto, Masanori; Suzuki, Koichi; Tanioka, Fumihiko; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2008-04-01

    The PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method called the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) analysis is used for genome-wide scanning of methylation status. In this study, we developed a method of fluorescence-labeled MS-AFLP (FL-MS-AFLP) analysis by applying a fluorescence-labeled primer and fluorescence-detecting electrophoresis apparatus to the existing method of MS-AFLP analysis. The FL-MS-AFLP analysis enables quantitative evaluation of more than 350 random CpG loci per run. It was shown to allow evaluation of the differences in methylation level of blood DNA of gastric cancer patients and evaluation of hypermethylation and hypomethylation in DNA from gastric cancer tissue in comparison with adjacent non-cancerous tissue.

  13. A double-gate double-feedback JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzi, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) without a physical resistance in the feedback is presented. The input device has to be a double-gate JFET. In this new preamplifier configuration the feedback capacitor is continuously discharged by means of a second DC current feedback loop closed through the bottom gate of the input JFET. The top gate-channel junction works as usual in reverse bias, the bottom gate-channel is forward biased. A fraction of the current injected by the bottom gate reaches the top gate discharging the feedback capacitor. The n-channel double-gate JFET is considered from the viewpoint of the restoring action as a parasitic p-n-p ''transversal'' bipolar junction transistor. The new preamplifier is also suited for detectors operating at room temperature with leakage current which may vary with time. The DC behaviour and the dynamic behaviour of the circuit is analyzed and new measurements presented. (orig.)

  14. Copper Complexes with Tetradentate Ligands for Enhanced Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Michaels

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, the redox mediator is responsible for the regeneration of the oxidized dye and for the hole transport towards the cathode. Here, we introduce new copper complexes with tetradentate 6,6′-bis(4-(S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligands, Cu(oxabpy, as redox mediators. Copper coordination complexes with a square-planar geometry show low reorganization energies and thus introduce smaller losses in photovoltage. Slow recombination kinetics of excited electrons between the TiO2 and CuII(oxabpy species lead to an exceptionally long electron lifetime, a high Fermi level in the TiO2, and a high photovoltage of 920 mV with photocurrents of 10 mA∙cm−2 and 6.2% power conversion efficiency. Meanwhile, a large driving force remains for the dye regeneration of the Y123 dye with high efficiencies. The square-planar Cu(oxabpy complexes yield viscous gel-like solutions. The unique charge transport characteristics are attributed to a superposition of diffusion and electronic conduction. An enhancement in charge transport performance of 70% despite the higher viscosity is observed upon comparison of Cu(oxabpy to the previously reported Cu(tmby2 redox electrolyte.

  15. Effective charge collection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Satoh, Shin; Han, Liyuan

    2013-03-01

    The effective charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is an important factor to improve the efficiency. Here, we report the comparison of three types of structures in DSCs. One type of structure is a sandwich-type DSC (SW-DSC), in which the TiO2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron-collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back collection electrode. The second is a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. The third is a back-contact-type DSC (BC-DSC), in which a sputtered Ti back electrode is deposited on a TiO2 film on the opposite side of the normal glass as an optical window. The photocurrent response of an SW-DSC is the fastest of the three structures due to using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, which can be explained by the electron diffusion model. The model shows that the SW-DSC is a favorable structure for effective charge collection in DSCs.

  16. Effective charge collection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Satoh, Shin; Han, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    The effective charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is an important factor to improve the efficiency. Here, we report the comparison of three types of structures in DSCs. One type of structure is a sandwich-type DSC (SW-DSC), in which the TiO 2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron-collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back collection electrode. The second is a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. The third is a back-contact-type DSC (BC-DSC), in which a sputtered Ti back electrode is deposited on a TiO 2 film on the opposite side of the normal glass as an optical window. The photocurrent response of an SW-DSC is the fastest of the three structures due to using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, which can be explained by the electron diffusion model. The model shows that the SW-DSC is a favorable structure for effective charge collection in DSCs. (paper)

  17. Repeated episodes of ozone inhalation amplifies the effects of allergen sensitization and inhalation on airway immune and structural development in Rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Miller, Lisa A; Gershwin, Laurel J; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Van Winkle, Laura S; Gerriets, Joan E; Walby, William F; Mitchell, Valerie; Tarkington, Brian K; Wong, Viviana J; Baker, Gregory L; Pantle, Lorraine M; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Wu, Reen; Evans, Michael J; Hyde, Dallas M; Plopper, Charles G

    2003-08-15

    Twenty-four infant rhesus monkeys (30 days old) were exposed to 11 episodes of filtered air (FA), house dust mite allergen aerosol (HDMA), ozone (O3), or HDMA + O3 (5 days each followed by 9 days of FA). Ozone was delivered for 8 h/day at 0.5 ppm. Twelve of the monkeys were sensitized to house dust mite allergen (Dermatophagoides farinae) at ages 14 and 28 days by subcutaneous inoculation (SQ) of HDMA in alum and intraperitoneal injection of heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells. Sensitized monkeys were exposed to HDMA aerosol for 2 h/day on days 3-5 of either FA (n = 6) or O3 (n = 6) exposure. Nonsensitized monkeys were exposed to either FA (n = 6) or O3 (n = 6). During the exposure regimen, parameters of allergy (i.e., serum IgE, histamine, and eosinophilia), airways resistance, reactivity, and structural remodeling were evaluated. Eleven repeated 5-day cycles of inhaling 0.5 ppm ozone over a 6-month period had only mild effects on the airways of nonsensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Similarly, the repeated inhalation of HDMA by HDMA-sensitized infant monkeys resulted in only mild airway effects, with the exception of a marked increase in proximal airway and terminal bronchiole content of eosinophils. In contrast, the combined cyclic inhalation of ozone and HDMA by HDMA sensitized infants monkeys resulted in a marked increase in serum IgE, serum histamine, and airways eosinophilia. Furthermore, combined cyclic inhalation of ozone and HDMA resulted in even greater alterations in airway structure and content that were associated with a significant elevation in baseline airways resistance and reactivity. These results suggest that ozone can amplify the allergic and structural remodeling effects of HDMA sensitization and inhalation.

  18. Sensitive and direct determination of lithium by mixed-mode chromatography and charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Wigman, Larry; Zhang, Kelly

    2015-08-21

    A sensitive analytical method using mixed mode HPLC separation coupled with charged aerosol detection (CAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of lithium. The method is capable of separating lithium ion from different drug matrices and other ions in a single run thus eliminating the organic matrix and ionic analyte interferences without extensive sample preparation such as derivatization and extraction. The separation space and chromatographic conditions are defined by systematic studies of the retention behaviors of lithium and potential interfering ions and different type of pharmaceutical APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) under reversed-phase, HILIC and cation/anion exchange mechanisms. Compared to other current analytical techniques for lithium analysis, the presented method provides a new approach and demonstrates high sensitivity (0.02ng for LOD and 0.08ng for LOQ in both standard and sample solution). The method has been validated for pharmaceutical samples and can be potentially applied to biological, food and environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amplified Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…

  20. Ultra-sensitive speciation analysis of mercury by CE-ICP-MS together with field-amplified sample stacking injection and dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YiQuan; Cheng, Xian; Mo, Fan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Yongning; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-01

    A simple dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) from water sample, and a sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) with field-amplified sample stacking injection (FASI) were first reported in this study. The DSPE used thiol cotton particles as adsorbent, and is simple and effective. It can be used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace mercury compounds in water samples within 30 min with a satisfied recovery and no mercury species alteration during the process. The FASI enhanced the sensitivity of CE-ICP-MS with 25-fold, 29-fold and 27-fold for MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) , respectively. Using FASI-CE-ICP-MS together with DSPE, we have successfully determined ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) in tap water with a limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.26-0.45 pg/mL, an RSD (n = 3) mercury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Photo-induced charge transfer at heterogeneous interfaces: Dye-sensitized tin disulfide, the theory and the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzafame, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study of photo-induced charge transfer is an endeavor that spans the entire industrial period of man's history. Its great importance demands an ever greater understanding of its underlying principles. The work discussed here attempts to probe elementary aspects of the charge transfer process. Investigations into the theory of charge transfer reactions are made in an attempt to isolate the relevant parameters. An analytical discussion is made of a simple Golden Rule type rate equation to describe the transfer kinetics. Then a quantum simulation is carried out to follow the wavefunction propagation as a test of the applicability of the assumptions made in deriving the simpler rate equation. Investigation of charge transfer at surfaces is bet served by the application of ultrafast optical spectroscopies to probe carrier dynamics. A discussion of the properties of the short pulse laser systems employed is included along with a discussion of the different optical spectroscopies available. These tools are then brought to bear upon dye-sensitized SnS 2 , a model system for the study of charge injection processes. The unique properties of the semiconductor are discussed with respect to the charge transfer process. The unique properties of the semiconductor are discussed with respect to the charge transfer process. The optical experiments performed on the dye/SnS 2 systems elucidate the fundamental carrier dynamics and these dynamics are discussed within the theoretical framework to provide a complete picture of the charge transfer kinetics

  2. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes

  3. Application of CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier in triple-GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yongfang; Li Jin; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Deng Zhi; Li Yulan; Liu Yinong; Li Yuanjing

    2006-01-01

    Among the various micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGD) that are available, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector is an attractive gas detector that has been used in particle physics experiments. However the GEM detector usually needs thousands of preamplifier units for its large number of micro-pattern readout strips or pads, which leads to considerable difficulties and complexities for front end electronics (FEE). Nowadays, by making use of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), it is feasible to integrate hundreds of preamplifier units and other signal process circuits in a small-sized chip, which can be bound to the readout strips or pads of a micro-pattern particle detector (MPPD). Therefore, CMOS ASIC may provide an ideal solution to the readout problem of MPPD. In this article, a triple GEM detector is constructed and one of its readout strips is connected to a CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier chip. The chip was exposed to an 55 Fe source of 5.9 kev X-ray, and the amplitude spectrum of the chip was tested, and it was found that the energy resolution was approximately 27%, which indicates that the chip can be used in triple GEM detectors. (authors)

  4. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Christopher A [Albuquerque, NM; Denton, M Bonner [Tucson, AZ; Sperline, Roger P [Tucson, AZ

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  5. Inhibition of charge recombination for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells and self-powered UV sensors by surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Liang, E-mail: chuliang@njupt.edu.cn [Advanced Energy Technology Center, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); Qin, Zhengfei; Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering (SMSE), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Xin’guo, E-mail: maxg2013@sohu.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Inhibition of charge recombination was utilized to prolong electrode lifetime in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered UV sensors based on TiO{sub 2}-modified SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the electron lifetime was significantly prolonged in DSSCs after TiO{sub 2} modification. And in self-powered UV sensors, the sensitivity and response time were enhanced. - Highlights: • The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in photovoltaic devices. • Inhibition of charge recombination can prolong electrode lifetime in photovoltaic devices. • Enhanced DSSCs and self-powered UV sensors based on SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes were obtained by TiO{sub 2} modification. - Abstract: The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered ultraviolet (UV) sensors based on SnO{sub 2} hierarchical microspheres by TiO{sub 2} modification. For DSSCs with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2}, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was improved from 1.40% to 4.15% under standard AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the charge recombination was effectively inhibited, resulting in long electron lifetime. For UV sensors with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2} layer, the self-powered property was more obvious, and the sensitivity and response time were enhanced from 91 to 6229 and 0.15 s to 0.055 s, respectively. The surface modification can engineer the interface energy to inhibit charge recombination, which is a desirable approach to improve the performance of photoelectric nanodevice.

  6. Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters by capillary electrophoresis: Sensitivity enhancement using field-amplified sample injection and molecular imprinted polymer solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claude, Berengere; Nehme, Reine; Morin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) improves the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis through the online pre-concentration samples. → The cationic analytes are stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. → The limits of quantification are 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. → The presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity of the FASI/CE-UV method. - Abstract: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been investigated for the analysis of some neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at nanomolar concentrations in urine. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been used to improve the sensitivity through the online pre-concentration samples. The cationic analytes were stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. Several FASI parameters have been optimized (ionic strength of the running buffer, concentration of the sample protonation agent, composition of the sample solvent and nature of the pre-injection plug). Best results were obtained using H 3 PO 4 -LiOH (pH 4, ionic strength of 80 mmol L -1 ) as running buffer, 100 μmol L -1 of H 3 PO 4 in methanol-water 90/10 (v/v) as sample solvent and 100 μmol L -1 of H 3 PO 4 in water for the pre-injection plug. In these conditions, the linearity was verified in the 50-300 nmol L -1 concentration range for DA, 3-MT and 5-HT with a determination coefficient (r 2 ) higher than 0.99. The limits of quantification (10 nmol L -1 for DA and 3-MT, 5.9 nmol L -1 for 5-HT) were 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. However, if this method is applied to the analysis of neurotransmitters in urine, the presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity

  7. Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters by capillary electrophoresis: Sensitivity enhancement using field-amplified sample injection and molecular imprinted polymer solid phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude, Berengere, E-mail: berengere.claude@univ-orleans.fr [Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique, CNRS FR 2708 UMR 6005, Universite d' Orleans, 45067 Orleans (France); Nehme, Reine; Morin, Philippe [Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique, CNRS FR 2708 UMR 6005, Universite d' Orleans, 45067 Orleans (France)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) improves the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis through the online pre-concentration samples. {yields} The cationic analytes are stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. {yields} The limits of quantification are 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. {yields} The presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity of the FASI/CE-UV method. - Abstract: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been investigated for the analysis of some neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at nanomolar concentrations in urine. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been used to improve the sensitivity through the online pre-concentration samples. The cationic analytes were stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. Several FASI parameters have been optimized (ionic strength of the running buffer, concentration of the sample protonation agent, composition of the sample solvent and nature of the pre-injection plug). Best results were obtained using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-LiOH (pH 4, ionic strength of 80 mmol L{sup -1}) as running buffer, 100 {mu}mol L{sup -1} of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in methanol-water 90/10 (v/v) as sample solvent and 100 {mu}mol L{sup -1} of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in water for the pre-injection plug. In these conditions, the linearity was verified in the 50-300 nmol L{sup -1} concentration range for DA, 3-MT and 5-HT with a determination coefficient (r{sup 2}) higher than 0.99. The limits of quantification (10 nmol L{sup -1} for DA and 3-MT, 5.9 nmol L{sup -1} for 5-HT) were 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. However, if this method is applied to the analysis of

  8. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  9. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  10. Charge degree of freedom as a sensitive probe for fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, A.; Baba, H.; Takahashi, N.; Duh, M.C.; Saito, T.

    1997-01-01

    The role of the charge degree of freedom in the heavy-ion-induced fission was investigated by carrying out a systematic analysis of radiochemically observed charge distribution in the fission of 238 U with 12 C ions of the incident energy between 85 and 140 MeV, particularly in connection with the energy given to the compound system. The charge distribution was found to follow essentially identical systematics as those which govern the light-ion fission except for the extremely weak energy dependence of the most probable charge Z p . That is, values of the derivative of Z p with respect to the energy were found to be quite small, or nearly zero, in the heavy-ion fission as compared to those of the light-ion fission. According to an analysis combining the derivatives of Z p and fission neutron data, it was deduced that the excess energy given to the fused system was spent completely in the form of pre-scission neutrons and hence the number of post-scission neutrons remained constant as in the case of light-ion fission. The observed charge distribution was reproduced under the conditions that the relaxation of the charge degree of freedom be very fast and that the separation between the two potential fragments at the moment when the charge degree of freedom has been frozen is determined by using Viola's systematics on the fragment kinetic energy. (author)

  11. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed.

  12. Charge dividing mechanism on resistive electrode in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-10-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistancies and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C) 1 / 2 , where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  13. Amplifier channel for a fission fragment semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurin, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    To compensate the decrease of the transformation coefficient of fission fragment semiconductor detector (SCD) developed is a special amplification channel with controlled transfer coefficient. The block diagram of the channel is presented, the main functional units of which are as follows: preamplifying head with charge-sensitive and timing preamplifiers, linear amplifier and the circuit of spectrum position stabilization, which includes a differential discriminator, integrator and reference signal generator. The amplification channel is made in the CAMAC standard and has the following specifications: dinamical input capacitance of charge-sensitive amplifier c=10000 n PHI, signal amplitude at output of the linear amplifier at energy of fission fragments of 120 MeV has negative polarity and is equal to 5 V. Pulse amplitude change at SCD sensitivity decrease to 50% constitutes not more than 1%. Timing preamplifier has the gain factor at voltage of K=80 at front duration of 3.5 nc. Time resolution of the amplification channel is not worse than 1 nc. Dimensions of preamplifying head are 40x40x15 mm. The amplification channel permitted to use SCD for long-term measurements of fission fragment spectra [ru

  14. Charge Spreading and Position Sensitivity in a Segmented Planar Germanium Detector (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger, R. A; Gehrels, N; Johnson, W. N; Kurfess, J. D; Phlips, B. P; Tueller, J

    1998-01-01

    The size of the charge cloud collected in a segmented germanium detector is limited by the size of the initial cloud, uniformity of the electric field, and the diffusion of electrons and holes through the detector...

  15. Composite space charge density functions for the calculation of gamma sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors, using Warren's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, A. K.; Rao, P. S.; Misra, S. C.

    1994-07-01

    In the calculational model developed by Warren and Shah for the computation of the gamma sensitivity ( Sγ) it has been observed that the computed Sγ value is quite sensitive to the space charge distribution function assumed for the insulator region and the energy of the gamma photons. The Sγ of SPNDs with Pt, Co and V emitters (manufactured by Thermocoax, France) has been measured at 60Co photon energy and a good correlation between the measured and computed values has been obtained using a composite space charge density function (CSCD), the details of which are presented in this paper. The arguments are extended for evaluating the Sγ values of several SPNDs for which Warren and Shah reported the measured values for a prompt fission gamma spectrum obtained in a swimming pool reactor. These results are also discussed.

  16. Selective Acylation Enhances Membrane Charge Sensitivity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Mastoparan-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas Povl; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Rasmussen, Palle

    2011-01-01

    and positioning of the peptide in the membrane caused by either PA or OA acylation play a critical role in the fine-tuning of the effective charge of the peptide and thereby the fine-tuning of the peptide's selectivity between neutral and negatively charged lipid membranes. This finding is unique compared...... to previous reports where peptide acylation enhanced membrane affinity but also resulted in impaired selectivity. Our result may provide a method of enhancing selectivity of antimicrobial peptides toward bacterial membranes due to their high negative charge—a finding that should be investigated for other...

  17. Integrating a redox-coupled dye-sensitized photoelectrode into a lithium-oxygen battery for photoassisted charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; Ren, Xiaodi; Ma, Lu; Wu, Yiying

    2014-10-03

    With a high theoretical specific energy, the non-aqueous rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery is a promising next-generation energy storage technique. However, the large charging overpotential remains a challenge due to the difficulty in electrochemically oxidizing the insulating lithium peroxide. Recently, a redox shuttle has been introduced into the electrolyte to chemically oxidize lithium peroxide. Here, we report the use of a triiodide/iodide redox shuttle to couple a built-in dye-sensitized titanium dioxide photoelectrode with the oxygen electrode for the photoassisted charging of a lithium-oxygen battery. On charging under illumination, triiodide ions are generated on the photoelectrode, and subsequently oxidize lithium peroxide. Due to the contribution of the photovoltage, the charging overpotential is greatly reduced. The use of a redox shuttle to couple a photoelectrode and an oxygen electrode offers a unique strategy to address the overpotential issue of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries and also a distinct approach for integrating solar cells and batteries.

  18. KPiX, An Array of Self Triggered Charge Sensitive Cells Generating Digital Time and Amplitude Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Silicon Detector proposed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires electronic read-out that can be tightly coupled to the silicon detectors envisioned for the tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. The KPiX is a 1024-channel read-out chip that bump-bonds to the detector and communicates through a few digital signals, power, and detector bias. The KPiX front-end is a low-noise dual-range charge-amplifier with a dynamic range of 17 bit, achieved by autonomous switching of the feedback capacitor. The device takes advantage of the ILC duty cycle of 1 ms trains at 5 Hz rate by lowering the supply current after the data acquisition cycle for an average power consumption of <20 (micro)W/channel. During the 1 ms train, up to four events exceeding a programmable threshold can be stored, the amplitude as a voltage on a capacitor for subsequent digitization, the event time in digital format. The chip can be configured for other than ILC applications

  19. Analysis of charge transport in gels containing polyoxometallates using methods of different sensitivity to migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, Karolina; Lewera, Adam; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Kulesza, Pawel J; Stojek, Zbigniew; Jeffrey, Kenneth R

    2006-08-04

    Two methods have been used for examination of transport of charge in gels soaked with DMF and containing dissolved polyoxometallates. The first method is based on the analysis of both Cottrellian and steady-state currents and therefore is capable of giving the concentration of the electroactive redox centres and their transport (diffusion-type) coefficient. The second method provides the real diffusion coefficients, i.e. transport coefficients free of migrational influence, for both the substrate and the product of the electrode reaction. Several gels based on poly(methyl methacrylate), with charged (addition of 1-acrylamido-2-methyl-2-propanesulphonic acid to the polymerization mixture) and uncharged chains, have been used in the investigation. The ratio obtained for the diffusion coefficient (second method) and transport coefficient (first method) was smaller for the gels containing charged polymer chains than for the gels with uncharged chains. In part these changes could be explained by the contribution of migration to the transport of polyoxomatallates in the gels. However, the impact of the changes in the polymer-channel capacity at the electrode surface while the electrode process proceeds was also considered. These structural changes should affect differently the methods based on different time domains.

  20. Charge Transfer Dynamics of Highly Efficient Cyanidin-3-O- Glucoside Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prima, E C; Yuliarto, B; Suyatman; Dipojono, H K

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the novel efficiency achievement of black rice-based natural dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher dye concentration, the longer dye extraction as well as dye immersion onto a TiO 2 film, and the co-adsorption addition are key strategies for improved-cell performance compared to the highest previous achievement. The black rice dye containing 1.38 mM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside has been extracted without purification for 3 weeks at dark condition and room temperature. The anatase TiO 2 photoanode was dipped into dye solution within 4 days. Its electrode was firmly sealed to be a cell and was filled by I - /I 3 - electrolyte using vacuum technique. As a result, the overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency was 1.49% at AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW.cm -2 ). The voltametric analysis has reported the interfacial electronic band edges of TiO 2 -Dye-Electrolyte. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown the kinetic of interfacial electron transfer dynamics among TiO 2 -dye-electrolyte. The cell has the transfer resistance (Rt) of 12.5 ω, the recombination resistance (Rr) of 266.8 ω, effective electron diffusion coefficients (Dn) of 1.4 × 10 -3 cm 2 /s, Dye-TiO 2 effective electron transfer (τ d ) of 26.6 μs, effective diffusion length (L n )of 33.78 μm, chemical capacitance (C μ ) of 12.43 μF, and electron lifetime (τ n ) of 3.32 ms. (paper)

  1. Development and a Validation of a Charge Sensitive Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Simulation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ziviani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems and the large number of cycle models proposed in the literature, charge-based ORC models are still almost absent. In this paper, a detailed overall ORC simulation model is presented based on two solution strategies: condenser subcooling and total working fluid charge of the system. The latter allows the subcooling level to be predicted rather than specified as an input. The overall cycle model is composed of independent models for pump, expander, line sets, liquid receiver and heat exchangers. Empirical and semi-empirical models are adopted for the pump and expander, respectively. A generalized steady-state moving boundary method is used to model the heat exchangers. The line sets and liquid receiver are used to better estimate the total charge of the system and pressure drops. Finally, the individual components are connected to form a cycle model in an object-oriented fashion. The solution algorithm includes a preconditioner to guess reasonable values for the evaporating and condensing temperatures and a main cycle solver loop which drives to zero a set of residuals to ensure the convergence of the solution. The model has been developed in the Python programming language. A thorough validation is then carried out against experimental data obtained from two test setups having different nominal size, working fluids and individual components: (i a regenerative ORC with a 5 kW scroll expander and an oil flooding loop; (ii a regenerative ORC with a 11 kW single-screw expander. The computer code is made available through open-source dissemination.

