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Sample records for charge radius change

  1. Antiproton charge radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, P.; Cooke, D.; Heiss, M. W.

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming operation of the extra low energy antiprotons ring at CERN, the upgrade of the antiproton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of 1 08 e+ /s will open the possibility for new experiments with antihydrogen (H ¯). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of H ¯. For four months of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of C P T and the first determination of the antiproton charge radius at the level of 10%.

  2. Nuclear charge radius of $^8$He

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, P; Villari, A C C; Alcantara-Nunez, J A; Alves-Conde, R; Bailey, K; Drake, G W F; Dubois, M; Eleon, C; Gaubert, G; Holt, R J; Janssens, R V F; Lecesne, N; Lu, Z -T; O'Connor, T P; Saint-Laurent, M -G; Thomas, J -C; Wang, L -B

    2008-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) nuclear charge radius of ^8He, the most neutron-rich of all particle-stable nuclei, has been determined for the first time to be 1.93(3) fm. In addition, the rms charge radius of ^6He was measured to be 2.068(11) fm, in excellent agreement with a previous result. The significant reduction in charge radius from ^6He to ^8He is an indication of the change in the correlations of the excess neutrons and is consistent with the ^8He neutron halo structure. The experiment was based on laser spectroscopy of individual helium atoms cooled and confined in a magneto-optical trap. Charge radii were extracted from the measured isotope shifts with the help of precision atomic theory calculations.

  3. The anti-proton charge radius

    CERN Document Server

    Crivelli, P; Heiss, M W

    2016-01-01

    The upcoming operation of the Extra Low ENergy Antiprotons (ELENA) ring at CERN, the upgrade of the anti-proton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of $10^{8}$ e$^+$/s will open the possibility for new experiments with anti-hydrogen ($\\bar{\\text{H}}$). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of $\\bar{\\text{H}}$. For a month of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of CPT and the first determination of the anti-proton charge radius at the level of 10%.

  4. Deuteron charge radius from spectroscopy data in atomic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Randolf; Udem, Thomas; Antognini, Aldo; Beyer, Axel; Fleurbaey, Hélène; Grinin, Alexey; Hänsch, Theodor W; Julien, Lucile; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Matveev, Arthur; Biraben, François

    2016-01-01

    We give a pedagogical description of the method to extract the charge radii and Rydberg constant from laser spectroscopy in regular hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms, that is part of the CODATA least-squares adjustment of the fundamental physical constants. We give a deuteron charge radius from D spectroscopy alone of 2.1415(45) fm. This value is independent of the proton charge radius, and five times more accurate than the value found in the CODATA Adjustment 10.

  5. Experiments towards resolving the proton charge radius puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Antognini, A; Amaro, F D; Amaro, P; Abdou-Ahmed, M; Biraben, F; Chen, T -L; Covita, D S; Dax, A J; Diepold, M; Fernandes, L M P; Franke, B; Galtier, S; Gouvea, A L; Götzfried, J; Graf, T; Hänsch, T W; Hildebrandt, M; Indelicato, P; Julien, L; Kirch, K; Knecht, A; Kottmann, F; Krauth, J J; Liu, Y -W; Machado, J; Monteiro, C M B; Mulhauser, F; Nez, F; Santos, J P; Santos, J M F dos; Szabo, C I; Taqqu, D; Veloso, J F C A; Voss, A; Weichelt, B; Pohl, R

    2015-01-01

    We review the status of the proton charge radius puzzle. Emphasis is given to the various experiments initiated to resolve the conflict between the muonic hydrogen results and the results from scattering and regular hydrogen spectroscopy.

  6. Experiments towards resolving the proton charge radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antognini A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status of the proton charge radius puzzle. Emphasis is given to the various experiments initiated to resolve the conflict between the muonic hydrogen results and the results from scattering and regular hydrogen spectroscopy.

  7. The charge radius and anapole moment of a free fermion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora-T, A.; Stuart, R.G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.)

    1992-07-01

    We derive an expression for the charge radius and anapole moment of a free fermion induced at one loop in the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model of electroweak interactions. The result, despite earlier claims to the contrary, is demonstrably gauge-invariant and observable in principle. (orig.).

  8. Extraction of the proton charge radius from experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G; Nowakowski, M

    2016-01-01

    Static properties of hadrons such as their radii and other moments of the electric and magnetic distributions can only be extracted using theoretical methods and not directly measured from experiments. As a result, discrepancies between the extracted values from different precision measurements can exist. The proton charge radius, $r_p$, which is either extracted from electron proton elastic scattering data or from hydrogen atom spectroscopy seems to be no exception. The value $r_p = 0.84087(39)$ fm extracted from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is about 4% smaller than that obtained from electron proton scattering or standard hydrogen spectroscopy. The resolution of this so called proton radius puzzle has been attempted in many different ways over the past six years. The present article reviews these attempts with a focus on the methods of extracting the radius.

  9. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  10. Simulation for Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; PRad Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The ``Proton Charge Radius Puzzle'' refers to 7 σ discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements and that from the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift and e-p elastic scattering measurements. In order to get a better understanding of this puzzle, the PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was proposed and recently performed with 1.1 and 2.2 GeV unpolarized electron beam in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The experiment aims to extract the electric form factor and the charge radius of proton by simultaneously measuring the e - p elastic scattering cross section and the Møller cross section at very low Q2(2 × 10-4 10-1(GeV / c) 2) region, with sub-percent precision. A windowless hydrogen gas flow target was used to better control the background. A high-efficiency and high-resolution calorimeter (HyCal) and a pair of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers were used in the experiment. This talk will focus on comparing the detailed simulation of PRad experiment and its background with preliminary spectra from the data. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contacts No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Mississippi State University and PRad collaboration.

  11. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  12. Measurement of the $\\Sigma^{-}$ Charge Radius at SELEX

    CERN Document Server

    Eschrich, I

    1998-01-01

    The charge radii of Sigma^- and pi^- have been determined by direct elastic scttering on shell electrons. The measurement was performed in the framework of the SELEX (E781) charm hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab which employs a 600 GeV/c high-intensity Sigma^-/pi^- beam and a 3-stage magnetic spectrometer covering 0.1 <= x_F <= 1.0. Scattering angles and momenta of both hadron and electron were measured with high precision using silicon microstrip detectors, thus allowing for a segmented solid target. Two TRDs provided full particle identification. A preliminary result for the Sigma^- charge radius for a four-momentum transfer squared of 0.03 GeV^2/c^2 <= Q^2 <= 0.16 GeV^2/c^2 will be reported. In a parallel analysis the pi^- charge radius has been determined for 0.03 GeV^2/c^2 <= Q^2 <= 0.2 GeV^2/c^2, and is found to be consistent with previous experiments.

  13. The neutrino charge radius is a physical observable

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Vidal, J

    2004-01-01

    We present a method which allows, at least in principle, the direct extraction of the gauge-invariant and process-independent neutrino charge radius (NCR) from experiments. Under special kinematic conditions, the judicious combination of neutrino and anti-neutrino forward differential cross-sections allows the exclusion of all target-dependent contributions, such as gauge-independent box-graphs, not related to the NCR. We show that the remaining contributions contain universal, renormalization group invariant combinations, such as the electroweak effective charge and the running mixing angle, which must be also separated out. By considering the appropriate number of independent experiments we show that one may systematically eliminate these universal terms, and finally express the NCR entirely in terms of physical cross-sections. Even though the kinematic conditions and the required precision may render the proposed experiments unfeasible, at the conceptual level the analysis presented here allows for the pro...

  14. Measurement of the Σ- Charge Radius in the Selex Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J.

    2000-01-01

    The charge radius of the Σ- has been determined by direct elastic scattering on shell electrons. The measurement was performed in the framework of the Selex (E781) charm hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab. Selex employs 600 GeV/c high-intensity Σ-/π- and p/π+ beams and a three-stage magnetic spectrometer covering 0.1 <= xF <= 1.0. The scattering angles and momenta of the hadron and the electron were measured with high precision using silicon microstrip detectors. Particle identification was provided by two TRDs. For control of systematic effects the charge radii of the proton and the π- were measured with the same apparatus and are found to be consistent with previous experiments.

  15. Some issues concerning the proton charge radius puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Walcher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An explanation of the difference of the charge radius of the proton as determined from the Lamb shift in electronic hydrogen and from elastic electron scattering off the proton on the one side and the recent high precision determination with muonic hydrogen on the other side is presented. It is shown that the modification of the $2S_{1/2}$ and $2P_{3/2}$ wave functions by the "Uehling potential" yields a correction to the theoretical Lamb shift of $\\delta (\\Delta E_{\\textrm{Lamb}}) = 0.302$ meV which has to be compared to $\\delta (\\Delta E_{\\textrm{Lamb}}) = 0.322(46)$ meV equivalent to the stated radius difference. The explanation is based on the realization that the bound state wave functions modified by the external "Uehling potential" have to be propagated by the vacuum polarization propagator in order to give the correct leading order Lamb shift. It is argued that a conflicting relativistic calculation neglects this propagation aspect. The explanation demonstrates that the Lamb shift is dynamically induc...

  16. Evaluation of the proton charge radius from e-p scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Arrington, John

    2015-01-01

    In light of the proton radius puzzle, the discrepancy between measurements of the proton charge radius from muonic hydrogen and those from electronic hydrogen and electron-proton scattering measurements, we reexamine the charge radius extractions from electron scattering measurements. We provide a recommended value for the proton RMS charge radius, $r_E = 0.879 \\pm 0.011$ fm, based on a global examination of elastic e-p scattering data. The uncertainties include contributions to account for tension between different data sets and inconsistencies between radii using different extraction procedures.

  17. Sharp bounds on the critical stability radius for relativistic charged spheres: I

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    In a recent paper by Giuliani and Rothman \\cite{GR}, the problem of finding a lower bound on the radius R of a charged sphere with mass M and charge Q is addressed. Such a bound is referred to as the critical stability radius. Equivalently, it can be formulated as the problem of finding an upper bound on M for given radius and charge. This problem has resulted in a number of papers in recent years but neither a transparent nor a general inequality similar to the case without charge, i.e., $M\\leq 4R/9,$ has been found. In this paper we derive the surprisingly transparent inequality \\begin{equation}\

  18. Sharp bounds on the critical stability radius for relativistic charged spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper by Giuliani and Rothman \\cite{GR}, the problem of finding a lower bound on the radius $R$ of a charged sphere with mass M and charge Qradius. Equivalently, it can be formulated as the problem of finding an upper bound on M for given radius and charge. This problem has resulted in a number of papers in recent years but neither a transparent nor a general inequality similar to the case without charge, i.e., M\\leq 4R/9, has been found. In this paper we derive the surprisingly transparent inequality

  19. Bounds on the tau and muon neutrino vector and axial vector charge radius

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Restrepo, D A; Hirsch, Martin; Nardi, Enrico; Restrepo, Diego

    2003-01-01

    A Majorana neutrino is characterized by just one flavor diagonal electromagnetic form factor: the anapole moment, that in the static limit corresponds to the axial vector charge radius . Experimental information on this quantity is scarce, especially in the case of the tau neutrino. We present a comprehensive analysis of the available data on the single photon production process $e^+e^- -> \

  20. Correlating charge radius with quadrupole deformation and $B(E2)$ in atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Bao-Hua; Wang, Hao-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A very good linear correlation is found between the four-point charge radius relation $\\delta R_{2p-2n}(Z,N)$ with that of quadrupole deformation data in even-even nuclei. This results in a further improved charge radius relation that holds in a precision of about 5$\\times 10^{-3}$ fm. Such correlations are also seen in global nuclear models, their precisions, however, are not enough to be consistent with the experimental data. The new relation between charge radii and deformation of even-even nuclei can be generalized to the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability $B(E2)$ between the first $2^+$ state and the $0^+$ ground state, and the mean lifetime $\\tau$ of the first 2$^+$ state.

  1. Self-gravitation of massive charge and the Einstein-Maxwell electron radius

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, H

    2014-01-01

    The existence of stable, charged elementary 'point particles' still is a basically unsolved puzzle in theoretical physics. E.g., in quantum electrodynamics the infinite self-energy of the Dirac point electron is 'swept under the carpet' by renormalizing its mass. The present work takes a fresh look at the problem by including gravity - without resorting to string theory. Using Einstein's equations for the gravitational fields in a general static isotropic metric with the full energy-momentum tensor (for the charged material mass and the electromagnetic fields) as the source term, an exact solution with a well-defined characteristic radius emerges where mass and charge accumulate: $r_{\\rm c}{=}\\sqrt{r_{\\rm e}r_o/2}$ - with $r_{\\rm e}{=}e^2\\!/4\\pi\\epsilon_omc^2{\\approx}10^{-15}$m being the{~}'classical' electron radius and where $r_o{=}2mG/c^2{\\approx}10^{-57}$m is the Schwarzschild radius belonging to the observable mass $m{\\approx}10^{-30}$kg. The novel 'Einstein-Maxwell' gravitational electron radius can als...

  2. An examination of proton charge radius extractions from e-p scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Arrington, John

    2015-01-01

    A detailed examination of issues associated with proton radius extractions from elastic electron-proton scattering experiments is presented. Sources of systematic uncertainty and model dependence in the extractions are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may impact the proton charge and magnetic radii. A comparison of recent Mainz data to previous world data is presented, highlighting the difference in treatment of systematic uncertainties as well as tension between different data sets. We find several issues that suggest that larger uncertainties than previously quoted may be appropriate, but do not find any corrections which would resolve the proton radius puzzle.

  3. Measurements of atomic splittings in atomic hydrogen and the proton charge radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The proton charge radius can be determined from precise measurements of atomic hydrogen spectroscopy. A review of the relevant measurements will be given, including an update on our measurement of the n=2 Lamb shift. The values obtained from hydrogen will be compared to those obtained from muonic hydrogen and from electron-proton elastic scattering measurements. This work is funded by NSERC, CRC and CFI.

  4. Missed radiative corrections in muon g-2 and proton charge radius measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbuzov Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available QED radiative corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment and elastic electron-proton scattering are discussed. It is shown that a collective effect due to mutual interaction of muons within experimental conditions might provide a contribution to the observed muon magnetic moment. This effect is parameterized by an effective mean shift of muons off their mass shells. Higher order corrections to elastic electronproton at low energies are systematically treated within the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic approximation. The corrections are relevant for the modern experiments on proton form factor and charge radius definition.

  5. Measurement of the {sigma}{sup -} charge radius in the SELEX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J

    2000-01-31

    The charge radius of the {sigma}{sup -} has been determined by direct elastic scattering on shell electrons. The measurement was performed in the framework of the SELEX (E781) charm hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab. SELEX employs 600 GeV/c high-intensity {sigma}{sup -}/{pi}{sup -} and p/{pi}{sup +} beams and a three-stage magnetic spectrometer covering 0.1 {<=} x{sub F} {<=} 1.0. The scattering angles and momenta of the hadron and the electron were measured with high precision using silicon microstrip detectors. Particle identification was provided by two TRDs. For control of systematic effects the charge radii of the proton and the {pi}{sup -} were measured with the same apparatus and are found to be consistent with previous experiments.

  6. Measurement of the SIGMA sup - charge radius in the SELEX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Simón, J

    2000-01-01

    The charge radius of the SIGMA sup - has been determined by direct elastic scattering on shell electrons. The measurement was performed in the framework of the SELEX (E781) charm hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab. SELEX employs 600 GeV/c high-intensity SIGMA sup - /pi sup - and p/pi sup + beams and a three-stage magnetic spectrometer covering 0.1 <= x sub F <= 1.0. The scattering angles and momenta of the hadron and the electron were measured with high precision using silicon microstrip detectors. Particle identification was provided by two TRDs. For control of systematic effects the charge radii of the proton and the pi sup - were measured with the same apparatus and are found to be consistent with previous experiments.

  7. Triton charge radius to next-to-next-to-leading order in pionless effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    The triton point charge radius is calculated to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in pionless effective field theory ( EFT (π / )) , yielding a prediction of 1.14 ±0.19 fm (leading order), 1.59 ±0.08 fm (next-to leading order), and 1.62 ±0.03 fm (NNLO) in agreement with the current experimental extraction of 1.5978 ±0.040 fm [Angeli and Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)], 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.006. The error at NNLO is due to cutoff variation (˜1 % ) within a reasonable range of calculated cutoffs and from a EFT (π / ) error estimate (˜1.5 % ). In addition new techniques are introduced to add perturbative corrections to bound- and scattering state calculations for short-range effective field theories, but with a focus on their use in EFT (π / ) .

  8. Evaluation of the strength of electron-proton scattering data for determining the proton charge radius

    CERN Document Server

    Horbatsch, M

    2015-01-01

    Precisely measured electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105}, 242002 (2010)] are reanalyzed to evaluate their strength for determining the rms charge radius ($R_{\\rm E}$) of the proton. More than half of the cross sections at lowest $Q^2$ are fit using two single-parameter form-factor models, with the first based on a dipole parametrization, and the second on a linear fit to a conformal-mapping variable. These low-$Q^2$ fits extrapolate the slope of the form factor to $Q^2$=0 and determine $R_{\\rm E}$ values of approximately 0.84 and 0.89~fm, respectively. Fits spanning all $Q^2$, in which the single constants are replaced with cubic splines at larger $Q^2$, lead to similar results for $R_{\\rm E}$. We conclude that the scattering data is consistent with $R_{\\rm E}$ ranging from at least 0.84 to 0.89~fm, and therefore cannot resolve the discrepancy between determinations of $R_{\\rm E}$ made using muonic and electronic hydrogen-atom spectroscopy.

  9. The neutrino charge radius as a probe of physics beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novales-Sanchez, H.; Toscano, J. J. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Rosado, A.; Santiago-Olan, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico)

    2013-06-12

    In this paper, we review the search of possible physics effects beyond the standard model on the electromagnetic charge and anapole form factors, f{sub Q}(q{sup 2}) and f{sub A}(q{sup 2}), for a no massive Dirac neutrino, when these quantities are calculated in the frame of an effective electroweak Yang-Mills theory, which induces the most general SU{sub L}(2)-invariant Lorentz tensor structure of nonrenormalizable type for the WW{gamma} vertex. We found that in this frame, besides the standard model contribution, the additional contribution to f{sub Q}(q{sup 2}) and f{sub A}(q{sup 2}) (f{sub Q}{sup O{sub W}}(q{sup 2}) and f{sub A}{sup O{sub W}}(q{sup 2}), respectively) are gauge independent and finite functions of q{sup 2} after adopting a renormalization scheme. These form factors, f{sub Q}{sup O{sub W}}(q{sup 2}) and f{sub A}{sup O{sub W}}(q{sup 2}), get contribution at the one loop level only from the proper neutrino electromagnetic vertex. Besides, the relation f{sub Q}{sup eff}(q{sup 2}) = q{sup 2}f{sub A}{sup eff}(q{sup 2})(f{sub Q}{sup eff}(q{sup 2}) = f{sub Q}{sup SM}(q{sup 2})+f{sub Q}{sup O{sub W}}(q{sup 2}),f{sub A}{sup eff}(q{sup 2}) = f{sub A}{sup SM}(q{sup 2})+f{sub A}{sup O{sub W}}(q{sup 2})) is still fulfilled and hence the relation a{sub v}{sup eff} = {sup eff}/6(a{sub v}{sup eff} = a{sub v}{sup SM}+a{sub v}{sup O{sub W}},{sup eff} = {sup SM}+{sup O{sub W}}) is obtained, just as in the SM. Using the experimental constraint on the anomalous WW{gamma} vertex, a value for the additional contribution to the charge radius of Double-Vertical-Line {sup O{sub W}} Double-Vertical-Line Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10{sup -34} cm{sup 2} is gotten, which is one order of magnitude lower than the SM value.

  10. Bounds on tau neutrino magnetic moment and charge radius from Super-K and SNO observations

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2001-01-01

    Neutrinos can scatter electrons in water detectors through their magnetic moments and charge radii in addition to the charged and neutral currents channels. The recent solar neutrino charged current event rates announced by SNO with the earlier solar and atmospheric neutrino observations from Super-Kamiokande allows us to put upper bounds of $\\mu < 10^{-31} cm^2$ on the neutrino charge radii. For the electron and muon neutrinos these bounds are comparable with existing bounds but for tau neutrinos these bounds are three orders of magnitude more stringent than earlier terrestrial bounds. These bounds are independent of any specific model of neutrino oscillations.

  11. Sharp bounds on the radius of relativistic charged spheres: Guilfoyle's stars saturate the Buchdahl-Andr\\'easson bound

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, José P S

    2015-01-01

    Buchdahl, by imposing a few physical assumptions on the matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius $r_0$ to mass $m$ ratio of a star would obey the Buchdahl bound $r_0/m\\geq9/4$. He noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, the solution with $\\rho_{\\rm m}(r)= {\\rm constant}$, where $\\rho_{\\rm m}(r)$ is the energy density of the matter at $r$, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound have been studied. One generalization was given by Andr\\'easson by including electrically charged matter and imposing that $p+2p_T \\leq\\rho_{\\rm m}$, where $p$ is the radial pressure and $p_T$ the tangential pressure. His bound is given by $r_0/m\\geq9/\\left(1+\\sqrt{1+3\\,q^2/r_0^2}\\right)^{2}$, the Buchdahl-Andr\\'easson bound, with $q$ being the star's total electric charge. Following Andr\\'easson's pr...