  2. KATANA – A charge-sensitive triggering system for the SπRIT experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Adamczyk, M.; Brzychczyk, J. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Hirnyk, P.; Łukasik, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Pawłowski, P., E-mail: piotr.pawlowski@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Pelczar, K. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Snoch, A. [University of Wroclaw, Wrocław (Poland); Sochocka, A.; Sosin, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Barney, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Cerizza, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Estee, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Jhang, G. [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kaneko, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-shirakawa, Kyoto (Japan); Kurata-Nishimura, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); and others

    2017-06-01

    KATANA - the Krakow Array for Triggering with Amplitude discrimiNAtion - has been built and used as a trigger and veto detector for the SπRIT TPC at RIKEN. Its construction allows operating in magnetic field and providing fast response for ionizing particles, giving an approximate forward multiplicity and charge information. Depending on this information, trigger and veto signals are generated. The article presents performance of the detector and details of its construction. A simple phenomenological parametrization of the number of emitted scintillation photons in plastic scintillator is proposed. The effect of the light output deterioration in the plastic scintillator due to the in-beam irradiation is discussed.

  3. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79 % incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1 % energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dynamics of Interfacial Charge Transfer States and Carriers Separation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Jan C.; Marchioro, Arianna; Paraecattil, Arun A.; Oskouei, Ahmad A.; Moser, Jacques-E.

    2015-01-01

    Electron injection from a photoexcited molecular sensitizer into a wide-bandgap semiconductor is the primary step toward charge separation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). According to the current understanding of DSSCs functioning mechanism, charges are separated directly during this primary electron transfer process, yielding hot conduction band electrons in the semiconductor and positive holes localized on oxidized dye molecules at the surface. Comparing results of ultrafast transien...

  5. Detection of non-absorbing charge dynamics via refractive index change in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Shota; Hata, Hiroaki; Taya, Soichiro; Maeda, Naotaka; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Katayama, Kenji

    2013-04-28

    The carrier dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated by using the transient grating, in addition to the transient absorption method and transient photocurrent method on the order of microseconds to seconds. The signals for the same sample were obtained under a short-circuit condition to compare the carrier dynamics via refractive index change with the transient photocurrent measurement. Optically silent carrier dynamics by transient absorption have been successfully observed via a refractive index change. The corresponding signal components were originated from the charge dynamics at the solid/liquid interface, especially on the liquid side; rearrangement or diffusion motion of charged redox species occurred when the injected electrons were trapped at the TiO2 surface and when the electron-electrolyte recombination occurred at the interface. The assignments were confirmed from the dependence on the viscosity of the solvent and the presence of 4-tert-butyl pyridine. As the viscosity of the solvent increased, the rearrangement and the motion of the charged redox species were delayed. Since the rearrangement dynamics was changed by the presence of 4-tert-butyl pyridine, it affected not only the TiO2 surface but also the redox species close to the interface.

  6. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lihua; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films

  7. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  8. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Gyuseong.

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was ∼400 MHz and the noise charge ∼1000 electrons at a 1 μsec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB

  9. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyuseong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was ~400 MHz and the noise charge ~1000 electrons at a 1 μsec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of ~0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

  10. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyuseong.

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was {approximately}400 MHz and the noise charge {approximately}1000 electrons at a 1 {mu}sec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately}0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

  11. Investigation on Interfacial Charge Transfer Process in CdSexTe1-x Alloyed Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Huiyun; Wang, Guoshuai; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal QDs, typically, alloyed QDs with extending light absorption range, exhibit prospective application on quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). In this work, CdSe 0.8 Te 0.2 alloyed QDs have been employed to assemble QDSCs, and the influence of the photoanode structure and film thickness on the cell performance has been investigated in detail. Further study on the charge transport and interfacial electron transfer processes reveals that with the film thickness increasing, recombination possibility will be remarkably enhanced. By careful control on the balance between the light absorption and carrier recombination, an optimal double-layer photoanode structure with 11.5 μm-thickness transparent and 6 μm-thickness scattering layers can present a power conversion efficiency of 7.55%, which is one of the best records for the sandwiched-type QDSCs

  12. Optimizing low-light microscopy with back-illuminated electron multiplying charge-coupled device: enhanced sensitivity, speed, and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Colin G; Denvir, Donal J; McHale, Noel G; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    The back-illuminated electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera is having a profound influence on the field of low-light dynamic cellular microscopy, combining highest possible photon collection efficiency with the ability to virtually eliminate the readout noise detection limit. We report here the use of this camera, in 512 x 512 frame-transfer chip format at 10-MHz pixel readout speed, in optimizing a demanding ultra-low-light intracellular calcium flux microscopy setup. The arrangement employed includes a spinning confocal Nipkow disk, which, while facilitating the need to both generate images at very rapid frame rates and minimize background photons, yields very weak signals. The challenge for the camera lies not just in detecting as many of these scarce photons as possible, but also in operating at a frame rate that meets the temporal resolution requirements of many low-light microscopy approaches, a particular demand of smooth muscle calcium flux microscopy. Results presented illustrate both the significant sensitivity improvement offered by this technology over the previous standard in ultra-low-light CCD detection, the GenIII+intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and also portray the advanced temporal and spatial resolution capabilities of the EMCCD. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  13. Imaging the Anomalous Charge Distribution Inside CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Jana, Santanu; Calmeiro, Tomás; Nunes, Daniela; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2017-10-24

    Highly luminescent CsPbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have gained huge attention in research due to their various applications in optoelectronics, including as a light absorber in photovoltaic solar cells. To improve the performances of such devices, it requires a deeper knowledge on the charge transport dynamics inside the solar cell, which are related to its power-conversion efficiency. Here, we report the successful fabrication of an all-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite QD sensitized solar cell and the imaging of anomalous electrical potential distribution across the layers of the cell under different illuminations using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Carrier generation, separation, and transport capacity inside the cells are dependent on the light illumination. Large differences in surface potential between electron and hole transport layers with unbalanced carrier separation at the junction have been observed under white light (full solar spectrum) illumination. However, under monochromatic light (single wavelength of solar spectrum) illumination, poor charge transport occurred across the junction as a consequence of less difference in surface potential between the active layers. The outcome of this study provides a clear idea on the carrier dynamic processes inside the cells and corresponding surface potential across the layers under the illumination of different wavelengths of light to understand the functioning of the solar cells and ultimately for the improvement of their photovoltaic performances.

  14. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  15. Two-dimensional CsPbBr3/PCBM heterojunctions for sensitive, fast and flexible photodetectors boosted by charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yalong; Yu, Dejian; Wang, Xiong; Huo, Chengxue; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Zhengfeng; Zeng, Haibo

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic halide perovskites exhibited promising potentials for high-performance wide-band photodetectors (PDs) due to their high light absorption coefficients, long carrier diffusion length and wide light absorption ranges. Here, we report two-dimensional (2D) CsPbBr3/PCBM heterojunctions for sensitive, fast and flexible PDs, whose performances can be greatly boosted by the charge transfer through the energy-aligned interface. The 2D CsPbBr3 nanosheets with high crystallinity were fabricated via a simple solution-process at room temperature, and then assembled into flexible heterojunctions films with polymerphenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Significantly, the efficient and fast charge transfer at the heterojunctions interface was evidenced by the obvious photoluminescence quenching and variation of recombination dynamics. Subsequently, such heterojunctions PD exhibited an enhanced responsivity of 10.85 A W-1 and an ultrahigh detectivity of 3.06 × 1013 Jones. In addition, the PD shows a broad linear dynamic range of 73 dB, a fast response speed with rise time of 44 μs and decay time of 390 μs, respectively. Moreover, the PD lying on polyethylene terephthalate substrates exhibited an outstanding mechanical flexibility and a robust electrical stability. These results could provide a new avenue for integration of 2D perovskites and organic functional materials and for high-performance flexible PDs.

  16. DFT-INDO/S modeling of new high molar extinction coefficient charge-transfer sensitizers for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Wang, Qing; Cevey, Le; Aranyos, Viviane; Liska, Paul; Figgemeier, Egbert; Klein, Cedric; Hirata, Narukuni; Koops, Sara; Haque, Saif A; Durrant, James R; Hagfeldt, Anders; Lever, A B P; Grätzel, Michael

    2006-01-23

    A new ruthenium(II) complex, tetrabutylammonium [ruthenium (4-carboxylic acid-4'-carboxylate-2,2'-bipyridine)(4,4'-di(2-(3,6-dimethoxyphenyl)ethenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)(NCS)(2)] (N945H), was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic, and electrochemical techniques. The absorption spectrum of the N945H sensitizer is dominated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible region, with the lowest allowed MLCT bands appearing at 25 380 and 18 180 cm(-1). The molar extinction coefficients of these bands are 34 500 and 18 900 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively, and are significantly higher when compared to than those of the standard sensitizer cis-dithiocyanatobis(4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II). An INDO/S and density functional theory study of the electronic and optical properties of N945H and of N945 adsorbed on TiO(2) was performed. The calculations point out that the top three frontier-filled orbitals have essentially ruthenium 4d (t(2g) in the octahedral group) character with sizable contribution coming from the NCS ligand orbitals. Most critically the calculations reveal that, in the TiO(2)-bound N945 sensitizer, excitation directs charge into the carboxylbipyridine ligand bound to the TiO(2) surface. The photovoltaic data of the N945 sensitizer using an electrolyte containing 0.60 M butylmethylimidazolium iodide, 0.03 M I(2), 0.10 M guanidinium thiocyanate, and 0.50 M tert-butylpyridine in a mixture of acetonitrile and valeronitrile (volume ratio = 85:15) exhibited a short-circuit photocurrent density of 16.50 +/- 0.2 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 790 +/- 30 mV, and a fill factor of 0.72 +/- 0.03, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 9.6% under standard AM (air mass) 1.5 sunlight, and demonstrated a stable performance under light and heat soaking at 80 degrees C.

  17. An integral whole circuit of amplifying and discriminating suited to high counting rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Chengfu; Su Hong; Wu Ming; Li Xiaogang; Peng Yu; Qian Yi; Liu Yicai; Xu Sijiu; Ma Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid circuit consists of charge sensitive preamplifier, main amplifier, discriminator and shaping circuit was described. This instrument has characteristics of low power consumption, small volume, high sensitivity, potable and so on, and is convenient for use in field. The output pulse of this instrument may directly consist with CMOS or TTL logic level. This instrument was mainly used for count measurement, for example, for high sensitive 3 He neutron detector, meanwhile also may used for other heavy ion detectors, the highest counting rate can reach 10 6 /s. (authors)

  18. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  19. Amplified OTDR Systems for Multipoint Corrosion Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jehan F.; Silva, Marcionilo J.; Coêlho, Isnaldo J. S.; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F.

    2012-01-01

    We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations. PMID:22737017

  20. Amplifier for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Canner, E.

    1996-01-01

    The spectroscopy amplifier model AE-020 is designed to adjust suitable the pulses coming from nuclear radiation detectors. Due to is capacity and specifications, the amplifier can be used together with high and medium resolution spectroscopy system

  1. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  2. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  3. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  4. The charge-transfer property and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells of nitrogen doped zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Yulin; Fan Ruiqing; Chen Haiyan; Jia Ruokun; Wang Yonghui; Ma Liqun; Wang Yazhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two methods (the solution and annealing methods) are used to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO. ► The charge-transfer properties of N-doping ZnO are investigated. ► The overall conversion efficiency of N-doped ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells is successfully improved by N doping. - Abstract: In this study two methods, namely the solution and annealing methods, were used to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to identify the composition and chemical states of N-doped ZnO. The N doping by the solution method was found to effectively decrease the acceptor effects. Surface photovoltage measurements (SPS) revealed a redshift of the threshold wavelength for the N-doped ZnO. And the recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs in this semiconductor material was obviously suppressed. The N-doped ZnO (solution method) exhibits the best performances among all the materials, even superior to N-doped ZnO (annealing method). Its J sc and η values (9.35 mA/cm 2 and 2.64%) have enhanced by several times compared with un-doped ZnO (J sc , 2.85 mA/cm 2 ; η, 0.67%). The overall conversion efficiency of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells was successfully improved by the N doping.

  5. High efficiency class-I audio power amplifier using a single adaptive supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshand; Feng Yong; Hong Zhiliang; Liu Yang

    2012-01-01

    A high efficiency class-I linear audio power amplifier (PA) with an adaptive supply is presented. Its efficiency is improved by a dynamic supply to reduce the power transistors' voltage drop. A gain compression technique is adopted to make the amplifier accommodate a single positive supply. Circuit complicity and chip area are reduced because no charge pump is necessary for the negative supply. A common shared mode voltage and a symmetric layout pattern are used to minimize the non-linearity. A peak efficiency of 80% is reached at peak output power. The measured THD+N before and after the supply switching point are 0.01% and 0.05%, respectively. The maximum output power is 410 mW for an 8 Ω speaker load. Unlike switching amplifiers, the class-I amplifier operates as a linear amplifier and hence has a low EMI. The advantage of a high efficiency and low EMI makes the class-I amplifier suitable for portable and RF sensitive applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. The multichannel amplifier/discriminator CMOS ASIC for visual light photon counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Yurenya, Yu.P.Yu.P.

    2002-01-01

    The 18-channel CMOS custom monolithic amplifier/discriminator ASIC was designed as a front-end electronics chip for Visual Light Photon Counters which convert photons from scintillation fibre/strip detectors to electrical signals. One ASICs channel contains a charge-sensitive preamplifier, a discriminator to mark the arrival time of signals, and a charge divider to provide analog outputs for analog-to-digital conversion being performed by SVX2. The ASIC is proposed as one of the variants for possible future front-end electronics upgrading the D0 Central Fibre Tracker, Central and Forward Pre-Showers (Fermilab, Batavia, USA)

  7. Quantum-Limited Directional Amplifiers with Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malz, Daniel; Tóth, László D.; Bernier, Nathan R.; Feofanov, Alexey K.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Directional amplifiers are an important resource in quantum-information processing, as they protect sensitive quantum systems from excess noise. Here, we propose an implementation of phase-preserving and phase-sensitive directional amplifiers for microwave signals in an electromechanical setup comprising two microwave cavities and two mechanical resonators. We show that both can reach their respective quantum limits on added noise. In the reverse direction, they emit thermal noise stemming from the mechanical resonators; we discuss how this noise can be suppressed, a crucial aspect for technological applications. The isolation bandwidth in both is of the order of the mechanical linewidth divided by the amplitude gain. We derive the bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product for both and find that the phase-sensitive amplifier has an unlimited gain-bandwidth product. Our study represents an important step toward flexible, on-chip integrated nonreciprocal amplifiers of microwave signals.

  8. Modulated charge injection in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells using fluorene-based light absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zonghao; Xiong, Dehua; Xu, Xiaobao; Arooj, Qudsia; Wang, Huan; Yin, Liyuan; Li, Wenhui; Wu, Huaizhi; Zhao, Zhixin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Mingkui; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; He, Hongshan

    2014-03-12

    In this study, new pull-push arylamine-fluorene based organic dyes zzx-op1, zzx-op2, and zzx-op3 have been designed and synthesized for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). In zzx-op1, a di(p-carboxyphenyl)amine (DCPA) was used as an electron donor, a perylenemonoimide (PMID) as an electron acceptor, and a fluorene (FLU) unit with two aliphatic hexyl chains as a π-conjugated linker. In zzx-op2 and zzx-op3, a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a thiophene were inserted consecutively between PMID and FLU to tune the energy levels of the frontier molecular orbitals of the dyes. The structural modification broadened the spectral coverage from an onset of 700 nm for zzx-op1 to 750 nm for zzx-op3. The electron-rich EDOT and thiophene lifted up the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) levels of zzx-op2 and zzx-op3, making their potential more negative than zzx-op1. When three dyes were employed in p-type DSCs with I(-)/I3(-) as a redox couple and NiO nanoparticles as hole materials, zzx-op1 exhibited impressive energy conversion efficiency of 0.184% with the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 112 mV and the short-circuit current density (JSC) of 4.36 mA cm(-2) under AM 1.5G condition. Density functional theory calculations, transient photovoltage decay measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies revealed that zzx-op1 sensitized solar cell exhibited much higher charge injection efficiency (90.3%) than zzx-op2 (53.9%) and zzx-op3 (39.0%), indicating a trade-off between spectral broadening and electron injection driving force in p-type DSCs.

  9. The charge-transfer property and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells of nitrogen doped zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lingyun [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China); Yang Yulin, E-mail: ylyang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Fan Ruiqing, E-mail: fanruiqing@hit.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen Haiyan [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Jia Ruokun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China); Wang Yonghui [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Ma Liqun; Wang Yazhen [School of Material Science of Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two methods (the solution and annealing methods) are used to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge-transfer properties of N-doping ZnO are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The overall conversion efficiency of N-doped ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells is successfully improved by N doping. - Abstract: In this study two methods, namely the solution and annealing methods, were used to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to identify the composition and chemical states of N-doped ZnO. The N doping by the solution method was found to effectively decrease the acceptor effects. Surface photovoltage measurements (SPS) revealed a redshift of the threshold wavelength for the N-doped ZnO. And the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs in this semiconductor material was obviously suppressed. The N-doped ZnO (solution method) exhibits the best performances among all the materials, even superior to N-doped ZnO (annealing method). Its J{sub sc} and {eta} values (9.35 mA/cm{sup 2} and 2.64%) have enhanced by several times compared with un-doped ZnO (J{sub sc}, 2.85 mA/cm{sup 2}; {eta}, 0.67%). The overall conversion efficiency of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells was successfully improved by the N doping.

  10. Detection of Non-Amplified Genomic DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview on non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. The importance of non-amplified DNA sequencing technologies will be also discussed. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specifi...

  11. Performance of a position sensitive Si(Li) x-ray detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of stored and trapped highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G; Braeuning, H; Hess, S; Maertin, R; Spillmann, U; Stoehlker, Th

    2010-01-01

    We report on a novel two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of x-ray radiation arising from highly-charged ions. The performance of the detector system was evaluated in ion-atom collision experiments at the ESR storage ringe at GSI, Darmstadt. Based on the data obtained, the polarimeter efficiency is estimated in this work.

  12. Oscillators and operational amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed.

  13. Comparison of multi-pole shaping and delay line clipping pre-amplifiers for position sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Wear, J.A.; Lockyer, N.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Surti, S.; Berg, R. van

    1998-01-01

    NaI(Tl) position sensitive detectors have been used in medical imaging for many years. For PET applications without collimators, the high counting rates place severe demands on such large area detectors. The NaI(Tl) detectors in the PENN-PET scanners are read-out via photomultiplier tubes and preamplifiers. Those preamplifiers use a delay-line clipping technique to shorten the characteristic 240 ns fall time of the NaI(Tl) signal. As an alternative, the authors have investigated a pole-zero network to shorten the signal followed by a multi-pole shaper to produce a symmetric signal suitable for high counting rates. This has been compared to the current design by measuring the energy and spatial resolution of a single detector as a function of different preamplifier designs. Data were taken over a range of ADC integration times and countrates. The new design shows improved energy resolution with short integration times. Effects on spatial resolution and deadtime are reported for large position sensitive detectors at different countrates

  14. Polyelectrolyte mediated nano hybrid particle as a nano-sensor with outstandingly amplified specificity and sensitivity for enzyme free estimation of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebl, Mazhar; Moussa, Zeinab; Peurla, Markus; Patra, Digambara

    2017-07-01

    As a proof of concept, here it is established that curcumin integrated chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) self-assembles on silica nanoparticle surface to form nano hybrid particles (NHPs). These NHPs have size in the ranges of 25-35nm with silica nanoparticle as its core and curcumin-COL as outer layer having thickness of 4-8nm. The fluorescence intensity of these NHPs are found to be quenched and emission maximum is ~50nm red shifted compared to free curcumin implying inner filter effect and/or homo-FRET between curcumin molecules present on the surface of individual nano hybrid particle. Although fluorescence of free curcumin is remarkably quenched by Hg 2+ /Cu 2+ ions due to chelation through keto-enol form, the fluorescence of NHPs is unaffected by Hg 2+ /Cu 2+ ion that boosts analytical selectivity. The fluorescence intensity is outstandingly enhanced in the presence of cholesterol but is not influenced by ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose, albumin, lipid and other potential interfering substances that either obstruct during enzymatic reaction or affect fluorescence of free curcumin. Thus, NHPs outstandingly improve analytical specificity, selectivity and sensitivity during cholesterol estimation compared to free curcumin. The interaction between cholesterol and NHPs is found to be a combination of ground state electrostatic interaction through the free hydroxyl group of cholesterol along with hydrophobic interaction between NHPs and cholesterol and excited state interaction. The proposed cholesterol biosensor illustrates a wider linear dynamic range, 0.002-10mmolL -1 , (upper limit is due to lack of solubility of cholesterol) needed for biomedical application and better than reported values during enzymatic reaction. In addition, the NHPs are found to be photo-stable potentially making it suitable for simple, quick and cost-effective cholesterol estimation and opening an alternative approach other than enzymatic reaction using nano hybrid structure to

  15. Plasmon-Sensitized Graphene/TiO2 Inverse Opal Nanostructures with Enhanced Charge Collection Efficiency for Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppella, Ramireddy; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas; Kim, Heejun; Jeong, Myung Jin; Marques Mota, Filipe; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution we have developed TiO 2 inverse opal based photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices, in which Au nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been strategically incorporated (TiO 2 @rGO@Au). The periodic hybrid nanostructure showed a photocurrent density of 1.29 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs RHE, uncovering a 2-fold enhancement compared to a pristine TiO 2 reference. The Au NPs were confirmed to extensively broaden the absorption spectrum of TiO 2 into the visible range and to reduce the onset potential of these photoelectrodes. Most importantly, TiO 2 @rGO@Au hybrid exhibited a 14-fold enhanced PEC efficiency under visible light and a 2.5-fold enrichment in the applied bias photon-to-current efficiency at much lower bias potential compared with pristine TiO 2 . Incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements highlighted a synergetic effect between Au plasmon sensitization and rGO-mediated facile charge separation/transportation, which is believed to significantly enhance the PEC activity of these nanostructures under simulated and visible light irradiation. Under the selected operating conditions the incorporation of Au NPs and rGO into TiO 2 resulted in a remarkable boost in the H 2 evolution rate (17.8 μmol/cm 2 ) compared to a pristine TiO 2 photoelectrode reference (7.6 μmol/cm 2 ). In line with these results and by showing excellent stability as a photoelectrode, these materials are herin underlined to be of promising interest in the PEC water splitting reaction.

  16. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh N. A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UNISZA weather station. For load profile, the information about fishing activities and the amount of subsidy spent by the government were obtained from the interview session with the fishermen and validated with Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia (LKIM. The results acquired are compared between grid-only and grid-connected RE systems in term of net present cost (NPC, operational cost and payback period. A sensitivity analysis is done to find the minimal Feed-in Tariff (FiT rate that can be implemented in order to encourage the use of RE system in this sector. Then, the relationship between FiT and NPC, payback period and emission of pollutants are analyzed. At current FiT rates RM 0.813/kWh, hybrid grid-PV system manages to achieve its optimal in generating high income from selling the power to the grid with convincing amount of electricity production and short payback period. It is concluded at minimum RM 0.56/kWh of FiT, the grid-connected RE system is possible to be developed because its performance shows better outcome compared to the grid-only system.

  17. FLUIDIC AC AMPLIFIERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several fluidic tuned AC Amplifiers were designed and tested. Interstage tuning and feedback designs are considered. Good results were obtained...corresponding Q’s as high as 12. Element designs and test results of one, two, and three stage amplifiers are presented. AC Modulated Carrier Systems

  18. Antares laser power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, R.D.; Ross, G.F.; Silvernail, C.

    1979-01-01

    The overall design of the Antares laser power amplifier is discussed. The power amplifier is the last stage of amplification in the 100-kJ Antares laser. In the power amplifier a single, cylindrical, grid-controlle, cold-cathode electron gun is surrounded by 12 large-aperture CO 2 electron-beam sustained laser discharge sectors. Each power amplifier will deliver 18 kJ and the six modules used in Antares will produce the required 100 kJ for delivery to the target. A large-scale interaction between optical, mechanical, and electrical disciplines is required to meet the design objectives. Significant component advances required by the power amplifier design are discussed

  19. Sensitive electrochemical determination of α-fetoprotein using a glassy carbon electrode modified with in-situ grown gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide and MWCNTs acting as signal amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yan-Sha; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Tao-Tao; Xu, Jing-Kun; Zhang, Kai-Xin; Lu, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe an electrochemical immunoassay for α-fetoprotein (α-FP) using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a nanocomposite made from gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNPs/GO-MWCNTs) and acting as a signal amplification matrix. The nanocomposite was synthesized in a one-pot redox reaction between GO and HAuCl 4 without using an additional reductant. The stepwise assembly of the immunoelectrode was characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The interaction of antigen and antibody on the surface of the electrode creates a barrier for electrons and causes retarded electron transfer, this resulting in decreased signals in differential pulse voltammetry of hexacyanoferrate which is added as an electrochemical probe. Using this strategy and by working at a potential of 0.2 V (vs. SCE), a wide analytical range (0.01 - 100 ng∙mL -1 ) is covered. The correlation coefficient is 0.9929, and the limit of detection is as low as 3 pg∙mL -1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This electrochemical immunoassay combines the specificity of an immunological detection scheme with the sensitivity of an electrode modified with AuNPs and GO-MWCNTs. (author)

  20. Auto-Zero Differential Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, Gerard T. (Inventor); Aslam, Shahid (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autozero amplifier may include a window comparator network to monitor an output offset of a differential amplifier. The autozero amplifier may also include an integrator to receive a signal from a latched window comparator network, and send an adjustment signal back to the differential amplifier to reduce an offset of the differential amplifier.

  1. Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K

    2012-02-01

    We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.

  2. Theoretical investigation of the charge-transfer properties in different meso-linked zinc porphyrins for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuangruk, Supawadee; Sirithip, Kanokkorn; Rattanatwan, Rattanawelee; Keawin, Tinnagon; Kungwan, Nawee; Sudyodsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich; Surakhot, Yaowarat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn

    2014-06-28

    The charge transfer effect of different meso-substituted linkages on porphyrin analogue 1 (A1, B1 and C1) was theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. The calculated geometry parameters and natural bond orbital analysis reveal that the twisted conformation between porphyrin macrocycle and meso-substituted linkages leads to blocking of the conjugation of the conjugated backbone, and the frontier molecular orbital plot shows that the intramolecular charge transfer of A1, B1 and C1 hardly takes place. In an attempt to improve the photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer ability of the meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizer, a strong electron-withdrawing group (CN) was introduced into the anchoring group of analogue 1 forming analogue 2 (A2, B2 and C2). The density difference plot of A2, B2 and C2 shows that the charge transfer properties dramatically improved. The electron injection process has been performed using TDDFT; the direct charge-transfer transition in the A2-(TiO2)38 interacting system takes place; our results strongly indicated that introducing electron-withdrawing groups into the acceptor part of porphyrin dyes can fine-tune the effective conjugation length of the π-spacer and improve intramolecular charge transfer properties, consequently inducing the electron injection process from the anchoring group of the porphyrin dye to the (TiO2)38 surface which may improve the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. Our calculated results can provide valuable information and a promising outlook for computation-aided sensitizer design with anticipated good properties in further experimental synthesis.

  3. Sensitivity of n-p scattering observables to charge-independence breaking of the 3P N-N phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of neutron-proton scattering observables to the recently reported charge-independence breaking of the isospin T = 1 3 P nucleon-nucleon interaction has been calculated. It is shown that only the analyzing power A y (θ) at extreme forward angles and at θ = 90 o c.m. and the spin-correlation coefficient A zx (θ) at 90 o c.m. exhibit a measurable sensitivity. It is concluded that the determination of A y at 90 o c.m. is currently the most accurate approach to verify independently charge-independence breaking in the 3 P nucleon-nucleon phase shifts, considering the status of present experimental techniques. (Authors)

  4. Low-cost amplifier for alpha detection with photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domienikan, Cláudio; Costa, Priscila; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: pcosta@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A low-cost amplifier for Hamamatsu S3590-09 PIN photodiode to be used in alpha detection is presented. This amplifier consists basically of two circuits: a pulse preamplifier and a shaper-driver. The PIN photodiode is reverse-biased and connected to a charge preamplifier input. Incident alpha particles generate a small current pulse in the photodiode. The integrating circuit of the low noise preamplifier transforms current pulse into a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to the charge carried by the current pulse. The shaper-driver consists of a differentiator and an integrator and is responsible for filtering and further amplifying the preamplifier signal, generating a NIM-compatible energy pulse. The performance of the set photodiode-amplifier was successively tested through the use of a {sup 243}Am radioactive source. The low-cost photodiode amplifier was designed and constructed at IPEN - CNEN/SP using national components and expertise. (author)

  5. Controlling the directionality of charge transfer in phthalocyaninato zinc sensitizer for a dye-sensitized solar cell: density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang; Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-01-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation on the molecular structures, charge distribution, molecular orbitals, electronic absorption spectra of a series of eight unsymmetrical phthalocyaninato zinc complexes with one peripheral (E)-2-cyano-3-(5-vinylthiophen-2-yl) acrylic acid substituent at 2 or 3 position as an electron-withdrawing group and a different number of electron-donating amino groups at the remaining peripheral positions (9, 10, 16, 17, 23, 24) of the phthalocyanine ring, namely ZnPc-β-A, ZnPc-β-A-I-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-II-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-III-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-I,II-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-I,III-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-II,III-NH(2), and ZnPc-β-A-I,II,III-NH(2), reveals the effects of amino groups on the charge transfer properties of these phthalocyanine derivatives with a typical D-π-A electronic structure. The introduction of amino groups was revealed altering of the atomic charge distribution, lifting the frontier molecular orbital level, red-shift of the near-IR bands in the electronic absorption spectra, and finally resulting in enhanced charge transfer directionality for the phthalocyanine compounds. Along with the increase of the peripheral amino groups at the phthalocyanine ring from 0, 2, 4, to 6, the dihedral angle between the phthalocyanine ring and the average plane of the (E)-2-cyano-3-(5-vinylthiophen-2-yl) acrylic acid substituent increases from 0 to 3.3° in an irregular manner. This is in good contrast to the regular and significant change in the charge distribution, destabilization of frontier orbital energies, and red shift of near-IR bands of phthalocyanine compounds along the same order. In addition, comparative studies indicate the smaller effect of incorporating two amino groups onto the 16 and 17 than on 9 and 10 or 23 and 24 peripheral positions of the phthalocyanine ring onto the aforementioned electronic properties, suggesting the least effect on tuning the charge transfer property of the phthalocyanine compound via introducing two

  6. Position-sensitive X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this review of the application of different types of position sensitive detectors to synchrotron radiation, discussion of the proportional counters based on the gas amplification principle forms a major part. Other topics reviewed are detector requirements, multiwire proportional chamber system, drift chamber type detectors, TV detectors, and recent developments, such as that based on a micro-channel plate as the amplifying element, and charge-coupled devices. (U.K.)

  7. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  8. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20–25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30–60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p + implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO 2 interface charge densities ( Q f ) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p + implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Q f , that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  9. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20-25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30-60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p+ implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO2 interface charge densities (Qf) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p+ implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Qf, that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  10. Bunch arrival time monitors; Concepts towards improving the sensitivity for low charge operation for FLASH II and XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penirschke, Andreas; Angelovski, Aleksandar; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik, Merckstr. 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Sydlo, Cezary; Bousonville, Michael; Czwalinna, Marie Kristin; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kuhl, Alexander [University of Hamburg, Physics Department, Accelerator Physics Group (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2013-07-01

    High gain Free-Electron Lasers can generate ultra short X-ray pulses in the femtosecond range. For a stable operation of the FEL, the precise knowledge of the bunch arrival time is crucial. A novel high bandwidth Bunch Arrival time Monitor was recently installed at FLASH to allow a low charge operation mode with a sub-10 fs resolution for bunch charges of 20 pC or more. The BAM is equipped with cone shaped pickups for the precise measurement of both, the high and low bunch charge operation mode. For the extension of FLASH facility to FLASH II new pickups for the high bandwidth BAMs need to be developed. The new BAM needs to maximize the voltage level of the beam induced signal for low charge operation mode in order to provide sufficient signal strength for the subsequent electronics. In this talk, we present concepts to improve the signal strength at the electro-optic modulators for low charge operation at FLASH II and XFEL.

  11. Influence of polymer size, liposomal composition, surface charge, and temperature on the permeability of pH-sensitive liposomes containing lipid-anchored poly(2-ethylacrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tingli Lu,1 Zhao Wang,2 Yufan Ma,1 Yang Zhang,2 Tao Chen1,21Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 2Liposome Research Centre, Xi'an, ChinaBackground: Liposomes containing pH-sensitive polymers are promising candidates for the treatment of tumors and localized infection. This study aimed to identify parameters influencing the extent of contents release from poly(ethylacrylic acid (PEAA vesicles, focusing on the effects of polymer size, lipid composition, vesicle surface charge, and temperature.Methods: Anchored lipid pH-sensitive PEAA was synthesized using PEAA with a molecular weight of 8.4 kDa. PEAA vesicles were prepared by insertion of the lipid-anchored PEAA into preformed large unilamellar vesicles. The preformed liposomes were manipulated by varying the phosphocholine and cholesterol content, and by adding negative or positive charges to the liposomes. A calcein release assay was used to evaluate the effects of polymer size, liposome composition, surface charge, and temperature on liposomal permeability.Results: The release efficiency of the calcein-entrapped vesicles was found to be dependent on the PEAA polymer size. PEAA vesicles containing a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol ratio of 60:40 (mol/mol released more than 80% of their calcein content when the molecular weight of PEAA was larger than 8.4 kDa. Therefore, the same-sized polymer of 8.4 kDa was used for the rest of study. The calcein release potential was found to decrease as the percentage of cholesterol increased and with an increase in the phosphocholine acyl chain length (DMPC . DPPC . DSPC. Negatively charged and neutral vesicles released similar amounts of calcein, whereas positively charged liposomes released a significant amount of their contents. pH-sensitive release was dependent on temperature. Dramatic content release was observed at higher temperatures.Conclusion: The observed

  12. Effect of different photoanode nanostructures on the initial charge separation and electron injection process in dye sensitized solar cells: A photophysical study with indoline dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idígoras, Jesús [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Sobuś, Jan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jancelewicz, Mariusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramon [Materials Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Paseo Miramón 196, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20009 (Spain); Anta, Juan A. [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Ziółek, Marcin, E-mail: marziol@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrafast and fast charge separation processes were investigated for complete cells based on several ZnO-based photoanode nanostructures and standard TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers sensitized with the indoline dye coded D358. Different ZnO morphologies (nanoparticles, nanowires, mesoporous), synthesis methods (hydrothermal, gas-phase, electrodeposition in aqueous media and ionic liquid media) and coatings (ZnO–ZnO core–shell, ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell) were measured by transient absorption techniques in the time scale from 100 fs to 100 μs and in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. All of ZnO cells show worse electron injection yields with respect to those with standard TiO{sub 2} material. Lower refractive index of ZnO than that of TiO{sub 2} is suggested to be an additional factor, not considered so far, that can decrease the performance of ZnO-based solar cells. Evidence of the participation of the excited charge transfer state of the dye in the charge separation process is provided here. The lifetime of this state in fully working devices extends from several ps to several tens of ps, which is much longer than the typically postulated electron injection times in all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells. The results here provided, comprising a wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods, point to the universality of the poor performance of ZnO as photoanode material with respect to standard TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods has been checked for ZnO cells. • All ZnO cells work worse than TiO{sub 2} ones. • Effective refractive index might be an additional factor in solar cell performance. • Excited charge transfer state of indoline dyes participates in the charge separation.

  13. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  14. Increased charge transfer of PVDF-HFP based electrolyte by addition of graphite nanofiber and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xing Guan; Jin, En Mei; Gu, Hal-Bon, E-mail: hbgu@chonnam.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    The PEO and PVDF-HFP mixtures were used as polymer electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Correlation between the ionic conductivity and cell performance by varying the composition of polymer electrolytes was investigated to elucidate the importance of the ionic conductivity in determining the charge transfer and energy conversion efficiency of solid-state DSSCs. In this work, for increasing the ionic conductivity and charge transfer, GNF was added to the polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g) is 8.67 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} and pristine polymer electrolyte is 3.81 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}. The charge transfer of GNF (0.005 g) added DSSCs is faster than the other samples, the electron transport time is 1.53 ms and electron life time is 27.20 ms. The increase of current density with the polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g) can be possibly attributed to the direct contact between dye/TiO{sub 2} and I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} that will improve the charge transportation. The highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.60% is obtained for polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g)

  15. Initial performance of the two-dimensional 1024-channel amplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Hiruta, Tatsuro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takashima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the initial performance of a two-dimensional analog ASIC that has been developed to read out CdTe pixel detectors for the next-generation hard X-ray imager. The readout chip consists of a 32x32 matrix of identical 200μmx200μm pixel cells. Each readout cell contains a low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, three-stage pulse shaping amplifiers and a comparator circuit. Pulse processing circuits have been also designed to achieve lower power consumption for the space application. Analog outputs by injecting a test pulse have been obtained from 991 pixels out of 1024 pixels. The mean noise level is 297+/-29 electrons (rms) and power consumption is 110μW/pixel

  16. Fast pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.

    1984-01-01

    This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr

  17. Interfacial charge recombination via the triplet state? Mimicry of photoprotection in the photosynthetic process with a dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cell reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Xiang; Li, Long; Liu, Yin; Wang, Li; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Sheng, Jian-Qun

    2002-04-01

    Evidence for the photoinduced charge recombination to the excited-triplet state has been observed in chemical solar cell reaction consisting of dye-sensitized TiO 2 colloidal ethanol solution, which mimicks the photoprotection function in the photosynthetic units. The dye is all -trans-retinoic acid, a structural analog of β-carotenoid. Two channels of charge recombination, i.e., through triplet and ground states were observed by nano-second flash photolysis. The possibility of applying the function of photoprotection to the synthetic solar cell is discussed, which provides a potential entry of molecular engineering of the dye to improve the long term stability of the synthetic solar cell.

  18. Fast logarithmic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, I.; Hasegawa, K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports on the improvement of frequency characteristics of a logarithmic amplifier with a Paterson transdiode connection. The improvement of the response speed has been achieved by using a phase compensation technique. Small signal response analyses of the logging circuit revealed the effects of a series resistor Rsub(p) and a parallel capacitance Csub(p) on the response of the circuit. The improvement of the frequency characteristics are remarkable at higher current levels. These facts were proved by the practical logarithmic amplifier. (auth.)

  19. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh N. A. S.; Muda W. M. W.

    2017-01-01

    In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE) technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sul...

  20. Electronic noise in charge sensitive preamplifiers for X-ray spectroscopy and the benefits of a SiC input JFET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioliou, G., E-mail: G.Lioliou@sussex.ac.uk; Barnett, A.M.

    2015-11-21

    A comprehensive summary and analysis of the electronic noise affecting the resolution of X-ray, γ-ray and particle counting spectroscopic systems which employ semiconductor detectors and charge sensitive preamplifiers is presented. The noise arising from the input transistor of the preamplifier and its contribution to the total noise is examined. A model for computing the noise arising from the front-end transistor is also presented and theoretical calculations comparing the noise contribution of transistors made of different materials are discussed, emphasizing the advantages of wide bandgap transistor technology.

  1. Influence of ion induced local Coulomb field and polarity on charge generation and efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrusci, Agnese; Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Santosh Kumar, R. Sai; Petrozza, Annamaria [Center for Nano Science and Technology of IIT, Milano (Italy); Al-Hashimi, Mohammed; Heeney, Martin [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-08

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are a realistic option for converting light to electrical energy. Hybrid architectures offer a vast materials library for device optimization, including a variety of metal oxides, organic and inorganic sensitizers, molecular, polymeric and electrolytic hole-transporter materials. In order to further improve the efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, recent attention has focused on using light absorbing polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to replace the more commonly used ''transparent'' 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9'spiro-bifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), in order to enhance the light absorption within thin films. As is the case with spiro-OMeTAD based solid-state DSSC, the P3HT-based devices improve significantly with the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts (Li-TFSI), although the precise role of these additives has not yet been clarified in solid-state DSCs. Here, we present a thorough study on the effect of Li-TFSI in P3HT based solid-state DSSC incorporating an indolene-based organic sensitizer termed D102. Employing ultrafast transient absorption and cw-emission spectroscopy together with electronic measurements, we demonstrate a fine tuning of the energetic landscape of the active cell components by the local Coulomb field induced by the ions. This increases the charge transfer nature of the excited state on the dye, significantly accelerating electron injection into the TiO{sub 2}. We demonstrate that this ionic influence on the excited state energy is the primary reason for enhanced charge generation with the addition of ionic additives. The deepening of the relative position of the TiO{sub 2} conduction band, which has previously been thought to be the cause for enhanced charge generation in dye sensitized solar cells with the addition of lithium salts, appears to be of minor importance in this system. (Copyright copyright

  2. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  3. Pico-ampere current sensitivity and CdSe quantum dots assembly assisted charge transport in ferroelectric liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Singh, Dharmendra; Boussoualem, Yahia; Duponchel, Benoit; Sahraoui, Abdelhak Hadj; Kumar, Sandeep; Manohar, Rajiv; Daoudi, Abdelylah

    2017-08-01

    Octadecylamine capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) dispersed 4-(1-methyl-heptyloxy)-benzoic acid 4‧-octyloxy-biphenyl-4-yl ester ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) were deposited over gold coated quartz substrate using dip-coating. The topographical investigation discloses that the homogeneously dispersed QDs adopt face-on to edge-on assembly in FLC matrix owing to their concentration. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement was performed using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) which yields ohmic to critical diode like I-V curves depending upon the concentration of QDs in FLC. The recorded pico-ampere (pA) current sensitivity in FLC-QDs composites is attributed to micro-second drift time of electron due to weak electronic coupling between the π-electrons on the FLC and s-electrons on the metal surface. The observed pico-ampere sensitivity is the least current sensitivity recorded so far. For FLC-QDs composites, almost 24% faster electro-optic response was observed in comparison to pure FLC. The pico-ampere current sensitivity can be utilized in touch screen displays whereas the change in polarization for low applied electric field ameliorates the increased electrical susceptibility counteracting the internal electric field and its use in electronic data storage and faster electro-optical devices.

  4. Parameters influencing charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using novel hole conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.E.; Hirata, N.; Schmidt-Mende, L.; Orizu, C.; Ogier, S.D.; Carr, K.; Grätzel, M.; Durrant, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid organic hole-transport material (HTM) are currently under intensive investigation, since they offer a number of practical advantages over liquid-electrolyte junction devices. Of particular importance to the design of such devices is the

  5. Comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles on the performance and charge recombination of water-based gel electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Malihe; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar; Mozaffari, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (V oc ), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (J sc ) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured. For further characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the charge transfer at Pt/electrolyte interface and charge recombination and electron transport at TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface. Significant improvements in conversion efficiency and short circuit current density of DSSCs fabricated by chitosan nanoparticle were observed that can be attributed to the higher mobility of I 3 - due to the lower viscosity and smaller size of chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium carbonate electronic-insulating layers improve the charge collection efficiency of tin oxide photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2015-01-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a surface passivation layer has been employed on the tin oxide (SnO 2 ) photoanodes to enhance the charge collection efficiency, and thus the power conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate that the electronic-insulating layering of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) can improve the charge collection efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells designed with photoanodes. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO 3 layering, both layered and pristine SnO 2 photoanodes are characterized with regard to their structures, morphologies, and photo-electrochemical measurements. The SnO 2 -6L CaCO 3 photoanode has demonstrated as high as 3.5% power conversion efficiency; 3.5-fold greater than that of the pristine SnO 2 photoanode. The enhancement in the power conversion efficiency is corroborated with the number of the dye molecules, the passivation of surface states, a negative shift in the conduction band position, and the reduced electron recombination rate of photoelectrons following the coating of the CaCO 3 surface layer

  7. Parametric Amplifiers for Microwave Kinectic Inductance Detector (MKID) Readout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Build a microwave amplifier with near quantum-limited sensitivity, octave or greater bandwidth, gain > 20 dB for input signals in the frequency range 1 – 10 GHz,...

  8. A photodiode amplifier system for pulse-by-pulse intensity measurement of an x-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Togo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Togashi, Tadashi; Sato, Takahiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Omodani, Motohiko; Kirihara, Yoichi; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Uchiyama, Sadayuki; Hatsui, Takaki

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a single-shot intensity-measurement system using a silicon positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) photodiode for x-ray pulses from an x-ray free electron laser. A wide dynamic range (10(3)-10(11) photons/pulse) and long distance signal transmission (>100 m) were required for this measurement system. For this purpose, we developed charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers, which can process charge pulses with a wide dynamic range and variable durations (ns-μs) and charge levels (pC-μC). Output signals from the amplifiers were transmitted to a data acquisition system through a long cable in the form of a differential signal. The x-ray pulse intensities were calculated from the peak values of the signals by a waveform fitting procedure. This system can measure 10(3)-10(9) photons/pulse of ~10 keV x-rays by direct irradiation of a silicon PIN photodiode, and from 10(7)-10(11) photons/pulse by detecting the x-rays scattered by a diamond film using the silicon PIN photodiode. This system gives a relative accuracy of ~10(-3) with a proper gain setting of the amplifiers for each measurement. Using this system, we succeeded in detecting weak light at the developmental phase of the light source, as well as intense light during lasing of the x-ray free electron laser. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  9. Electrolyte containing lithium cation in squaraine-sensitized solar cells: interactions and consequences for performance and charge transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Vittoria; Barbero, Nadia; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido; Sliwa, Michel; Sauvage, Frédéric

    2017-10-18

    By optimizing the lithium concentration in an electrolyte to 50 mmol L -1 and the dye-to-chenodeoxycholic acid ratio in a VG1-based dye solution, we achieved 4.7% power conversion efficiency under standard AM 1.5G conditions. In addition to this performance, we herein discuss the role played by lithium in the electrolyte and its interplay in the charge transfer processes from ms to fs dynamics. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photoluminescence and pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy, we conclude that although lithium increases the electron diffusion length, this has no satisfactory impact on electron injection and even slows dye regeneration. This study provides evidence that lithium is not only specifically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 but prompts a molecular reorganization of the self-assembled dye monolayer, forming harmful H-aggregates.

  10. Amplifying genetic logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew

    2013-05-03

    Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.

  11. Flashlamp excited fluid laser amplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The patent describes a laser amplifier with chambers for containing and amplifying an intensifier medium. It serves the need for a large impulse repetition rate and high intensities as required e.g. for laser isotope separation

  12. Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.