  12. Trace Element Partitioning under Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Conditions: The Influences of Ionic Radius, Cation Charge, Pressure, and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. J.; Blundy, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    The controls on partitioning of trace elements between crystals and silicate melts were initially the subject of crystal-chemical, rather than petrogenetic interest. Goldschmidt (1937) systematized his observations of elemental concentrations in minerals as a means of understanding and predicting element behavior during crystallization from liquids or gases. Thus, he proposed his three "rules" of element partitioning, which may be summarized as follows: (i) Any two ions of the same charge and very similar ionic radius have essentially the same crystal-liquid partition coefficient (D=[i]xtl/[i]liq, where [i] refers to the concentration of element i). (ii) If there is a small difference of ionic radius, the smaller ion enters the crystal preferentially, e.g., DMg2+>DFe2+, DK+>DRb+>DCs+. (iii) For ions of similar radius but different charges, the ion with the higher charge enters the crystal preferentially, i.e., DSc3+>DMg2+>DLi+, DCa2+>DNa+, and DBa2+>DK+. These principles were taught to generations of students and, as we will show below, under certain circumstances, retain a degree of validity. They are neither, however, universally correct nor do they have any quantitative applicability. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the ways in which Goldschmidt's work has been amplified through a combination of theory and experimental measurement in order to quantify crystal-liquid partitioning behavior.Since the development of accurate methods of determining element concentration at the ppm level, the trace-element contents of igneous rocks have frequently been used to model their chemical evolution. These studies use estimated crystal-liquid partition coefficients together with solutions for the differential equations describing, e.g., fractional crystallization or fractional melting (Schilling and Winchester, 1967; Gast, 1968; Shaw, 1970) to model evolution of the melt during precipitation or dissolution of the crystalline phases. Generally, because of lack of data

  13. Three-Body Bound States and The Triton Charge Radius; Perturbative Corrections to Next-to-next-to-leading order in Pionless Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, Jared

    2015-01-01

    In the three-body system of ${}^3\\mathrm{H}$ we show how perturbative corrections can be added to the leading ordering triton vertex function. Using this new scheme we calculate the triton charge form factor and use it to extract the triton charge radius to next-to-leading-order, yielding a prediction of 1.58~fm. We show that a new counter-term will be needed to predict the triton charge radius at next-to-next-to-leading order.

  14. Laser systems for collinear spectroscopy and the charge radius of {sup 12}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, Andreas

    2012-03-30

    Collinear laser spectroscopy has been used to investigate the nuclear charge radii of shortlived medium- and heavy-Z nuclei for more than three decades. But it became only recently be applicable to low-Z nuclei. This region of the nuclear chart attracts attention because so-called ab-initio nuclear models, based on realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, can only be applied to the lightest elements due to the rapidly increasing calculational demands with the number of nucleons. Furthermore, strong clusterization of atomic nuclei occurs and the encountered halo nuclei are presently subject of intense research. The isotopic chain of beryllium exhibits the prime example of a one-neutron halo nucleus, {sup 11}Be, and the two- or four-neutron halo nucleus {sup 14}Be. {sup 12}Be is a key isotope between these two exotic nuclei and particularly interesting because the nuclear shell model predicts a shell closure for the magic neutron number N = 8. In the course of this thesis, several frequency-stabilized laser systems for collinear laser spectroscopy have been developed. At TRIGA-SPEC a frequency-doubled diode laser system with a tapered amplifier and a frequency comb-stabilized titanium-sapphire laser with a frequency doubling stage are now available for the spectroscopy of refractory metals above molybdenum. They have already been used for test-experiments and commissioning of the TRIGA-LASER beamline. Furthermore, frequency-quadrupling of the Ti:Sa laser was demonstrated to expand the emitted wavelengths into the 200 nm region. At ISOLDE/CERN a frequency comb-stabilized and an iodine-stabilized dye laser were installed and applied for laser spectroscopy of {sup 9,10,11,12}Be{sup +}. The improved laser system and the development of a delayed photon-ion coincidence detection improved the sensitivity of the beryllium spectroscopy by more than two orders of magnitude and, thus, the previous measurements of {sup 7-11}Be could be extended for the first time to the short

  15. Frequency metrology of helium around 1083 nm and determination of the nuclear charge radius

    CERN Document Server

    Pastor, P Cancio; Giusfredi, G; De Natale, P; Inguscio, M; Yerokhin, V A; Pachucki, K

    2012-01-01

    We measure the absolute frequency of seven out of the nine allowed transitions between the 2^3S and 2^3P hyperfine manifolds in a metastable ^3He beam by using an optical frequency comb synthesizer-assisted spectrometer. The relative uncertainty of our measurements ranges from 1x10^{-11} to 5x10^{-12}, which is, to our knowledge,the most precise result for any optical ^3He transition to date. The resulting 2^3P-2^3S centroid frequency is 276702827203.1 (2.3) kHz. Comparing this value with the known result for the ^4He centroid and performing {\\em ab initio} QED calculations of the ^4He-^3He isotope shift, we extract the difference of the squared nuclear charge radii \\delta r^2 of ^3He and ^4He. Our result for \\delta r^2=1.075 (3) fm^2 disagrees by about 4 sigma with the recent determination [R. van Rooij {\\em et al.}, Science {\\bf 333}, 196 (2011)].

  16. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of Mercury's radius decrease obtained using the amount of strain recorded by tectonics on the planet range from 0.5 km to 2 km. These latter figures appear too low with respect to the radius contraction (up to 5-6 km) predicted by the most accredited studies based on thermo-mechanical evolution models. For this reason, it has been suggested that there may be hidden strain accommodated by features yet unseen on Mercury. Indeed, as it has been already cautioned by previous studies, the identification of tectonic features on Mercury might be largely biased by the lighting geometry of the used basemaps. This limitation might have affected the results of the extrapolations for estimating the radius change. In this study, we mapped tectonic features at the terminator thus using images acquired at high sun incidence angle (>50°) that represents the optimal condition for their observation. In fact, images with long shadows enhance the topography and texture of the surface and are ideal to detect tectonic structures. This favorable illumination conditions allowed us to infer reliable measurements of spatial distribution (i.e. frequency, orientation, and areal density) of tectonic features which can be used to estimate the average contractional strain and planetary radius decrease. We digitized tectonic structures within a region extending for an area of about 12 million sq. km (~16% of planet's surface). More than 1300 tectonic lineaments were identified and interpreted to be compressional features (i.e. lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges) with a total length of more than 12300 km. Assuming that the extensional strain is negligible within the area, the average contractional strain calculated for the survey area is ~0.21-0.28% (~0.24% for θ=30°). This strain, extrapolated to the entire surface, corresponds to a contraction in radius of about 2.5-3.4 km (~2.9 km for θ=30°). Interestingly, the values of contractional strain and radius decrease

  17. Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Germund

    2004-08-15

    The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared.

  18. The K-meson form factor and charge radius: linking low-energy data to future high-energy Jefferson Laboratory results

    CERN Document Server

    Krutov, A F; Troitsky, V E

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a successful model of the $\\pi$-meson electromagnetic form factor, we calculate the similar form factor, f_K(Q^2), of the charged K meson for a wide range of the momentum transfer squared, Q^2. The only remaining free parameter is to be determined from the measurements of the K-meson charge radius, r_K. We fit this single parameter to the published data of the NA-7 experiment which measured f_K(Q^2) at Q^2->0 and determine our preferred range of r_K, which happens to be close to recent lattice results. Still, the accuracy in the determination of r_K is poor. However, future measurements of the K-meson electromagnetic form factor at Q^2<~5.5 GeV^2, scheduled in Jefferson Laboratory for 2017, will test our approach and will reduce the uncertainty in r_K significantly.

  19. Measurements of CP Violation and Neutral Kaon Charge Radius using K(L) → π+π-e+e- Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golossanov, Alexander [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2005-05-01

    CP violation and K{sup 0} charge radius were measured using KL → π+π-e+e- decays. Specifically, a unique CP-violating decay-plane asymmetry was measured along with the parameters of individual contributions to the decay invariant amplitude: (1) CP-conserving magnetic dipole direct emission form factor, (2) CP-conserving K0 charge radius transition amplitude and (3) an upper limit for the CP-violating electric dipole direct emission amplitude. The measurements were obtained from the data sample accumulated by KTeV experiment at Fermilab. KTeV had two major goals: the measurement of direct CP violation parameter Re(ϵ'/ϵ) and the study of rare kaon decays. The state of the art detector was constructed, commissioned, operated and maintained by an international collaboration of scientists from fourteen institutions. The KL → π+π-e+e-L decays took place in the KTeV fiducial decay region.

  20. Investigations of charge-changing processes for light proton-rich nuclei on carbon and solid-hydrogen targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawahata, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ozawa, A., E-mail: ozawa@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Saito, Y.; Abe, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.; Inaba, N.; Ishibashi, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsunaga, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Moriguchi, T.; Nagae, D.; Okada, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Zenihiro, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We investigated charge-changing processes (total charge-changing cross sections and partial charge-changing cross sections) for light proton-rich nuclei ({sup 34–36}Ar, {sup 33}Cl, {sup 25–28}Si) at around 300A MeV on carbon and solid-hydrogen targets. We estimated the nuclear proton point radii of {sup 33}Cl and {sup 25,26,27}Si from the observed total charge-changing cross sections by using Glauber-model calculations with a phenomenological correction factor. Furthermore, we estimated the proton skin thickness for {sup 33}Cl coupled with its previously observed matter radius. From investigations of the partial charge-changing cross sections, clear zigzag pattern was observed for all isotopes. The present studies suggest that the pattern may be common in the proton-rich side, and depends on the odd–even nature of the fragment charge.

  1. A simple connection of the (electroweak) anapole moment with the (electroweak) charge radius of a massless left-handed Dirac neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Assuming that the neutrino is a massless left-handed Dirac particle, we show that the neutrino anapole moment and the neutrino charge radius satisfy the simple relation a{sub v} =(r{sup 2}{sub v}) /6, in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions. We also show that the neutrino electroweak anapole moment a{sub v}l{sup E}W and the neutrino electroweak charge radius (r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W, which have been defined through the v{sub l}l' scattering at the one-loop level and are physical quantities, also obey the relation a{sub v}l{sup E}W =(r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W/6. [Spanish] Suponiendo que el neutrino es una particula de Dirac, sin masa y con helicidad izquierda, mostramos que el momento anapolar a{sub v} y el radio de carga (r{sub v}{sup 2}) del neutrino satisfacen la relacion simple a{sub v} =(r{sup 2}{sub v}) /6, en el contexto del Modelo Estandar de las interacciones electrodebiles. Ademas, mostramos que el momento anapolar electrodebil a{sub v}l{sup E}W y el radio de carga electrodebil (r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W del neutrino, los cuales han sido definidos a traves de la dispersion v{sub l}l' a nivel de un lazo y que son cantidades fisicas, tambien obedecen la relacion a{sub v}l{sup E}W =(r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W/6.

  2. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downie E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  3. How do sharp transmission boundaries change the effective radius of a transiting exoplanet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betremieux, Yan; Swain, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    Most radiative transfer codes for exoplanet transmission spectroscopy either use or are validated against the formalism of Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2008). Although extremely useful to understand what shapes transmission spectra, this formalism does not consider the effects of sharp boundaries below which an exoplanet's limb transmission suddenly decreases. However, with recent advances on the effects of refraction in transmission spectroscopy (Bétrémieux & Kaltenegger 2014, Bétrémieux 2016), it turns out that all exoplanets possess one such boundary in the form of either a surface, optically-thick clouds, or in the form of a refractive boundary. We have deriveda first-order analytical expression for an exoplanet's effective radius, which can be used to further validate or improve radiative transfer codes, which accounts for the presence of these boundaries, and discuss their effects on exoplanetary transmission spectra.

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anterior Corneal Change in Asphericity Calculated by the Tangential Radius of Curvature after LASIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jinglu; Cai, Jianqiu; Zhu, Leru

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the change in the anterior corneal asphericity (ΔQ) comprehensively calculated using the tangential radius (rt) after LASIK. Forty-two right eyes were evaluated using the Orbscan II corneal topographer. The pre- and postoperative Q-values of the flat principal semimeridians calculated by the sagittal radius were compared to those by the tangential radius. The Q-value of each semimeridian in the horizontal region was calculated by rt. Fourier fitting was used to model the 360-semimeridional variation of Q-values and to fit the Q-values in the vertical region before and after surgery. There were significant differences in Q-values between the two methods before (P < 0.001) and after surgery (P = 0.003). A significant increase in postoperative Q-value was detected compared to preoperative Q-value (P < 0.001) calculated by rt. The 360-semimeridional variation of the Q-values was well fitted with a third- and fourth-degree Fourier function before and after surgery. The ΔQ-value distribution presented double valley variation, with the amount of ΔQ being lowest in the near-vertical regions and highest in the near-horizontal regions. Calculating the Q-value with rt combined with Fourier fitting, we evaluated 360 ΔQ-values' variation of semimeridians of the entire anterior corneal surface and then displayed true and complete anterior corneal shape after LASIK.

  5. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  6. 47 CFR 76.1604 - Charges for customer service changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charges for customer service changes. 76.1604 Section 76.1604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1604 Charges for customer service changes. If a...

  7. Thermally induced changes in the focal distance of composite mirrors - Composites with a zero coefficient of thermal expansion of the radius of curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the radius of curvature of the reflector face sheets made of a quasi-isotropic composite. It is shown that, upon cooling, the change of the CTE of the focal distance of the mirror is equal to that of the radius of the curvature of the reflector face sheet. The CTE of the radius of the curvature of a quasi-isotropic composite face sheet depends on both the in-plane and the out-of-plane CTEs. The zero in-plane CTE of a face sheet does not guarantee mirrors with no focal length changes.

  8. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, S., E-mail: simo@unipr.it [University of Parma, Departments of Public Health, INBB Parma (Italy); Achterhold, K. [Physik-Department E17 (Germany); Ortalli, I. [University of Parma, Departments of Public Health, INBB Parma (Italy); Parak, F. G. [Physik-Department E17 (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers ({Delta}G). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  9. Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Schwartz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have higher bone mineral density (BMD but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S. DM was ascertained by self-report. BMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at least one follow-up visit at the hip (N=6624 and calcaneus (N=6700 and, on a subset of women, at the spine (N=396 and distal radius (N=306. Annualized percent change in BMD was compared by DM status, using random effects models. Of 6,867 women with at least one follow-up DXA scan, 409 had DM at baseline. Mean age was 70.8 (SD 4.7 years. Baseline BMD was higher in women with DM at all measured sites. In models adjusted for age and clinic, women with prevalent DM lost bone more rapidly than those without DM at the femoral neck (-0.96% vs. -0.59% per year, p < 0.001, total hip (-0.98% vs. -0.70% per year, p<0.001, calcaneus (-1.64% vs. -1.40% per year, p=0.005, and spine (-0.33% vs. +0.33% per year, p=0.033, but not at the distal radius (-0.97% vs. -0.90% per year, p=0.91. These findings suggest that despite higher baseline BMD, older women with DM experience more rapid bone loss than those without DM at the hip, spine and calcaneus, but not the radius. Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM.

  10. 22C charge radius prediction: Addendum and erratum to “Constraints on two-neutron separation energy in the Borromean 22C nucleus” [Phys. Lett. B 697 (1) (2011) 90-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M. T.; Marques de Carvalho, R. S.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2012-08-01

    Relevant to experimental investigations on the 22C properties, we are correcting numerical results presented in [M.T. Yamashita, R.S. Marques de Carvalho, T. Frederico, L. Tomio, Phys. Lett. B 697 (2011) 90], updating our estimate for the two-neutron separation energy, and adding the charge radius prediction for this halo nucleus with respect to 20C: √{ - } ≳ 0.9 fm.

  11. Comparison of 2D radiography and a semi-automatic CT-based 3D method for measuring change in dorsal angulation over time in distal radius fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Albert; Larsson, Sune [Uppsala University, Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala (Sweden); Nysjoe, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Nystroem, Ingela [Uppsala University, Centre for Image Analysis, Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Lars [Uppsala University, Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, UCR Statistics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the reliability and agreement between a computer tomography-based method (CT) and digitalised 2D radiographs (XR) when measuring change in dorsal angulation over time in distal radius fractures. Radiographs from 33 distal radius fractures treated with external fixation were retrospectively analysed. All fractures had been examined using both XR and CT at six times over 6 months postoperatively. The changes in dorsal angulation between the first reference images and the following examinations in every patient were calculated from 133 follow-up measurements by two assessors and repeated at two different time points. The measurements were analysed using Bland-Altman plots, comparing intra- and inter-observer agreement within and between XR and CT. The mean differences in intra- and inter-observer measurements for XR, CT, and between XR and CT were close to zero, implying equal validity. The average intra- and inter-observer limits of agreement for XR, CT, and between XR and CT were ± 4.4 , ± 1.9 and ± 6.8 respectively. For scientific purpose, the reliability of XR seems unacceptably low when measuring changes in dorsal angulation in distal radius fractures, whereas the reliability for the semi-automatic CT-based method was higher and is therefore preferable when a more precise method is requested. (orig.)

  12. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mori-Sánchez, Paula, E-mail: paula.mori@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  13. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Sánchez, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  14. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  15. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Weber, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  16. Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist) Page ( 1 ) The radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm. The ... the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area of the radius near ...

  17. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, Stephen; Dafoe, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

  18. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  19. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Bridget; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate the use of electric vehicles at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), charging stations should be made available to LaRC employees. The implementation of charging stations would decrease the need for gasoline thus decreasing CO2 emissions improving local air quality and providing a cost savings for LaRC employees. A charging station pilot program is described that would install stations as the need increased and also presents a business model that pays for the electricity used and installation at no cost to the government.

  20. Diurnal and Seasonal Changes in Stem Radius Increment and Sap Flow Density Indicate Different Responses of Two Co-existing Oak Species to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÉSZÁROS, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using continuous monitoring of stem radius combined with sap flow measurements weassessed the effects of environmental conditions on tree radial growth and water status of two coexistingoak species (Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris at high resolution time in growingseasons of 2008 and 2009. The forest (95–100 yr is situated in a xeric site in the transition zonebetween forested and forest-steppe regions in north-eastern Hungary, Bükk mountains (47o90’N,20o46’E, elevation 320–340 m a.s.l.. Weather conditions in the growing season of 2008 (totalrainfall 354 mm, mean daily temperature 17.0 oC was less extreme than in 2009 (total rainfall299 mm, temperature 17.9 oC. Rainfall strongly determined the course of radial growth incrementin trees. Radial growth of trees was limited in 2009 due to the drought in spring. The maximumradial increment of both species was achieved three weeks earlier (4th week of June than in 2008(4th week of July. We used dendrometer monitoring data for estimation of stem (tree waterdeficit (W by measuring water-related changes in stem radius (Zweifel et al. 2005. Themagnitude of tree water deficit variation (W was always smaller in Q. cerris than in Q. petraea.In contrast, Quercus cerris always exhibited larger daytime averages and maxima of sap flowdensity. In August of 2009 when drought became severe there were larger increases in tree waterdeficit (W (50–55 % in both species compared to July as it could be expected from the extentof decreases in sap flow density (24–28%. Our data suggested that due to the low SWC thetranspiration was supported mainly from the inner water storage of trees during prolonged droughtwhich resulted in high stem water deficit (W.

  1. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  2. Early changes in bone density, microarchitecture, bone resorption, and inflammation predict the clinical outcome 12 weeks after conservatively treated distal radius fractures: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ursina; de Jong, Joost J; Bours, Sandrine G P; Keszei, András P; Arts, Jacobus J; Brink, Peter R G; Menheere, Paul; van Geel, Tineke A C M; van Rietbergen, Bert; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet P; Willems, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Fracture healing is an active process with early changes in bone and inflammation. We performed an exploratory study evaluating the association between early changes in densitometric, structural, biomechanical, and biochemical bone parameters during the first weeks of fracture healing and wrist-specific pain and disability at 12 weeks in postmenopausal women with a conservatively treated distal radius fracture. Eighteen patients (aged 64 ± 8 years) were evaluated at 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 weeks postfracture, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), micro-finite element analysis, serum procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). After 12 weeks, patients rated their pain and disability using Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) questionnaire. Additionally, Quick Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire and active wrist range of motion was evaluated. Linear regression models were used to study the relationship between changes in bone parameters and in hsCRP from visit 1 to 2 and PRWE score after 12 weeks. A lower PRWE outcome, indicating better outcome, was significantly related to an early increase in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) (β -0.96 [95% CI -1.75 to -0.16], R(2)  = 0.37), in torsional stiffness (-0.14 [-0.28 to -0.004], R(2)  = 0.31), and to an early decrease in trabecular separation (209 [15 to 402], R(2)  = 0.33) and in ICTP (12.1 [0.0 to 24.1], R(2)  = 0.34). Similar results were found for QuickDASH. Higher total dorsal and palmar flexion range of motion was significantly related to early increase in hsCRP (9.62 [3.90 to 15.34], R(2)  = 0.52). This exploratory study indicates that the assessment of early changes in trabecular BMD, trabecular separation, calculated torsional stiffness, bone resorption marker ICTP, and hsCRP after a distal radius fracture provides

  3. Patients with polymyositis show changes in muscle protein charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Jacobsen, Søren; Rasmussen, L

    1989-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) appears with indolent proximal muscle weakness and is an inflammatory disease with breakdown of muscle cells. In our study the protein charge concentrations of the contractile proteins in the A and I bands were determined, applying a microelectrode technique. Patients with PM show...... a lower protein charge concentration than healthy control subjects which may be caused by the breakdown and removal of the proteins in the contractile filaments. A tool to judge the state of the disease as well as an aid in diagnosis may have been found in this method....

  4. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  5. Orbit-Attitude Changes of Objects in Near Earth Space Induced by Natural Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-02

    COVERED (From - To) 21-05-2015 – 21-02-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Orbit- Attitude Changes of Objects in Near Earth Space Induced...charging plasma conditions lead to significant secular perturbations in the investigated cases. 15. SUBJECT TERMS State-of-the Art; Attitude ...non-equilibrium scenario, charging takes place according to the differential equation, ∑ j I j = C dφdt . The time scale for charging of a spherical

  6. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  7. LARGE MAGNETIC ENTROPY CHANGE NEAR CHARGE-ORDERED TRANSITION TEMPERATURE IN PEROVSKITE-TYPE MANGANITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 都有为

    2001-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in polycrystalline of Pr1-xSrxMnO3 (x=0.33, 0.43, 0.50) has been investigated. A large magnetic entropy change (7.1J/kgK) was discovered in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 under a low magnetic field of IT at charge-ordered state transition temperature (161K). The physical mechanism is related to a drastic magnetization change at a temperature where the field-induced magnetic, electron and structural phase transitions occur (from the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered state to the ferromagnetic charge-disordered state).

  8. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  9. Multi Weyl Points and the Sign Change of Their Topological Charges in Woodpile Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Ming-Li; Chen, Wen-Jie; Chan, C T

    2016-01-01

    We show that Weyl points with topological charges 1 and 2 can be found in very simple chiral woodpile photonic crystals, which can be fabricated using current techniques down to the nano-scale. The sign of the topological charges can be tuned by changing the material parameters of the crystal, keeping the structure and the symmetry unchanged. The underlying physics can be understood using a tight binding model, which shows that the sign of the charge depends on the hopping range. Gapless surface states and their back-scattering immune properties are also demonstrated in these systems.

  10. Charge Transport in Polyaniline and Vapour Induced Structural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, C. D. G.; Vaughan, A. S.

    1996-03-01

    Camphor sulphonic acid protonation renders polyaniline soluble in both m-cresol and chloroform. Films cast from these solvents exhibit vastly differing transport properties. m-cresol cast films are metallic or lie on the metal/insulator transition, whereas those cast from chloroform are insulators. Similarly pellets of pressed doped polyaniline powder exhibit insulating characteristics. We present an investigation of such effects in polyaniline obtained from both insulating conditions (films and powders). We find that m-cresol -- vapour treatment of these materials causes a rapid increase both in the conductivity and the type of conduction, changing from an insulator to a material approaching the metal/insulator transition. Chloroform films actually take on characteristics of those cast from m-cresol, including a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity. Both starting materials exhibit similar X-ray scattering patterns, after exposure to vapour, the pattern becomes more similar to that which is found in m-cresol cast films. Conformational changes resulting from a strong polymer--interaction are discussed as the motivation for the improvements in transport properties.

  11. Solar Radius at Sub-Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    The visible surface of the Sun, or photosphere, is defined as the solar radius in the optical spectrum range located at 696,000 km (Cox et al. (Ed. 2015)). However, as the altitude increases, the dominant electromagnetic radiation is emitted at other frequencies. Our aim is to measure the solar radius at frequencies of 212 GHz and 405 GHz through out a solar cycle and, therefore, the altitude where these emissions are generated and that variation along the years. Also we tried to verify the the radius dependence on the solar activity cycle, which can be a good indicator of the changes that occur in the atmosphere structure. For this, we used data obtained by the Submillimetric Solar Telescope (SST) created from daily scans made by SST from 1990 to 2015. From these scans a 2D map of the solar disk was constructed. The solar radius is then determined by adjusting a circumference to the points where the brightness is half of the quiet Sun level, which is set as the most common temperature value in the solar map, i.e., the mode of the temperature distribution. Thus, we determined the solar radius at 212 and 405 GHz and the altitude of the emissions respectively. For 212 GHz, we obtained a radius of 976.5''+/-8'' (707+/-4 Mm), whereas for 405 GHz, we obtained 975.0''+/-8'' (707+/-5 Mm). optical spectrum range

  12. Proton radius from electron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kabir, Al Amin; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad

    2016-05-01

    Background: The proton charge radius extracted from recent muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements is significantly smaller than that extracted from atomic hydrogen and electron scattering measurements. The discrepancy has become known as the proton radius puzzle. Purpose: In an attempt to understand the discrepancy, we review high-precision electron scattering results from Mainz, Jefferson Lab, Saskatoon, and Stanford. Methods: We make use of stepwise regression techniques using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion to systematically determine the predictive variables to use for a given set and range of electron scattering data as well as to provide multivariate error estimates. Results: Starting with the precision, low four-momentum transfer (Q2) data from Mainz (1980) and Saskatoon (1974), we find that a stepwise regression of the Maclaurin series using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion justify using a linear extrapolation which yields a value for the proton radius that is consistent with the result obtained from muonic hydrogen measurements. Applying the same Maclaurin series and statistical criteria to the 2014 Rosenbluth results on GE from Mainz, we again find that the stepwise regression tends to favor a radius consistent with the muonic hydrogen radius but produces results that are extremely sensitive to the range of data included in the fit. Making use of the high-Q2 data on GE to select functions which extrapolate to high Q2, we find that a Padé (N=M=1) statistical model works remarkably well, as does a dipole function with a 0.84 fm radius, GE(Q2)=(1+Q2/0.66GeV2)−2. Conclusions: Rigorous applications of stepwise regression techniques and multivariate error estimates result in the extraction of a proton charge radius that is consistent with the muonic hydrogen result of 0.84 fm; either from linear extrapolation of the extremely-low-Q2 data or by use of the Padé approximant for extrapolation using a larger range of

  13. Turnaround radius in modified gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    In an accelerating universe in General Relativity there is a maximum radius above which a shell of test particles cannot collapse, but is dispersed by the cosmic expansion. This radius could be used in conjunction with observations of large structures to constrain the equation of state of the universe. We extend the concept of turnaround radius to modified theories of gravity for which the gravitational slip is non-vanishing.

  14. To solve springback problem based on changing die fillet radius%基于凸模凹模圆角半径的改变解决支撑件回弹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春莲; 史桂芳; 高乾; 周峰

    2013-01-01

    The change of springback values in the variation of main punch fillet radius in a U-type structure support made of HSLA420 high strength steel was researched by using Dy-naform software to simulate the forming and springback process during which the main punch clearance, friction coefficient and blank holder force, etc were controlled the least in-fluence on the springback. Based on simple variable method, variable dimensions of main punch fillet radius was taken as independent variable and springback values between two arms of the support as dependent variable to make the main punch fillet radius-springback value curve. The change rules of springback values during the change of main punch radi-us were analyzed. By selecting suitable radius, the springback value of the part is close to zero in which with one or no restriking can the fillet of the stamping part be adjusted and meet the technological requirements for the dimension. The attenuation of the material around the fillet and crack in the stamping part due to excessive restriking were avoided.%以HSLA420高强钢U形结构支撑件为研究对象,在使凸、凹模的间隙、摩擦因数、压边力等因素对其回弹影响最小的基础上,用Dynaform软件对成形及回弹过程进行模拟,研究凸、凹模圆角半径变化时支撑件回弹值的变化。采用单一变量法,分别以不同大小的凸、凹模圆角半径为自变量,相应支撑件两臂之间的回弹值为因变量,作出凸、凹模圆角半径-回弹值的曲线,分析凸、凹模半径变化时回弹值的变化规律,并选择合适的凸、凹模圆角半径使支撑件的回弹值接近零,能够不用整形或仅需一次整形将支撑件的圆角部分调整到符合工艺要求的尺寸,避免多次整形造成圆角处材料过度变薄,造成冲压件出现裂纹等缺陷。

  15. The Proton Radius from Electron Scattering Data

    CERN Document Server

    Higinbotham, Douglas W; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the discrepancy between the proton radius determined the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic electron-proton scattering measurements, we carefully review two classic, high precision electron scattering charge form factor, ${G_E}$, results. Upon examination, it was noted that the covariance matrices of common three parameter fits show large parameter correlations. Thus, we reanalyzed the classic data guided by statistical constraints and found low $q^2$, two-parameter fits were actually consistent with muonic hydrogen results. By subsequently including the highest measured values of ${G_E}(q^2)$ in the fits, we found that a dipole function, $G_E(q^2) = ( 1 + q^2/0.66[\\rm{GeV}^2])^{-2}$, with the muonic hydrogen radius, 0.84087(39) fm, not only describes the low $q^2$ electron scattering data, but also describes the highest measured $q^2$ $G_E$ values.

  16. Structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder during discharge and charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang You [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang Yaqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangyaqin9@sina.com; Wang Weikun [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang Chongjun [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Yu Zhongbao; Zhang, Hao [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun Jing [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-06-30

    The structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The original sulfur cathode exhibited a homogenous distribution of sulfur, carbon and pores. During the discharge process, the pores and elemental sulfur disappeared gradually. However, those changes were reversed and elemental sulfur was reformed after the charge process, which improved the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  17. Adsorption properties of subtropical and tropical variable charge soils: Implications from climate change and biochar amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren-Kou; Qafoku, Nikolla; Van Ranst, Eric; Li, Jiu-yu; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-25

    This review paper attempts to summarize the progress made in research efforts conducted over the last years to study the surface chemical properties of the tropical and subtropical soils, usually called variable charge soils, and the way they response to different management practices. The paper is composed of an introductory section that provides a brief discussion on the surface chemical properties of these soils, and five other review sections. The focus of these sections is on the evolution of surface chemical properties during the development of the variable charge properties (second section), interactions between oppositely charged particles and the resulting effects on the soil properties and especially on soil acidity (third section), the surface effects of low molecular weight organic acids sorbed to mineral surfaces and the chemical behavior of aluminum (fourth section), and the crop straw derived biochar induced changes of the surface chemical properties of these soils (fifth section). A discussion on the effect of climate change variables on the properties of the variable charge soils is included at the end of this review paper (sixth section).

  18. Radiation reaction and the pitch angle changes for a charge undergoing synchrotron losses

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    In synchrotron radiation formulas it is always assumed that the pitch angle of a charged particle remains constant during the radiation process. The argument employed is that as the radiation is beamed along the instantaneous direction of motion of the charge, the momentum loss will also be along the direction of motion. Accordingly radiation reaction should not cause any change in the direction of the velocity vector, and the pitch angle of the charge would therefore remain constant during the radiation process. However, it turns out that this picture is not relativistically covariant and that in the case of synchrotron losses, the pitch angle in general varies. While the component of the velocity vector perpendicular to the magnetic field does reduce in magnitude due to radiative losses, the parallel component does not undergo any change during radiation. Therefore there is a change in the ratio of the two components, implying a change in the pitch angle. This apparent paradox gets resolved and one gets a c...

  19. The PRad experiment and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparian Ashot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New results from the recent muonic hydrogen experiments seriously questioned our knowledge of the proton charge radius, rp. The new value, with its unprecedented less than sub-percent precision, is currently up to eight standard deviation smaller than the average value from all previous experiments, triggering the well-known “proton charge radius puzzle” in nuclear and atomic physics. The PRad collaboration is currently preparing a novel, magnetic-spectrometer-free ep scattering experiment in Hall B at JLab for a new independent rp measurement to address this growing “puzzle” in physics.

  20. Charge-changing interactions probing point-proton radii of nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaki S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether charge-changing interactions can be used to probe point-proton radii of nuclei remains unanswered. Charge-changing cross sections, σcc, were systematically investigated using stable and unstable nuclear beams of intermediateenergy. The ratios of the experimental σcc values to the calculated ones obtained from a phenomenological Glauber-type model analysis are found to be nearly constant in a broad range of Z/N for light neutron-rich nuclei. This enables the determination of density distributions, i.e., the radii of protons tightly bound in nuclei. To test the applicability of the present method to all nuclei in the nuclear chart, extensive measurements were performed for medium-mass nuclei ranging from Z = 18 to 32. The present study suggests the potential capability of a new experimental approach for exploring exotic nuclei.

  1. "Electrostructural Phase Changes" In Charged Particulate Clouds: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.

    1999-09-01

    charge sign over another. The random charges of both sign derive from natural grain-to-grain interactions that produce triboelectrification via charge exchange every time grain surfaces make contact with one another. The conversion from a random distribution of grains (upon which there are randomly distributed charges) into an organization of electrostatically-ordered aggregates, can be regarded (within the framework of granular-material science) as an "electrical or Coulombic phase change" of the particulate cloud. It is not totally dissimilar from the more normal phase-change concept in which, for example, a gas with long free-path-molecules suddenly becomes a solid as a result of structural ordering of the molecules (notably, also the result of electronic forces, albeit at a different scale). In both the gas-to-solid case, and the aerosol-to-aggregate case, the same materials and charges are present before and after the phase change, but their arrangement now has a higher degree of order and a lower-energy configuration. An input of energy into the system is required to reverse the situation. The aggregates in the USML experiments were observed to undergo at least two phase changes as noted above. The point about phase changes, and by implication, the "electrostructural" reorganizations in particulate clouds, is the following: (a) they can occur very rapidly, almost spontaneously, above a critical cloud density, (b) in going from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, they convert to a denser system, (c) energy must be required to reverse the situation, implying that energy is released during the high-to-low energy phase change. In applying this information to natural particulate clouds, some inferences can be made (it is stressed that reference is still to dielectric materials attracted by dipole forces). There are several natural settings to which the USML observations apply, and to which the phase-change implications likewise apply. Dense clouds of

  2. Thermal Charging Study of Compressed Expanded Natural Graphite/Phase Change Material Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallow, Anne M [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Graham, Samuel [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2016-01-01

    The thermal charging performance of phase change materials, specifically paraffin wax, combined with compressed expanded natural graphite foam is studied under constant heat flux and constant temperature conditions. By varying the heat flux between 0.39 W/cm2 and 1.55 W/cm2 or maintaining a boundary temperature of 60 C for four graphite foam bulk densities, the impact on the rate of thermal energy storage is discussed. Thermal charging experiments indicate that thermal conductivity of the composite is an insufficient metric to compare the influence of graphite foam on the rate of thermal energy storage of the PCM composite. By dividing the latent heat of the composite by the time to melt for various boundary conditions and graphite foam bulk densities, it is determined that bulk density selection is dependent on the applied boundary condition. A greater bulk density is advantageous for samples exposed to a constant temperature near the melting temperature as compared to constant heat flux conditions where a lower bulk density is adequate. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of graphite foam bulk densities greater than 50 kg/m3 is shown to have an insignificant impact on the rate of thermal charging. These experimental results are used to validate a computational model for future use in the design of thermal batteries for waste heat recovery.

  3. Large Charge Moment Change Lightning in an Oklahoma Mesoscale Convective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Cummer, Steven; Petersen, Danyal; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Lyons, Walt; MacGorman, Donald; Beasley, William

    2014-01-01

    On 31 May 2013, a line of severe thunderstorms developed during the local afternoon in central Oklahoma, USA. One of the supercells produced the El Reno tornado, which caused significant damage and killed several people. During the 2300 UTC hour (during the mature supercell stage and just after the tornado began), the storm produced several positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning strokes that featured large (> 100 C km) impulse charge moment changes (iCMCs; charge moment during the first 2 ms after the return stroke). These discharges occurred mainly in convection, in contrast to the typical pattern of large-CMC and sprite-parent +CGs occurring mainly in stratiform precipitation regions. After this time, the line of thunderstorms evolved over several hours into a large mesoscale convective system (MCS). By the 0700 UTC hour on 1 June 2013, the large-CMC pattern had changed markedly. Large-CMC negative CGs, which were absent early in the storm's lifetime, occurred frequently within convection. Meanwhile, large-CMC +CGs had switched to occurring mainly within the broad stratiform region that had developed during the intervening period. The evolution of the large-CMC lightning in this case will be examined using a mix of national mosaics of radar reflectivity, the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OKLMA), the Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN), and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). A major goal of this study is understanding how storm structure and evolution affected the production of large-CMC lightning. It is anticipated that this will lead to further insight into how and why storms produce the powerful lightning that commonly causes sprites in the upper atmosphere.

  4. Synchrotron Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Quantitatively Detects Angstrom Level Changes in the Average Radius of Taxol-Stabilized Microtubules Decorated with the Microtubule-Associated-Protein Tau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Chul; Raviv, Uri; Needleman, Daniel J; Safinya, Cyrus R [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Li, Youli [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Miller, Herbert P; Wilson, Leslie; Feinstein, Stuart C [Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Departments, University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Kim, Mahn Won, E-mail: myungchul.choi@gmail.com, E-mail: safinya@mrl.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, S. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    With the emerging proteomics era the scientific community is beginning the daunting task of understanding the structures and functions of a large number of self-assembling proteins. Here, our study was concerned with the effect of the microtubule-associated-protein (MAP) tau on the assembled structure of taxol-stabilized microtubules. Significantly, the synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique is able to quantitatively detect angstrom level changes in the average diameter of the microtubules modeled as a simple hollow nanotube with a fixed wall thickness. We show that the electrostatic binding of MAP tau isoforms to taxol-stabilized MTs leads to a controlled increase in the average radius of microtubules with increasing coverage of tau on the MT surface. The increase in the average diameter results from an increase in the distribution of protofilament numbers in MTs upon binding of MAP tau.

  5. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for comment... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning... a document is referenced. The NUREG-1307, Revision 15 is available electronically under...

  6. Effects of DS-modified agarose gels on neurite extension in 3D scaffold through mechanisms other than changing the pore radius of the gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin; Pan, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Xue; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    Dermatan sulfate is widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans, which are the main components of glial scar and inhibit neurite regeneration after nerve injury. However its role in the inhibiting process is not clear. Understanding neurite extension in three-dimensional scaffolds is critical for neural tissue engineering. This study used agarose gels modified with dermatan sulfate as the three-dimensional culture scaffold. We explored structure-function relationship between the three-dimensional scaffold and neurite extension and examined the role of dermatan sulfate on neurite extension in the three-dimensional scaffold. A range of agarose concentrations was used to generate varied gel physical structures and the corresponding neurite extension of embryonic day (E9) chick dorsal root ganglia was examined. We measured gel stiffness and gel pore size to determine whether dermatan sulfate changed the gels' conformation. As gel concentration increased, neurite length and gel pore size decreased, and gel stiffness increased. At 1.00 and 1.25% (wt/vol) concentrations, dermatan sulfates both immobilized with agarose gels and dissolved in culture medium inhibit neurite extension. While at 1.50 and 1.75% (wt/vol) concentrations, only immobilized dermatan sulfate worked. Immobilized dermatan sulfate could modify molecular shape of agarose gels, decrease gel pore size statistically, but did not influence gel stiffness. We have proved that the decrease of gel pore size is insufficient to inhibit neurite extension. These results indicate that dermatan sulfate inhibits neurite extension not through forming a mechanical barrier. Maybe its interaction with neuron membrane is the key factor in neurite extension.

  7. Changes in nuclear structure along the Mn isotopic chain studied via charge radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, H.; Babcock, C.; Beerwerth, R.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Bonnard, J.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D.; Fritzsche, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Geithner, W.; Geppert, Ch.; Gins, W.; Grob, L. K.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Lenzi, S. M.; Moore, I. D.; Maass, B.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Marsh, B.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Otsuka, T.; Papuga, J.; Rossel, R.; Rothe, S.; Sánchez, R.; Tsunoda, Y.; Wraith, C.; Xie, L.; Yang, X. F.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-11-01

    The hyperfine spectra of 51,53 -64Mn were measured in two experimental runs using collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. Laser spectroscopy was performed on the atomic 3 d54 s25/2 6S →3 d54 s 4 p 3/2 6P and ionic 3 d54 s 5S2→3 d54 p 5P3 transitions, yielding two sets of isotope shifts. The mass and field shift factors for both transitions have been calculated in the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock framework and were combined with a King plot analysis in order to obtain a consistent set of mean-square charge radii which, together with earlier work on neutron-deficient Mn, allow the study of nuclear structure changes from N =25 across N =28 up to N =39 . A clear development of deformation is observed towards N =40 , confirming the conclusions of the nuclear moments studies. From a Monte Carlo shell-model study of the shape in the Mn isotopic chain, it is suggested that the observed development of deformation is not only due to an increase in static prolate deformation but also due to shape fluctuations and triaxiality. The changes in mean-square charge radii are well reproduced using the Duflo-Zuker formula except in the case of large deformation.

  8. The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unexplained large discrepancy of the proton charge radius measurements with muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and determinations from elastic electron scattering and Lamb shift in regular hydrogen of seven standard deviations is known as the proton radius puzzle. Suggested solutions of the puzzle range from possible errors in the experiments through unexpectedly large hadronic physics effects to new physics beyond the Standard Model. A new approach to verify the radius discrepancy in a systematic manner will be pursued with the Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI. The experiment aims to compare elastic cross sections, the proton elastic form factors, and the extracted proton charge radius with scattering of electrons and muons of either charge and under identical conditions. The difference in the observed radius will be probed with a high precision to verify the discrepancy. An overview of the experiment and the current status will be presented.

  9. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzakh, A. E., E-mail: barzakh@mail.ru; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  10. Search for a Fourth Generation Charge -1/3 Quark via Flavor Changing Neutral Current Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grim, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Lan, H.; Lander, R.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Nes̆iĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pus̆eljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Singh, P.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1997-05-01

    We report on a search for pair production of a fourth generation charge -1/3 quark ( b') in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV by the DØ experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron using an integrated luminosity of 93 pb-1. Both b' quarks are assumed to decay via flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC). The search uses the signatures γ+3 jets +μ-tag and 2γ+2 jets. We see no significant excess of events over the expected background. We place an upper limit on the production cross section times branching fraction that is well below theoretical expectations for a b' decaying exclusively via FCNC for b' masses up to mZ+mb.