  13. Robust Online State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Based on Error Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable state of charge (SOC estimation is a key enabling technique for large format lithium-ion battery pack due to its vital role in battery safety and effective management. This paper tries to make three contributions to existing literatures through robust algorithms. (1 Observer based SOC estimation error model is established, where the crucial parameters on SOC estimation accuracy are determined by quantitative analysis, being a basis for parameters update. (2 The estimation method for a battery pack in which the inconsistency of cells is taken into consideration is proposed, ensuring all batteries’ SOC ranging from 0 to 1, effectively avoiding the battery overcharged/overdischarged. Online estimation of the parameters is also presented in this paper. (3 The SOC estimation accuracy of the battery pack is verified using the hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The experimental results at various dynamic test conditions, temperatures, and initial SOC difference between two cells demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  14. Graphene oxide-sensitized molecularly imprinted opto-polymers for charge-transfer fluorescent sensing of cyanoguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huilin; Zhou, Kaiwen; Chen, Xiaomo; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Baoguo

    2017-11-15

    The hierarchical structuring of materials offers exciting opportunities to construct functional sensors. Multiple processes were combined to create complex materials for the selective detection of cyanoguanidine (CYA) using graphene oxide-sensitized molecularly imprinted opto-polymers (MIOP). Molecular imprinting was used to construct molecular-scale analyte-selective cavities, graphene oxide was introduced to provide a platform for the polymerization, and increase the stability and binding kinetic properties, and 3-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane-modified quantum dots were combined with a functional monomer to increase the fluorescence quantum yield. Polymer cross-linking and fluorescence intensity were optimized for molecular recognition and opto-sensing detection. Selective and sensitive, fluorescence sensing of CYA was possible at concentrations as low as to 1.6μM. It could be applied to the rapid and cost-effective monitoring of CYA in infant formula. The approach is generic and applicable to many molecules and conventional opto-sensors, based on molecularly imprinted polymer formulations, individually or in multiplexed arrays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  16. Efficiency enhancement of hybridized solar cells through co-sensitization and fast charge extraction by up-converted polyethylene glycol modified carbon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanlu; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaics are promising solutions to energy crisis and environmental pollution problems. The dye-sensitized solar cells with mesoscopic structures have attracted growing interests because of zero emissions, easy fabrication, scalable materials and techniques, etc. However, the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells have narrow spectral absorption for photoelectric conversion and high electron-hole recombination rate under sunlight illumination. Therefore, it is a persistent object to make wide-spectral absorption and fast charge extraction solar cells for energy harvest in both solar and dark-light conditions. To address this issue, we present here experimental realization of a category of solar cells converting visible and near-infrared light into electricity by co-sensitizing photoanode with N719 dye and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified carbon quantum dots (PEG-m-CQDs), arising from up-conversion and hole-transporting behaviors of PEG-m-CQDs as well as photofluorescence of green-emitting long persistence phosphors. The optimized solar cell yields maximized photoelectric conversion efficiencies of 9.89% and 25.81% under simulated sunlight (air mass 1.5, 100 mW cm-2) illumination and dark conditions, respectively. This work is far from optimization, but the physical proof-of-concept hybridized solar cell may markedly increase electricity generation time and total power output of photovoltaic platforms.

  17. Wideband amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Hollister, Allen L

    2007-01-01

    In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a ""gut level"" understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model

  18. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  19. Operations of electric taxis to serve advance reservations by trip chaining: Sensitivity analysis on network size, customer demand and number of charging stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the performance of an Electric Taxi (ET fleet that catered solely for customers with advance reservations. In a previously related research, a customized Paired Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Window and Charging Station (PPDPTWCS had been formulated to solve for the minimum number of taxis that would serve a fixed set of customer demand. The concept behind this fleet optimization was to chain multiple customer trips and trips to Charging Stations (CSs to form a route and assigned to a taxi driver. In this paper the sensitivity of the ET fleet’s operations with respect to network sizes, customer demand densities and number of CSs have been investigated. It also analyzed the market shares of the CSs and the occupancy of a CS over time. The results showed that, (1 the expansion of network size or the increase in customer demand density led to increase in fleet size, number of trips to the CSs and maximum occupancies at the CSs but these performance measures grew at different rates; (2 when the network size and number of CSs were fixed, an increase in customer demand density led to a better utilization of taxis in terms of more customers served per taxi and higher average revenue per taxi; (3 given the same network size and demand density, the ET fleet’s performance was relatively insensitive to the number of CSs; and (4 the usage of individual CS was affected by the number of CS and their locations; and (5 when all the ETs were fully charged at the beginning of the same shift hour, they visited the CSs in bunches when their batteries were about to run out. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the operations of the ET fleet and the CSs. They could be used for making better decisions in the planning of ET operations.

  20. Control of interfacial charge-transfer interaction of dye and p-CuI in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Shinya; Kato, Naohiko; Higuchi, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Katsuyoshi; Toyoda, Tatsuo

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the photovoltaic and absorption characteristics of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with CuI to elucidate the impact of the interaction between the dye and CuI. For the ruthenium complex N719, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) on the longer-wavelength side decreased owing to the change of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (CT) of N719 due to the interaction between the thiocyanate groups of N719 and CuI. In contrast, when D149 — which included rhodanine groups — was used, the interaction with CuI and the resultant CT increased the IPCE. The results provide a new strategy for improving the photovoltaic performance by controlling the interfacial CT between the dye and CuI.

  1. Investigation of electronic band structure and charge transfer mechanism of oxidized three-dimensional graphene as metal-free anodes material for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeblein, Manuela; Bruno, Annalisa; Loh, G. C.; Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Antila, Liisa; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2017-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer an optimal trade-off between conversion-efficiency and low-cost fabrication. However, since all its electrodes need to fulfill stringent work-function requirements, its materials have remained unchanged since DSSC's first report early-90s. Here we describe a new material, oxidized-three-dimensional-graphene (o-3D-C), with a band gap of 0.2 eV and suitable electronic band-structure as alternative metal-free material for DSSCs-anodes. o-3D-C/dye-complex has a strong chemical bonding via carboxylic-group chemisorption with full saturation after 12 sec at capacity of ∼450 mg/g (600x faster and 7x higher than optimized metal surfaces). Furthermore, fluorescence quenching of life-time by 28-35% was measured demonstrating charge-transfer from dye to o-3D-C.

  2. Increased charge transfer of Poly (ethylene oxide) based electrolyte by addition of small molecule and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuraaman, B.; Will, Geoffrey; Wang, Hongxia; Moonie, Paul; Bell, John

    2013-01-01

    A Poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte impregnated with 2-Mercapto benzimidazole was comprehensively characterized by XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the crystallization of PEO was dramatically reduced and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte was increased 4.5 fold by addition of 2-Mercapto benzimidazole. UV–visible and FTIR spectroscopes indicated the formation of charge transfer complex between 2-Mercapto benzimidazole and iodine of the electrolyte. Dye-sensitized solar cells with the polymer electrolytes were assembled. It was found that both the photocurrent density and photovoltage were enhanced with respect to the DSC without 2-Mercapto benzimidazole, leading to a 60% increase of the performance of the cell.

  3. Highly efficient ZnO/Au Schottky barrier dye-sensitized solar cells: Role of gold nanoparticles on the charge-transfer process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanujjal Bora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods decorated with gold (Au nanoparticles have been synthesized and used to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. The picosecond-resolved, time-correlated single-photon-count (TCSPC spectroscopy technique was used to explore the charge-transfer mechanism in the ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC. Due to the formation of the Schottky barrier at the ZnO/Au interface and the higher optical absorptions of the ZnO/Au photoelectrodes arising from the surface plasmon absorption of the Au nanoparticles, enhanced power-conversion efficiency (PCE of 6.49% for small-area (0.1 cm2 ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC was achieved compared to the 5.34% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanorod DSSC. The TCSPC studies revealed similar dynamics for the charge transfer from dye molecules to ZnO both in the presence and absence of Au nanoparticles. A slower fluorescence decay associated with the electron recombination process, observed in the presence of Au nanoparticles, confirmed the blocking of the electron transfer from ZnO back to the dye or electrolyte by the Schottky barrier formed at the ZnO/Au interface. For large area DSSC (1 cm2, ~130% enhancement in PCE (from 0.50% to 1.16% was achieved after incorporation of the Au nanoparticles into the ZnO nanorods.

  4. Effect of carbon nano tube working electrode thickness on charge transport kinetics and photo-electrochemical characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacemi, Yahia; Cheknane, Ali; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2018-02-01

    Physiochemical processes at the photo-electrode and the counter electrode of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) involving having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) instead of the TiO2 layer, within the working electrode, are simulated in this work. Attention is paid to find the effect of CNT layer thickness on photo-electrochemical (PEC) characteristics of the CNT-DSSCs. Comparison with other conventional TiO2-DSSC systems, taking into account the working electrode film thickness, is also described here. To achieve these goals, a model is presented to explain charge transport and electron recombination which involve electron photo-excitation in dye molecules, injection of electrons from the excited dye to CNT working electrode conduction band, diffusion of electrons inside the CNT electrode, charge transfer between oxidized dye and (I-) and recombination of electrons. The simulation is based on solving non-linear equations using the Newton-Raphson numerical method. This concept is proposed for modelling numerical Faradaic impedance at the photo-electrode and the platinum counter electrode. It then simulates the cell impedance spectrum describing the locus of the three semicircles in the Nyquist diagram. The transient equivalent circuit model is also presented based on optimizing current-voltage curves of CNT-DSSCs so as to optimize the fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency (η). The results show that the simulated characteristics of CNT-DSSCs, with different active CNT layer thicknesses, are superior to conventional TiO2-DSSCs.

  5. Lithium-modulated conduction band edge shifts and charge-transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a dicyanamide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2011-04-19

    Lithium ions are known for their potent function in modulating the energy alignment at the oxide semiconductor/dye/electrolyte interface in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), offering the opportunity to control the associated multichannel charge-transfer dynamics. Herein, by optimizing the lithium iodide content in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide-based ionic liquid electrolytes, we present a solvent-free DSC displaying an impressive 8.4% efficiency at 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G conditions. We further scrutinize the origins of evident impacts of lithium ions upon current density-voltage characteristics as well as photocurrent action spectra of DSCs based thereon. It is found that, along with a gradual increase of the lithium content in ionic liquid electrolytes, a consecutive diminishment of the open-circuit photovoltage arises, primarily owing to a noticeable downward movement of the titania conduction band edge. The conduction band edge displacement away from vacuum also assists the formation of a more favorable energy offset at the titania/dye interface, and thereby leads to a faster electron injection rate and a higher exciton dissociation yield as implied by transient emission measurements. We also notice that the adverse influence of the titania conduction band edge downward shift arising from lithium addition upon photovoltage is partly compensated by a concomitant suppression of the triiodide involving interfacial charge recombination. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO_2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm"2).

  7. Superconducting digital logic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions

  8. Cascade energy amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilov, A.P.; Gulevich, A.V.; Kukharchuk, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The technical problem of long-life fission product and minor actinide incineration and production of plutonium fuel in the prospective nuclear systems will arise at significant scales of nuclear power industry development. Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by extemal neutron sources (energy amplifiers) are considered as incinerators of toxicity of complete nuclear industry. In the frames of this concept, the subcritical reactor part consisting of two coupled blanket regions (inner fast neutron spectrum core and outer thermal core) driven by extemal neutron source is discussed. Two types of source are studied: spallation target and 14-MeV fusion bum of micropellets. Liquid metal Pb-Bi is considered as target material and coolant of inner fast core. Thermal core is a heavy-water subcritical reactor of the Candu-type. The fast core is protected from thermal neutrons influence with the boron shield. All reactor technologies used in this concept are tested during years of operation and commercially available. Thus, the cascade energy amplifiers have a set of advantages in comparison with traditional concepts: in energy production, in transmutation efficiency, and in economics. (authors)

  9. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haishi; Zhang Bo; Sun Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (V DIF ) between the voltage of an input capacitance (V CIN ) and a reference voltage (V REF ) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge V CIN to roughly near V REF . Then a correction loop further charges or discharges V CIN , substantially equalizing it with V REF . Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Jiang, Sun

    2012-08-01

    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (VDIF) between the voltage of an input capacitance (VCIN) and a reference voltage (VREF) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge VCIN to roughly near VREF. Then a correction loop further charges or discharges VCIN, substantially equalizing it with VREF. Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop.

  11. Sensitive measurement of vinorelbine in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry utilizing transitions from double-charged precursor ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Makoto; Kawashiro, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for measuring vinorelbine was developed. A 100 µL aliquot of plasma was spiked with deuterium-labeled internal standard and subjected to solid-phase extraction using an Oasis HLB μ-elution plate. Two microliters of the extracted samples was directly injected into LC/MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Capcell Pak C18 UG column (2 × 75 mm) with a gradient elution of methanol (mobile phase B) against 0.05% formic acid in aqueous 10 mm ammonium formate (mobile phase A). The LC flow rate was set to 0.28 mL/min and the gradient (solvent B concentration) was processed from 40 to 90%. In mass spectrometric detection, observation of the reaction from a double-charged precursor ion [M + 2H](2+) (m/z 390) to product ion m/z 122 provided very high sensitivity. The method was validated with a lower limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL with 0.1 mL of plasma, and the method was used to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of vinorelbine in dogs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.

  13. Linear pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjutju, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  14. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  15. C.A.D for broad-band multistage microwave transimpedance amplifier.

    OpenAIRE

    Olomo Ngongo, A.; Perennec, A.; Soares, R.; Jarry, P.

    1992-01-01

    In high data rate optical-fiber, it is necessary to employ an ultra broad-band transimpedance amplifier. In this paper, we present a technique for the design of a transimpedance amplifiers. It can be applied as well to the design of interstage equalizers for microwave transimpedance amplifiers. In the version described in this paper, the optimisation process is applied to the transimpedance gain and noise which is adjusted. Based on the load charge matching technique, a sequential procedure t...

  16. A modular positive feedback-based gene amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao Kaustubh D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive feedback is a common mechanism used in the regulation of many gene circuits as it can amplify the response to inducers and also generate binary outputs and hysteresis. In the context of electrical circuit design, positive feedback is often considered in the design of amplifiers. Similar approaches, therefore, may be used for the design of amplifiers in synthetic gene circuits with applications, for example, in cell-based sensors. Results We developed a modular positive feedback circuit that can function as a genetic signal amplifier, heightening the sensitivity to inducer signals as well as increasing maximum expression levels without the need for an external cofactor. The design utilizes a constitutively active, autoinducer-independent variant of the quorum-sensing regulator LuxR. We experimentally tested the ability of the positive feedback module to separately amplify the output of a one-component tetracycline sensor and a two-component aspartate sensor. In each case, the positive feedback module amplified the response to the respective inducers, both with regards to the dynamic range and sensitivity. Conclusions The advantage of our design is that the actual feedback mechanism depends only on a single gene and does not require any other modulation. Furthermore, this circuit can amplify any transcriptional signal, not just one encoded within the circuit or tuned by an external inducer. As our design is modular, it can potentially be used as a component in the design of more complex synthetic gene circuits.

  17. Designing and development of a synchronous analogic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Hoz, E.; Ortiz, A.

    1989-01-01

    A large number of electronic systems used in the measurement and analysis of weak signals involve a ''lock-in'' amplifier, because it provides an effective method for the recovery of signals buried below a considerable high level of noise. The use of the ''lock-in'' amplifier in our institutions is very limited due to the high expense and the lack of warranties for its maintenance. The purpose of the present work is to design and build a low cost ''lock-in'' amplifier using components available in the local market. Its optimization has allowed us to increase the sensitivity and linearity of the systems, making it very versatile for dedicated applications

  18. Influence of controlled-charge anodization processes on the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes and their efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaenas, Naoum; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Likodimos, Vlassis; Falaras, Polycarpos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the electrochemical anodization growth process on the development of self-organized TiO 2 nanotube (NT) films and their efficiency as photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been comparatively investigated, by keeping constant the total anodization charge. Slow and rapid potentiostatic anodization processes were accordingly compared to the galvanostatic one, while a two step potentiostatic–galvanostatic technique was applied for the first time for the growth of TiO 2 NT arrays, as a step forward in relation to the existing potentiostatic–potentiostatic (P–P) technique. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy verified the wide diversity in the morphological and structural characteristics of the TiO 2 NTs obtained by the different anodization modes. The novel approach of galvanostatic tube growth on a potentiostatically patterned Ti foil provided the most uniform TiO 2 nanotubular films with clean top surface exempt of nanograss or cracks over extended areas. Evaluation of the TiO 2 NTs performance as photoelectrodes in DSC devices showed distinct differences of their electrical parameters that reflected finely the underlying structure/morphology variations of the different anodic oxidation conditions. Galvanostatic TiO 2 NT films presented the most favorable (open-ordered) structure for DSC photoelectrodes with superior electrical performance, essentially impaired by a relatively low fill factor that requires improvement by appropriate post-treatment. Furthermore, despite the marked differences in morphology, the TiO 2 NT photoelectrodes exhibited comparable overall performance (of the order of 4%), with only exception the P–P samples which presented slightly lower (about 25%) photovoltaic efficiency. These results indicate that the anodization charge is a critical factor that effectively controls the nanotubes behavior when they are used as photoelectrodes in DSCs

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays: structural geometry and charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongmin; Song, Seulki; Kang, Gyeongho; Park, Taiho

    2014-09-10

    We systematically investigated the charge transport properties of doubly or singly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays (DNT and SNT, respectively) for their utility as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The SNT or DNT arrays were transferred in a bottom-up (B-up) or top-up (T-up) configuration onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate onto which had been deposited a 2 μm thick TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) interlayer. This process yielded four types of DSCs prepared with SNTs (B-up or T-up) or DNT (B-up or T-up). The photovoltaic performances of these DSCs were analyzed by measuring the dependence of the charge transport on the DSC geometry. High resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the electrode cross sections, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer. We examined the effects of decorating the DNT or SNT arrays with small NPs (sNP@DNT and sNP@SNT, respectively) in an effort to increase the extent of dye loading. The DNT arrays decorated with small NPs performed better than the decorated SNT arrays, most likely because the Ti(OH)4 precursor solution flowed freely into the array through the open ends of the NTs in the DNT case but not in the SNT case. The sNP@DNT-based DSC exhibited a better PCE (10%) compared to the sNP@SNT-based DSCs (6.8%) because the electrolyte solution flow was not restricted, direct electron transport though the NT arrays was possible, the electrical connection at the interface between the NT array and the TiO2 NP interlayer was good, and the array provided efficient light harvesting.

  20. Nanoclay gelation approach toward improved dye-sensitized solar cell efficiencies: an investigation of charge transport and shift in the TiO2 conduction band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Ito, Bruno Ieiri; Batabyal, Sudip K; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Wong, Chee Cheong; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Uchida, Satoshi

    2013-01-23

    Nanoclay minerals play a promising role as additives in the liquid electrolyte to form a gel electrolyte for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, because of the high chemical stability, unique swelling capability, ion exchange capacity, and rheological properties of nanoclays. Here, we report the improved performance of a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte that is made from a liquid electrolyte and synthetic nitrate-hydrotalcite nanoclay. Charge transport mechanisms in the gel electrolyte and nanoclay interactions with TiO(2)/electrolyte interface are discussed in detail. The electrochemical analysis reveals that the charge transport is solely based on physical diffusion at the ratio of [PMII]:[I(2)] = 10:1 (where PMII is 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide). The calculated physical diffusion coefficient shows that the diffusion of redox ions is not affected much by the viscosity of nanoclay gel. The addition of nitrate-hydrotalcite clay in the electrolyte has the effect of buffering the protonation process at the TiO(2)/electrolyte interface, resulting in an upward shift in the conduction band and a boost in open-circuit voltage (V(OC)). Higher V(OC) values with undiminished photocurrent is achieved with nitrate-hydrotalcite nanoclay gel electrolyte for organic as well as for inorganic dye (D35 and N719) systems. The efficiency for hydrotalcite clay gel electrolyte solar cells is increased by 10%, compared to that of the liquid electrolyte. The power conversion efficiency can reach 10.1% under 0.25 sun and 9.6% under full sun. This study demonstrates that nitrate-hydrotalcite nanoclay in the electrolyte not only solidifies the liquid electrolyte to prevent solvent leakage, but also facilitates the improvement in cell efficiency.

  1. The influence of operational conditions on radiation damage in JFET-input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuzhan; Wang Yiyuan; Chen Rui; Fei Wuxiong; Lu Wu; Ren Diyuan

    2010-01-01

    High- and low-dose-rate irradiation have been performed on JFET-input operational amplifiers (op-amps) with normal operational and zero biased conditions, respectively. The experimental results show that operational conditions have a great influence on the radiation effects and damage in JFET-input operational amplifiers. Under normal condition, the JFET-input op-amps have exhibited time-dependent effect (TDE); while they show enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) at zero biased condition. Compared with zero biased condition, the JFET-input op-amps would degrade more severely at normal condition for high-dose-rate irradiation; while for the low-dose-rate case, they have more degradation at normal condition. Irradiation would induce positive oxide-trapped charge and interface traps in bipolar transistors, which are the basic components in JFET-input op-amps. From the dependence of oxide trapped charge and interface traps on operational conditions, the degradation behavior is discussed. (authors)

  2. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CERN: Energy amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Even under the heavy burden of responsibility as CERN's Director General from 1989-3 the fertile mind of Carlo Rubbia the scientist was never still. A long-time Rubbia 'hobby' has been the search for new sources of nuclear energy, exploiting knowledge and skills from high energy physics. An initial objective was to adopt heavy ion techniques to induce controlled thermonuclear fusion, but in 1994 this quest changed direction. Putting the problems of thermonuclear fusion aside, Rubbia began to explore an alternative route to energy production through controlled nuclear fission. The idea is to use a particle accelerator producing neutrons by spallation (interaction of particles with a target) to feed a fuel/moderator assembly where the neutrons multiply by fission chain reactions. If the energy liberated becomes substantially greater than that needed to drive the accelerator, the process has a net gain and becomes selfsupporting. Hence the name ''Energy Amplifier'' (EA). Similar systems for energy production or for nuclear waste incineration have been proposed at Los Alamos and in Japan and Russia, but appear to require the prior development of innovative linear accelerators. For Rubbia's Amplifier, the requisite accelerator is a reasonable extrapolation of an existing cyclotron such that at the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute. Moreover, the EA would require fuel rods very similar to those of conventional reactors, rather than demand-ing new technology using liquid fuel loops (molten salts) with on-line separation of radioactive products. Unlike a reactor, the EA's fission reaction is not self-sustaining: it is sub-critical and needs a continuous supply of neutrons from the accelerator. This makes Chernobyl-type meltdowns unlikely: if the accelerator stops, the reaction stops too. Another major advantage is that the old dream of using thorium as a fuel is now made possible. Thorium is not itself fissile, but under neutron

  4. Millimeter-wave power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    du Preez, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.

  5. Charge pulse preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libs, Gerard.

    1973-01-01

    A charge pulse preamplifier with very low background noise is described. The inlet stage of that preamplifier comprises a cooled field-effect transistor receiving the signal to be amplified at its gate input. Preferably, the charge resistor of said transistor is a field effect transistor, the source inlet of which is connected to the drain inlet of the former transistor through a self-induction coil and a resistor mounted in series. This can be applied to the treatment of the signals delivered by a particle detector in the form of a semi-conductor [fr

  6. MOSFET's for Cryogenic Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaye, R.; Ventrice, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Study seeks ways to build transistors that function effectively at liquid-helium temperatures. Report discusses physics of metaloxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) and performances of these devices at cryogenic temperatures. MOSFET's useful in highly sensitive cryogenic preamplifiers for infrared astronomy.

  7. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  8. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  9. Final amplifier design and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met

  10. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  11. Operational amplifiers theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsing, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This proven textbook guides readers to a thorough understanding of the theory and design of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The core of the book presents systematically the design of operational amplifiers, classifying them into a periodic system of nine main overall configurations, ranging from one gain stage up to four or more stages. This division enables circuit designers to recognize quickly, understand, and choose optimal configurations. Characterization of operational amplifiers is given by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters. Definitions are given for four types of operational amplifiers depending on the grounding of their input and output ports. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth, using a carefully structured approach enhanced by numerous figures. In order to reinforce the concepts introduced and facilitate self-evaluation of design skills, the author includes problems with detailed solutions, as well as simulation exercises. Provides te...

  12. TARC: Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) is Carlo Rubbia's energy amplifier. This CERN experiment demonstrated that long-lived fission fragments, such as 99-TC, can be efficiently destroyed.

  13. Two-section semiconductor optical amplifier used as an efficient channel dropping node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Storkfelt, Niels; Durhuus, T.

    1992-01-01

    High responsivity in a two-section semiconductor optical amplifier/detector, serving as a channel dropping mode is described. A simple receiver constructed using a 50 Ω amplifier with a sensitivity of -30.2 dBm at 140 Mb/s is demonstrated......High responsivity in a two-section semiconductor optical amplifier/detector, serving as a channel dropping mode is described. A simple receiver constructed using a 50 Ω amplifier with a sensitivity of -30.2 dBm at 140 Mb/s is demonstrated...