  11. Finite Amplitude Method for Charge-Changing Transitions in Axially-Deformed Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mustonen, M T; Zenginerler, Z; Engel, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe and apply a version of the finite amplitude method for obtaining the charge-changing nuclear response in the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The method is suitable for calculating strength functions and beta-decay rates, both allowed and forbidden, in axially-deformed open-shell nuclei. We demonstrate the speed and versatility of the code through a preliminary examination of the effects of tensor terms in Skyrme functionals on beta decay in a set of spherical and deformed open-shell nuclei. Like the isoscalar pairing interaction, the tensor terms systematically increase allowed beta-decay rates. This finding generalizes previous work in semimagic nuclei and points to the need for a comprehensive study of time-odd terms in nuclear density functionals.

  12. Magnetic Radius of the Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A V; Trubnikov, S V; Afanasev, Andrei V; Trubnikov, S V

    1998-01-01

    The root-mean square radius of the deuteron magnetic moment distribution, $ r_{Md}$, is calculated for several realistic models of the $NN$--interaction. For the Paris potential the result is $r_{Md} = 2.312 \\pm 0.010 $ fm. The dependence of $r_{Md} $ on the choice of $NN$ model, relativistic effects and meson exchange currents is investigated. The experimental value of $r_{Md}$ is also considered. The necessity of new precise measurements of the deuteron magnetic form factor at low values of $Q^2$ is stressed.

  13. Precision charging of microparticles in plasma via the Rayleigh instability for evaporating charged liquid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Euan; Mahony, Charles M. O.; Potts, Hugh E.; Everest, Paul; Rutherford, David; Askari, Sadegh; Kelsey, Colin; Perez-Martin, Fatima; Hamilton, Neil; McDowell, David A.; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul; Diver, Declan A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel method for delivering a precise, known amount of electric charge to a micron-sized solid target. Aerosolised microparticles passed through a plasma discharge will acquire significant electric charge. The fluid stability under evaporative stress is a key aspect that is core to the research. Initially stable charged aerosols subject to evaporation (i.e. a continually changing radius) may encounter the Rayleigh stability limit. This limit arises from the electrostatic and surface tension forces and determines the maximum charge a stable droplet can retain, as a function of radius. We demonstrate that even if the droplet charge is initially much less than the Rayleigh limit, the stability limit will be encountered as the droplet evaporates. The instability emission mechanism is strongly linked to the final charge deposited on the target, providing a mechanism that can be used to ensure a predictable charge deposit on a known encapsulated microparticle. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from EPSRC via Grant Numbers EP/K006142/1 and EP/K006088/1.

  14. Table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{rho}) for A = 1 to 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm); Table des energies des particules chargees en fonction de la rigidite magnetique (B{rho}) pour A = 1 a 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{sub {rho}}) is presented. Particles p, d, t, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++}. Values of B{sub {rho}}: 100 to 1200 kG.cm by steps of 0.5 kG.cm. Values of energies are given in keV. (author) [French] Nous presentons une table des energies de protons, deutons, tritons, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++} en fonction de leur rigidite magnetique (B{sub {rho}}). Les valeurs de B{sub {rho}} sont comprises entre 100 et 1200 kG.cm par pas de 0.5 kG.cm. Les valeurs des energies sont donnees en keV. (auteur)

  15. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâldea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”. This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators. It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively. To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves.

  16. Predictions of nuclear charge radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, M.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear charge radius is a fundamental property of an atomic nucleus. In this article we study the predictive power of empirical relations for experimental nuclear charge radii of neighboring nuclei and predict the unknown charge radii of 1085 nuclei based on the experimental CR2013 database within an uncertainty of 0.03 fm.

  17. Void structure and density change of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Gazda, J. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine void structure, distribution, and density changes of several promising vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE). Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density change, void distribution, and microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy have been determined after irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the DHCE, and the results compared with those from a non-DHCE in which helium generation was negligible.

  18. The convexity radius of a Riemannian manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Dibble, James

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of convexity radius over injectivity radius may be made arbitrarily small within the class of compact Riemannian manifolds of any fixed dimension at least two. This is proved using Gulliver's method of constructing manifolds with focal points but no conjugate points. The approach is suggested by a characterization of the convexity radius that resembles a classical result of Klingenberg about the injectivity radius.

  19. Short-time change of heavy-ion microbeams with different mass to charge ratios by scaling method for the JAEA AVF cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Okumura, Susumu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Satoh, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Yokota, Watalu [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron provides heavy-ion beams covering a wide range of linear-energy-transfers for microbeam formation. Two types of microbeam formation systems, one using a micro-aperture and the other focusing lenses, are installed on two vertical beam lines of the cyclotron. The average beam time for an experiment using the former system is usually less than 3 h, that is comparable to the time for cyclotron tuning. The time ratio between experiment and tuning determines the usage efficiency of the facility. In order to reduce the tuning time, a scaling method has been introduced to change the ion species with various mass to charge ratios (M/Q) in a shorter total time. The principle of the scaling method is to keep the magnetic rigidity of ion beams constant. This requirement is easily achieved by adjusting the extraction voltage of an ion source proportionally to the M/Q in the beam injection line. Although some cyclotron adjustments, other than the magnetic field strength at the extraction radius, are required, the tuning can be completed within 20 min, and no change is basically required in the beam transport line downstream of the cyclotron. Using the scaling method, 255 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 7+}, 335 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 8+}, and 440 MeV {sup 40}Ar{sup 13+} beams were extracted from the cyclotron in sequence after the usual tuning of a 220 MeV {sup 12}C{sup 5+}. As a result, we have succeeded in changing the ion species of the heavy-ion microbeam within a total of 30 min.

  20. Adsorption free energy of variable-charge nanoparticles to a charged surface in relation to the change of the average chemical state of the particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Hiemstra, T.

    2006-01-01

    Variable-charge nanoparticles such as proteins and humics can adsorb strongly to charged macroscopic surfaces such as silica and iron oxide minerals. To model the adsorption of variable-charge particles to charged surfaces, one has to be able to calculate the adsorption free energy involved. It has

  1. Changes in nuclear structure along the Mn isotopic chain studied via charge radii

    CERN Document Server

    Heylen, H; Beerwerth, R; Billowes, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Bonnard, J; Campbell, P; Cheal, B; Goodacre, T Day; Fedorov, D; Fritzsche, S; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Geithner, W; Geppert, Ch; Gins, W; Grob, L K; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Lenzi, S M; Moore, I D; Maass, B; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S; Marsh, B; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Otsuka, T; Papuga, J; Rossel, R; Rothe, S; Sanchez, R; Tsunoda, Y; Wraith, C; Xie, L; Yang, X F; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    The hyperfine spectra of $^{51,53-64}$Mn were measured in two experimental runs using collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. Laser spectroscopy was performed on the atomic $3d^5\\ 4s^2\\ ^{6}\\text{S}_{5/2}\\rightarrow 3d^5\\ 4s4p\\ ^{6}\\text{P}_{3/2}$ and ionic $3d^5\\ 4s\\ ^{5}\\text{S}_2 \\rightarrow 3d^5\\ 4p\\ ^{5}\\text{P}_3$ transitions, yielding two sets of isotope shifts. The mass and field shift factors for both transitions have been calculated in the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock framework and were combined with a King plot analysis in order to obtain a consistent set of mean-square charge radii which, together with earlier work on neutron-deficient Mn, allow the study of nuclear structure changes from $N=25$ across $N=28$ up to $N=39$. A clear development of deformation is observed towards $N=40$, confirming the conclusions of the nuclear moments studies. From a Monte Carlo Shell Model study of the shape in the Mn isotopic chain, it is suggested that the observed development of deformation is not only d...

  2. Colossal resistivity change associated with the charge ordered/disordered transition:Monte Carlo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shuai; ZHU Han; LIU Jun-ming

    2006-01-01

    Earlier theoretical approaches to manganites mainly stern from magnetic framework in which the electronic transports are thought to be spin-dependent and the double exchange plays a vital role.However,quite a number of experimental observations cannot be explained in the magnetic framework,yet.For example,multiplicate insulator-metal transitions and resistivity reduction induced by perturbations other than magnetic field,such as electric current,are not well understood in this framework.Here we present a comprehensive analysis on the magnetic framework and give a Monte Carlo study on the resistivity of a charge ordered/disordered model without accounting for the spin degree of freedom.The result shows a colossal resistivity change as a resultant of the transition between two types of insulated states.This transition has intrinsic difference from the popular insulated-to-metallic transition in the magnetic framework.The present scenario can be used to explain some experimental facts for electronic transports in manganites,which are not accessible in the magnetic framework.

  3. Electrical charging changes the composition of sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-08-01

    Sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new-particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the composition of neutral clusters must be addressed in order to interpret and understand the measured data. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric acid-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the composition of electrically neutral clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of the most stable neutral clusters with those of the corresponding charged clusters. Based on the evaporation rates of different molecules from the charged clusters, we determined the most likely resulting cluster composition when a stable neutral cluster is charged and the molecules with the highest evaporation rates are lost from it. We found that all of the most stable neutral clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric acid molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the acid molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.

  4. Accounting for changes in particle charge, dry mass and composition occurring during studies of single levitated particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddrell, Allen E; Davies, James F; Yabushita, Akihiro; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-10-11

    The most used instrument in single particle hygroscopic analysis over the past thirty years has been the electrodynamic balance (EDB). Two general assumptions are made in hygroscopic studies involving the EDB. First, it is assumed that the net charge on the droplet is invariant over the time scale required to record a hygroscopic growth cycle. Second, it is assumed that the composition of the droplet is constant (aside from the addition and removal of water). In this study, we demonstrate that these assumptions cannot always be made and may indeed prove incorrect. The presence of net charge in the humidified vapor phase reduces the total net charge retained by the droplet over prolonged levitation periods. The gradual reduction in charge limits the reproducibility of hygroscopicity measurements made on repeated RH cycles with a single particle, or prolonged experiments in which the particle is held at a high relative humidity. Further, two contrasting examples of the influence of changes in chemical composition changes are reported. In the first, simple acid-base chemistry in the droplet leads to the irreversible removal of gaseous ammonia from a droplet containing an ammonium salt on a time scale that is shorter than the hygroscopicity measurement. In the second example, the net charge on the droplet (<100 fC) is high enough to drive redox chemistry within the droplet. This is demonstrated by the reduction of iodic acid in a droplet made solely of iodic acid and water to form iodine and an iodate salt.

  5. 75 FR 72845 - Notice of Availability; NUREG-1307, Revision 14, “Report on Waste Burial Charges Changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability; NUREG-1307, Revision 14, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges Changes in.... ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The NRC is announcing the completion and availability of NUREG.... ADDRESSES: NUREG-1307 may be purchased from The Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing...

  6. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  7. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N/sub 2/, and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10/sup 15//cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 ..mu..sec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 ..mu..F, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption.

  8. Sharp Upper and Lower Bounds for the Laplacian Spectral Radius and the Spectral Radius of Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ming Guo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, sharp upper bounds for the Laplacian spectral radius and the spectral radius of graphs are given, respectively. We show that some known bounds can be obtained from our bounds. For a bipartite graph G, we also present sharp lower bounds for the Laplacian spectral radius and the spectral radius,respectively.

  9. Electrical charging changes the composition of sulfuric acid–ammonia/dimethylamine clusters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new-particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the composition of neutral clusters must be addressed in ord...

  10. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  11. Net charge changes in the calculation of relative ligand-binding free energies via classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-01-30

    The calculation of binding free energies of charged species to a target molecule is a frequently encountered problem in molecular dynamics studies of (bio-)chemical thermodynamics. Many important endogenous receptor-binding molecules, enzyme substrates, or drug molecules have a nonzero net charge. Absolute binding free energies, as well as binding free energies relative to another molecule with a different net charge will be affected by artifacts due to the used effective electrostatic interaction function and associated parameters (e.g., size of the computational box). In the present study, charging contributions to binding free energies of small oligoatomic ions to a series of model host cavities functionalized with different chemical groups are calculated with classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. Electrostatic interactions are treated using a lattice-summation scheme or a cutoff-truncation scheme with Barker-Watts reaction-field correction, and the simulations are conducted in boxes of different edge lengths. It is illustrated that the charging free energies of the guest molecules in water and in the host strongly depend on the applied methodology and that neglect of correction terms for the artifacts introduced by the finite size of the simulated system and the use of an effective electrostatic interaction function considerably impairs the thermodynamic interpretation of guest-host interactions. Application of correction terms for the various artifacts yields consistent results for the charging contribution to binding free energies and is thus a prerequisite for the valid interpretation or prediction of experimental data via molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis and correction of electrostatic artifacts according to the scheme proposed in the present study should therefore be considered an integral part of careful free-energy calculation studies if changes in the net charge are involved.

  12. An analysis of small changes in environment which resulted in diverse charge structures on 4 June 2012 in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, V.; Bruning, E. C.; Ancell, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field campaign, the disorganized cellular convection throughout West Texas on 4 June 2012 provided a unique opportunity to sample a full variety of charge structures in contemporaneous storms within tens of kilometers through the use of the West Texas Lightning Mapping Array. The surface moisture and related surface variables, while varying across the region, did not correlate to the observed charge structures, implying an above-surface influence dominated even what appeared to be a synoptically benign environment. Due to the close proximity of these storms to each other, a WRF ensemble was used to estimate the range of the mid-level environmental differences which may have resulted in the different charging within the storms. Most significantly, the representation of the elevated mixed layer, the base of which was near 700 mb (below cloud base), varied across the domain with the deepest and driest midlevel layers in the areas dominated by anomalous storms. This suggests that the above-surface dry modification of cloud parcels could be encouraging the positive charging of graupel within the cloud by limiting the warm cloud depth and increasing the availability of liquid in the mixed phase region. Besides the anomalous charge structures, these storms also contained fewer cloud-to-ground flashes and were slower to organize than those with a greater depth of moisture, although storms of both polarities were long-lasting. The case allows for a very unique examination of how small changes in environment can impact the storm-scale electrical and morphological properties. The ability of a set of idealized WRF models, using standard parameterizations, to capture any of these resulting differences in the overall charge structures given the very small changes in the environmental moisture across the region as resolved by the ensemble will be discussed. As part of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field campaign, the

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  14. Charge Changing Experiments and Multipole Expansions of Electron Loss to the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, H.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Charge changing processes involving single electron loss for 0.6-2.2 MeV _sp{2}{4 }He^{+} ions and 2.0-3.0 MeV _sp{2}{3 }He^{+} ions, and single electron capture for 0.6-2.2 MeV _sp {2}{4}He^{+ } ions colliding with He, Ne and Ar have bee studied. The gas target was in the form of a gas beam jet, well localised and directed, obtained using a multicapillary array system. The measured absolute cross sections for single electron loss sigma_{12 }, were in good agreement with most other experimental data. These results were also compared with the theoretical quantal, semi-classical and classical calculations. For a He target, quantal Born approximation calculations gave good agreement especially towards the high energy region but not for an Ar target. The semi-classical calculations gave good agreement for all three target systems, in terms of the magnitude, velocity dependence as well the Z _{t}, dependence. The classical calculations gave not only a good estimate of the cross -sections but also predicted the velocity dependence quite accurately. The measured absolute cross sections for single electron capture sigma_{10} agreed well with most other experimental data and with the classical binary encounter calculations. Electron loss to the continuum (ELC) for 1.4-2.8 MeV He^{+} colliding with He, Ne and Ar have also been studied using a second-order focussing, 30^circ parallel plate spectrometer. The analysis was performed using a specially developed multipole expansion method, allowing an extraction of the parameters in an apparatus independent manner. The first order anisotropy parameter beta_1, was found to exhibit a systematic target dependence, with negative values for Ne and Ar targets, indicating an asymmetric cusp with an enhanced intensity of electrons at velocities lower than that of the ions. Such cusp shape was not predicted by any existing first-order theory. The second-order anisotropy parameter

  15. Charge-changing cross section measurement of neutron-rich carbon isotopes at 50 AMeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran D.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Charge Changing Cross Sections (CCCS or σCC of neutron-rich carbon isotopes on carbon target were measured at low energy (50A MeV for the first time. The consistency between Glauber calculation and experimental σCC of 12C isotope at low energy region shows that proton distribution radii can be derived from CCCS at low energy.

  16. Optimal network modification for spectral radius dependent phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yonatan; Kirsch, Lior; Louzoun, Yoram

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of contact processes on networks is often determined by the spectral radius of the networks adjacency matrices. A decrease of the spectral radius can prevent the outbreak of an epidemic, or impact the synchronization among systems of coupled oscillators. The spectral radius is thus tightly linked to network dynamics and function. As such, finding the minimal change in network structure necessary to reach the intended spectral radius is important theoretically and practically. Given contemporary big data resources such as large scale communication or social networks, this problem should be solved with a low runtime complexity. We introduce a novel method for the minimal decrease in weights of edges required to reach a given spectral radius. The problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem, where a global optimum is guaranteed. The method can be easily adjusted to an efficient discrete removal of edges. We introduce a variant of the method which finds optimal decrease with a focus on weights of vertices. The proposed algorithm is exceptionally scalable, solving the problem for real networks of tens of millions of edges in a short time.

  17. The radius distribution of planets around cool stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Swift, Jonathan, E-mail: tdm@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    We calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the period-marginalized radius distribution of planets with periods less than 150 days using the small yet well-characterized sample of cool (T{sub eff} < 4000 K) dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. In particular, we present and validate a new procedure, based on weighted kernel density estimation, to reconstruct the shape of the planet radius function down to radii smaller than the completeness limit of the survey at the longest periods. Under the assumption that the period distribution of planets does not change dramatically with planet radius, we show that the occurrence of planets around these stars continues to increase to below 1 R{sub ⊕}, and that there is no strong evidence for a turnover in the planet radius function. In fact, we demonstrate using many iterations of simulated data that a spurious turnover may be inferred from data even when the true distribution continues to rise toward smaller radii. Finally, the sharp rise in the radius distribution below ∼3 R{sub ⊕} implies that a large number of planets await discovery around cool dwarfs as the sensitivities of ground-based transit surveys increase.

  18. On the radius constants for classes of analytic functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Rosihan M.; Jain, Naveen; Ravichandran, V.

    2012-01-01

    Radius constants for several classes of analytic functions on the unit disk are obtained. These include the radius of starlikeness of a positive order, radius of parabolic starlikeness, radius of Bernoulli lemniscate starlikeness, and radius of uniform convexity. In the main, the radius constants obtained are sharp. Conjectures on the non-sharp constants are given.

  19. Changes in charge density vs changes in formal oxidation states: The case of Sn halide perovskites and their ordered vacancy analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpian, Gustavo M.; Liu, Qihang; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Zunger, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Shifting the Fermi energy in solids by doping, defect formation, or gating generally results in changes in the charge density distribution, which reflect the ability of the bonding pattern in solids to adjust to such external perturbations. In the traditional chemistry textbook, such changes are often described by the formal oxidation states (FOS) whereby a single atom type is presumed to absorb the full burden of the perturbation (change in charge) of the whole compound. In the present paper, we analyze the changes in the position-dependence charge density due to shifts of the Fermi energy on a general physical basis, comparing with the view of the FOS picture. We use the halide perovskites CsSn X3 (X =F , Cl, Br, I) as examples for studying the general principle. When the solar absorber CsSn I3 (termed 113) loses 50 % of its Sn atoms, thereby forming the ordered vacancy compound C s2Sn I6 (termed 216), the Sn is said in the FOS picture to change from Sn(II) to Sn(IV). To understand the electronic properties of these two groups we studied the 113 and 216 compound pairs CsSnC l3 and C s2SnC l6 , CsSnB r3 and C s2SnB r6 , and CsSn I3 and C s2Sn I6 , complementing them by CsSn F3 and C s2Sn F6 in the hypothetical cubic structure for completing the chemical trends. These materials were also synthesized by chemical routes and characterized by x-ray diffraction, 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and K -edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We find that indeed in going from 113 to 216 (equivalent to the introduction of two holes per unit) there is a decrease in the s charge on Sn, in agreement with the FOS picture. However, at the same time, we observe an increase of the p charge via downshift of the otherwise unoccupied p level, an effect that tends to replenish much of the lost s charge. At the end, the change in the charge on the Sn site as a result of adding two holes to the unit cell is rather small. This effect is theoretically explained as a "self-regulating response

  20. Changes in charge density vs changes in formal oxidation states: The case of Sn halide perovskites and their ordered vacancy analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpian, Gustavo M.; Liu, Qihang; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Zunger, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Shifting the Fermi energy in solids by doping, defect formation, or gating generally results in changes in the charge density distribution, which reflect the ability of the bonding pattern in solids to adjust to such external perturbations. In the traditional chemistry textbook, such changes are often described by the formal oxidation states (FOS) whereby a single atom type is presumed to absorb the full burden of the perturbation (change in charge) of the whole compound. In the present paper, we analyze the changes in the position-dependence charge density due to shifts of the Fermi energy on a general physical basis, comparing with the view of the FOS picture. We use the halide perovskites CsSnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) as examples for studying the general principle. When the solar absorber CsSnI3 (termed 113) loses 50% of its Sn atoms, thereby forming the ordered vacancy compound Cs2SnI6 (termed 216), the Sn is said in the FOS picture to change from Sn(II) to Sn(IV). To understand the electronic properties of these two groups we studied the 113 and 216 compound pairs CsSnCl3 and Cs2SnCl6, CsSnBr3 and Cs2SnBr6, and CsSnI3 and Cs2SnI6, complementing them by CsSnF3 and Cs2SnF6 in the hypothetical cubic structure for completing the chemical trends. These materials were also synthesized by chemical routes and characterized by x-ray diffraction, 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We find that indeed in going from 113 to 216 (equivalent to the introduction of two holes per unit) there is a decrease in the s charge on Sn, in agreement with the FOS picture. However, at the same time, we observe an increase of the p charge via downshift of the otherwise unoccupied p level, an effect that tends to replenish much of the lost s charge. At the end, the change in the charge on the Sn site as a result of adding two holes to the unit cell is rather small. This effect is theoretically explained as a “self-regulating response” [Raebiger, Lany

  1. Total Charge Changing Cross-Sections of 300 MeV/A Fe26+ Ion Beam in Different Target Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Renu; Kumar, Ashavani

    Total charge changing cross-sections of 300 MeV/A Fe26+ ion beam in Al and combined media of CH2, CR39 and Al were calculated by CR39 track etch detectors using an image analysing system; DM6000 M optical microscope attached with a personal computer installed with Leica QWin Plus software. The CR39 nuclear track detectors were used to identify the incident charged particles and their fragments. Exposed CR39 detectors were etched in 6N NaOH solution + 1% ethyl alcohol at 70 ˚C to visualize the tracks produced by primary ion beam and its fragmentations under optical microscope. The temperature was kept constant throughout the etching within ± 0.1˚C. The present work shows better response of the CR39 track etch detector up to an improved threshold Z/β ˜ 4.6. The cone-diameter distributions were fitted by multiple Gaussians using ROOT software analysis toolkit. The numbers of incident and survived ions were determined within 99.7% confidence levels. The calculated values of total charge changing cross-section were (1663 ± 236) mb in Al target, (1219 ± 29) mb in combined target CH2+CR39+Al and (1020 ± 121) mb in combined target CH2+CR39.

  2. Bilateral Distal Radius Fracture in Third Trimester of Pregnancy with Accelerated Union: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral distal radius fracture is a rare entity. There is no literature reporting a bilateral distal radius fracture in pregnancy. Fracture healing is influenced by hormones. Hormonal changes of pregnancy will affect the healing of a fracture. A 28-year-old female at 34 wk of pregnancy sustained a bilateral distal radius fracture after a self fall. One side was managed conservatively and open reduction was done for the other side. Both fractures united at four weeks. This case is unique in ...

  3. Finite Larmor Radius Effects to Arbitrary Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, G.; Hansen, F.R.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1988-01-01

    A representation of a finite Larmor radius plasma is proposed, which permits the transition rL → ∞ without becoming mathematically ill-posed. It is being used in a two-dimensional guiding center plasma spectral code and may have useful analytical applications. The ions are represented as guiding...... centers and the Larmor radius is averaged analytically for every Fourier-mode. Finite Larmor radius densities and velocities are thus obtained from guiding center quantities by application of a filter in wave vector space....

  4. Proton Radius, Darwin-Foldy Term and Radiative Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the role of the so-called Darwin-Foldy term in the evaluation of the proton and deuteron charge radii from atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and nuclear scattering data. The question of whether this term should be included or excluded from the nuclear radius has been controversially discussed in the literature. We attempt to clarify which literature values correspond to which conventions. A detailed discussion of the conventions appears useful because a recent experiment [R. Pohl et al., Nature vol. 466, p. 213 (2010)] has indicated that there is a discrepancy between the proton charge radii inferred from ordinary ("electronic") atomic hydrogen and muonic hydrogen. We also investigate the role of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in the determination of nuclear radii from scattering data, and propose a definition of the nuclear self energy which is compatible with the subtraction of the radiative corrections in scattering experiments.

  5. Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahia, F.; Lemos, A.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Department of Physics, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds. (orig.)

  6. Mass-radius relationships in icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Using published laboratory data for H2O ice, a modeling technique was developed by which the bulk density, density and temperature profile, rotational moment of inertia, central pressure, and location of the rock-ice interface can all be obtained as a function of the radius, the heliocentric distance, and the silicate composition. Models of the interiors of Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, Rhea, and Titan are given, consistent with present mass and radius data. The radius and mass of spheres of ice under self-gravitation for two different temperature classes are given (103 and 77 deg K). Measurements of mass, radius and I/MR2 by spacecraft can be interpreted by this model to yield substantial information about the internal structure and the ice/rock ratio of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

  7. Changes in mean-squared charge radii and magnetic moments of Tl-184179 measured by in-source laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Andreyev, A. N.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Ferrer, R.; Fink, D. A.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Köster, U.; Lane, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Procter, T. J.; Rapisarda, E.; Rothe, S.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van Beveren, C.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Veselský, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts have been measured for the ground and isomeric states in the neutron-deficient isotopes Tl-184179 using the 276.9-nm transition. The experiment has been performed at the CERN-Isotope Separator On-Line facility using the in-source resonance-ionization laser spectroscopy technique. Spins for the ground states in 179,181,183Tl have been determined as I =1 /2 . Magnetic moments and changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii have been deduced. By applying the additivity relation for magnetic moments of the odd-odd Tl nuclei the leading configuration assignments were confirmed. A deviation of magnetic moments for isomeric states in Tl,184182 from the trend of the heavier Tl nuclei is observed. The charge radii of the ground states of the isotopes Tl-184179 follow the trend for isotonic (spherical) lead nuclei. The noticeable difference in charge radii for ground and isomeric states of Tl,184183 has been observed, suggesting a larger deformation for the intruder-based 9 /2- and 10- states compared to the ground states. An unexpected growth of the isomer shift for 183Tl has been found.

  8. Inside the Bondi radius of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; McNamara, B R; Broderick, A E

    2015-01-01

    Chandra X-ray observations of the nearby brightest cluster galaxy M87 resolve the hot gas structure across the Bondi accretion radius of the central supermassive black hole, a measurement possible in only a handful of systems but complicated by the bright nucleus and jet emission. By stacking only short frame-time observations to limit pileup, and after subtracting the nuclear PSF, we analysed the X-ray gas properties within the Bondi radius at 0.12-0.22 kpc (1.5-2.8 arcsec), depending on the black hole mass. Within 2 kpc radius, we detect two significant temperature components, which are consistent with constant values of 2 keV and 0.9 keV down to 0.15 kpc radius. No evidence was found for the expected temperature increase within ~0.25 kpc due to the influence of the SMBH. Within the Bondi radius, the density profile is consistent with $\\rho\\propto r^{-1}$. The lack of a temperature increase inside the Bondi radius suggests that the hot gas structure is not dictated by the SMBH's potential and, together with...

  9. Monitoring In Vivo Changes in Tonic Extracellular Dopamine Level by Charge-Balancing Multiple Waveform Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoonbae; Park, Cheonho; Kim, Do Hyoung; Shin, Hojin; Kang, Yu Min; DeWaele, Mark; Lee, Jeyeon; Min, Hoon-Ki; Blaha, Charles D; Bennet, Kevin E; Kim, In Young; Lee, Kendall H; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2016-11-15

    Dopamine (DA) modulates central neuronal activity through both phasic (second to second) and tonic (minutes to hours) terminal release. Conventional fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes, has been used to measure phasic DA release in vivo by adopting a background subtraction procedure to remove background capacitive currents. However, measuring tonic changes in DA concentrations using conventional FSCV has been difficult because background capacitive currents are inherently unstable over long recording periods. To measure tonic changes in DA concentrations over several hours, we applied a novel charge-balancing multiple waveform FSCV (CBM-FSCV), combined with a dual background subtraction technique, to minimize temporal variations in background capacitive currents. Using this method, in vitro, charge variations from a reference time point were nearly zero for 48 h, whereas with conventional background subtraction, charge variations progressively increased. CBM-FSCV also demonstrated a high selectivity against 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and ascorbic acid, two major chemical interferents in the brain, yielding a sensitivity of 85.40 ± 14.30 nA/μM and limit of detection of 5.8 ± 0.9 nM for DA while maintaining selectivity. Recorded in vivo by CBM-FSCV, pharmacological inhibition of DA reuptake (nomifensine) resulted in a 235 ± 60 nM increase in tonic extracellular DA concentrations, while inhibition of DA synthesis (α-methyl-dl-tyrosine) resulted in a 72.5 ± 4.8 nM decrease in DA concentrations over a 2 h period. This study showed that CBM-FSCV may serve as a unique voltammetric technique to monitor relatively slow changes in tonic extracellular DA concentrations in vivo over a prolonged time period.

  10. A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Mahner, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam life-time, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) electron capture from the electron beam of the electron cooler and (iii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring as to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocks made of low beam-induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.

  11. Status of the MUSE Measurement of the Proton Radius at PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Ronald; MUSE Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    It is a puzzle that the proton radius appears to be different when measured with muons vs. with electrons. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) πM1 beam line utilizes a mixed e / μ / π beam to measure μ+/- p and e+/- p elastic scattering. The experiment will study the proton electromagnetic form factors at low Q2, in the region most sensitive to the proton radius. The goal is to determine whether the charge radius is indeed the same for muons and electrons, with measurements at the same time in a single experiment. I will describe test measurements done for the MUSE experiment and discuss the status of the project. It is a puzzle that the proton radius appears to be different when measured with muons vs. with electrons. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) πM1 beam line utilizes a mixed e / μ / π beam to measure μ+/- p and e+/- p elastic scattering. The experiment will study the proton electromagnetic form factors at low Q2, in the region most sensitive to the proton radius. The goal is to determine whether the charge radius is indeed the same for muons and electrons, with measurements at the same time in a single experiment. I will describe test measurements done for the MUSE experiment and discuss the status of the project. This work was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation Grant PHY 1306126.

  12. Long-term evolution of broken wakefields in finite radius plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, Konstantin; Petrenko, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A novel effect of fast heating and charging a finite-radius plasma is discovered in the context of plasma wakefield acceleration. As the plasma wave breaks, the most of its energy is transferred to plasma electrons which create strong charge-separation electric field and azimuthal magnetic field around the plasma. The slowly varying field structure is preserved for hundreds of wakefield periods and contains (together with hot electrons) up to 80% of the initial wakefield energy.

  13. Changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2013-08-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron-deficient thallium isotopes at the 276.9-nm atomic transition have been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts and the hyperfine structure for 183-207Tl isotopes and isomers are presented. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic-moment values are deduced. It is shown that nuclear properties of Tl isotopes and isomers smoothly change at the neutron midshell and beyond without development of strong deformation in contrast to the adjacent Hg nuclei. A rather great isomer shift between I = 1/2 and I = 9/2 states for odd Tl isotopes is preserved for both sides of the previously investigated mass range. For the first time, a similar isomer shift is found for the odd-odd isotope 186Tl. The close resemblance of the charge radii isotopic behavior for the Tl and Pb ground states is demonstrated.

  14. Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, C M; Kojima, Y; Chang, H K; Xu, R X; Li, X D; Zhang, B; Kiziltan, B

    2006-01-01

    We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sources, 1E 1207.4-5209, Aql X-1 and EXO 0748-676.

  15. Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient of 27P→26Si+p and Radius of 27P Halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bing; LI Zhi-Hong; LIU Wei-Ping; BAI Xi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    The asymptotic normalization coefficient of the virtual decay 27P→26Si+p is extracted to be 1840±240 fm-1 from the peripheral 26Mg(d,p)27Mg reaction using charge symmetry of mirror pair,for the first time.It is then used to derive the rms radius of the valence proton in the ground state of 27P.We obtain the rms radius 1/2=4.57±0.36 fm,significantly larger than the matter radius of 27P.The probability of the valence proton outside the matter radius of 27P is found to be 73%.The present work supports the conclusion that the 27P ground state has a proton halo structure.

  16. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, February 16, 1990--February 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from February 16, 1990 through February 15, 1993. This work involves the experimental investigation of atomic interactions in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron-correlation effects. The processes studied are of interest both from fundamental and applied points of view. In the latter case, results are obtained which are relevant to the understanding of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, highly-excited (Rydberg) and continuum states of atoms and ions, atomic structure effects, the interaction of ions with surfaces, and the development of heavy-ion storage-rings. The results obtained have provided the basis for several M.A. thesis projects at Western Michigan and several Ph.D. dissertation projects are currently underway. Summaries of work completed and work in progress are given below in Section II. This research has resulted in 26 papers (in print and in press), 12 invited presentations at national and international meetings, and 28 contributed presentations as detailed in Section III.

  17. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Chen; Dinur, Nir Nevo; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  18. VOL AR PLATING OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE : A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of distal radius has undergone remarkable changes since the time of Abraham colles. Conservative treatment with cast application has given way to operative techniques for better o utcome in high demand young individuals. Volar plating fo r distal end radius fractures is an effective technique which allows early mobilisation with re storation of r adial inclination , radial length , articular congruity and palmar tilt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his study was performed in chettinad hospital and research institute between January 2013 and M arch 2014. 24 patients with closed isolated distal end radius fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws by volar approach were followed up retrospectively for a minimum period of one year . There were 17 men and 7 women. Mean age was 44 years (Range, 22 - 75 years. The fractures were classified based on the AO system. There were 4 A2, 12 B3, 5 C1, 3 C2 fracture types. RESULTS : All the patients were evaluated with standard anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and CT scans in c ase of intraarticular fractures . In all patie nts plating of distal end radius done by volar approach. Patients were followed postoperatively for one y ear radiologically and clinically by modified clinical scoring system by Green and O Brien. Five patients had excellent results, thirteen patients had good results with twenty five percent restriction of wrist function . Five patients had fair results. One patient had postop wound infection which required implant removal and external fixator application . CONCLUSION: With proper patient selection a nd accurate surgical techniques , volar plating continues to be a useful method of treatment for distal end radius fractures with minimal complications and allowing early return of patients to normal activities.

  19. Critical bubble radius in solvent sublation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The complex compound of dithizone-Co(Ⅱ) was separated and concentrated from the aqueous phase to n-octanol by solvent sublation. From the analysis of the coalescence behavior of bubbles on water-organic interface, the conception of critical bubble radius was proposed, and the value of the critical bubble radius in the water-octanol system was obtained: 1.196 × 10-3 m. The simulation of the mathematical model using CBR and experimental data is completed with perfect results, and the simulation of the mathematical model using CBR is very different with the classic one. The analytical results proved that the critical bubble radius should be adequately considered in mathematical model of solvent sublation.

  20. Relationship Between Thermal Tides and Radius Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-01-01

    Close-in extrasolar gas giants -- the hot Jupiters -- display departures in radius above the zero-temperature solution, the radius excess, that are anomalously high. The radius excess of hot Jupiters follows a relatively close relation with thermal tidal tidal torques and holds for ~ 4-5 orders of magnitude in a characteristic thermal tidal power in such a way that is consistent with basic theoretical expectations. The relation suggests that thermal tidal torques determine the global thermodynamic and spin state of the hot Jupiters. On empirical grounds, it is shown that theories of hot Jupiter inflation that invoke a constant fraction of the stellar flux to be deposited at great depth are, essentially, falsified.

  1. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  2. Charging Customers or Making Profit? Business Model Change in the Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Malmmose Peyton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Advancements in technology, changing customer demands or new market entrants are often seen as a necessary condition to trigger the creation of new Business Models, or disruptive change in existing ones. Yet, the sufficient condition is often determined by pricing and how customers are willing to pay for the technology (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002. As a consequence, much research on Business Models has focused on innovation and technology management (Rajala et al., 2012; Zott et al., 2011, and software-specific frameworks for Business Models have emerged (Popp, 2011; Rajala et al., 2003; Rajala et al., 2004; Stahl, 2004. This paper attempts to illustrate Business Model change in the software industry. Design: Drawing on Rajala et al. (2003, this case study explores the (1 antecedents and (2 consequences of a Business Model-change in a logistics software company. The company decided to abolish their profitable fee-based licensing for an internet-based version of its core product and to offer it as freeware including unlimited service. Findings: Firstly, we illustrate how external developments in technology and customer demands (pricing, as well as the desire for a sustainable Business Model, have led to this drastic change. Secondly, we initially find that much of the company’s new Business Model is congruent with the company-focused framework of Rajala et al. (2003 [product strategy; distribution model, services and implementation; revenue logic]. Value: The existing frameworks for Business Models in the software industry cannot fully explain the disruptive change in the Business Model. Therefore, we suggest extending the framework by the element of ‘innovation’.

  3. Management of Malunions of the Distal Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniel Truffin Rodriguez; Osmany Pérez Martínez; Rafael Esmandy Gómez Arregoitía; Indira L. Gómez Gil

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the distal radius often present with a group of major complications. Of these, malunion is one of the most disabling. Its management through salvage procedures is essential for its correction. The case of a 60-year-old healthy woman of urban origin treated at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos because of a malunion of the distal end of the left radius as a result of a previous Colles' fracture is presented. The patient complained of severe p...

  4. Contact radius of stamps in reversible adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A mechanics model is developed for the contact radius of stamps with pyramid tips in transfer printing.This is important to the realization of reversible control of adhesion,which has many important applications,such as climbing robots,medical tapes,and transfer printing of electronics.The contact radius is shown to scale linearly with the work of adhesion between the stamp and the contacting surface,and inversely with the plane-strain modulus of the stamp. It also depends on the cone angle and tip radiu...

  5. BOREL RADIUS AND T-RADIUS OF THE ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION IN THE UNIT DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Yinying

    2012-01-01

    Using Ahlfors' theory of covering surface and a type-function,we confirm the existence theorem of a Borel radius and a T-radius for the algebroidal function dealing with multiple values in the unit disc,which briefly extend some results for the algebroidal functions in the complex plane.

  6. Topographic matching of distal radius and proximal fibula articular surface for distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Chen, S; Wang, Z; Guo, Y; Liu, B; Tong, D

    2016-07-01

    During osteoarticular reconstruction of the distal radius with the proximal fibula, congruity between the two articular surfaces is an important factor in determining the quality of the outcome. In this study, a three-dimensional model and a coordinate transformation algorithm were developed on computed tomography scanning. Articular surface matching was performed and parameters for the optimal position were determined quantitatively. The mean radii of best-fit spheres of the articular surfaces of the distal radius and proximal fibula were compared quantitatively. The radial inclination and volar tilt following reconstruction by an ipsilateral fibula graft, rather than the contralateral, best resembles the values of the native distal radius. Additionally, the ipsilateral fibula graft reconstructed a larger proportion of the distal radius articular surface than did the contralateral. The ipsilateral proximal fibula graft provides a better match for the reconstruction of the distal radius articular surface than the contralateral, and the optimal position for graft placement is quantitatively determined.

  7. Mass and Radius of Neutron Stars Constrained by Photospheric Radius Expansion X-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Kim, Myungkuk; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    Simultaneous measurement of mass and radius of a neutron star is important because it provides strong constraint on the equation of state for nuclear matter inside a neutron star. Type I X-ray Bursts (XRBs) that have been observed in low-mass X-ray binaries sometimes show photospheric radius expansion (PRE). By combining observed fluxes, X-ray spectra, and distances of PRE XRBs and using a statistical analysis, it is possible to simultaneously constrain the mass and radius of a neutron star. However, the mass and radius of a neutron star estimated in this method depends on the opacity of accreted material. We investigate the effect of the opacity on the mass and radius estimation by taking into account the cases that the hydrogen mass fraction of accreted material has narrowly-distributed values. We present preliminary results that are investigated with three different values of hydrogen mass fraction and compare our results with previous studies.

  8. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HanJu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of is dense in .

  9. Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ju Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space X is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of A(BX:X is dense in A(BX:X.

  10. Improved KAM estimates for the Siegel radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverani, C.; Turchetti, G.

    1986-12-01

    For the Siegel center problem the authors explore the possibility of improving the KAM estimates, with a view to possible extensions to Hamiltonian systems. The use of a suitable norm and explicit perturbative computations allow estimates to within a factor 2 of the Siegel radius for the quadratic map.

  11. Mass-radius relationships for exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Damian; Hicks, Damien; Hamel, Sebastien; Caspersen, Kyle; Schwegler, Eric; Collins, Gilbert; Ackland, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    For planets other than Earth, and in particular for exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on a comparison of the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation for different layers within the planet, which is based heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We summarize current techniques for predicting and measuring equations of state, and calculate mass-radius relations for key materials for which the equation of state is reasonably well established, and for Fe-rock combinations. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. CoRoT-7b probably has a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core. The core is likely to be proportionately smaller than the Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H_2Oand CH_...

  12. Transfer matrices of dipoles with bending radius variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing demand of high brightness in light source, the uniform dipole can not meet the needs of low emittance, and thus the dipole with bending radius variation is introduced in this paper. The transfer matrix of a non-uniform dipole whose bending radius is linearly changed is chosen as an example and a very simple calculation formula of non-uniform dipole transfer matrices is given. The transfer matrices of some common profile non-uniform dipoles are also listed. The comparison of these transfer matrices and the matrices calculated with slices method verifies the numerical accuracy of this formula. This method can make the non-uniform beam dynamic problem simpler, very helpful for emittance research and lattice design with non-uniform dipoles.