  14. TIMP-1 overexpression does not affect sensitivity to HER2-targeting drugs in the HER2-gene-amplified SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Fogh, Louise; Lademann, Ulrik Axel

    2013-01-01

    affect sensitivity to the HER2-targeting drugs trastuzumab and lapatinib. SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells were stably transfected with TIMP-1, characterized with regard to TIMP-1 protein expression, proliferation, and functionality of the secreted TIMP-1, and the sensitivity to trastuzumab...... and lapatinib was studied in five selected single-cell subclones expressing TIMP-1 protein at various levels plus the parental SK-BR-3 cell line. Both trastuzumab and lapatinib reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay, but the sensitivity to the drugs was not associated with the expression level...... to trastuzumab and lapatinib....

  15. A novel research approach on the dynamic properties of photogenerated charge carriers at Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films by a frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei [Liaoning Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail: songlab@lnu.edu.cn [Liaoning Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The changed SPV with chopping frequencies indicate the separation speeds of photogenerated charge carriers in different films. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}S-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films show good photoelectric responses in visible-light region. • Frequency-modulated SPV give dynamic information and evidence of Ag{sub 2}S QDSSCs’ performance. • Frequency-modulated SPV can supply complementary information in the study of Ag{sub 2}S ODSSCs. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films with different amount of Ag{sub 2}S were fabricated by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers at different spectral regions were studied by the frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology. Some novel dynamic information of photogenerated charge carriers in a wide spectral range is found. The results indicate that the rate and direction of separation (diffusion) for photogenerated charge carriers are closely related to the performance of quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on the Ag{sub 2}S/TiO{sub 2} nano-structure.

  16. Confinement of electron beams by mesh arrays in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pingshan; Gu Binlin

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results of intense beam confinement by conducting meshes in a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) are presented. Electron motions in a steady intense electron beam confined by conducting meshes are analyzed with an approximate space charge field distribution. And the conditions for steady beam transportation are discussed. Experimental results of a long distance (60 cm) transportation of an intense beam (400 kV, 2.5 kA) generated by a linear induction accelerator are presented. Experimental results of modulated beam transportation confined by the mesh array are presented also. The results show that the focusing ability of the conducting meshes is not very sensitive to the beam energy. And the meshes can be used effectively in a RKA to replace the magnetic field system

  17. A transimpedance amplifier using a novel current mode feedback loop

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, Francis; Delagnes, E; Jarron, Pierre; Scharfetter, L H H

    1995-01-01

    We present a transimpedance amplifier stage based on a novel current mode feedback topology. This circuit employs NMOS and PMOS transistors exclusively and requires neither capacitor for stabilizing the transimpedance loop nor resistor for the transresistance feedback and transistor loading. This amplifier circuit is fully compatible with submicron digital CMOS processes. The active feedback network consists of two grounded-gate MOS devices which split the output current in both the feedback and output branches. The transresistance and the phase margin are adjustable through external DC signals. The measured rise time of the impulse response of the amplifier implemented in an industrial 0,7µm CMOS process is 18 ns for a transresistance of 180 k‡ and 30 ns for a transresistance of 560 k‡. The measured Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) is 800 rms e¯ for an input capacitance of 20 pF with the transresistance adjusted to 560 k‡.

  18. Generation of broadly tunable picosecond mid-infrared laser and sensitive detection of a mid-infrared signal by parametric frequency up-conversion in MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiu-Lin; Zhang Jing; Qiu Kang-Sheng; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in the near-infrared region within 1.361–1.656 μm and the mid-infrared region within 2.976–4.875 μm is constructed on the basis of bulk MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals pumped at 1.064 μm. The maximum pulse energy reaches 1.3 mJ at 1.464 μm and 0.47 mJ at 3.894 μm, corresponding to a pump-to-idler photon conversion efficiency of 25%. By seeding the hard-to-measure mid-infrared radiation as the idler in the optical parametric amplification and measuring the amplified and frequency up-converted signal in the near-infrared or even visible region, one can measure very week mid-infrared radiation with ordinary detectors, which are insensitive to mid-infrared radiation, with a very high gain. A maximum gain factor of about 7 × 10 7 is achieved at the mid-infrared wavelength of 3.374 μm and the corresponding energy detection limit is as low as about 390 aJ per pulse. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Compressed magnetic flux amplifier with capacitive load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1980-03-01

    A first-order analysis is presented for a compressed magnetic flux (CMF) current amplifier working into a load with a capacitive component. Since the purpose of the investigation was to gain a general understanding of the arrangement, a number of approximations and limitations were accepted. The inductance of the transducer varies with time; the inductance/resistance/capacitance (LRC) circuit therefore is parametric and solutions are different for the stable regime (high C), the oscillation regime (low C), and the transition case. Solutions and performance depend strongly on circuit boundary conditions, i.e., energization of the circuit by either an injected current or by an applied capacitor charge. The behavior of current and energy amplification for the various cases are discussed in detail. A number of experiments with small CMF devices showed that the first-order theory presented predicts transducer performance well in the linear regime

  20. New developments in relativistic klystron amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, M; Colombant, D; Fernsler, R; Hubbard, R; Lampe, M; Serlin, V; Slinker, S [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.

    1997-12-31

    A relativistic klystron amplifier that employed cavities with inductively loaded wide gaps and a novel converter has achieved 50% energy efficiency, a significant advance over the previous state of the art of 20%. The new device was immersed in a 3 kG magnetic field and contained two innovations: (1) Wide gaps which include an inductively loaded return current structure that was opaque to the unmodulated beam space charge but transparent to the RF field. (2) A novel converter that was made of a `leaky` cavity with a radially-converging inductively-loaded structure that was inserted in the output wide-gap. This structure reduced the potential energy residing in the electron beam and maximized RF output energy. (author). 4 figs., 13 refs.

  1. Development of amplifier and shaper for high-rate MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiji, Ichinori; Nanjo, Hajime; Kawasaki, Naoki; Maeda, Yosuke; Naito, Daichi; Seki, Shigeto; Nakagiri, Kota; Sasao, Noboru; Nomura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) will be used as an in-beam charged particle detector for the J-PARC E14 (KOTO) experiment. The maximum counting rate of the MWPC is expected to be up to 1 MHz per channel due to the high neutron and photon flux, expected to be 1 GHz for the 30 x 30 cm"2 area. An amplifier to cope with such high counting-rate is required. We developed a prototype of such amplifier, which has a charge preamplifier with the integration time of 3 ns and a pulse shaping part with three pole-zero cancellation networks. The shaper reduced the characteristic long tail lasting tens of microseconds in the signal of MWPC to 150 ns. Its performance has been tested by using a single-channel MWPC which has almost the same geometrical parameters as the MWPC to be installed in the KOTO experiment. (author)

  2. High rate amplifier-digitizer system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Lobkowicz, F.; Fukushima, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost charge amplifier for a liquid argon photon detector and a new method for pulse height analysis are described. This scheme is suitable for high-energy photon detection with high counting rate. Samples of preamplifer output are taken just before and just after the arrival of the charge from the detector. The difference of these samples provides a stable pedestal and rejects low frequency noise. Short two-pulse resolving time (approximately equal to 200ns) is achieved. 6 refs

  3. 2R Regeneration in Concatenated Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers and Electroabsorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lotte Jin; Xu, Lin; Yvind, Kresten

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel 2R regenerator with a large level separation and steep step a sharp, adjustable threshold based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers and electroabsorbers. We demonstrate demonstrate improvements in both extinction-ratio and BER sensitivity atfor a 10 Gb/s NRZ signal....

  4. Giant Geometrically Amplified Piezoresistance in Metal-Semiconductor Hybrid Resistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole; Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    We show that very high geometrically amplified piezoresistance can indeed be obtained in microstructured metal-semiconductor hybrid devices, even significantly higher amplification factors than the factor of approximately 8 demonstrated recently by Rowe and co-workers may be achieved. However, we...... than the sensitivity of conventional piezoresistors fabricated in the same piezoresistive material. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  5. Processing of optical combs with fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Radan; Kakande, J.; Richardson, D.J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2012), s. 10059-10070 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber -optic parametric amplifier * Phase sensitive * Spectral coverage Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2012

  6. Measurement of charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event in √s=13 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco); Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, United States of America (United States); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others

    2017-03-29

    We present charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event, measured by the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, in low-luminosity Large Hadron Collider fills corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.6 nb{sup −1}. The distributions were constructed using charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5 and with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV, in events with at least one such charged particle with transverse momentum above 1 GeV. These distributions characterise the angular distribution of energy and particle flows with respect to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum, as a function of both that momentum and of charged-particle multiplicity. The results have been corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators, experimentally establishing the level of underlying-event activity at LHC Run 2 energies and providing inputs for the development of event generator modelling. The current models in use for UE modelling typically describe this data to 5% accuracy, compared with data uncertainties of less than 1%.

  7. Microneedle arrays coated with charge reversal pH-sensitive copolymers improve antigen presenting cells-homing DNA vaccine delivery and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Huu Thuy Trang; Kim, Nak Won; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Giang Phan, V H; Lee, Min Sang; Yin, Yue; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Doo Sung

    2018-01-10

    Successful delivery of a DNA vaccine to antigen-presenting cells and their subsequent stimulation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cell immunity remains an inefficient process. In general, the delivery of prophylactic vaccines is mainly mired by low transfection efficacy, poor immunogenicity, and safety issues from the materials employed. Currently, several strategies have been exploited to improve immunogenicity, but an effective strategy for safe and pain-free delivery of DNA vaccines is complicated. Herein, we report the rapid delivery of polyplex-based DNA vaccines using microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer and heparin. The charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer, composed of oligo(sulfamethazine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(amino urethane) (OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU), was used as a triggering layer in the polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly on microneedles. Charge reversal characteristics of this copolymer, that is, the OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU copolymer exhibit, positive charge at low pH (pH4.03) and becoming negative charge when exposed to physiological pH conditions (pH7.4), allowing the facile assembly and disassembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers. The electrostatic repulsion between heparin and OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU charge reversal copolymer triggered the release of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines laden on microneedles are effectively transfected into RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Vaccination of BALB/c mice by DNA vaccine-loaded microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer generated antigen-specific robust immune responses. These findings provide potential strategy of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymers coated microneedles for DNA vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A high-power millimeter-wave sheet beam free-electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments with a short period (9.6 mm) wiggler sheet electron beam (1.0 mm x 2.0 cm) millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) amplifier are presented. This FEL amplifier utilized a strong wiggler field for sheet beam confinement in the narrow beam dimension and an offset-pole side-focusing technique for the wide dimension beam confinement. The beam analysis herein includes finite emittance and space-charge effects. High-current beam propagation was achieved as a result of extensive analytical studies and experimental optimization. A design optimization resulted in a low sensitivity to structure errors and beam velocity spread, as well as a low required beam energy. A maximum gain of 24 dB was achieved with a 1-kW injected signal power at 86 GHz, a 450-kV beam voltage, 17-A beam current, 3.8-kG wiggler magnetic field, and a 74-period wiggler length. The maximum gain with a one-watt injected millimeter-wave power was observed to be over 30 dB. The lower gain at higher injection power level indicates that the device has approached saturation. The device was studied over a broad range of experimental parameters. The experimental results have a good agreement with expectations from a one-dimensional simulation code. The successful operation of this device has proven the feasibility of the original concept and demonstrated the advantages of the sheet beam FEL amplifier. The results of the studies will provide guidelines for the future development of sheet beam FEL's and/or other kinds of sheet beam devices. These devices have fusion application

  9. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  10. Optimal Operation of a Josephson Parametric Amplifier for Vacuum Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnou, M.; Palken, D. A.; Vale, Leila R.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2018-04-01

    A Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) can create squeezed states of microwave light, lowering the noise associated with certain quantum measurements. We experimentally study how the JPA's pump influences the phase-sensitive amplification and deamplification of a coherent tone's amplitude when that amplitude is commensurate with vacuum fluctuations. We predict and demonstrate that, by operating the JPA with a single current pump whose power is greater than the value that maximizes gain, the amplifier distortion is reduced and, consequently, squeezing is improved. Optimizing the singly pumped JPA's operation in this fashion, we directly observe 3.87 ±0.03 dB of vacuum squeezing over a bandwidth of 30 MHz.

  11. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  12. Quantum dots for lasers, amplifiers and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimberg, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    For InAs-GaAs based quantum dot lasers emitting at 1300 nm, digital modulation showing an open eye pattern up to 12 Gb s -1 at room temperature is demonstrated, at 10 Gb s -1 the bit error rate is below 10 -12 at -2 dB m receiver power. Cut-off frequencies up to 20 GHz are realised for lasers emitting at 1.1 μm. Passively mode-locked QD lasers generate optical pulses with repetition frequencies between 5 and 50 GHz, with a minimum Fourier limited pulse length of 3 ps. The uncorrelated jitter is below 1 ps. We use here deeply etched narrow ridge waveguide structures which show excellent performance similar to shallow mesa structures, but a circular far field at a ridge width of 1 μm, improving coupling efficiency into fibres. No beam filamentation of the fundamental mode, low a-factors and strongly reduced sensitivity to optical feedback are observed. QD lasers are thus superior to QW lasers for any system or network. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD SOAs) demonstrate gain recovery times of 120-140 fs, 4-7 times faster than bulk/QW SOAs, and a net gain larger than 0.4 dB/(mm*QD-layer) providing us with novel types of booster amplifiers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. These breakthroughs became possible due to systematic development of self-organized growth technologies

  13. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-range ±700¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...

  14. A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...

  15. Amplified spontaneous emissions in a high-gain laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hidenori; Gamo, Hideya.

    1978-01-01

    The gain and line-narrowing of the amplified spontaneous emissions(ASE) in a partially homogeneous high-gain Xe 3.51 μm laser amplifier were studied theoretically and experimentally with emphasis of saturation effect. The unidirectionally travelling ASE was generated by conveniently using optical isolators and used as a broadband radiation source. It has properties of 10 μW/mm 2 in intensity with fluctuation of less than 1% in 5 hours, 43.5 MHz of the linewidth and 1.0 x 10 -3 radians of beam divergence. The measured saturation intensity was 4.85 μW/mm 2 and a small signal gain was 0.1 cm -1 . The theoretical prediction of the line-narrowing shows reasonablly good agreement with the measured one. (author)

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, M.B.

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 x 10 17 in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO 3 crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies

  17. Embedded control system for high power RF amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Jain, Akhilesh; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    RF power devices are usually very sensitive to overheat and reflected RF power; hence a protective interlock system is required to be embedded with high power solid state RF amplifiers. The solid state RF amplifiers have salient features of graceful degradation and very low mean time to repair (MTTR). In order to exploit these features in favour of lowest system downtime, a real-time control system is embedded with high power RF amplifiers. The control system is developed with the features of monitoring, measurement and network publishing of various parameters, historical data logging, alarm generation, displaying data to the operator and tripping the system in case of any interlock failure. This paper discusses the design philosophy, features, functions and implementation details of the embedded control system. (author)

  18. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed field gel electrophoresis for subspecies differentiation of Serpulina pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were compared for their ability to differentiate between 50 porcine Serpulina pilosicoli isolates. Both techniques were highly sensitive, dividing the isolates into 36 and 38 groups, respectively. Due...

  19. Quantum and Raman Noise in a Depleted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....

  20. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  1. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  2. Cascading electron and hole transfer dynamics in a CdS/CdTe core-shell sensitized with bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR): slow charge recombination in type II regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Partha; Debnath, Tushar; Chopra, Uday; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2015-02-14

    Ultrafast cascading hole and electron transfer dynamics have been demonstrated in a CdS/CdTe type II core-shell sensitized with Br-PGR using transient absorption spectroscopy and the charge recombination dynamics have been compared with those of CdS/Br-PGR composite materials. Steady state optical absorption studies suggest that Br-PGR forms strong charge transfer (CT) complexes with both the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell. Hole transfer from the photo-excited QD and QD core-shell to Br-PGR was confirmed by both steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Charge separation was also confirmed by detecting electrons in the conduction band of the QD and the cation radical of Br-PGR as measured from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Charge separation in the CdS/Br-PGR composite materials was found to take place in three different pathways, by transferring the photo-excited hole of CdS to Br-PGR, electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to the CdS QD, and direct electron transfer from the HOMO of Br-PGR to the conduction band of the CdS QD. However, in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system hole transfer from the photo-excited CdS to Br-PGR and electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to CdS take place after cascading through the CdTe shell QD. Charge separation also takes place via direct electron transfer from the Br-PGR HOMO to the conduction band of CdS/CdTe. Charge recombination (CR) dynamics between the electron in the conduction band of the CdS QD and the Br-PGR cation radical were determined by monitoring the bleach recovery kinetics. The CR dynamics were found to be much slower in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system than in the CdS/Br-PGR system. The formation of the strong CT complex and the separation of charges cascading through the CdTe shell help to slow down charge recombination in the type II regime.

  3. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  4. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  5. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  6. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  7. European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players...... of the European research, academy and industry in vacuum electronics. This paper describes the status of the project and progress towards the THz amplifier realization....

  8. Integrated amplifying circuit with MOS transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylac, B; Merckel, G; Meunier, P

    1974-01-25

    The invention relates to a feedback-pass-band amplifier with MOS-transistors. The differential stage of conventional amplifiers is changed into an adding state, whereas the differential amplification stages are changed into amplifier inverter stages. All MOS transistors used in that amplifier are of similar configuration and are interdigitized, whereby the operating speed dispersion is reduced. This can be applied to obtaining a measurement channel for proportional chambers.

  9. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  10. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  11. A pulse amplifier for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Cliff, P.

    1987-01-01

    A Class-A 1 Watt amplifier has been designed and optimized for nanosecond pulses. Spanning .01MHz to 1300Mhz, signal gain is 26dB with gain flatness of 1dB. The amplifier drive +- 10 volts across 500 with 350ps risetime. Each amplifier is housed in a 2-wide NIM

  12. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  13. Development of a low-noise, two-dimensional amplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Sakumura, Takuto; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of a low-noise, two-dimensional analog front-end ASIC for hybrid pixel imaging detectors. Based on the Open-IP LSI project, the ASIC is designed to meet a low-noise requirement of better than 100e - (rms) with self-triggering capability. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel sensors utilizing silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) as detector materials for spectroscopic imaging observations in the X-ray and gamma-ray regions. The readout chip consists of a 4x4 matrix of identical 270μmx270μm pixel cells and was implemented with TSMC 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Each pixel cell contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, pole-zero cancellation circuit, shaper, comparator, and peak hold circuit. Preliminary testing of the ASIC achieved an 88e - (rms) equivalent noise charge and a 25e - /pF noise slope with power consumption of 150μW per pixel.

  14. A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R.; Moscone, C.G.

    1997-11-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results

  15. A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moscone, C.G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results.

  16. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  17. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mickelson, W, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Center of Integrated Nanomechanical Systems, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-07-20

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  18. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A; Mickelson, W

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  19. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. The amplifier is constructed in a fully differential topology to maximize noise rejection. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved....... A continuous-time current-steering offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize the noise contribution and to minimize dynamic impact on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0...

  20. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  1. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-r...

  2. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations

  3. A very sensitive ion collection device for plasma-laser characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, S; Torrisi, L; Cutroneo, M; Amato, A; Sarta, F; Wen, L

    2012-06-01

    In this paper a very sensitive ion collection device, for diagnostic of laser ablated-target plasma, is described. It allows for reducing down to few microvolts the signal threshold at digital scope input. A standard ion collector is coupled to a transimpedance amplifier, specially designed, which increases data acquisition sensitivity by a gain ≈1100 and does not introduce any significant distortion of input signal. By time integration of current intensity, an amount of charge as small as 2.7 × 10(-2) pC can be detected for photopeak events.

  4. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  5. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  6. Cathode-follower power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Puglisi, M.

    1983-01-01

    In circular accelerators and particularly in storage rings it is essential that the total impedance, as seen by the beam, be kept below some critical value. A model of the accelerating system was built using a single-ended cathode-follower amplifier driving a ferrite-loaded cavity. The system operated at 234.5 kHz with a peak output voltage of +-10 kV on the gap. The dynamic output impedance, as measured on the gap, was < 15 ohms

  7. Kinetics of photocurrent generation and an efficient charge separation of a dye-sensitized n-Cu2O/p-CuSCN junction photoelectrode in a solid-state photovoltaic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, C A N; Kumara, N T R N; Gamage, T N

    2010-01-01

    A Cu/n-Cu 2 O/dye/p-CuSCN junction photoelectrode is fabricated to produce a solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell. Samples are characterized by XRD, SEM and surface resistivity measurements. Photocurrent generation is found due to light absorption of n-Cu 2 O thin film and dye sensitization between p-CuSCN and the dye. Kinetics of the photocurrent generation of the dye sensitization is studied solving the rate equations by the iteration method obtaining a relationship for the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) depending on the surface concentration (D o ) of the dye and the rate constants of the reactions with connection to the dye sensitization process. The solution obtained in the steady state by iteration is found to be of the form Φ = AD o −BD o 2 (A and B are constants related to the reaction rates of the photocurrent generation process and the concentration of the n-Cu 2 O film). The variation of the n-Cu 2 O concentration with photocurrent is presented. A photocurrent enhancement is observed for the Cu/n-Cu 2 O/dye/p-CuSCN photovoltaic cell compared to that of Cu/n-Cu 2 O, Cu/p-CuSCN/dye and Cu/n-Cu 2 O/p-CuSCN photovoltaic cells. Good rectification characteristics are observed for the Cu/n-Cu 2 O/p-CuSCN photoelectrode compared to that of Cu/n-Cu 2 O and Cu/p-CuSCN photoelectrodes. Photocurrent enhancement is found due to the efficient charge separation process at the n–p junction. Energy band structures of the n–p junction are proposed according to the onset potentials which are used to discuss the mechanism of the efficient charge separation suppressing the recombination process

  8. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  9. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  10. How to interpret Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) profiles?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulneček, Jaroslav; Kovařík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, JAN 2014 (2014) ISSN 1471-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1751 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MSAP * DNA methylation * Methylcytosine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2014

  11. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy reveals the influence of charged sensitizing quantum dots on the electron dynamics in ZnO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamini, S.N.; Němec, Hynek; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Chábera, P.; Ponseca, C.; Zheng, K.; Pullerits, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2017), s. 6006-6012 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03662S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : sensitized semiconductors * ultrafast dynamics * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics , supercond.) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  12. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Kristine Rognmo Mikalsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear.

  13. A system for biasing a differential amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Daniel; Ittel, J.M.; Poujois, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns a system for biasing a differential amplifier. It particularly applies to the integrated differential amplifiers designed with MOS field effect transistors. Variations in the technological parameters may well cause the amplifying transistors to work outside their usual operational area, in other words outside the linear part of the transfer characteristic. To ensure that these transistors function correctly, it is necessary that the value of the voltage difference at the output be equally null. To do this and to centre on the so called 'rest' point of the amplifier transfer charateristic, the condition will be set that the output potentials of each amplifier transistor should have a zero value or a constant value as sum. With this in view, the bias on the source (generally a transistor powered by its grid bias voltage) supplying current to the two amplifying transistors fitted in parallel, is permanently adjusted in a suitable manner [fr

  14. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  15. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  16. A new amplifier for improving piezoelectric actuator linearity based on current switching in precision positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Changhai; Chen, Liguo; Shao, Bing; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have traditionally been driven by voltage amplifiers. When driven at large voltages these actuators exhibit a significant amount of distortion, known as hysteresis, which may reduce the stability robustness of the system in feedback control applications. Piezoelectric transducers are known to exhibit less hysteresis when driven with current or charge rather than voltage. Despite this advantage, such methods have found little practical application due to the poor low frequency response of present current and charge driver designs. In this paper, a new piezoelectric amplifier based on current switching is presented which can reduce hysteresis. Special circuits and a hybrid control algorithm realize quick and precise positioning. Experimental results demonstrate that the amplifier can be used for dynamic and static applications and low frequency bandwidths can also be achieved

  17. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  18. Very broad bandwidth klystron amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillon, G.; Egloff, G.; Farvet, C.

    Large surveillance radars use transmitters at peak power levels of around one MW and average levels of a few kW, and possibly several tens of kW, in S band, or even C band. In general, the amplification stage of these transmitters is a microwave power tube, frequently a klystron. Although designers often turn to klystrons because of their good peak and average power capabilities, they still see them as narrow band amplifiers, undoubtedly because of their resonant cavities which, at first sight, would seem highly selective. But, with the progress of recent years, it has now become quite feasible to use these tubes in installations requiring bandwidths in excess of 10 - 12 percent, and even 15 percent, at 1 MW peak for example, in S-band.

  19. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  20. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  1. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  2. Dye-Sensitized Molecular Charge Transfer Complexes: Magnetic and Conduction Properties in the Photoexcited States of Ni(dmit2 Salts Containing Photosensitive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive dyes often induce charge transfer (CT between adjacent chemical species and themselves under irradiation of appropriate wavelengths. Because of the reversibility and selectivity of such CT, it is considered to be interesting to utilize such dyes as optically controllable trigger components for conduction and magnetism in the photoexcited states of organic materials. Based on this idea, such a type of new salts, i.e., γ- and δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] in addition to DiCC2[Ni(dmit2]3 have been prepared, characterized and their physical and structural properties have been examined both under dark and irradiated conditions (dmit2− = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate, DiCC+ = 3,3′-Dihexyloxacarbocyanine monocation. Among them, under UV (254–450 nm irradiation, δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] exhibited photoconductivity being six times as high as its dark conductivity at room temperature. The electron spin resonance (ESR spectra have demonstrated that there are photoexcited spins on both DiCC and [Ni(dmit2] species as a result of the CT transition between them, serving as localized spins (DiCC and carriers ([Ni(dmit2], respectively. The results obtained in this work have indicated that the strategy mentioned above is effective in developing organic photoresponsive semiconductors with paramagnetism.

  3. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  4. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  5. Enhanced charge collection and photocatalysis performance of CdS and PbS nanoclusters co-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Gong, Zezhou; Tao, Jiajia [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei, 230601 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Chen, Xiaoshuang [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Jiang, Xishun [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); School of Mechanical & Electronic Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou, 239000 (China); He, Gang; Wang, Peihong; Meng, Fanming [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A novel translucent TiO{sub 2} porous film was prepared through etched method. The CdS, PbS and CdS/PbS nanoclusters were imbedded on TiO{sub 2} porous film by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. Microstructure, morphology, optical and photoelectron-chemical properties of the as-synthesized thin films were investigated systematically. XRD and morphology analysis showed that PbS or CdS nanoclusters have been attached to the TiO{sub 2} porous films. It was found that the energy band gap of TiO{sub 2} porous film decreased from 3.46 to 3.2 eV after sensitized with nanoclusters. The photocurrent density of ITO/TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode increased from 0.017 to 0.28 mA/cm{sup 2} after co-sensitized with CdS and PbS nanoclusters. Besides, the photoelectrode sensitized with two sorts of nanoclusters showed evident higher photocurrent density than which sensitized just one sort of nanoclusters. The photocurrent density of ITO/TiO{sub 2}/PbS and TO/TiO{sub 2}/CdS photoelectrode was 0.11 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.22 mA/cm{sup 2} respectively. 0.28 mA/cm{sup 2} can be obtained by ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CdS/PbS photoelectrode. The results showed that the optical and photoelectrochemistry properties and phtotcatalysis performance of TiO{sub 2} porous film were greatly improved by co-sensitized with CdS and PbS nanoclusters. - Graphical abstract: When CdS and PbS were brought in the cascade structure, such a Fermi level alignment causes upward and downward shifts of the band edges for PbS and CdS, respectively. Therefore the resulting band edges for the ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CdS/PbS devices are inferred to have a stepwise structure. The elevated conduction band edge of PbS provides a higher driving force for the injection of photogenerated electrons from PbS to CdS as well as the injection of excited holes from CdS to PbS. Such a structure offers efficient separation and transport of the excited electrons and holes. - Highlights: • Ti films were obtained from direct current

  6. Radiation hardening techniques for rare-earth based optical fibers and amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Vivona, Marilena; Prudenzano, Luciano Mescia F.; Laurent, Arnaud; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoit; Pinsard, Emmanuel; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Cannas, Marco; Boscaino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Er/Yb doped fibers and amplifiers have been shown to be very radiation sensitive, limiting their integration in space. We present an approach including successive hardening techniques to enhance their radiation tolerance. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by comparing the radiation responses of optical amplifiers made with same lengths of different rare-earth doped fibers and exposed to gamma-rays. Previous studies indicated that such amplifiers suffered significant degradation for doses exceeding 10 krad. Applying our techniques significantly enhances the amplifier radiation resistance, resulting in a very limited degradation up to 50 krad. Our optimization techniques concern the fiber composition, some possible pre-treatments and the interest of simulation tools used to harden by design the amplifiers. We showed that adding cerium inside the fiber phospho-silicate-based core strongly decreases the fiber radiation sensitivity compared to the standard fiber. For both fibers, a pre-treatment with hydrogen permits to enhance again the fiber resistance. Furthermore, simulations tools can also be used to improve the tolerance of the fiber amplifier by helping identifying the best amplifier configuration for operation in the radiative environment. (authors)

  7. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  9. Charge recombination reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells by means of an electron beam-deposited TiO2 buffer layer between conductive glass and photoelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, Michele; Malara, Francesco; Martiradonna, Luigi; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    A thin anatase titanium dioxide compact film was deposited by electron beam evaporation as buffer layer between the conductive transparent electrode and the porous TiO 2 -based photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The effect of such a buffer layer on the back transfer reaction of electrons to tri-iodide ions in liquid electrolyte-based cells has been studied by means of both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit photovoltage decay analysis. The influence of the thickness has been also investigated and an increment in overall quantum conversion efficiency η as high as + 31% with respect to the standard cell - fabricated onto an uncoated conductive glass - has been revealed in the case of a 120 nm thick buffer layer.

  10. Distributed feedback laser amplifiers combining the functions of amplifiers and channel filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Durhuus, T.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showin...... the possibility of amplifying 100 ps pulses without pulse broadening, we anticipate that a distributed feedback amplifier can be used as a combined amplifier and channel filter in high bit rate transmission systems....

  11. Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.......Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated....

  12. Pulse amplifier with high 'common mode rejection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijlst, P.

    1987-01-01

    The input signal of a pulse amplifier contains large 'common-mode' signals which have to be suppressed. A transformer, especially constructed for this purpose, is described. It has been tried to optimize the signal to noise ratio of the pulse amplifier by means of noise analysis. (Auth.)

  13. BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  14. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  15. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  16. Event-driven charge-coupled device design and applications therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, John P. (Inventor); Ricker, Jr., George R. (Inventor); Burke, Barry E. (Inventor); Prigozhin, Gregory Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An event-driven X-ray CCD imager device uses a floating-gate amplifier or other non-destructive readout device to non-destructively sense a charge level in a charge packet associated with a pixel. The output of the floating-gate amplifier is used to identify each pixel that has a charge level above a predetermined threshold. If the charge level is above a predetermined threshold the charge in the triggering charge packet and in the charge packets from neighboring pixels need to be measured accurately. A charge delay register is included in the event-driven X-ray CCD imager device to enable recovery of the charge packets from neighboring pixels for accurate measurement. When a charge packet reaches the end of the charge delay register, control logic either dumps the charge packet, or steers the charge packet to a charge FIFO to preserve it if the charge packet is determined to be a packet that needs accurate measurement. A floating-diffusion amplifier or other low-noise output stage device, which converts charge level to a voltage level with high precision, provides final measurement of the charge packets. The voltage level is eventually digitized by a high linearity ADC.

  17. PULSE MODULATION POWER AMPLIFIER WITH ENHANCED CASCADE CONTROL METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    a single local feedback path A (7) with a lowpass characteristic and local forward blocks B¿1? or B (3, 4). The leads to a much improved system with a very low sensitivity to errors in the switching power stage. In the second preferred embodiment of the invention the control structure is extended...... and feedback path A to determine stable self-oscillating conditions. An implemented 250W example MECC digital power amplifier has proven superior performance in terms of audio performance (0.005 % distortion, 115 dB dynamic range) and efficiency (92 %).......A digital switching power amplifier with Multivariable Enhanced Cascade Controlled (MECC) includes a modulator, a switching power stage and a low pass filter. In the first preferred embodiment an enhanced cascade control structure local to the switching power stage is added, characterised by having...

  18. A fluidic/pneumatic interface amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbert, D. E.; Kegel, T. M.

    The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The pressure within the venturi throat region, which is the amplifier output, changes with the flowrate. Non-linear characteristics, due to supersonic flow within the venturi, are altered through the use of feedback to the LPA input. A computer based model, to aid in optimizing the amplifier design, is developed. This model incorporates the effects of shock waves and boundary layers within the venturi. Good correspondence between the model and an experimental prototype is shown.

  19. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved. A continuous-time offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize impact...... on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0.5 μm CMOS single poly, n-well process. The prototype amplifier features a gain of 80 dB over a 3.6 kHz bandwidth, a CMRR of more than 87 dB and a PSRR...

  20. Bandwidth tunable amplifier for recording biopotential signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungkil; Aninakwa, Kofi; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low noise, low power, bandwidth tunable amplifier for bio-potential signal recording applications. By employing depletion-mode pMOS transistor in diode configuration as a tunable sub pA current source to adjust the resistivity of MOS-Bipolar pseudo-resistor, the bandwidth is adjusted without any need for a separate band-pass filter stage. For high CMRR, PSRR and dynamic range, a fully differential structure is used in the design of the amplifier. The amplifier achieves a midband gain of 39.8dB with a tunable high-pass cutoff frequency ranging from 0.1Hz to 300Hz. The amplifier is fabricated in 0.18εm CMOS process and occupies 0.14mm(2) of chip area. A three electrode ECG measurement is performed using the proposed amplifier to show its feasibility for low power, compact wearable ECG monitoring application.

  1. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2010-11-02

    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  2. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  3. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  4. Calculating and optimizing inter-electrode capacitances of charge division microchannel plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Bo, E-mail: chenb@ciomp.ac.cn [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang, Hong-Ji; Wang, Hai-Feng; He, Ling-Ping [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Jin, Fang-Yuan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Based on the principle of charge division microchannel plate detectors, the inter-electrode capacitances of charge division anodes which are related to electronic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier and crosstalk effect of the anode are presented. Under all the requirements of charge division microchannel plate detectors such as the imaging linearity and spatial resolution, decreasing the inter-electrode capacitances is one way to improve the imaging performance. In this paper, we illustrate the simulation process of calculating the inter-electrode capacitances. Moreover, a Wedge and Strip (WSZ) anode is fabricated with the picosecond laser micromachining process. Comparing the simulated capacitances and measured capacitances, the three-dimensional finite element method is proved to be valid. Furthermore, by adjusting the design parameters of the anode, the effects of the substrate permittivity, insulation width and the size of pitch on the inter-electrode capacitances have been analysed. The structure of the charge division anode has been optimized based on the simulation data.

  5. Electrostatics with Computer-Interfaced Charge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Computer interfaced electrostatic charge sensors allow both qualitative and quantitative measurements of electrostatic charge but are quite sensitive to charges accumulating on modern synthetic materials. They need to be used with care so that students can correctly interpret their measurements. This paper describes the operation of the sensors,…

  6. Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase φ(t) is Sφ(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and

  7. Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)

  8. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  9. Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder J

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read

  10. Quantum electronics maser amplifiers and oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 2: Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of maser amplifiers and oscillators which are based on the principles of quantum electronics. It shows how the concepts and equations used in quantum electronics follow from the basic principles of theoretical physics.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the elements of the theory of quantum oscillators and amplifiers working in the microwave region, along with the practical achievements in this field. Attention is paid to two-level paramagnetic ma

  11. Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)

  12. Position sensitive proportional counter for measurement of tritium labelled gas movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Chizuo; Nakamoto, Makihiko; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1984-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional counter of a charge division type with a single resistive anode wire was constructed for the measurement of the movement of 3 H labelled gas which is flowing or diffusing in a pipe. The introduction of resistors between the anode wire and pre-amplifiers brought a uniform detection efficiency for 3 H β-rays throughout the counter. The position resolution was 3.1 mm FWHM. Detection efficiency was almost 100% uniformly over about 700 mm in the total anode length of 740 mm. The movement of 3 H labelled gas could be measured effectively. (author)

  13. A transimpedance CMOS multichannel amplifier with a 50 Ω-wide output range buffer for high counting rate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralabidis, N.; Loukas, D.; Misiakos, K.; Katsafouros, S.

    1997-01-01

    A fast transimpedance multichannel amplifier has been designed, fabricated in CMOS 1.2-microm technology and tested. Each channel consists of a current sensitive preamplifier followed by a voltage amplification stage and an on-chip buffer able to drive 50 Ω loads with an output range of ±800 mV. Measured peaking time at the output is 40 ns and the circuit recovers to baseline in 90 ns. This results in a counting capability of more than 10 7 hits/s. Signals of both polarities can be handled. The first two stages consume a total of 2 mW per channel and the 50 Ω buffer consumes another 17 mW. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 1,100 e - rms with a slope of 40e - /pF. The IC is intended for use in gas and solid-state detectors with high particle rate and extensive charge release as in high energy calorimetry

  14. Study on the ELDRS of bipolar linear operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hui; Liu Yanfang; Chen Yu; Bai Hua; Zhang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar linear devices laboratory irradiation testing results are significantly different from the actual in flight exposure to the radiation. In this paper the total dose irradiation of operational amplifiers, and analysis upon the total dose response of these bipolar circuits under the different test conditions were investigated in the same experiment. Total dose tests of bipolar linear operational amplifiers show susceptible to dose rate, bias and room temperature annealing during exposure. The critical sensitive parameters of operational amplifier are input bias current, input offset current, input offset voltage, and open loop gain, which exhibits both bias and dose rate dependence. With calculating the change of each electrical parameter (Δpara) for each sample at 300 Gy radiation level, it has been found that ratio of the Δpara at low dose rate to the Δpara at high dose rate exceeds 2.46 times for any of the parameters. So these parts are considered to be ELDRS susceptible. After room temperature annealing, the main parameters have time dependence effect at low dose rate and without time dependent effect at high dose rate. (authors)

  15. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  16. CMOS Optoelectronic Lock-In Amplifier With Integrated Phototransistor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Hu; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P

    2010-10-01

    We describe the design and development of an optoelectronic lock-in amplifier (LIA) for optical sensing and spectroscopy applications. The prototype amplifier is fabricated using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. complementary metal-oxide semiconductor 0.35-μm technology and uses a phototransistor array (total active area is 400 μm × 640μm) to convert the incident optical signals into electrical currents. The photocurrents are then converted into voltage signals using a transimpedance amplifier for subsequent convenient signal processing by the LIA circuitry. The LIA is optimized to be operational at 20-kHz modulation frequency but is operational in the frequency range from 13 kHz to 25 kHz. The system is tested with a light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source. The noise and signal distortions are suppressed with filters and a phase-locked loop (PLL) implemented in the LIA. The output dc voltage of the LIA is proportional to the incident optical power. The minimum measured dynamic reserve and sensitivity are 1.31 dB and 34 mV/μW, respectively. The output versus input relationship has shown good linearity. The LIA consumes an average power of 12.79 mW with a 3.3-V dc power supply.

  17. Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  19. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  20. Behavior of MOSFET Amplifier in Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, K.A.A.; Ashry, M.

    2000-01-01

    MOSFET type 2 N 3823 characteristics and its application as an amplifier are analyzed including the effects of gamma, electron beam 1.5 MeV 25 m A and neutron flux. The 1-V characteristics, transfer curve, and the frequency response of the amplifier, and the amplification factor(A v 0 are discussed with MOSFET circuit parameters. The drain current and the amplitude of the output signal decrease as the absorbed dose increases. The measured values of the amplified signal are attenuated by 30% and 6% after exposing the MOSFET to gamma radiation and electron beam at the same dose respectively. Also for exposure to 4x10 13 N/cm 3 neutrons decreased the measured value of the amplified signal by 73% of the initial values. The decrease in the gain of the MOSFET is due to the degradation of the transconductance. It is also noticed that percentage of the decrease depends on the type of radiation

  1. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Starecki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  2. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starecki, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z

    2017-11-03

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  3. Manhattan equation for the operational amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mishonov, Todor M.; Danchev, Victor I.; Petkov, Emil G.; Gourev, Vassil N.; Dimitrova, Iglika M.; Varonov, Albert M.

    2018-01-01

    A differential equation relating the voltage at the output of an operational amplifier $U_0$ and the difference between the input voltages ($U_{+}$ and $U_{-}$) has been derived. The crossover frequency $f_0$ is a parameter in this operational amplifier master equation. The formulas derived as a consequence of this equation find applications in thousands of specifications for electronic devices but as far as we know, the equation has never been published. Actually, the master equation of oper...

  4. Distributed amplifier using Josephson vortex flow transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, D.P.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A wide-band traveling wave amplifier using vortex flow transistors is proposed. A vortex flow transistor is a long Josephson junction used as a current controlled voltage source. The dual nature of this device to the field effect transistor is exploited. A circuit model of this device is proposed and a distributed amplifier utilizing 50 vortex flow transistors is predicted to have useful gain to 100 GHz

  5. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation

  6. Neratinib shows efficacy in the treatment of HER2 amplified carcinosarcoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Carlton L; English, Diana P; Black, Jonathan; Bellone, Stefania; Lopez, Salvatore; Cocco, Emiliano; Bonazzoli, Elena; Bussi, Beatrice; Predolini, Federica; Ferrari, Francesca; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2015-10-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a deadly gynecologic malignancy with few effective treatment options. The study of new therapies is difficult because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neratinib in the treatment of HER2 amplified carcinosarcoma. The efficacy of neratinib in the treatment of HER2 amplified carcinosarcoma was determined in vitro using seven primary carcinosarcoma cell lines with differential expression of HER2/neu. Data regarding IC50, cell cycle distribution, and cell signaling changes were assessed by flow cytometry. The efficacy of neratinib was determined in treating mice harboring HER2 amplified carcinosarcoma xenografts. Two of seven (28.5%) carcinosarcoma cell lines were HER2/neu amplified. HER2/neu amplified cell lines SARARK6 and SARARK9 were significantly more sensitive to neratinib than the five non-HER2/neu amplified carcinosarcoma cell lines (mean±SEM IC50:0.014μM±0.004vs.0.164μM±0.019 p=0.0003). Neratinib treatment caused a significant build up in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, arrest auto phosphorylation of HER2/neu and activation of S6. Neratinib inhibited tumor growth (p=0.012) and prolonged survival in mice harboring HER2 amplified carcinosarcoma xenografts (p=0.0039). Neratinib inhibits HER2 amplified carcinosarcoma proliferation, signaling, cell cycle progression and tumor growth in vitro. Neratinib inhibits HER2/neu amplified xenograft growth and improves overall survival. Clinical trials are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  8. Model improvements to simulate charging in SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, K. T.; Klimpel, T.; Hagen, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Charging of insulators is a complex phenomenon to simulate since the accuracy of the simulations is very sensitive to the interaction of electrons with matter and electric fields. In this study, we report model improvements for a previously developed Monte-Carlo simulator to more accurately simulate samples that charge. The improvements include both modelling of low energy electron scattering and charging of insulators. The new first-principle scattering models provide a more realistic charge distribution cloud in the material, and a better match between non-charging simulations and experimental results. Improvements on charging models mainly focus on redistribution of the charge carriers in the material with an induced conductivity (EBIC) and a breakdown model, leading to a smoother distribution of the charges. Combined with a more accurate tracing of low energy electrons in the electric field, we managed to reproduce the dynamically changing charging contrast due to an induced positive surface potential.

  9. Design of Amplifier Circuit for the HT-7 Tokamak Thomson Scattering System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lingwei; Ling Bili; Zhao Junyu; Yang Li; Zang Qing; Hu Qingsheng; Jia Yanqing

    2008-01-01

    Thomson scattering diagnostic is important for measuring electron temperature and density profiles. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) with high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity, and high gain up to 100 was adopted to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum. A preamplifier, which has low noise, high bandwidth, and high sensitivity, was designed with suitable transimpedance. Using AD8367 as the post-amplifier, good performance of the APD readout electronics have been obtained. A discussion is presented on the performance of the amplifier using a laser diode to simulate the Thomson scattering light. The test results indicate that the designed circuit has a high amplifying factor and fast rising edge. So reduction of the integral gate of the CAMAC ADC converter can improve the signal-to-noise ratio. (brief communication and research note)

  10. Dynamic absorption coefficients of chemically amplified resists and nonchemically amplified resists at extreme ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the x-ray interference lithography beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general, the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called chemical sensitivity to account for all the postabsorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which also predicts a quantitative clearing volume and clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of the EUV concepts of clearing volume and clearing radius, which are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  11. Advances in high-power rf amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Several powerful accelerators and storage rings are being considered that will require tens or even hundreds of megawatts of continuous rf power. The economics of such large machines can be dictated by the cost and efficiency of the rf amplifiers. The overall design and performance of such narrow-band amplifiers, operating in the 50- to 1500-MHz region, are being theoretically studied as a function of frequency to determine the optimum rf amplifier output power, gain, efficiency, and dc power requirements. The state of the art for three types of amplifiers (gridded tubes, klystrons, and gyrocons) is considered and the development work necessary to improve each is discussed. The gyrocon is a new device, hence its various embodiments are discussed in detail. The Soviet designs are reviewed and the gyrocon's strengths and weaknesses are compared to other types of microwave amplifiers. The primary advantages of the gyrocon are the very large amount of power available from a single device and the excellent efficiency and stable operation. The klystron however, has much greater gain and is simpler mechanically. At very low frequencies, the small size of the gridded tube makes it the optimum choice for all but the most powerful systems

  12. Transpermeance Amplifier Applied to Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossana Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most conventional approach of controlling magnetic forces in active magnetic bearings (AMBs is through current feedback amplifiers: transconductance. This enables the operation of the AMB to be understood in terms of a relatively simple current-based model as has been widely reported on in the literature. The alternative notion of using transpermeance amplifiers, which approximate the feedback of gap flux rather than current, has been in commercial use in some form for at least thirty years, however is only recently seeing more widespread acceptance as a commercial standard. This study explores how such alternative amplifiers should be modeled and then examines the differences in behavior between AMBs equipped with transconductance and transpermeance amplifiers. The focus of this study is on two aspects. The first is the influence of rotor displacement on AMB force, commonly modeled as a constant negative equivalent mechanical stiffness, and it is shown that either scheme actually leads to a finite bandwidth effect, but that this bandwidth is much lower when transpermeance is employed. The second aspect is the influence of eddy currents. Using a very simple model of eddy currents (a secondary short-circuited coil, it is demonstrated that transpermeance amplifiers can recover significant actuator bandwidth compared with transconductance, but at the cost of needing increased peak current headroom.

  13. submitter Experimental temperature measurements for the energy amplifier test

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, J; Gallego, E; Gálvez, J; García Tabares, L; González, E; Jaren, J; López, C; Lorente, A; Martínez Val, J M; Oropesa, J; Rubbia, C; Rubio, J A; Saldana, F; Tamarit, J; Vieira, S

    1996-01-01

    A uranium thermometer has been designed and built in order to make local power measurements in the First Energy Amplifier Test (FEAT). Due to the experimental conditions power measurements of tens to hundreds of nW were required, implying a sensitivity in the temperature change measurements of the order of 1 mK. A uranium thermometer accurate enough to match that sensitivity has been built. The thermometer is able to determine the absolute energetic gain obtained in a tiny subcritical uranium assembly exposed to a proton beam of kinetic energies between 600 MeV and 2.75 GeV. In addition, the thermometer measurements have provided information about the spatial power distribution and the shape of the neutron spallation cascade.

  14. Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render

  15. Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.