  13. Charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 吕保维; O.Havnes

    1997-01-01

    The charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma, which is derived from the longitudinal dielectric permittivity of the dusty plasma, has been studied by kinetic theory. The results show that the P value, which describes the relative charge density on the dust in the plasma, and the charging frequency of a dust particle Ωc, which describes the ratio of charge changing of the dust particles, determine the character of the charge density fluctuation of low frequency. For a dusty plasma of P<<1, when the charging frequency Ωc is much smaller than the dusty plasma frequency wd, there is a strong charge density fluctuation which is of character of dust acoustic eigen wave. For a dusty plasma of P>>1, when the frequency Ωc, is much larger than wd there are weaker fluctuations with a wide spectrum. The results have been applied to the ionosphere and the range of radius and density of dust particles is found, where a strong charge density fluctuation of low frequency should exist.

  14. Nanoparticle charge-transfer interactions induce surface dependent conformational changes in apolipoprotein biocorona

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavendra, Achyut J; Brown, Jared M; Podilaa, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Upon introduction into a biological system, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) rapidly associate with a variety of biomolecules such as proteins and lipids to form a biocorona. The presence of biocorona influences nano-bio interactions considerably, and could ultimately result in altered biological responses. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the major constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is one of the most prevalent proteins found in ENM-biocorona irrespective of ENM nature, size, and shape. Given the importance of ApoA-I in HDL and cholesterol transport, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of ApoA-I adsorption and the associated structural changes for assessing consequences of ENM exposure. Here, we used a comprehensive array of microscopic and spectroscopic tools to elucidate the interactions between ApoA-I and 100 nm Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with four different surface functional groups. We found that the protein adsorption and secondary structural changes are highly dependent on the surface fu...

  15. Is the proton radius puzzle an evidence of extra dimensions?

    CERN Document Server

    Dahia, F

    2015-01-01

    The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitation...

  16. Solar thermal charging properties of graphene oxide embedded myristic acid composites phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Apurv; Barman, Bidyut; Kumar, Vivek; Kardam, Abhishek; Narayanan, S. Shankara; Verma, Abhishek; Madhwal, Devinder; Shukla, Prashant; Jain, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports the heat transfer characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) embedded myristic acid based phase change material (GO-PCM) composites. By varying concentrations of GO (0.1-0.5 wt%), different GO-PCM composites were preapred. Two different experimental setups were used for investigating the heat transfer characteristics of the prepared GO-PCM composites during the melting and solidification processes: (i) conventional heating and (ii) solar illumination. The experimental observations indicated a higher heat transfer rate in the GO-PCM composites as compared to pristine PCM for both experimental setups. From the experimental results of conventional heating setup, it was observed that the melting and solidification rate for GO-PCM composites, at 0.5 wt% of GO, increased by 48% and 70%, respectively in comparison to pristine PCM. The experimental results using solar illumination setup demonstrated an ultrafast heating rate for GO-PCM composites than the conventional heating based approach.

  17. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D. C.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Hamel, S.; Caspersen, K.; Schwegler, E.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California, CA 94550 (United States); Nettelmann, N. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Ackland, G. J. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    For planets other than Earth, particularly exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on comparing the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation which relies heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We lay out a method for deriving and testing equations of state, and deduce mass-radius and mass-pressure relations for key, relevant materials whose equation of state (EOS) is reasonably well established, and for differentiated Fe/rock. We find that variations in the EOS, such as may arise when extrapolating from low-pressure data, can have significant effects on predicted mass-radius relations and on planetary pressure profiles. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. Kepler-10b is apparently 'Earth-like', likely with a proportionately larger core than Earth's, nominally 2/3 of the mass of the planet. CoRoT-7b is consistent with a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core which is likely to be proportionately smaller than Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, suggesting an 'icy' composition with a relatively large core or a relatively large proportion of H{sub 2}O. CoRoT-2b is less dense than the hydrogen relation, which could be explained by an anomalously high degree of heating or by higher than assumed atmospheric opacity. HAT-P-2b is slightly denser than the mass-radius relation for hydrogen, suggesting the presence of a significant amount of matter of higher atomic number. CoRoT-3b lies close to the hydrogen relation. The pressure at the center of Kepler-10b is 1.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} TPa. The central pressure in CoRoT-7b is probably close to 0.8 TPa, though may be up to 2 TPa. These

  18. Evolution of the solar radius during the solar cycle 24 rise time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, Mustapha

    2015-08-01

    One of the real motivations to observe the solar radius is the suspicion that it might be variable. Possible temporal variations of the solar radius are important as an indicator of internal energy storage and as a mechanism for changes in the total solar irradiance. Measurements of the solar radius are of great interest within the scope of the debate on the role of the Sun in climate change. Solar energy input dominates the surface processes (climate, ocean circulation, wind, etc.) of the Earth. Thus, it appears important to know on what time scales the solar radius and other fundamental solar parameters, like the total solar irradiance, vary in order to better understand and assess the origin and mechanisms of the terrestrial climate changes. The current solar cycle is probably going to be the weakest in 100 years, which is an unprecedented opportunity for studying the variability of the solar radius during this period. This paper presents more than four years of solar radius measurements obtained with a satellite and a ground-based observatory during the solar cycle 24 rise time. Our measurements show the benefit of simultaneous measurements obtained from ground and space observatories. Space observations are a priori most favourable, however, space entails also technical challenges, a harsh environment, and a finite mission lifetime. The evolution of the solar radius during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24 show small variations that are out of phase with solar activity.

  19. On the pi pi continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Hoferichter, M; de Elvira, J Ruiz; Hammer, H -W; Meißner, U -G

    2016-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the $\\pi\\pi$ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the $\\pi\\pi\\to\\bar N N$ partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the $\\pi\\pi$ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius.

  20. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.; Hammer, H.-W.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2016-11-01

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ→bar{N} N partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius.

  1. A DFT study on the correlation between topology and Bader charges: Part IV, on the change of atomic charges in polymorphic transitions - A case study on CaCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Horst P.

    2016-02-01

    Referring to the experimental results of high pressure experiments of Léger et al. (1998) we have calculated the energies of all phases observed for CaCl2 within the DFT formalism using the VASP package, and we have retrieved enthalpies and transition pressures. All phases can be considerably compressed or dilated without much change in energy. This energetic "softness" could even be quantified. We classify the high temperature TiO2-type structure and the PbCl2-type one at highest pressures as the energetically "softest" ones and the SrI2-type one as the "hardest". We furthermore discuss the energy density (E/V) of the different phases and redefine it as a fictive cohesive pressure within these structures. Pursuing our earlier approaches we have analysed the charges of the atoms in the different CaCl2 phases and their change on compression or dilation. On comparing the gradients of the charge curves we define a sort of "charge hardness" which will generally depend on the type of cation-anion pair but also on their topological connection in the respective structures. We speculate that exhausting the "charge softness or hardness" of individual ions in such arrangements may initiate the structural reorganization at the transition pressures.

  2. Three dimensional finite element analysis of anatomic distal radius Nitinol memory connector treating distal radius fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏佳灿; 张春才; 禹宝庆; 许硕贵; 王家林; 纪方; 张雪松; 吴建国; 王保华; 薛召军; 丁祖泉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the memory biomechanical character of anatomic distal radius Nitinol memory connector (DRMC) in treating distal radius fracture. Methods: Establishing three dimensional model and finite element analysis, we calculated the stress in and around the fracture faces when distal radius fracture was fixated with DRMC. Results: Axial holding stress produced by holding part of DRMC on distal radius was 14.66 MPa. The maximum stress of holding part was 40-70 MPa, the minimum stress was 3-7 MPa,and the stress of compression part was 20-40 MPa. Conclusion: The distribution of stress produced by DRMC around the fracture line is reasonable, and axial holding stress can help stabilize fracture during earlier period. The existence of longitudal compression and memory effect can transfer fixated disused section into developed section and enhance fracture healing.

  3. Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ENACEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.

  4. Measurements of the Total Charge-Changing Cross Sections for Collisions of Fast Ions with Target Gas Using High Current Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Molvik, Arthur W.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shnidman, Ariel; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2009-04-13

    The sum of ionization and charge-exchange cross sections of several gas targets (H2, N2, He, Ne, Kr, Xe, Ar, and water vapor) impacted by 1MeV K+ beam are measured. In a high current ion beam, the self-electric field of the beam is high enough that ions produced from the gas ionization or charge exchange by the ion beam are quickly swept to the sides of accelerator. The flux of the expelled ions is measured by a retarding field analyzer. This allows accurate measuring of the total charge-changing cross sections (ionization plus charge exchange) of the beam interaction with gas. Cross sections for H2, He, and N2 are simulated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement.

  5. Phacoemulsification efficiency with a radiused phaco tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Isha; Zaugg, Brian; Stagg, Brian C; Barlow, William R; Pettey, Jeff H; Jensen, Jason D; Kirk, Kevin R; Olson, Randall J

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate radiused and nonradiused phacoemulsification tips to determine which tip is more efficient in removal of lens fragments using 3 ultrasound (US) modalities. John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Porcine lens nuclei were formalin-soaked for 2 hours or 3 hours and then divided into 2.0 mm cubes. Thirty-degree, 0.9 mm beveled radiused tips and nonradiused tips were used with torsional, transverse, and micropulsed US modalities. Bent tips were used with torsional and transversal US, and straight tips were used with micropulsed US. Efficiency (time to lens removal) and chatter (number of lens fragment repulsions from the tip) were determined. The mean phacoemulsification efficiency was statistically significantly decreased (increased time for removal) with the radiused tip compared with the nonradiused tip for torsional US only (2-hour soaked lenses: 2.14 seconds ± 1.94 [SD] versus 1.18 ± 0.69 seconds [P tip showed decreased efficiency with torsional US only. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the radius of habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Alibert, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The conditions that a planet must fulfill to be habitable are not precisely known. However, it is comparatively easier to define conditions under which a planet is very likely not habitable. Finding such conditions is important as it can help select, in an ensemble of potentially observable planets, which ones should be observed in greater detail for characterization studies. Assuming, as in the Earth, that the presence of a C-cycle is a necessary condition for long-term habitability, we derive, as a function of the planetary mass, a radius above which a planet is likely not habitable. We compute the maximum radius a planet can have to fulfill two constraints: surface conditions compatible with the existence of liquid water, and no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met. We compute internal structure models of planets, using a five-layer model (core, inner mantle, outer mantle, ocean, and atmosphere), for different mas...

  7. Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers......., and the length of the functionalization molecules. The analytical results are compared to finite-element calculations on a realistic geometry. ©2007 American Institute of Physics........ The authors discuss this effect within Thomas-Fermi and Debye-Hückel theory and derive analytical results for cylindrical wires which can be used to estimate the sensitivity of nanowire surface-charge sensors. They study the interplay between the nanowire radius, the Thomas-Fermi and Debye screening lengths...

  8. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.

  9. Modulating alignment of membrane proteins in liquid-crystalline and oriented gel media by changing the size and charge of phospholipid bicelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorieau, Justin L; Maltsev, Alexander S.; Louis, John M; Bax, Ad

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that alignment of a structured peptide or small protein solubilized in mixed phospholipid:detergent micelles or bicelles, when embedded in a compressed gel or liquid crystalline medium, can be altered by either changing the phospholipid aggregate shape, charge, or both together. For the hemagglutinin fusion peptide solubilized in bicelles, we show that bicelle shape and charge do not change its helical hairpin structure but impact its alignment relative to the alignment medium, both in charged compressed acrylamide gel and in liquid crystalline d (GpG). The method can be used to generate sets of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) that correspond to orthogonal alignment tensors, and holds promise for high-resolution structural refinement and dynamic mapping of membrane proteins. PMID:23508769

  10. Modulating alignment of membrane proteins in liquid-crystalline and oriented gel media by changing the size and charge of phospholipid bicelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorieau, Justin L.; Maltsev, Alexander S.; Louis, John M.; Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.gov [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We demonstrate that alignment of a structured peptide or small protein solubilized in mixed phospholipid:detergent micelles or bicelles, when embedded in a compressed gel or liquid crystalline medium, can be altered by either changing the phospholipid aggregate shape, charge, or both together. For the hemagglutinin fusion peptide solubilized in bicelles, we show that bicelle shape and charge do not change its helical hairpin structure but impact its alignment relative to the alignment medium, both in charged compressed acrylamide gel and in liquid crystalline d(GpG). The method can be used to generate sets of residual dipolar couplings that correspond to orthogonal alignment tensors, and holds promise for high-resolution structural refinement and dynamic mapping of membrane proteins.

  11. Small-radius jets to all orders

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory; Salam, Gavin; Dasgupta, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    With hadron colliders continuing to push the boundaries of precision, it is becoming increas­ ingly important to have a detailed understanding of the subtleties appearing at smaller values of the jet radius R. We present a method to resum all leading logarithmic terms, a'.; Inn R, using a generating functional approach, as was recently discussed in Ref. 1. We study a variety of observables, such as the inclusive jet spectrum and jet vetoes for Higgs physics, and show that small-R effects can be sizeable. Finally, we compare our calculations to existing ALICE data, and show good agreement.

  12. 也谈“法院判决可以改变起诉罪名”%On the Problem in Verdict Change the Charge of Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆旭

    2001-01-01

    “法院判决改变起诉罪名”的问题不是简单的可以或不可以所能够概括的。应当区别情况加以判断。一、人民法院不能擅自改变起诉罪名为被告人作出罪重的有罪判决。二、人民法院自己可以直接改变起诉罪名为被告人作出罪轻的有罪判决。三、刑事诉讼的职能决定了人民法院可以采纳被害人、被告人或辩护人符合事实和法律的意见,从而改变公诉机关的起诉罪名。%The question of “may verdict change the charge of bill?” is not easy to answer by “yes” or “no”. Before answer this question must be distinguished among differrent cases. Verdict can not change the charge of bill to felony; verdict can change the charge of bill to peccadillo; verdict can change the charge of bill when the court accept the victim's opinion, the defender's idea, or the defense attorney's view.

  13. Over Expression of a tRNALeu Isoacceptor Changes Charging Pattern of Leucine tRNAs and Reveals New Codon Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.; Bouakaz, E.

    2005-01-01

    During mRNA translation, synonymous codons for one amino acid are often read by different isoaccepting tRNAs. The theory of selective tRNA charging predicts greatly varying percentages of aminoacylation among isoacceptors in cells starved for their common amino acid. It also predicts major change...

  14. Are classifications of proximal radius fractures reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos João BG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the proximal radius need to be classified in an appropriate and reproducible manner. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the three most widely used classification systems. Methods Elbow radiographs images of patients with proximal radius fractures were classified according to Mason, Morrey, and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classifications by four observers with different experience with this subject to assess their intra- and inter-observer agreement. Each observer analyzed the images on three different occasions on a computer with numerical sequence randomly altered. Results We found that intra-observer agreement of Mason and Morrey classifications were satisfactory (κ = 0.582 and 0.554, respectively, while the AO/ASIF classification had poor intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.483. Inter-observer agreement was higher in the Mason (κ = 0.429-0.560 and Morrey (κ = 0.319-0.487 classifications than in the AO/ASIF classification (κ = 0.250-0.478, which showed poor reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra-observer agreement of the Mason and Morey classifications showed overall satisfactory reliability when compared to the AO/ASIF system. The Mason classification is the most reliable system.

  15. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  16. Measurements of Total and Partial Charge-changing Cross Sections for 200-400 MeV/nucleon 12C in Water and Polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshito, T.; /CREST, Japan Sci. Tech. Corp. /KEK, Tsukuba; Kodama, K.; /Aichi U. of Education; Sihver, L.; /Chalmers U. Tech.; Yusa, K.; /Gunma U., Maebashi; Ozaki, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Aoki, S.; /Kobe U.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Komatsu, M.; Kubota, H.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Yoshida, J.; /Nagoya U. /Naruto U. of Education /NIRS, Chiba /SLAC /Toho U.

    2011-11-10

    We have studied charged nuclear fragments produced by 200 - 400 MeV/nucleon carbon ions, interacting with water and polycarbonate, using a newly developed emulsion detector. Total and partial charge-changing cross sections for the production of B, Be, and Li fragments were measured and compared with both previously published measurements, and model predictions. This study is of importance for validating and improving carbon ion therapy treatment planning systems, and for estimating the radiological risks for personnel on space missions, since carbon is a significant component of the Galactic Cosmic Rays.

  17. Measurements of total and partial charge-changing cross sections for 200-400 MeV/nucleon 12C in water and polycarbonate

    CERN Document Server

    Toshito, T; Aoki, S; Asai, M; Ban, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, C; Kameoka, S; Kanazawa, M; Kanematsu, N; Kodama, K; Koi, T; Komatsu, M; Komori, M; Kubota, H; Murakami, K; Naganawa, N; Nakamura, T; Nakano, T; Natsume, M; Niwa, K; Ogawa, S; Ozaki, M; Sasaki, T; Sato, S; Shibasaki, M; Shibuya, H; Sihver, L; Takahashi, S; Yoshida, H; Yoshida, J; Yusa, K

    2007-01-01

    We have studied charged nuclear fragments produced by 200 - 400 MeV/nucleon carbon ions, interacting with water and polycarbonate, using a newly developed emulsion detector. Total and partial charge-changing cross sections for the production of B, Be, and Li fragments were measured and compared with both previously published measurements, and model predictions. This study is of importance for validating and improving carbon ion therapy treatment planning systems, and for estimating the radiological risks for personnel on space missions, since carbon is a significant component of the Galactic Cosmic Rays.

  18. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions TAR syndrome thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by the absence of ...

  20. Mass-radius relations of white dwarfs at finite temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Zhami, Bakytzhan; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Balgimbekov, Galymdin

    2016-01-01

    We construct mass-radius relations of white dwarfs taking into account the effects of rotation and finite temperatures. We compare and contrast the theoretical mass-radius relations with observational data.

  1. Spectral Radius of Hamiltonian Planar Graphs and Outerplanar Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建; 林翠琴; 胡冠章

    2001-01-01

    The spectral radius is an important parameter of a graph related to networks. A method forestimating the spectral radius of each spanning subgraph is used to prove that the spectral radius of aHamiltonian planar graph of order n ≥ 4 is less than or equal toand the spectral radius of theouterplanar graph of order n ≥ 6 is less than or equal to, which are improvements overprevious results. A direction for further study is then suggested.``

  2. Quark Mass Dependence of Nucleon Magnetic Moment and Charge Radii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei-Xing; ZHOU Li-Juan; GU Yun-Ting; PING Rong-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Understanding hadron structure within the framework of QCD is an extremely challenging problem. Our purpose here is to explain the model-independent consequences of the approximated chiral symmetry of QCD for two famous results concerning the quark structure of the nucleon. We show that both the apparent success of the constituent quark model in reproducing the ratio of proton to neutron magnetic moments and the apparent success of the Foldy term in reproducing the observed charge radius of the neutron are coincidental. That is, a relatively small change of the current quark mass would spoil both results.

  3. Cyanide anion sensing mechanism of 1,3,5,7-tetratolyl aza-BODIPY: Intramolecular charge transfer and partial configuration change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Haamid R.; Jha, Prakash C.

    2017-02-01

    The cyanide anion sensing mechanism of 1,3,5,7-tetratolyl aza-BODIPY (1) has been rigorously investigated using density functional theory and time dependent-density functional theory methods. Mulliken charge distribution and Natural Bond Orbital analysis reveals that cyanide addition may occur at both electrophilic centers with equal probability. The molecular orbital analysis reveals that first excited state (S1) of 1 is a local excited state with π-π∗ transition, whereas for 2 (the cyano form of 1), S1 , a charge-separation state, is found to be responsible for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process which in conjunction with partial configuration change induces fluorescence stimulation in 2.

  4. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  5. Bilateral distal radius fracture in third trimester of pregnancy with accelerated union: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tv, Ravikumar; P, Rahul; Grover, Amit; Samorekar, Bheemsingh

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral distal radius fracture is a rare entity. There is no literature reporting a bilateral distal radius fracture in pregnancy. Fracture healing is influenced by hormones. Hormonal changes of pregnancy will affect the healing of a fracture. A 28-year-old female at 34 wk of pregnancy sustained a bilateral distal radius fracture after a self fall. One side was managed conservatively and open reduction was done for the other side. Both fractures united at four weeks. This case is unique in three ways. First distal radius fractures commonly occur in elderly postmenopausal females due to oestrogen deficiency. In this case a distal radius fracture occurred following a self fall in third trimester of pregnancy - a hyperestrogenic state. Second the time taken for union was only four weeks signifying the hormonal effects on pregnancy on fracture healing. Third the occurrence of bilateral distal radius fracture itself is very rare in adults. In pregnancy there is a faster rate of fracture healing due to effects of oestrogen and increased cardiac output. Fractures in pregnancy require special attention. Surgical intervention should be done with a multidisciplinary approach. While management of fractures in pregnancy, effect of hormonal and physiological changes should be kept in mind.

  6. Understanding the mass-radius relation for sub-Neptunes: radius as a proxy for composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transiting planet surveys like Kepler have provided a wealth of information on the distribution of planetary radii, particularly for the new populations of super-Earth- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. In order to aid in the physical interpretation of these radii, we compute model radii for low-mass rocky planets with hydrogen-helium envelopes. We provide model radii for planets 1-20 M {sub ⊕}, with envelope fractions 0.01%-20%, levels of irradiation 0.1-1000 times Earth's, and ages from 100 Myr to 10 Gyr. In addition we provide simple analytic fits that summarize how radius depends on each of these parameters. Most importantly, we show that at fixed H/He envelope fraction, radii show little dependence on mass for planets with more than ∼1% of their mass in their envelope. Consequently, planetary radius is to a first order a proxy for planetary composition, i.e., H/He envelope fraction, for Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. We recast the observed mass-radius relationship as a mass-composition relationship and discuss it in light of traditional core accretion theory. We discuss the transition from rocky super-Earths to sub-Neptune planets with large volatile envelopes. We suggest ∼1.75 R {sub ⊕} as a physically motivated dividing line between these two populations of planets. Finally, we discuss these results in light of the observed radius occurrence distribution found by Kepler.