  16. The design of high performance weak current integrated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guojie; Cao Hui

    2005-01-01

    A design method of high performance weak current integrated amplifier using ICL7650 operational amplifier is introduced. The operating principle of circuits and the step of improving amplifier's performance are illustrated. Finally, the experimental results are given. The amplifier has programmable measurement range of 10 -9 -10 -12 A, automatic zero-correction, accurate measurement, and good stability. (authors)

  17. Power Amplifiers in CMOS Technology: A contribution to power amplifier theory and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demands from the market on cheaper, miniaturized mobile communications devices realization of RF power amplifiers in the mainstream CMOS technology is essential. In general, CMOS Power Amplifiers (PAs) require high voltage to decrease the matching network losses and for high

  18. Design considerations for RF power amplifiers demonstrated through a GSM/EDGE power amplifier module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltus, P.G.M.; Bezooijen, van A.; Huijsing, J.H.; Steyaert, M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design considerations for RF power amplifiers in general, including trends in systems, linearity and efficiency, the PA environment, implementation is sues and technology. As an example a triple-band (900/1800/1900MHz) dual mode (GSMIEdge) power amplifier module is described

  19. Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.

  20. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  1. Process Optimization for Monolithic Integration of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor and MOSFET Amplifier with SOI Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V Vinoth; Dasgupta, A; Bhat, K N; KNatarajan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and process optimization for fabricating piezoresitive pressure sensor and MOSFET Differential Amplifier simultaneously on the same chip. Silicon On Insulator approach has been used for realizing the membrane as well as the electronics on the same chip. The amplifier circuit has been configured in the common source connection and it has been designed with PSPICE simulation to achieve a voltage gain of about 5. In the initial set of experiments the Pressure sensor and the amplifier were fabricated on separate chips to optimize the process steps and tested in the hybrid mode. In the next set of experiments, SOI wafer having the SOI layer thickness of about 11 microns was used for realizing the membrane by anisotropic etching from the backside. The piezo-resistive pressure sensor was realized on this membrane by connecting the polysilicon resistors in the form of a Wheatstone bridge. The MOSFET source follower amplifier was also fabricated on the same SOI wafer by tailoring the process steps to suit the requirement of simultaneous fabrication of piezoresistors and the amplifier for achieving MOSFET Integrated Pressure Sensor. Reproducible results have been achieved on the SOI wafers, with the process steps developed in the laboratory. Sensitivity of 270 mV /Bar/10V, with the on chip amplifier gain of 4.5, has been achieved with this process

  2. The design of a linear amplifier for very small DC-currents, called LASC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, S.; Storruste, A.

    1989-12-01

    A linear amplifier for the monitoring of very small currents from a high pressure ionization chamber has been designed. In the traditional design of an ionization chamber current amplifier, selected semiconductors and resistors are chosen to measure the very small currents in question. As the leakage currents in these semiconductors are larger than the smallest currents to be measured, very sophisticated electronics must be employed to succeed with the design. In order to overcome this disadvantage, the reported design is based on the following basic features: A capacitor is charged by the chamber ion current during a fixed time period, without loading the amplifier input. The use of a peak detector makes bouncing of the time-lag relay contacts unimportant, and allows an analog-to-digital converter to store the voltage build-up in the capacitor as a digital value. The measuring range of the amplifier, 0.001 pA to 1000 pA, makes it suitable for measuring gamma radiation in the air, both under normal and abnormal conditions. The design of the amplifier is described and results from tests are presented. 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  4. Neratinib overcomes trastuzumab resistance in HER2 amplified breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonici, Alexandra; Gijsen, Merel; Mullooly, Maeve; Bennett, Ruth; Bouguern, Noujoude; Pedersen, Kasper; O'Brien, Neil A; Roxanis, Ioannis; Li, Ji-Liang; Bridge, Esther; Finn, Richard; Siamon, Dennis; McGowan, Patricia; Duffy, Michael J; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John; Kong, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Trastuzumab has been shown to improve the survival outcomes of HER2 positive breast cancer patients. However, a significant proportion of HER2-positive patients are either inherently resistant or develop resistance to trastuzumab. We assessed the effects of neratinib, an irreversible panHER inhibitor, in a panel of 36 breast cancer cell lines. We further assessed its effects with or without trastuzumab in several sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells as well as a BT474 xenograft model. We confirmed that neratinib was significantly more active in HER2-amplified than HER2 non-amplified cell lines. Neratinib decreased the activation of the 4 HER receptors and inhibited downstream pathways. However, HER3 and Akt were reactivated at 24 hours, which was prevented by the combination of trastuzumab and neratinib. Neratinib also decreased pHER2 and pHER3 in acquired trastuzumab resistant cells. Neratinib in combination with trastuzumab had a greater growth inhibitory effect than either drug alone in 4 HER2 positive cell lines. Furthermore, trastuzumab in combination with neratinib was growth inhibitory in SKBR3 and BT474 cells which had acquired resistance to trastuzumab as well as in a BT474 xenograft model. Innately trastuzumab resistant cell lines showed sensitivity to neratinib, but the combination did not enhance response compared to neratinib alone. Levels of HER2 and phospho-HER2 showed a direct correlation with sensitivity to neratinib. Our data indicate that neratinib is an effective anti-HER2 therapy and counteracted both innate and acquired trastuzumab resistance in HER2 positive breast cancer. Our results suggest that combined treatment with trastuzumab and neratinib is likely to be more effective than either treatment alone for both trastuzumab-sensitive breast cancer as well as HER2-positive tumors with acquired resistance to trastuzumab.

  5. Discovery of S···C≡N Intramolecular Bonding in a Thiophenylcyanoacrylate-Based Dye: Realizing Charge Transfer Pathways and Dye···TiO 2 Anchoring Characteristics for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish; ISIS; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Department; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A. [Cavendish; Lin, Tze-Chia [Cavendish; Pattison, Philip [Swiss; Gong, Yun [Cavendish; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish; Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, Australian Nuclear Science; Zhang, Lei [Cavendish; Koumura, Nagatoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan; Mori, Shogo [Division

    2017-07-25

    Donor-pi-acceptor dyes containing thiophenyl pi-conjugated units and cyanoacrylate acceptor groups are among the best-performing organic chromophores used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Yet, the molecular origins of their high photovoltaic output have remained unclear until now. This synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction study elucidates these origins for the high-performance thiophenylcyanoacrylate-based dye MK-2 (7.7% DSC device efficiency) and its molecular building block, MK-44. The crystal structures of MK-2 and MK-44 are both determined, while a high-resolution charge-density mapping of the smaller molecule was also possible, enabling the nature of its bonding to be detailed. A strong S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N intramolecular interaction is discovered, which bears a bond critical point, thus proving that this interaction should be formally classified as a chemical bond. A topological analysis of the pi-conjugated portion of MK-44 shows that this S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N bonding underpins the highly efficient intramolecular charge transfer(ICT) in thiophenylcyanoacrylate dyes. This manifests as two bipartite ICT pathways bearing carboxylate and nitrile end points. In turn, these pathways dictate a preferred COO/CN anchoring mode for the dye as it adsorbs onto TiO2 surfaces, to form the dye TiO2 interface that constitutes the DSC working electrode. These results corroborate a recent proposal that all cyanoacrylate groups anchor onto TiO2 in this COO/CN binding configuration. Conformational analysis of the MK-44 and MK-2 crystal structures reveals that this S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N bonding will persist in MK-2. Accordingly, this newly discovered bond affords a rational explanation for the attractive photovoltaic properties of,MK-2. More generally, this study provides the first unequivocal evidence for an S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N

  6. Single event mirroring and sense amplifier designs for enhanced SE tolerance of DRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, K.; Massengill, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of existing SRAM SEU hardening techniques to conventional CMOS cross-coupled sense amplifiers used in DRAM structures. We propose a novel SEU mirroring concept and implementation for hardening DRAMs to bitline hits. Simulations indicate a 24-fold improvement in critical charge during the sensing state using a 10K T-Resistor scheme and a 28-fold improvement during the highly susceptible high impedance state using 2pF dynamic capacitance coupling

  7. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.

    2012-12-01

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  8. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J-F.; Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1–3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  9. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuy, A., E-mail: asanuy@ecm.ub.es [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gascon, D. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sieiro, X. [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, CC072, bat. 13, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Glicenstein, J-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Ribo, M. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-12-11

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  10. An automated test facility for neutronic amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Neutronic amplifiers are used at the Chalk River Laboratory in applications such as neutron flux monitoring and reactor control systems. Routine preventive maintenance of control and safety systems included annual calibration and characterization of the neutronic amplifiers. An investigation into the traditional methods of annual routine maintenance of amplifiers concluded that frequency and phase response measurements in particular were labour intensive and subject to non-repeatable errors. A decision was made to upgrade testing methods and facilities by using programmable test equipment under the control of a computer. In order to verify the results of the routine measurements, expressions for the transfer functions were derived from the circuit diagrams. Frequency and phase responses were then calculated and plotted thus providing a bench-mark to which the test results can be compared. (author)

  11. A high-efficiency superconductor distributed amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Q P, E-mail: quentin.herr@ngc.co [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 7323 Aviation Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21240 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A superconductor output amplifier that converts single-flux-quantum signals to a non-return-to-zero pattern is reported using a twelve-stage distributed amplifier configuration. The output amplitude is measured to be 1.75 mV over a wide bias current range of {+-} 12%. The bit error rate is measured using a Delta-Sigma data pattern to be less than 1 x 10{sup -9} at 10 Gb s{sup -1} per channel. Analysis of the eye diagram suggests that the actual bit error rate may be much lower. The amplifier has power efficiency of 12% neglecting the termination resistor, which may be eliminated from the circuit with a small modification. (rapid communication)

  12. A simple colorimetric assay for detection of amplified Mycobacterium leprae DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vliet, G. M.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    A colorimetric assay for the detection of PCR-products is described. The assay is based on amplification of DNA in the presence of digoxigenin-dUTP. After immobilization of the PCR products to a microtitre plate, amplified DNA could be detected colorimetrically. The sensitivity of this colorimetric

  13. AIDA: A 16-channel amplifier ASIC to read out the advanced implantation detector array for experiments in nuclear decay spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, D. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P. J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Page, R. D. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Thomas, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detector channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)

  14. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  15. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  16. Cryogenic transimpedance amplifier for micromechanical capacitive sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, D; Pastoriza, H; Julián, P; Mandolesi, P

    2008-08-01

    We developed a cryogenic transimpedance amplifier that works at a broad range of temperatures, from room temperature down to 4 K. The device was realized with a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1.5 mum process. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics, open-loop gain, input referred noise current, and power consumption are presented as a function of temperature. The transimpedance amplifier has been successfully applied to sense the motion of a polysilicon micromechanical oscillator at low temperatures. The whole device is intended to serve as a magnetometer for microscopic superconducting samples.

  17. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  18. Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

  19. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  20. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  1. Enhanced photovoltaic performance utilizing effective charge transfers and light scattering effects by the combination of mesoporous, hollow 3D-ZnO along with 1D-ZnO in CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Barpuzary, Dipankar; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2014-05-28

    A combination of 3-dimensional (3D) hollow mesoporous ZnO microspheres (ZnO HMSP) and vertically grown one-dimensional ZnO nanowires (1D ZnO NWs) on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate has been investigated as a photoanode for a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QSSC). A comparative study of the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell with devices fabricated with pristine ZnO HMSPs and ZnO NWs was carried out. The proposed photovoltaic device exhibits an enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) upto ∼74% and ∼35%, as compared to the 1D ZnO NW and ZnO HMSP based solar cells. The maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) for the solar cell was observed to be ∼40%, whereas for the devices fabricated with bare ZnO HMSP and ZnO NW the IPCE were only ∼32% and ∼19%, respectively. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the solar cell is attributed to the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, efficient light-scattering effects and facilitated diffusion of the electrolyte for better functioning of the redox couple (S(2-)/Sn(2-)) in the hybrid photoanode. Moreover, a faster electron transport through 1D ZnO NWs provides better charge collection from the photoactive layer, which leads to an increase in the short circuit current density of the device. The present study highlights the design and development of a new hybrid photoanode for solar harvesting.

  2. Dual frequency parametric excitation of a nonlinear, multi degree of freedom mechanical amplifier with electronically modified topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, A.; Bucher, I.

    2018-04-01

    Mechanical or electromechanical amplifiers can exploit the high-Q and low noise features of mechanical resonance, in particular when parametric excitation is employed. Multi-frequency parametric excitation introduces tunability and is able to project weak input signals on a selected resonance. The present paper addresses multi degree of freedom mechanical amplifiers or resonators whose analysis and features require treatment of the spatial as well as temporal behavior. In some cases, virtual electronic coupling can alter the given topology of the resonator to better amplify specific inputs. An analytical development is followed by a numerical and experimental sensitivity and performance verifications, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of such topologies.

  3. A CMOS Luminescence Intensity and Lifetime Dual Sensor Based on Multicycle Charge Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guoqing; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2018-06-01

    Luminescence plays an important role in many scientific and industrial applications. This paper proposes a novel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor chip that can realize both luminescence intensity and lifetime sensing. To enable high sensitivity, we propose parasitic insensitive multicycle charge modulation scheme for low-light lifetime extraction benefiting from simplicity, accuracy, and compatibility with deeply scaled CMOS process. The designed in-pixel capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) based structure is able to capture the weak luminescence-induced voltage signal by accumulating photon-generated charges in 25 discrete gated 10-ms time windows and 10-μs pulsewidth. A pinned photodiode on chip with 1.04 pA dark current is utilized for luminescence detection. The proposed CTIA-based circuitry can achieve 2.1-mV/(nW/cm 2 ) responsivity and 4.38-nW/cm 2 resolution at 630 nm wavelength for intensity measurement and 45-ns resolution for lifetime measurement. The sensor chip is employed for measuring time constants and luminescence lifetimes of an InGaN-based white light-emitting diode at different wavelengths. In addition, we demonstrate accurate measurement of the lifetime of an oxygen sensitive chromophore with sensitivity to oxygen concentration of 7.5%/ppm and 6%/ppm in both intensity and lifetime domain. This CMOS-enabled oxygen sensor was then employed to test water quality from different sources (tap water, lakes, and rivers).

  4. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  5. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna, E-mail: anirban.bhattacharyya@physics.uu.se; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-21

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  6. Hybrid amplifier for calorimetry with photodiode readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, V V

    1994-12-31

    A hybrid surface mounted amplifier for the photodiode readout of the EM calorimeter has been developed. The main technical characteristics of the design are presented. The design able to math readout constraints for a high luminosity collider experiment is discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Amplifier Design for Proportional Ionization Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. H.

    1950-08-24

    This paper presents the requirements of a nuclear amplifier of short resolving time, designed to accept pulses of widely varying amplitudes. Data are given which show that a proportional ionization chamber loaded with a 1,000-ohm resistor develops pulses of 0.5 microsecond duration and several volts amplitude. Results indicate that seven basic requirements are imposed on the amplifier when counting soft beta and gamma radiation in the presence of alpha particles, without absorbers. It should, (1) have a fast recovery time, (2) have a relatively good low frequency response, (3) accept pulses of widely varying heights without developing spurious pulsed, (4) have a limiting output stage, (5) preserve the inherently short rise time of the chamber, (6) minimize pulse integration, and (7) have sufficient gain to detect the weak pulses well below the chamber voltage at which continuous discharge takes place. The results obtained with an amplifier which meets these requirements is described. A formula is derived which indicates that redesign of the proportional ionization chamber might eliminate the need for an amplifier. This may be possible if the radioactive particles are collimated parallel to the collecting electrode.

  8. Enhanced timing channel for spectroscopy amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, N [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Purpose of this paper is to analyze noise and timing performance of some methods of filtering in the fast channel. Implementation of RLC-filter into a semi-Gaussian amplifier allows to obtain the time resolution of 420 ns. 5 refs.

  9. Optimization of Pr3+:ZBLAN fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.; Miniscalco, J. W.; Quimby, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental parameters have been measured and used in a quantitative model of Pr3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifiers. The optimum cutoff wavelength was determined to be 800 nm and the gain for 400 mW of pump was found to increase from 12 to 34 dB if the NA was increased from 0.15 to 0...

  10. Reducing Switching Artifacts in Chopper Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusuda, Y.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design, and implementation of chopper operational amplifiers (op-amps) in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs). The chopping technique periodically corrects DC errors of such op-amps, so that low 1/f noise and stable, microvolt-level offset can be achieved. However,

  11. High-Performance Operational and Instrumentation Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahi, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes techniques to reduce the offset error in precision instrumentation and operational amplifiers. The offset error which is considered a major error source associated with gain blocks, together with other errors are reviewed. Conventional and newer approaches to remove offset and

  12. SINGLE CONVERSION ISOLATED IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a switch mode power amplifier. A first and a second change-over switch are inserted between a DC voltage supply and a primary side of an isolation transformer. Two secondary windings are connected to a power output terminal. A first and a second secondary side power switc...

  13. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op...

  14. Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization of four important species of Bamboo, found in Raigad district, Maharashtra State, India. ... Bambusoideae are differentiated from other members of the family by the presence of petiolate blades with parallel venation and stamens are three, four, six or more, ...

  15. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  16. Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt

  17. Application of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... and T7-010 based on functional markers according to He et al. (2007). These primers were constructed by Invitrogen GmbH,. Karlsruhe, Germany, and used to amplify the polyphenol oxidases genes. The sequences of these primers were as follows: T3-001: 5`-CCA TTA ACC CTC ACT AAA GGG ACC GTA ...

  18. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C

    2014-04-01

    A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

  19. Transmission characteristics of acoustic amplifier in thermoacoustic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong

    2008-01-01

    Thermoacoustic engines are promising in practical applications for the merits of simple configuration, reliable operation and environmentally friendly working gas. An acoustic amplifier can increase the output pressure amplitude of a thermoacoustic engine (TE) and improve the matching between the engine and its load. In order to make full use of an acoustic amplifier, the transmission characteristics are studied based on linear thermoacoustic theory. Computational and experimental results show that the amplifying ability of an acoustic amplifier is mainly determined by its geometry parameters and output resistance impedance. The amplifying ability of an acoustic amplifier with appropriate length and diameter reaches its maximum when the output resistance impedance is infinite. It is also shown that the acoustic amplifier consumes an amount of acoustic power when amplifying pressure amplitude and the acoustic power consumption increases with amplifying ratio. Furthermore, a novel cascade acoustic amplifier is proposed, which has a much stronger amplifying ability with reduced acoustic power consumption. In experiments, a two-stage cascade acoustic amplifier amplifies the pressure ratio from 1.177 to 1.62 and produces a pressure amplitude of 0.547 MPa with nitrogen of 2.20 MPa as working gas. Good agreements are obtained between the theoretical analysis and experimental results. This research is instructive for comprehensively understanding the mechanism and making full use of the acoustic amplifier

  20. Single-ion quantum lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-05-05

    Quantum metrology uses tools from quantum information science to improve measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The challenge is to increase sensitivity while reducing susceptibility to noise, tasks that are often in conflict. Lock-in measurement is a detection scheme designed to overcome this difficulty by spectrally separating signal from noise. Here we report on the implementation of a quantum analogue to the classical lock-in amplifier. All the lock-in operations--modulation, detection and mixing--are performed through the application of non-commuting quantum operators to the electronic spin state of a single, trapped Sr(+) ion. We significantly increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. Using this technique, we measure frequency shifts with a sensitivity of 0.42 Hz Hz(-1/2) (corresponding to a magnetic field measurement sensitivity of 15 pT Hz(-1/2)), obtaining an uncertainty of less than 10 mHz (350 fT) after 3,720 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and improve on other single-spin probe technologies by two orders of magnitude. Our reported sensitivity is sufficient for the measurement of parity non-conservation, as well as the detection of the magnetic field of a single electronic spin one micrometre from an ion detector with nanometre resolution. As a first application, we perform light shift spectroscopy of a narrow optical quadrupole transition. Finally, we emphasize that the quantum lock-in technique is generic and can potentially enhance the sensitivity of any quantum sensor. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Is there a role for amplifiers in sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualla, Filippo; Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

    2008-05-21

    The amplifier hypothesis states that selection could favour the evolution of traits in signallers that improve the ability of receivers to extract honest information from other signals or cues. We provide a formal definition of amplifiers based on the receiver's mechanisms of signal perception and we present a game-theoretical model in which males advertise their quality and females use sequential-sampling tactics to choose among prospective mates. The main effect of an amplifier on the female mating strategy is to increase her mating threshold, making the female more selective as the effectiveness of the amplifier increases. The effects of the amplifier on male advertising strategy depends both on the context and on the types of the amplifier involved. We consider two different contexts for the evolution of amplifiers (when the effect of amplifiers is on signals and when it is on cues) and two types of amplifiers (the 'neutral amplifier', when it improves quality assessment without altering male attractiveness, and the 'attractive amplifier', when it improves both quality assessment and male attractiveness). The game-theoretical model provides two main results. First, neutral and attractive amplifiers represent, respectively, a conditional and an unconditional signalling strategy. In fact, at the equilibrium, neutral amplifiers are displayed only by males whose advertising level lays above the female acceptance threshold, whereas attractive amplifiers are displayed by all signalling males, independent of their quality. Second, amplifiers of signals increase the differences in advertising levels between amplifying and not-amplifying males, but they decrease the differences within each group, so that the system converges towards an 'all-or-nothing' signalling strategy. By applying concepts from information theory, we show that the increase in information transfer at the perception level due to the amplifier of signals is contrasted by a decrease in information

  2. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  3. Magnetically coupled resonance wireless charging technology principles and transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Wan, Jian; Ma, Yinping

    2017-05-01

    With the tenure of Electric-Vehicle rising around the world, the charging methods have been paid more and more attention, the current charging mode mainly has the charging posts and battery swapping station. The construction of the charging pile or battery swapping station not only require lots of manpower, material costs but the bare conductor is also easy to generate electric spark hidden safety problems, still occupies large space. Compared with the wired charging, wireless charging mode is flexible, unlimited space and location factors and charging for vehicle safety and quickly. It complements the traditional charging methods in adaptability and the independent charge deficiencies. So the researching the wireless charging system have an important practical significance and application value. In this paper, wireless charging system designed is divided into three parts: the primary side, secondary side and resonant coupling. The main function of the primary side is to generate high-frequency alternating current, so selecting CLASS-E amplifier inverter structure through the research on full bridge, half-bridge and power amplification circuit. Addition, the wireless charging system is susceptible to outside interference, frequency drift phenomenon. Combined with the wireless energy transmission characteristics, resonant parts adopt resonant coupling energy transmission scheme and the Series-Series coupling compensation structure. For the electric vehicle charging power and voltage requirements, the main circuit is a full bridge inverter and Boost circuit used as the secondary side.

  4. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and gain characteristic of a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influencedby the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Assembly and maintenance of full scale NIF amplifiers in the amplifier module prototype laboratory (AMPLAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical assembly and maintenance of the prototype National Ignition Facility amplifiers in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires specialized equipment designed to manipulate large and delicate amplifier components in a safe and clean manner. Observations made during the operation of this assembly and maintenance equipment in AMPLAB provide design guidance for similar tools being built for the National Ignition Facility. Fixtures used for amplifier frame installation, laser slab and flashlamp cassette assembly, transport, and installation, and in-situ blastshield exchange are presented. Examples include a vacuum slab gripper, slab handling clean crane, slab cassette assembly fixture, sealed transport vehicle for slab cassette movement between the cleanroom and amplifier, slab cassette transfer fixture between the cleanroom and transport vehicle, and equipment needed for frame assembly unit, blastshield, an d flashlamp cassette installation and removal. The use of these tools for amplifier assembly, system reconfiguration, reflector replacement, and recovery from an abnormal occurrence such as a flashlamp explosion is described. Observations are made on the design and operation of these tools and their contribution to the final design

  6. Power amplifier circuits for functional electrical stimulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Carvalho de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional electrical stimulation (FES is a technique that has been successfully employed in rehabilitation treatment to mitigate problems after spinal cord injury (SCI. One of the most relevant modules in a typical FES system is the power or output amplifier stage, which is responsible for the application of voltage or current pulses of proper intensity to the biological tissue, applied noninvasively via electrodes, placed on the skin surface or inside the muscular tissue, closer to the nervous fibers. The goals of this paper are to describe and discuss about the main power output designs usually employed in transcutaneous functional electrical stimulators as well as safety precautions taken to protect patients. Methods A systematic review investigated the circuits of papers published in IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect databases from 2000 to 2016. The query terms were “((FES or Functional electric stimulator and (circuit or design” with 274 papers retrieved from IEEE Xplore and 29 from ScienceDirect. After the application of exclusion criteria the amount of papers decreased to 9 and 2 from IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect, respectively. One paper was inserted in the results as a technological contribution to the field. Therefore, 12 papers presented power stage circuits suitable to stimulate great muscles. Discussion The retrieved results presented relevant circuits with different electronic strategies and circuit components. Some of them considered patient safety strategies or aimed to preserve muscle homeostasis such as biphasic current application, which prevents charge accumulation in stimulated tissues as well as circuits that dealt with electrical impedance variation to keep the electrode-tissue interface within an electrochemical safe regime. The investigation revealed a predominance of design strategies using operational amplifiers in power circuits, current outputs, and safety methods to reduce risks of electrical

  7. Design of a Programmable Gain, Temperature Compensated Current-Input Current-Output CMOS Logarithmic Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Gu; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a programmable gain, temperature compensated, current-mode CMOS logarithmic amplifier that can be used for biomedical signal processing. Unlike conventional logarithmic amplifiers that use a transimpedance technique to generate a voltage signal as a logarithmic function of the input current, the proposed approach directly produces a current output as a logarithmic function of the input current. Also, unlike a conventional transimpedance amplifier the gain of the proposed logarithmic amplifier can be programmed using floating-gate trimming circuits. The synthesis of the proposed circuit is based on the Hart's extended translinear principle which involves embedding a floating-voltage source and a linear resistive element within a translinear loop. Temperature compensation is then achieved using a translinear-based resistive cancelation technique. Measured results from prototypes fabricated in a 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the amplifier has an input dynamic range of 120 dB and a temperature sensitivity of 230 ppm/°C (27 °C- 57°C), while consuming less than 100 nW of power.

  8. Transport in coherently absorbing or amplifying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    We study electronic transport in a one-dimensional ordered chain in the presence of either absorption or amplification at each site (the site-potential having an imaginary positive or negative part) within a single-band tightbinding Hamiltonian. The spectrum in either case for the isolated (closed) quantum system is found to become broader compared to the regular Bloch case where there is no absorption or amplification at any site. Interestingly for the transport through an infinitely long ordered chain (open quantum system), the reflectance saturates to a value greater (lesser) than unity in the amplifying (absorbing) case and the transmittance decays to zero in either case. This fact implies that the transmittance does not grow indefinitely even for an ordered, amplifying (active or lasing) medium and that it is not necessary to have any disorder or interaction induced confining mechanism on the transmitted wave, so as to achieve an amplification in the backscattered wave. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  9. Amplified music exposure carries risks to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Valéria Gomes; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires; Tauil, Pedro Luíz; de Castro Silva, Isabella Monteiro; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the association between changes in the outer hair cells and exposure to amplified music in a group of high-school students. In this retrospective, case-control study, 86 subjects underwent audiometry, immittance audiometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission tests. The subjects were questioned about their listening habits and divided into 2 groups: exposed and unexposed. Most of the subjects had reduced function in their outer hair cells, mainly beginning at 8 kHz. Among 60 subjects-30 cases and 30 controls-75% were considered exposed and 25% unexposed. The exposed subjects were 9.33 times more likely to have altered outer hair cells than the unexposed subjects were. Exposure to amplified music is associated with reduced function in the hair cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  11. Spaceflight 2 um Tm Fiber MOPA Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to design, develop, and test a spaceflight prototype 2051 nm thulium (Tm)-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical master oscillator power amplifier...

  12. Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker UBC#116 linked to Fusarium crown and root rot resistance gene (Frl) into a co-dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for marker-assisted selection of tomato.

  13. The DEPFET detector-amplifier structure for spectroscopic imaging in astronomy and for experiments at free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G., E-mail: gerhard.lutz@pnsensor.de; Aschauer, S.; Majewski, P.; Holl, P.; Strüder, L.

    2017-02-11

    The DEPFET detector-amplifier structure possesses several unique properties which make it extremely useful as readout element in semiconductor detectors and in particular as building block of semiconductor pixel detectors. Variations of DEPFETs can be tuned to specific requirements as to be sensitive only in predetermined time intervals, to measure signal charge with sub-electron precision, dead-time-free readout and with signal compression. These devices have been shown to work in simulations and in prototypes. Recently the first two fully developed detector systems have been finished and installed in the MIXS (Mercury Image X-ray Spectrometer) instrument of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter scheduled to be launched in 2017. A further DEPFET detector system under development is the DSSC (Depfet Sensor with Signal Compression) that will be installed in one of the beam-lines of XFEL. The requirements of the two projects are rather different. While the MIXS sensors are supposed to measure precisely the energy and position of single photons down to very low energies but at moderate rates, the DSSC has to measure the number of photons arriving in each pixel within a time interval of 220 ns. Here the challenge is the capability of detecting single X-ray photons in one pixel simultaneously with up to 10,000 photons in some other pixels. Device functioning has been verified with sensors produced in a research laboratory. Now process and design have been adapted to an industrial type production line, allowing additional improvements.

  14. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  15. Fast Electrocardiogram Amplifier Recovery after Defibrillation Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for fast ECG amplifier recovery after defibrillation shocks was developed and simulated in the MATLAB environment. Exponentially decaying post-shock voltages have been recorded. Signals from the AHA database are taken and mixed with the recorded exponential disturbances. The algorithm applies moving averaging (comb filter on the compound input signal, thereby obtaining the samples of the disturbance. They are currently subtracted from the input signal. The results obtained show that its recovery is practically instantaneous.

  16. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique.

  17. X-ray image amplifying tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The photo electrons from the picture on the fluorescent input screen are amplified by an electron optical system and produce an intensified image on the output screen. This can be photographed and shown on a TV screen. The effects of stray magnetic fields are reduced by covering the input screen with a grating made of strips of ferromagnetic material such as μ metal. (T.S.E.T.)

  18. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique......, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique....

  19. Prototype disc amplifier for Iskra-6 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorovich, S.V.; Eroshenko, V.F.; Krotov, V.A.; Demidov, V.L.; Kalinin, N.V.; Kurunov, R.F.; Smirnov, V.G.; Fomin, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Eight-channel disk amplifiers of the ISKRA-6 facility are made up of sections. An amplifier section consists of eight active elements (2*4) made of KGSS-0180/35-grade neodymium phosphate glass 400*690*40 mm in size located in frames at the Brewster angle. Twenty flash-lamps are arranged in one amplifier module. The flash-lamps have an inter electrode distance of 1600 mm, the tube is 40 mm in inner diameter. The results of numerical investigations into the dynamics of high-current pulse radiation discharge are presented. The investigations were carried out by the 1-dimensional RMHD-model. This model takes into account the transient processes in the electric circuit and the physical processes in the discharge plasma: ionization, Joule heating, thermal conductivity, radiation transfer and plasma motion caused by the non-uniformity of energy introduction into the discharge in case of a non-uniform initial ionization of gas in the pumping lamp. The experimental results of spectral measurements and light efficiency of the flash-lamps depending on specific power and value of energy contribution are presented

  20. Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....

  1. Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....

  2. The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within...... this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the leading scientific and industrial European organizations working with vacuum electronics....

  3. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  4. Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sarman; R. Prokop; T. Dostal

    1997-01-01

    The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.

  5. The Dynamics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers – Modeling and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Berg, Tommy Winther

    2003-01-01

    The importance of semiconductor optical amplifiers is discussed. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is a semiconductor laser with anti-reflection coated facets that amplifies an injected light signal by means of stimulated emission. SOAs have a number of unique properties that open up...

  6. Testing multistage gain and offset trimming in a single photon counting IC with a charge sharing elimination algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyżanowska, A.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Maj, P.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a hybrid pixel detector readout electronics operating in a single photon counting mode is a very challenging process, where many main parameters are optimized in parallel (e.g. gain, noise, and threshold dispersion). Additional requirements for a smaller pixel size with extended functionality push designers to use new deep sub-micron technologies. Minimizing the channel size is possible, however, with a decreased pixel size, the charge sharing effect becomes a more important issue. To overcome this problem, we designed an integrated circuit prototype produced in CMOS 40 nm technology, which has an extended functionality of a single pixel. A C8P1 algorithm for the charge sharing effect compensation was implemented. In the algorithm's first stage the charge is rebuilt in a signal rebuilt hub fed by the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) outputs from four neighbouring pixels. Then, the pixel with the biggest amount of charge is chosen, after a comparison with all the adjacent ones. In order to process the data in such a complicated way, a certain architecture of a single channel was proposed, which allows for: ⋅ processing the signal with the possibility of total charge reconstruction (by connecting with the adjacent pixels), ⋅ a comparison of certain pixel amplitude to its 8 neighbours, ⋅ the extended testability of each block inside the channel to measure CSA gain dispersion, shaper gain dispersion, threshold dispersion (including the simultaneous generation of different pulse amplitudes from different pixels), ⋅ trimming all the necessary blocks for proper operation. We present a solution for multistage gain and offset trimming implemented in the IC prototype. It allows for minimization of the total charge extraction errors, minimization of threshold dispersion in the pixel matrix and minimization of errors of comparison of certain pixel pulse amplitudes with all its neighbours. The detailed architecture of a single channel is presented

  7. A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiarong

    2017-04-01

    A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).

  8. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  9. Characterization of the column-based priority logic readout of Topmetal-II− CMOS pixel direct charge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, M.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, L.; Gao, C.; Chen, C.; Huang, G.; Ji, R.; Liu, J.; Pei, H.; Sun, X.; Wang, K.; Yang, P.; Zhou, W.; Han, M.; Mei, Y.; Li, X.; Sun, Q.

    2017-01-01

    We present the detailed study of the digital readout of Topmetal-II - CMOS pixel direct charge sensor. Topmetal-II - is an integrated sensor with an array of 72×72 pixels each capable of directly collecting external charge through exposed metal electrodes in the topmost metal layer. In addition to the time-shared multiplexing readout of the analog output from Charge Sensitive Amplifiers in each pixel, hits are also generated through comparators in each pixel with individually adjustable thresholds. The hits are read out via a column-based priority logic structure, retaining both hit location and time information. The in-array column-based priority logic features with a full clock-less circuitry hence there is no continuously running clock distributed in the pixel and matrix logic. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments. We studied the detailed working behavior and performance of this readout, and demonstrated its functional validity and potential in imaging applications.

  10. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z., E-mail: zhijun.liang@cern.ch [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Affolder, A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arndt, K. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bates, R. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Blue, A. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoletto, D. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckland, M. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Buttar, C. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Caragiulo, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Das, D.; Dopke, J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Dragone, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Ehrler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H. [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Gregor, I.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-09-21

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  11. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  12. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  13. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, John A.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: ► A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. ► Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. ► Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. ► Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  14. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriman, John A. [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Rosenthal, Peter B., E-mail: peter.rosenthal@nimr.mrc.ac.uk [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  15. Monolithic pixel detectors in a 0.13μm CMOS technology with sensor level continuous time charge amplification and shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Traversi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Cenci, R.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Rizzo, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the feasibility of a new implementation of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) for applications to charged particle tracking. As compared to standard three MOSFET MAPS, where the charge signal is readout by a source follower, the proposed front-end scheme relies upon a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), embedded in the elementary pixel cell, to perform charge-to-voltage conversion. The area required for the integration of the front-end electronics is mostly provided by the collecting electrode, which consists of a deep n-type diffusion, available as a shielding frame for n-channel devices in deep submicron, triple well CMOS technologies. Based on the above concept, a chip, which includes several test structures differing in the sensitive element area, has been fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS process. In this paper, the criteria underlying the design of the pixel level analog processor will be presented, together with some preliminary experimental results demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach

  16. Development of wide range charge integration application specified integrated circuit for photo-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayose, Yusaku, E-mail: katayose@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Ikeda, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shibata, Makio [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    A front-end application specified integrated circuit (ASIC) is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier (WDAMP) to read-out signals from a photo-sensor like a photodiode. The WDAMP ASIC consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier, four wave-shaping circuits with different amplification factors and Wilkinson-type analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To realize a wider range, the integrating capacitor in the preamplifier can be changed from 4 pF to 16 pF by a two-bit switch. The output of a preamplifier is shared by the four wave-shaping circuits with four gains of 1, 4, 16 and 64 to adapt the input range of ADC. A 0.25-μm CMOS process (of UMC electronics CO., LTD) is used to fabricate the ASIC with four-channels. The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC and the noise performance of 0.46 fC + 6.4×10{sup −4} fC/pF. -- Highlights: ► A front-end ASIC is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier. ► The ASIC consists of a CSA, four wave-shaping circuits and pulse-height-to-time converters. ► The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC.

  17. Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis

    of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice......Audio reproduction systems contains two key components, the amplifier and the loudspeaker. In the last 20 – 30 years the technology of audio amplifiers have performed a fundamental shift of paradigm. Class D audio amplifiers have replaced the linear amplifiers, suffering from the well-known issues...... with the low level of acoustical output power and complex amplifier requirements, have limited the commercial success of the technology. Horn or compression drivers are typically favoured, when high acoustic output power is required, this is however at the expense of significant distortion combined...

  18. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  19. Numerical simulation of cross field amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.

    1990-01-01

    Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. One feature distinguishing cross field amplifiers is that the operating current is produced by secondary emission from a cold cathode. This removes the need for a heater and enables the device to act as a switch tube, drawing no power until the rf drive is applied. However, this method of generating the current does complicate the simulation. We are developing a simulation model of cross field amplifiers using the PIC code CONDOR. We simulate an interaction region, one traveling wavelength long, with periodic boundary conditions. An electric field with the appropriate phase velocity is imposed on the upper boundary of the problem. Evaluation of the integral of E·J gives the power interchanged between the wave and the beam. Given the impedance of the structure, we then calculate the change in the traveling wave field. Thus we simulate the growth of the wave through the device. The main advance of our model over previous CFA simulations is the realistic tracking of absorption and secondary emission. The code uses experimental curves to calculate secondary production as a function of absorbed energy, with a theoretical expression for the angular dependence. We have used this code to model the 100 MW X-band CFA under construction at SLAC, as designed by Joseph Feinstein and Terry Lee. We are examining several questions of practical interest, such as the power and spectrum of absorbed electrons, the minimum traveling wave field needed to initiate spoke formation, and the variation of output power with dc voltage, anode-cathode gap, and magnetic field. 5 refs., 8 figs

  20. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Jang, Jaeman; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-07-21

    This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors. The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential advantage of high density and low noise performance. The biosensor shows a current response of 5.74 decades per pH for pH detection, which is 2.5 × 10(5) times larger than that of a single SiNW sensor. In addition, we demonstrate charged polymer detection using the biosensor, with a high current change of 4.5 × 10(5) with a 500 nM concentration of poly(allylamine hydrochloride). In addition, we demonstrate a wide dynamic range can be obtained by adjusting the liquid gate voltage. We expect that this biosensor will be advantageous and practical for biosensor applications which requires lower noise, high speed, and high density.

  1. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  2. Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Liliana I.; Matteo, Claudia L.; Etcheverry, Javier; Duplaá, María Celeste

    2012-12-01

    We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus.

  3. Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Liliana I; Duplaá, María Celeste; Matteo, Claudia L; Etcheverry, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus. (paper)

  4. Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing

    2010-04-01

    Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.

  5. Advancements in Kinetic Inductance Detector, Spectrometer, and Amplifier Technologies for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, George

    The inductance of a conductor expresses its tendency to oppose a change in current flowing through it. For superconductors, in addition to the familiar magnetic inductance due to energy stored in the magnetic field generated by this current, kinetic inductance due to inertia of charge carriers is a significant and often dominant contribution to total inductance. Devices based on modifying the kinetic inductance of thin film superconductors have widespread application to millimeter-wave astronomy. Lithographically patterning such a film into a high quality factor resonator produces a high sensitivity photodetector known as a kinetic inductance detector (KID), which is sensitive to frequencies above the superconducting energy gap of the chosen material. Inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain and relatively simple to fabricate, KIDs pave the way to the large format focal plane array instruments necessary to conduct the next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB), star formation, and galaxy evolution studies. In addition, non-linear kinetic inductance can be exploited to develop traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifiers (TKIPs) based on superconducting delay lines to read out these instruments. I present my contributions to both large and small scale collaborative efforts to develop KID arrays, spectrometers integrated with KIDs, and TKIPs. I optimize a dual polarization TiN KID absorber for the next generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry, which is designed to investigate the role magnetic fields play in star formation. As part of an effort to demonstrate aluminum KIDs on sky for CMB polarimetry, I fabricate devices for three design variants. SuperSpec and WSpec are respectively the on-chip and waveguide implementations of a filter bank spectrometer concept designed for survey spectroscopy of high redshift galaxies. I provide a robust tool for characterizing the performance of all Super

  6. The front-end amplifier for the silicon microstrip sensors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for the nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made from two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. One of the issues associated with the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the possibility of using time-based architectures offering better performances from that point of view. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work will present the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The key features of the front-end amplifier are illustrated and both schematic level, and post-layout simulations are discussed.

  7. Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.

  8. Experimental and theoretical study on chemically semi-amplified resist AR-P 6200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, I.; Vutova, K.; Andok, R.; Barak, V.; Bencurova, A.; Ritomsky, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and simulation results are presented and discussed on electron-beam lithography (EBL) nano-structuring using the positive chemically semi-amplified electron-beam resist AR-P 6200 (CSAR 62), which provides high sensitivity and allows achievement of high resolutions (sub-100 nm). The influence of the e-beam lithography process parameters, namely, exposure dose, development process conditions, and proximity effects on the obtained developed images was studied for the case of 40-keV electron energy.

  9. Trial manufacture of an insulated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shigeo; Matsuura, Kiyokata.

    1978-10-01

    Trial manufacture of an insulated amplifier was carried out. The input signals are divided by filters Th and Tl into high frequency component and low frequency component. The high frequency component drives a transformer T 1 , and secondary signals are induced. The low frequency component drives a transformer T 2 through a buffer and a modulator. The secondary signals from both transformers are recombined to make the output signals. Compensation for the frequency characteristics of the high frequency transformer and that for the effect of a filter in the demodulation circuit for low frequency component are considered. The time constant of output signals for rectangular input signals was 30 microsec, when only the low frequency part is operated. The drift of the direct current level is within 5 mV. The characteristic features of the high frequency part was also investigated. The overall characteristic features of this amplifier were good for the frequency range of 0 to 500 kHz. (Kato, T.)

  10. Mechanical Amplifier for a Piezoelectric Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James; Swain, Mark; Lawson, Peter; Calvet, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A mechanical amplifier has been devised to multiply the stroke of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) intended for use at liquid helium temperatures. Interferometry holds the key to high angular resolution imaging and astrometry in space. Future space missions that will detect planets around other solar systems and perform detailed studies of the evolution of stars and galaxies will use new interferometers that observe at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. Phase-measurement interferometry is key to many aspects of astronomical interferometry, and PZTs are ideal modulators for most methods of phase measurement, but primarily at visible wavelengths. At far infrared wavelengths of 150 to 300 m, background noise is a severe problem and all optics must be cooled to about 4 K. Under these conditions, piezos are ill-suited as modulators, because their throw is reduced by as much as a factor of 2, and even a wavelength or two of modulation is beyond their capability. The largest commercially available piezo stacks are about 5 in. (12.7 cm) long and have a throw of about 180 m at room temperature and only 90 m at 4 K. It would seem difficult or impossible to use PZTs for phase measurements in the far infrared were it not for the new mechanical amplifier that was designed and built.

  11. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  12. Discretization analysis of bifurcation based nonlinear amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkord, Sven; Reit, Marco; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Recently, for modeling biological amplification processes, nonlinear amplifiers based on the supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation have been widely analyzed analytically. For technical realizations, digital systems have become the most relevant systems in signal processing applications. The underlying continuous-time systems are transferred to the discrete-time domain using numerical integration methods. Within this contribution, effects on the qualitative behavior of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation based systems concerning numerical integration methods are analyzed. It is shown exemplarily that explicit Runge-Kutta methods transform the truncated normalform equation of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation into the normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Dependent on the order of the integration method, higher order terms are added during this transformation.A rescaled normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation is introduced that allows a parametric design of a discrete-time system which corresponds to the rescaled Andronov-Hopf system. This system approximates the characteristics of the rescaled Hopf-type amplifier for a large range of parameters. The natural frequency and the peak amplitude are preserved for every set of parameters. The Neimark-Sacker bifurcation based systems avoid large computational effort that would be caused by applying higher order integration methods to the continuous-time normalform equations.

  13. Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erick T.

    1988-08-01

    The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

  14. Multipath interference test method for distributed amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takahiro; Aida, Kazuo

    2005-12-01

    A method for testing distributed amplifiers is presented; the multipath interference (MPI) is detected as a beat spectrum between the multipath signal and the direct signal using a binary frequency shifted keying (FSK) test signal. The lightwave source is composed of a DFB-LD that is directly modulated by a pulse stream passing through an equalizer, and emits the FSK signal of the frequency deviation of about 430MHz at repetition rate of 80-100 kHz. The receiver consists of a photo-diode and an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). The base-band power spectrum peak appeared at the frequency of the FSK frequency deviation can be converted to amount of MPI using a calibration chart. The test method has improved the minimum detectable MPI as low as -70 dB, compared to that of -50 dB of the conventional test method. The detailed design and performance of the proposed method are discussed, including the MPI simulator for calibration procedure, computer simulations for evaluating the error caused by the FSK repetition rate and the fiber length under test and experiments on singlemode fibers and distributed Raman amplifier.

  15. On the choice of a head element for low-noise bipolar transistor amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnokutskij, R.N.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement results of equivalent noise charge (ENC) for KT382 transistor depending on detector capacity, formation duration and collector current are given. It is shown that the measurement results for this transistor in good agreement with calculations according to the noise model, time-consuming ENC measurements can be replaced by preliminary transistor rejection according to the distributed base resistance, current gain and simple calculations. In applications in the field of nuclear electronics the KT382 transistor enables to attain the same noise parameters as NE578, NE021 transistors (Japan) and it can be recommended for using as a head element of amplifiers

  16. Global geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical geometry of charged black holes is studied in the context of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model where effects due to pair-creation of charged particles can be included in a systematic way. The classical mass-inflation instability of the Cauchy horizon is amplified and we find that gravitational collapse of charged matter results in a spacelike singularity that precludes any extension of the spacetime geometry. At the classical level, a static solution describing an eternal black hole has timelike singularities and multiple asymptotic regions. The corresponding semiclassical solution, on the other hand, has a spacelike singularity and a Penrose diagram like that of an electrically neutral black hole. Extremal black holes are destabilized by pair-creation of charged particles. There is a maximally charged solution for a given black hole mass but the corresponding geometry is not extremal. Our numerical data exhibits critical behavior at the threshold for black hole formation

  17. Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E P [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-03-15

    The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10{sup -8} A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10{sup -10} A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with

  18. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Crescentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.

  19. Updated design for a low-noise, wideband transimpedance photodiode amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S. F.; Marsala, R.

    2006-01-01

    The high-speed rotation diagnostic developed for Columbia's HBT-EP tokamak requires a high quantum efficiency, very low drift detector/amplifier combination. An updated version of the circuit developed originally for the beam emission spectroscopy experiment on TFTR is being used. A low dark current (2 nA at 15 V bias), low input source capacitance (2 pF) FFD-040 N-type Si photodiode is operated in photoconductive mode. It has a quantum efficiency of 40% at the 468.6 nm (He II line that is being observed). A low-noise field-effect transistor (InterFET IFN152 with e Na =1.2 nV/√Hz) is used to reduce the noise in the transimpedance preamplifier (A250 AMPTEK op-amp) and a very high speed (unity-gain bandwidth=200 MHz) voltage feedback amplifier (LM7171) is used to restore the frequency response up to 100 kHz. This type of detector/amplifier is photon-noise limited at this bandwidth for incident light with a power of >∼2 nW. The circuit has been optimized using SIMETRIX 4.0 SPICE software and a prototype circuit has been tested successfully. Though photomultipliers and avalanche photodiodes can detect much lower light levels, for light levels >2 nW and a 10 kHz bandwidth, this detector/amplifier combination is more sensitive because of the absence of excess (internally generated) noise

  20. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-05-19

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.