  7. Mass-radius relationships of rocky exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Sohl, F; Rauer, H

    2012-01-01

    Mass and radius of planets transiting their host stars are provided by radial velocity and photometric observations. Structural models of solid exoplanet interiors are then constructed by using equations of state for the radial density distribution, which are compliant with the thermodynamics of the high-pressure limit. However, to some extent those structural models suffer from inherent degeneracy or non-uniqueness problems owing to a principal lack of knowledge of the internal differentiation state and/or the possible presence of an optically thick atmosphere. We here discuss the role of corresponding measurement errors, which adversely affect determinations of a planet's mean density and bulk chemical composition. Precise measurements of planet radii will become increasingly important as key observational constraints for radial density models of individual solid low-mass exoplanets or super-Earths.

  8. Physeal arrest of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua M; Little, Kevin; Kozin, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common pediatric fractures. Although most of these fractures heal without complication, some result in partial or complete physeal arrest. The risk of physeal arrest can be reduced by avoiding known risk factors during fracture management, including multiple attempts at fracture reduction. Athletes may place substantial compressive and shear forces across the distal radial physes, making them prone to growth arrest. Timely recognition of physeal arrest can allow for more predictable procedures to be performed, such as distal ulnar epiphysiodesis. In cases of partial arrest, physeal bar excision with interposition grafting can be performed. Once ulnar abutment is present, more invasive procedures may be required, including ulnar shortening osteotomy or radial lengthening.

  9. Dependence of the atomic energy levels on a superstrong magnetic field with account of a finite nucleus radius and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, S. I.; Vysotsky, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the finiteness of the proton radius and mass on the energies of a hydrogen atom and hydrogenlike ions in a superstrong magnetic field is studied. The finiteness of the nucleus size pushes the ground energy level up leading to a nontrivial dependence of the value of the critical nucleus charge on the external magnetic field.

  10. 介观超导环中的电荷分布%Charge distributions in mesoscopic superconducting rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂必红; 查国桥; 周世平

    2007-01-01

    The charge distribution in thin mesoscopic superconducting ring is studied by the phenomenological GinzburgLandau theory. In the giant vortex states we find that the mesoscopic rings may present three kinds of charge distribution while the disk only owns the first two kinds. The charge near the inner radius may change its sign from negative to positive with increasing applied field. In the multivortex state we find that there exist saddle-point states and stable multivortex states.The distribution of charge and the superconducting electron density in the (0:2) saddle states and the (0:4), and (1:5) stable multivortex states has also been studied. The contour plot of the charge distribution and the Cooper pair density distribution are given.

  11. Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, P B; Bazant, M Z; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of the flow of an electrolyte solution through charged capillaries (nanopores). In the limit where the length of the capillary is much larger than its radius, the problem can be simplified to a one-dimensional averaged flux-force formalism that relates the relevant fluxes (electrical current, salt flux, fluid velocity) to their respective driving forces (difference in electric potential, salt concentration, pressure). Calculations in literature mainly consider the limit of non-overlapping electrical double layers (EDLs) in the pores and the absence of salt concentration gradients in the axial direction. In the present work these simplifications are relaxed and we discuss the general case with overlapping EDLs and nonzero axial salt concentration gradients. The 3x3 matrix that relates these quantities exhibits Onsager symmetry and for one of the cross coefficients we report a new significant simplification. We describe how Onsager symmetry is preserved under change of variables...

  12. Superscaling and Charge-Changing Neutrino Scattering from Nuclei in the $\\boldsymbol \\Delta$-Region beyond the Relativistic Fermi Gas Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M V; Caballero, J A; Antonov, A N; de Guerra, E Moya; Gaidarov, M K

    2008-01-01

    The superscaling analysis using the scaling function obtained within the coherent density fluctuation model is extended to calculate charge-changing neutrino and antineutrino scattering on $^{12}$C at energies from 1 to 2 GeV not only in the quasielastic but also in the delta excitation region. The results are compared with those obtained using the scaling functions from the relativistic Fermi gas model and from the superscaling analysis of inclusive scattering of electrons from nuclei.

  13. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG-1307, revision 15; extension... Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft NUREG-1307, Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges... Register for a 30 day public comment period. The NRC is extending the public comment period for Draft...

  14. On Galaxy Mass-Radius Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoni, D.; Secco, L.; Contini, E.; Caimmi, R.

    In the Clausius' virial maximum theory (TCV) [Secco and Bindoni, NewA 14, 567 (2009)] to explain the galaxy Fundamental Plane (FP) a natural explanation follows about the observed relationship between stellar mass and effective radius, M ∗ - r e , for early type galaxies (ETGs). The key of this correlation lies in the deep link which has to exist between cosmology and the existence of the FP. The general strategy consists in using the two-component tensor virial theorem to describe the virial configuration of the baryonic component of mass M B ≃ M ∗ embedded in a dark matter (DM) halo of mass M D at the end of relaxation phase. In a ΛCDM flat cosmology, starting from variance at equivalence epoch, we derive some preliminary theoretical relationships, M ∗ - r e , which are functions of mass ratio m = M D / M B . They appear to be in agreement with the trends extracted from the data of galaxy sample used by [Tortora et al., MNRAS 396, 1132 (2009)].

  15. Fragmentation of a Jet with Small Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lin; Leibovich, Adam K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the fragmentation of a parton into a jet with small jet radius $R$. Perturbatively, logarithms of $R$ can appear, which for narrow jets can lead to large corrections. Using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), we introduce the jet fragmentation function (JFF), which describes the fragmentation of a parton into a jet. We discuss how these objects are related to the standard jet functions. Calculating the JFF to next-to-leading order, we show that these objects satisfy the standard DGLAP evolution equations, with a natural scale that depends upon $R$. By using standard renormalization group evolution, we can therefore resum logarithms of $R$. We further use SCET to prove a factorization theorem where the JFFs naturally appear, for the fragmentation of a hadron within a jet with small $R$. Finally, we also show how this formalism can be used to resum the ratio of jet radii for a subjet to be emitted from within a fat jet.

  16. Scale factor correction for Gaussian beam truncation in second moment beam radius measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Lucas R.; Dragone, Rocco V.; MacGregor, Andrew D.

    2017-04-01

    Charged-couple devices (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, in conjunction with the second moment radius analysis method, are effective tools for determining the radius of a laser beam. However, the second moment method heavily weights sensor noise, which must be dealt with using a thresholding algorithm and a software aperture. While these noise reduction methods lower the random error due to noise, they simultaneously generate systematic error by truncating the Gaussian beam's edges. A scale factor that is invariant to beam ellipticity and corrects for the truncation of the Gaussian beam due to thresholding and the software aperture has been derived. In particular, simulations showed an order of magnitude reduction in measured beam radius error when using the scale factor-irrespective of beam ellipticity-and further testing with real beam data demonstrated that radii corrected by the scale factor are independent of the noise reduction parameters. Thus, through use of the scale factor, the accuracy of beam radius measurements made with a CCD or CMOS sensor and the second moment are significantly improved.

  17. Understanding the ``Proton Radius Puzzle'': Nuclear Polarizability Correction in μD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Oscar J.; Dinur, Nir Nevo; Ji, Chen; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir

    2016-09-01

    The accuracy of the proton radius was improved ten-fold by new spectroscopic measurements in muonic hydrogen but it differs by 7 σ from hydrogen determinations. This discrepancy, has been coined the ``proton radius puzzle''. The results of new high-precision experiments on muonic deuterium indicate a new deuterium radius puzzle. The accuracy of the nuclear charge radius determination from these measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the nuclear structure effects. We have calculated this correction in Ref. including the first estimate of the nuclear-model dependence. Due to the importance of constraining the uncertainty, we will determine the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the χEFT potentials by determining the co-variance matrices of our predictions. I will also discuss an alternate method that may reduce the theoretical uncertainty. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada. This work was supported in parts by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant Number SAPIN-2015-00031).

  18. [Manifestation of Dupuytren nodules following fracture of the distal radius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Alice; Wendt, M; Mielsch, N; Gradl, G; Mittlmeier, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of post-traumatic development of Dupuytren nodules in distal radius fractures treated operatively. In 2 prospective randomised studies for operative treatment of distal radius fractures, the formation of Dupuytren nodules was registered. One of the exclusion criteria was a pre-existing Dupuytren's disease at the date of trauma. In addition to the notification of the development of Dupuytren nodules, signs of a complex regional pain syndrome were registered as well as the wrist function, level of pain and grip strength. The Castaing and the Gartland and Werley scores were assessed. The clinical outcomes of patients with and without Dupuytren nodules were compared. 239 of 275 (87%) of the patients could be examined 1 year after the operation, consisting of 32 men and 207 women with a median age of 64.2 years. The patients with Dupuytren nodules were re-evaluated after 16-60 months (median 41.8) for progression of the disease. 21 patients (8.7%) developed changes of the palmar aponeurosis. In 20 patients nodules were stated, one patient showed a cord at the fourth ray of the injured hand. 19 out of 21 patients were female (90.5%). At re-evaluation after 41.8 months (16-60) progression could not be noted nor could similar changes be seen on the contralateral side. Patients with Dupuytren nodules were not handicapped in their hand function. 3 patients (14.3%) revealed a positive family history for Dupuytren's disease. Abuse of alcohol or diabetes was not present in any of the patients with Dupuytren nodules, 7 (33%) were smokers. The occurrence of Dupyutren nodules can be triggered by a trauma or operation. It may be speculated that these nodules are an entity of their own as no progression of the contracture could be seen during the follow-up period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. On the p-norm joint spectral radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳立

    2003-01-01

    The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang's relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.

  20. On the p-norm joint spectral radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳立

    2003-01-01

    The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang' s relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.

  1. Influence of image charge effect on impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.

  2. Variation of Inner Radius of Dust Torus in NGC4151

    CERN Document Server

    Koshida, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Sugawara, Shota; Enya, Keigo; Suganuma, Masahiro; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Peterson, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    The long-term optical and near infrared monitoring observations for a type 1 act ive galactic nucleus NGC 4151 were carried out for six years from 2001 to 2006 b y using the MAGNUM telescope, and delayed response of flux variations in the $K(2.2\\mu m)$ band to those in the $V(0.55\\mu m)$ band was clearly detected. Based on cross correlation analysis, we precisely measured a lag time $\\Delta t$ for eight separate periods, and we found that $\\Delta t$ is not constant changing be tween 30 and 70 days during the monitoring period. Since $\\Delta t$ is the ligh t travel time from the central energy source out to the surrounding dust torus, this is the first convincing evidence that the inner radius of dust torus did ch ange in an individual AGN. In order to relate such a change of $\\Delta t$ with a change of AGN luminosity $L$, we presented a method of taking an average of th e observed $V$-band fluxes that corresponds to the measured value of $\\Delta t$, and we found that the time-changing track of NGC 4151 in the...

  3. The relationship between luminosity of sprite halo and charge moment change based on ISUAL and ELF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hiromi, Kase; Adachi, Toru; Sato, Mitsuteru; Yamashita, Kozo

    Sprite is a transient luminous phenomenon in the mesosphere, induced by lightning discharges. We have known the facts that there are some varieties of features, such as sprite-streamers with fine-structures and sprite-halos with pancake-structures. However, due to the atmospheric ab-sorption and scattering, it is difficult to discuss its luminous intensity quantitatively. After 2004, the beginning of optical observations with ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 from space, the abso-lute luminosity of sprite became to be discussed. There is a compelling theory which predicts that sprite occurrence is dependent on the quasi-electrostatic field induced by lightning. In such a case, it is speculated that the intensity of the sprite emission should have a relationship to the charge moment of the parent lightning because the strength of the electric field is propor-tional to the charge moment of lightning. By Yoshida (2007), absolute optical energies emitted from sprites were estimated for 14 streamer type sprites, using ISUAL/Array photometer data. Furthermore, the optical energies of the streamer type sprites and the charge moments of their parent lightning estimated by ELF data show high correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.93). However, the relationship between the optical energies of sprite-halos and the charge moments of their parent lightning is still unknown. In this study, we analyze 12 sprite-halos, using ISUAL/Array photometer data and ELF data from July 2004 to October 2005. The ISUAL in-strument on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, which flies on a sun-synchronous (9:30 to 21:30 local time) polar-orbit at an altitude of 891 km, consists of an imager, a spectrophotometer (SP), and an array photometer (AP). It looks at the limb in the midnight direction. The AP consists of two multi-channel photometers simultaneously measuring two different wavelength ranges of 510-750 nm (N2 1PG) and 340-480 nm (N2 2PG) with blue and red filters, respec-tively. Each photometer has sixteen

  4. Strong suppression of nuclear-charge changing interactions for 18 TeV/c In ions channeled through a bent Si crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uggerhoj, U.I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark)]. E-mail: ulrik@phys.au.dk; Hansen, H.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Jessen, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Knudsen, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Uggerhoj, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Scheidenberger, C. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Biino, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Clement, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Doble, N. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Elsener, K. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Gatignon, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Grafstroem, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sona, P. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Mangiarotti, A. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Ballestrero, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2005-07-21

    We present experimental results giving evidence for the strong reduction-a factor of more than 20-of nuclear-charge changing interactions for 18 TeV In{sup 49+} ions channeled through a silicon crystal bent to 7.5, 11.9 and 19.8 mrad. A very small fraction of the deflected ions suffer electromagnetic or nuclear interactions leading to proton loss while traversing the 60 mm long crystal, even though its thickness corresponds to about 0.13 nuclear interaction lengths for an amorphous material. By considering the deflected ions only, we show experimentally that the nuclear-charge pickup reaction believed to be induced by virtual photons is a short-range phenomenon.

  5. Strong suppression of nuclear-charge changing interactions for 18 TeV/ c In ions channeled through a bent Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggerhøj, U. I.; Hansen, H. D.; Jessen, K.; Knudsen, H.; Uggerhøj, E.; Scheidenberger, C.; Biino, C.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Sona, P.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ballestrero, S.

    2005-07-01

    We present experimental results giving evidence for the strong reduction-a factor of more than 20-of nuclear-charge changing interactions for 18 TeV In49+ ions channeled through a silicon crystal bent to 7.5, 11.9 and 19.8 mrad. A very small fraction of the deflected ions suffer electromagnetic or nuclear interactions leading to proton loss while traversing the 60 mm long crystal, even though its thickness corresponds to about 0.13 nuclear interaction lengths for an amorphous material. By considering the deflected ions only, we show experimentally that the nuclear-charge pickup reaction believed to be induced by virtual photons is a short-range phenomenon.

  6. Atomic radii for atoms with the 6s shell outermost: The effective atomic radius and the van der Waals radius from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 80}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatewaki, Hiroshi, E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Studies in Artificial Intelligence, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Hatano, Yasuyo [School of Information Science and Technology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Noro, Takeshi [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi [School of International Liberal Studies, Chukyo University, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8666 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    We consider, for atoms from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 80}Hg, the effective atomic radius (r{sub ear}), which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He{sub 2}. The values of r{sub ear} are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s, . The value of r{sub ear} decreases from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 56}Ba and undergoes increases and decreases with rising nuclear charge from {sub 57}La to {sub 70}Y b. In fact r{sub ear} is understood as comprising two interlaced sequences; one consists of {sub 57}La, {sub 58}Ce, and {sub 64}Gd, which have electronic configuration (4f{sup n−1})(5d{sup 1})(6s{sup 2}), and the remaining atoms have configuration (4f{sup n})(6s{sup 2}). The sphere defined by r{sub ear} contains 85%–90% of the 6s electrons. From {sub 71}Lu to {sub 80}Hg the radius r{sub ear} also involves two sequences, corresponding to the two configurations 5d{sup n+1}6s{sup 1} and 5d{sup n}6s{sup 2}. The radius r{sub ear} according to the present methodology is considerably larger than r{sub vdW} obtained by other investigators, some of who have found values of r{sub vdW} close to .

  7. Study on the Radius of an Electrical Spherical Micelle:Functional Theoretical Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Zheng-Wu(王正武); HUANG,Dong-Yang(黄东阳); YI,Xi-Zhang(易希璋); LI,Gan-Zuo(李干佐)

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of eliminating restriction,the Poisson-Boltzmann(PB)equation,which represents the potential of the electrical double layer of spherical micelles,can be solved analytically only under the lower potential condition,a kind of iterative method in functional analysis theory has been used.The radius of the spherical particle can be obtained from the diagram of the second iterative solution of the potential versus the distance from the center of the particle.The influences of the concentration of the ions,the charge number of ions,the aggregation number of the particle,the dielectric constant of solvent and the temperature of system on the radius also have been studied.

  8. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive ep scattering at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Antonelli, S.; Aushev, V.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E. G.; Brock, I.; Brook, N. H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dusini, S.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grzelak, G.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hain, W.; Hlushchenko, O.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N. Z.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, P.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nobe, T.; Nowak, R. J.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlański, W.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Przybycień, M.; Roloff, P.; Ruspa, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Solano, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Sukhonos, D.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Tassi, E.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The high-precision HERA data allows searches up to TeV scales for beyond the Standard Model contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current ep scattering corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb-1 have been used in this analysis. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive ep data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of "new physics" processes were performed. Results are presented considering a finite radius of quarks within the quark form-factor model. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is 0.43 ṡ10-16 cm.

  9. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    The high-precision HERA data allows searches up to TeV scales for Beyond the Standard Model contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current ep scattering corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb{sup -1} have been used in this analysis. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive ep data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of ''new physics'' processes were performed. Results are presented considering a finite radius of quarks within the quark form-factor model. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is 0.43.10{sup -16} cm.

  10. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive $ep$ scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Antonelli, S; Aushev, V; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bloch, I; Boos, EG; Brock, I; Brook, NH; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bussey, PJ; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, CD; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cooper-Sarkar, AM; Corradi, M; Dementiev, RK; Devenish, RCE; Dusini, S; Foster, B; Gach, G; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, LK; Golubkov, Yu A; Grzelak, G; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, ZA; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Januschek, F; Jomhari, NZ; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Kaur, P; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Korzhavina, IA; Kotański, A; Kötz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Krupa, B; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, BB; Levy, A; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, OYu; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mohamad Idris, F; Mohammad Nasir, N; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nobe, T; Nowak, RJ; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlański, W; Pokrovskiy, NS; Przybycien, M; Roloff, P; Ruspa, M; Saxon, DH; Schioppa, M; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Shcheglova, LM; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Shyrma, Yu; Singh, I; Skillicorn, IO; Słomiński, W; Solano, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Tassi, E; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Wan Abdullah, WAT; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Żarnecki, AF; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, BO; Zotkin, DS; Bhadra, S; Gwenlan, C; Hlushchenko, O; Polini, A; Mastroberardino, A; Sukhonos, D

    2016-01-01

    The high-precision HERA data allows searches up to TeV scales for Beyond the Standard Model contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current $ep$ scattering corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb$^{-1}$ have been used in this analysis. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive $ep$ data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of "new physics" processes were performed. Results are presented considering a finite radius of quarks within the quark form-factor model. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is $0.43\\cdot 10^{-16}$ cm.

  11. A self-consistent value of the electric radius of the proton from the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Karshenboim, Savely G

    2014-01-01

    Recently a high-precision measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen has been performed. An accurate value of the proton charge radius can be extracted from this datum with a high accuracy. To do that a sufficient accuracy should be achieved also on the theoretical side, including an appropriate treatment of higher-order proton-structure effects. Here we consider a higher-order contribution of the finite size of the proton to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. Only model-dependent results for this correction have been known up to date. Meantime, the involved models are not consistent either with the existing experimental data on the electron-proton scattering or with the value for the electric charge radius of the proton extracted from the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. We consider the higher-order contribution of the proton finite size in a model-independent way and eventually derive a self-consistent value of the electric radius of the proton. The re-evaluated value of the proton charge radius is foun...

  12. Dust Charging in Electronegative SiH4 Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ping; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; LIU Jin-Yuan; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the dust charging in electronegative silane (SiH4) plasmas, taking into account the effects of UV photodetachment. It is found that UV photodetachment could significantly lower the dust negative charge and even makes dust grains be positively charged under some special conditions. In addition, the other parameters, involving the negative ion and dust number densities, electron temperature and dust radius, have great effects upon the dust charging.

  13. Scheme for proton-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration of positively charged particles in a hollow plasma channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqing Yi (易龙卿

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme for accelerating positively charged particles in a plasma-wakefield accelerator is proposed. If the proton drive beam propagates in a hollow plasma channel, and the beam radius is of order of the channel width, the space charge force of the driver causes charge separation at the channel wall, which helps to focus the positively charged witness bunch propagating along the beam axis. In the channel, the acceleration buckets for positively charged particles are much larger than in the blowout regime of the uniform plasma, and stable acceleration over long distances is possible. In addition, phasing of the witness with respect to the wave can be tuned by changing the radius of the channel to ensure the acceleration is optimal. Two-dimensional simulations suggest that, for proton drivers likely available in future, positively charged particles can be stably accelerated over 1 km with the average acceleration gradient of 1.3  GeV/m.

  14. Charged-Exciton Complexes in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2001-01-01

    It is known experimentally that stable charged-exciton complexes can exist in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. Much less is known about the properties of such charged-exciton complexes since three-body problems are very difficult to be solved, even numerically. Here we introduce the correlated hyperspherical harmonics as basis functions to solve the hyperangular equation for negatively and positively charged excitons (trions) in a harmonic quantum dot. By using this method, we have calculated the energy spectra of the low-lying states of a charged exciton as a function of the radius of quantum dot. Based on symmetry analysis, the level crossover as the dot radius increases can be fully explained as the results of symmetry constraint.``

  15. Applying Occam's Razor To The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higinbotham, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Over the past five decades, ever more complex mathematical functions have been used to extract the radius of the proton from electron scattering data. For example, in 1963 the proton radius was extracted with linear and quadratic fits of low Q2 data (Lamb shift measurements.

  16. The Origin of the Ionic-Radius Ratio Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the origins of the ionic-radius ratio rules and their incorrect attribution to Linus Pauling in the chemical literature and to Victor Goldschmidt in the geochemical literature. In actual fact, the ionic-radius ratio rules were first proposed within the context of the coordination chemistry…

  17. Decreasing the spectral radius of a graph by link removals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mieghem, P.; Stevanović, D.; Kuipers, F.; Li, C.; Van de Bovenkamp, R.; Liu, D.; Wang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The decrease of the spectral radius, an important characterizer of network dynamics, by removing links is investigated. The minimization of the spectral radius by removing m links is shown to be an NP-complete problem, which suggests considering heuristic strategies. Several greedy strategies are co

  18. The minimal spectral radius of graphs with a given diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.R. van; Kooij, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The spectral radius of a graph (i.e., the largest eigenvalue of its corresponding adjacency matrix) plays an important role in modeling virus propagation in networks. In fact, the smaller the spectral radius, the larger the robustness of a network against the spread of viruses. Among all connected g

  19. Numerical Radius Inequalities for Finite Sums of Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmostafaee Alireza Kamel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some sharp inequalities for numerical radius of finite sums of operators. Moreover, we give some applications of our result in estimation of spectral radius. We also compare our results with some known results.

  20. Distal radius fractures: what determines the outcome after surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, T.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses current issues in the outcome of operatively treated distal radius fractures. The general aim was to determine factors associated with adverse events, loss of motion, functional limitations, and opioid use after surgery. Injury In 3D complete articular distal radius fracture mo

  1. Evidences of Changes in Surface Electrostatic Charge Distribution during Stabilization of HPV16 Virus-Like Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juan F.; Vicente-Alique, Ernesto; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Wang, Yang; Martínez-Salazar, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles has been examined by means of different techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility. All these techniques provide different and often complementary perspectives about the aggregation process and generation of stabilized virus-like particles after a period of time of 48 hours at a temperature of 298 K. Interestingly, static light scattering results point towards a clear colloidal instability in the initial systems, as suggested by a negative value of the second virial coefficient. This is likely related to small repulsive electrostatic interactions among the particles, and in agreement with relatively small absolute values of the electrophoretic mobility and, hence, of the net surface charges. At this initial stage the small repulsive interactions are not able to compensate binding interactions, which tend to aggregate the particles. As time proceeds, an increase of the size of the particles is accompanied by strong increases, in absolute values, of the electrophoretic mobility and net surface charge, suggesting enhanced repulsive electrostatic interactions and, consequently, a stabilized colloidal system. These results show that electrophoretic mobility is a useful methodology that can be applied to screen the stabilization factors for virus-like particles during vaccine development. PMID:26885635

  2. Return Radius and volume of recrystallized material in Ostwald Ripening

    CERN Document Server

    Hausser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the LSW theory of Ostwald ripening the amount of volume of the second (solid) phase that is newly formed by recrystallization is investigated. It is shown, that in the late stage, the portion of the newly generated volume formed within an interval from time $t_0$ to $t$ is a certain function of $t/t_0$ and an explicit expression of this volume is given. To achieve this, we introduce the notion of the {\\it return radius} $r(t,t_0)$, which is the unique radius of a particle at time $t_0$ such that this particle has -- after growing and shrinking -- the same radius at time $t$. We derive a formula for the return radius which later on is used to obtain the newly formed volume. Moreover, formulas for the growth rate of the return radius and the recrystallized material at time $t_0$ are derived.

  3. The effect of structural changes on charge transfer states in a light-harvesting carotenoid-diaryl-porphyrin-C{sub 60} molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Marco [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Baruah, Tunna, E-mail: tbaruah@utep.edu [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    We present a detailed study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a large number of configurations in a light-harvesting Carotenoid-diaryl-Porphyrin-C{sub 60} (CPC{sub 60}) molecular triad. The chain-like molecular triad undergoes photoinduced charge transfer process exhibiting a large excited state dipole moment, making it suitable for application to molecular-scale opto-electronic devices. An important consideration is that the structural flexibility of the CPC{sub 60} triad impacts its dynamics in solvents. Since experimentally measured dipole moments for the triad of ∼110 D and ∼160 D strongly indicate a range in structural variability in the excited state, studying the effect of structural changes on the CT excited state energetics furthers the understanding of its charge transfer states. We have calculated the variation in the lowest CT excited state energies by performing a scan of possible variation in the structure of the triad. Some of these configurations were generated by incrementally scanning a 360° torsional (dihedral) twist at the C{sub 60}-porhyrin linkage and the porphyrin-carotenoid linkage. Additionally, five different CPC{sub 60} conformations were studied to determine the effect of pi-conjugation and particle-hole Coulombic attraction on the CT excitation energies. Our calculations show that configurational changes in the triad induces a variation of ∼0.6 eV in CT excited state energies in the gas-phase. The corresponding calculated excited state dipoles show a range of 47 D–188 D. The absorption spectra and density of states of these structures show little variation except for the structures where the porphyrin and aryl conjugation is changed.

  4. The effect of structural changes on charge transfer states in a light-harvesting carotenoid-diaryl-porphyrin-C60 molecular triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Marco; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna

    2014-05-01

    We present a detailed study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a large number of configurations in a light-harvesting Carotenoid-diaryl-Porphyrin-C60 (CPC60) molecular triad. The chain-like molecular triad undergoes photoinduced charge transfer process exhibiting a large excited state dipole moment, making it suitable for application to molecular-scale opto-electronic devices. An important consideration is that the structural flexibility of the CPC60 triad impacts its dynamics in solvents. Since experimentally measured dipole moments for the triad of ˜110 D and ˜160 D strongly indicate a range in structural variability in the excited state, studying the effect of structural changes on the CT excited state energetics furthers the understanding of its charge transfer states. We have calculated the variation in the lowest CT excited state energies by performing a scan of possible variation in the structure of the triad. Some of these configurations were generated by incrementally scanning a 360° torsional (dihedral) twist at the C60-porhyrin linkage and the porphyrin-carotenoid linkage. Additionally, five different CPC60 conformations were studied to determine the effect of pi-conjugation and particle-hole Coulombic attraction on the CT excitation energies. Our calculations show that configurational changes in the triad induces a variation of ˜0.6 eV in CT excited state energies in the gas-phase. The corresponding calculated excited state dipoles show a range of 47 D-188 D. The absorption spectra and density of states of these structures show little variation except for the structures where the porphyrin and aryl conjugation is changed.

  5. In situ characterization of charge rate dependent stress and structure changes in V2O5 cathode prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Talin, A. Alec; Ghodssi, Reza

    2017-02-01

    The insertion/extraction of lithium into/from various host materials is the basic process by which lithium-ion batteries reversible store charge. This process is generally accompanied by strain in the host material, inducing stress which can lead to capacity loss. Therefore, understanding of both the structural changes and the associated stress - investigated almost exclusively separate to date - is a critical factor for developing high-performance batteries. Here, we report an in situ method, which utilizes Raman spectroscopy in parallel with optical interferometry to study effects of varying charging rates (C-rates) on the structure and stress in a V2O5 thin film cathode. Abrupt stress changes at specific crystal phase transitions in the Lisbnd Vsbnd O system are observed and the magnitude of the stress changes with the amount of lithium inserted into the electrode are correlated. A linear increase in the stress as a function of x in LixV2O5 is observed, indicating that C-rate does not directly contribute to larger intercalation stress. However, a more rapid increase in disorder within the LixV2O5 layers is correlated with higher C-rate. Ultimately, these experiments demonstrate how the simultaneous stress/Raman in situ approach can be utilized as a characterization platform for investigating various critical factors affecting lithium-ion battery performance.

  6. Reconstruction and Calibration of Small Radius Jets in the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Small radius jets with R = 0.4 are standard tools in ATLAS for physics analysis. They are calibrated using a sequence of Monte Carlo simulation-derived calibrations and corrections followed by in-situ calibrations based on the transverse momentum balance between the probed jets and well-measured reference signals. In this talk the inputs to jet reconstruction in LHC Run 2 comprising calorimeter cell clusters, reconstructed charge particle tracks, and particle flow objects, are discussed together with the jet energy calibration scheme. Selected results from the performance of the procedure and the associated systematic uncertainties are presented.

  7. Proton radius from electron-proton scattering and chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Horbatsch, Marko; Pineda, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We determine the root-mean-square proton charge radius, $R_{\\rm p}$, from a fit to low-$Q^2$ electron-proton elastic scattering cross section data with the higher moments fixed (within uncertainties) to the values predicted by chiral perturbation theory. We obtain $R_{\\rm p}=0.844(12)$ fm. This number is perfectly consistent with the value obtained from muonic hydrogen analyses and disagrees with the CODATA value (based upon atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron-proton scattering determinations) by more than two standard deviations.

  8. Evidence of changes in renal charge selectivity in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, A; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Vidal, P

    1986-01-01

    in plasma and urine was determined by a specific, sensitive and highly reproducible chromatographic procedure. In diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, the selectivity index was increased three-fold compared with that of non-diabetic subjects (2 p less than 0.01). A significant...... patients with increased albumin excretion rate had a significantly lower selectivity index compared with patients with normal albumin excretion (2 p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation (r = 0.85, 2 p less than 0.001, exponential curve fit) was seen between urinary albumin excretion...... and selectivity index in the diabetic patients, indicating that the capability of differentiating between macromolecules of different charges is again lost with increasing urinary albumin excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  9. Effects of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate and sound quality of centrifugal blower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Pham Ngoc; Kim, Jae Won; Byun, S. M. [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, E. Y. [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate of centrifugal blower were numerically simulated using a commercial CFD program, FLUENT. In this research, a total of eight numerical models were prepared by combining different values of bell mouth radii and inlet radii (the cross section of bell mouth was chosen as a circular arc in this research). The frozen rotor method combined with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model and non-equilibrium wall function was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow inside the centrifugal blowers. The inlet radius was then revealed to have significant impact on flow rate with the maximum difference between analyzed models was about 4.5% while the bell mouth radius had about 3% impact on flow rate. Parallel experiments were carried out to confirm the results of CFD analysis. The CFD results were thereafter validated owning to the good agreement between CFD results and the parallel experiment results. In addition to performance analysis, noise experiments were carried out to analyze the dependence of sound quality on inlet radius and bell mouth radius with different flow rate. The noise experiment results showed that the loudness and sharpness value of different models were quite similar, which mean the inlet radius and the bell mouth radius didn't have a clear impact on sound quality of centrifugal blower.

  10. Pressure strengthening and its application to the analysis of hydrogen sample-radius behaviour in a tungsten gasket as a function of the initial sample-radius-to-tip-radius ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Ruoff, A L; Christensen, N E

    2002-01-01

    By calculating the single-crystal elastic constants of W and Mo by first-principles methods the pressure strengthening of the yield stress was obtained. This was used to calculate the behaviour of the hydrogen sample hole size in a tungsten gasket. It was found that drastic changes occur depending on r sub s sup 0 /r sub t where r sub s sup 0 is the initial sample radius and r sub t is the diamond tip radius. It is seen why, with r sub s sup 0 /r sub t =0.9, the Carnegie group cannot and have not exceeded pressures of 230 GPa and why, with r sub s sup 0 /r sub t =0.5, the Cornell group has been able to reach 342 GPa.

  11. Energetically optimal nonstationary mode of flow along tube with constant and time-varying radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived is a new modification of hydrodynamic equations of viscous incompressible fluid flowing along the tube with radius changing in time. Obtained are exact non-stationary solutions of these equations generalizing a well-known classic stationary solution for Hagen–Poiseuille flow in the tube with radius constant in time. It is demonstrated that the law of changing the tube radius in time may be determined basing on the condition of minimality of the work expended for flowing the set fluid volume along such a tube during the period of radius change cycle. Obtained is the solution of the corresponding variational (isoperimetric problem on conditional extremum determining the limits to dimensionless quantity of the cycle duration set by the specified dimensionless value of the flowed fluid volume. Identified is the generalization of well-known model of optimal branching pipeline (F.L. Chernous’ko, 1977 in which the Poiseuille law modification is used for a new exact non-stationary solution of hydrodynamic equation instead of the law itself. It is demonstrated that the energetically favorable non-stationary modes with negative hydraulic resistance are permissible in certain conditions. The obtained conclusions may be used for development of the hydrodynamic basis of modelling the energy-optimal blood flow realized in the cardiovascular system in norm.

  12. Analysis of the radius and diameter protocols in terms of pricing telecommunication services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna M. Radonjić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting of telecommunication services is closely related to the functions of authentication and authorization. These functions are usually considered together and implemented within the same server using a common protocol. The most renowned protocols for authentication, authorization and accounting are the RADIUS and Diameter protocols.   AAA functions and related protocols   In this chapter, the accounting management architecture developed by IETF is presented. It includes the interaction between network elements, accounting servers and billing and charging servers. Accounting data can be used for management, planning and charging users as well as other (specific purposes. Authentication is the process of confirming a user's digital identity, usually through some type of identifiers and related data. Authorization determines whether a particular entity is authorized to perform an activity.   Basic Functions of the RADIUS Protocol   The RADIUS architecture is based on a client-server model. It uses UDP on the transport layer. Transactions between the client and the server are authenticated, which is achieved by using a common secret key that is never sent through the network. Given the limited resources available to network devices, RADIUS facilitates and centralizes charging end users, provides some protection against active attacks by unauthorized users and it has great support from different network equipment vendors. Although RADIUS is a widely accepted protocol for the mechanisms of authentication, authorization and accounting, it has certain shortcomings that may be caused by the protocol itself or by its poor implementation.   Architecture and Operation of the Diameter Protocol   Diameter is a scalable protocol designed by the IETF working group in order to eliminate shortcomings and functional limitations of the RADIUS protocol and eventually to replace it in the near future. Most of the basic Diameter mechanisms and its

  13. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  14. Thermoconvective vortices in a cylindrical annulus with varying inner radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, D; Navarro, M C; Herrero, H

    2014-12-01

    This paper shows the influence of the inner radius on the stability and intensity of vertical vortices, qualitatively similar to dust devils and cyclones, generated in a cylindrical annulus non-homogeneously heated from below. Little relation is found between the intensity of the vortex and the magnitude of the inner radius. Strong stable vortices can be found for both small and large values of the inner radius. The Rankine combined vortex structure, that characterizes the tangential velocity in dust devils, is clearly observed when small values of the inner radius and large values of the ratio between the horizontal and vertical temperature differences are considered. A contraction on the radius of maximum azimuthal velocity is observed when the vortex is intensified by thermal mechanisms. This radius becomes then nearly stationary when frictional force balances the radial inflow generated by the pressure drop in the center, despite the vortex keeps intensifying. These results connect with the behavior of the radius of the maximum tangential wind associated with a hurricane.

  15. An Asian perspective on the management of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastin, Sandeep J; Chung, Kevin C

    2012-05-01

    There is limited data regarding the epidemiology, pathology, and management of distal radius fractures from centers in Asia. The advanced economies in Asia include Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, whereas the prominent emerging economies are China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. This article examines the available epidemiological data from Asia, compares the management of distal radius fractures in the advanced and emerging Asian economies and how they compare with the current management in the west. It concludes by offering solutions for improving outcomes of distal radius fractures in Asia.

  16. Relationship between elastic moduli and pore radius in clay aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Available experimental data on elastic velocities of clay-air mixtures and clay-brine mixtures as a function of porosity are re-interpreted. Pore radius as calculated from porosity and specific surface measured by BET seems to be the factor controlling stiffness of these un-cemented sediments....... For each of the two pore fluids: air or brine smectitic clay and kaolinitic clay seem to have similar power law relationships between a given elastic modulus and pore radius. These results indicate that pore radius and thus permeability of shale in the depth interval of mechanical compaction may...

  17. Fracture of the distal radius: epidemiology and premanagement radiographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrino, Jack A; Maloney, Ezekiel; Scherer, Kurt; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Ha, Alice S; Allan, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are common and frequently encountered by the radiologist. We review the epidemiology, classification, as well as the concept of instability. Salient qualitative and quantitative features of the distal radius fracture identifiable on the routine radiography series are highlighted. We conclude with a synopsis of descriptors that are of greatest utility to the clinician for treatment planning and that should be addressed in the radiology report. A detailed understanding of the intricacies of the distal radius fracture is necessary for the radiologist to provide a clinically relevant description.

  18. Radius of 9C from the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Hong; GUO Bing; LIU Wei-Ping; BAI Xi-Xiang; LIAN Gang; SU Jun; YAN Sheng-Quan; WANG Bao-Xiang; ZENG Sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of9 C = 8 B+p deduced from 8 Li(d, p)9 Li reaction is used to obtainthe root-mean-square (rms) radius of the loosely bound proton in the 9C ground state. We obtain 1/2 = 3.61 fmfor the valence proton, which is significantly larger than the matter radius of 9 C. The probability of the valence proton outside the matter radius of 9 C is greater than 60%. The present work supports the conclusion that 9 Chas a proton halo structure.

  19. Stable charged cosmic strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18)  m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  20. Geneva University - Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 12 May 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle Dr Aldo Antogninia , CREMA Collaboration, Max Planck Institute, Germany At the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland, we have measured several 2S-2P transition frequencies in muonic hydrogen (µp) and deuterium (µd) by means of laser spectroscopy. This results in an order of magnitude improvement on the rms charge radius values of the proton and the deuteron. Additionally the Zemach radii and the deuteron polarizability are also inferred. The new proton radius value is deduced with a relative accuracy of 0.1% but strongly disagrees from CODATA. The origin of this discrepancy is not yet known. It may come from theo...

  1. Steroidal Surfactants: Detection of Premicellar Aggregation, Secondary Aggregation Changes in Micelles, and Hosting of a Highly Charged Negative Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Cladera, Josep

    2015-08-25

    CHAPSO and CHAPS are zwitterionic surfactants derived from bile salts which are usually employed in protein purification and for the preparation of liposomes and bicelles. Despite their spread use, there are significant discrepancies on the critical concentrations that determine their aggregation behavior. In this work, we study the interaction between these surfactants with the negative fluorescent dye pyranine (HPTS) by absorbance, fluorescence, and infrared spectrometry to establish their concentration-dependent aggregation. For the studied surfactants, we detect three critical concentrations showing their concentration-dependent presence as a monomeric form, premicellar aggregates, micelles, and a second type of micelle in aqueous medium. The nature of the interaction of HPTS with the surfactants was studied using analogues of their tails and the negative bile salt taurocholate (TC) as reference for the sterol ring. The results indicate that the chemical groups involved are the hydroxyl groups of the polar face of the sterol ring and the sulfonate groups of the dye. This interaction causes not only the incorporation of the negative dye in CHAPSO and CHAPS micelles but also its association with their premicellar aggregates. Surprisingly, this hosting behavior for a negative charged molecule was also detected for the negative bile salt TC, bypassing, in this way, the electrostatic repulsion between the guest and the host.

  2. Quantization of charges and fluxes in warped Stenzel geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Akikazu

    2011-01-01

    We examine the quantization of fluxes for the warped Stiefel cone and Stenzel geometries and their orbifolds, and distinguish the roles of three related notions of charge: Page, Maxwell, and brane. The orbifolds admit discrete torsion, and we describe the associated quantum numbers which are consistent with the geometry in its large radius and small radius limits from both the type IIA and the M-theory perspectives. The discrete torsion, measured by a Page charge, is related to the number of fractional branes. We relate the shifts in the Page charges under large gauge transformations to the Hanany-Witten brane creation effect.

  3. and minimum plastic zone radius (MPZR) for four point bend ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    LEFM) approach. ... where the radius of plastic zone takes either a local or global minimum depending on the ..... facilities provided by the Research Centre, B V B College of Engineering & ... American institute of physics conference proceedings.

  4. Split radius-form blocks for tube benders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, D. R.; Seiple, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    Two-piece, radius-form block permits accurate forming and removing of parts with more than a 180 degree bend. Tube bender can shape flexible metal tubing in applications dealing with plumbing, heating, and pressure transmission lines.

  5. The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Lineweaver, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational and electronic forces produce a correlation between the mass and shape of objects in the universe. For example, at an average radius of ~ 200 km - 300 km, the icy moons and rocky asteroids of our Solar System transition from a rounded potato shape to a sphere. We derive this potato-to-sphere transition radius -- or "potato radius" -- from first principles. Using the empirical potato radii of asteroids and icy moons, we derive a constraint on the yield strength of these bodies during their formative years when their shapes were determined. Our proposed ~ 200 km potato radius for icy moons would substantially increase the number of trans-Neptunian objects classified as dwarf planets.

  6. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  7. The changing nature of ICU charge nurses' decision making: from supervision of care delivery to unit resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne; Buerhaus, Peter I

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings that variations in nursing workload may affect inpatient outcomes now highlight nurse workload management and the need for an updated analysis of the role of the charge nurse (CN). Observational data for eight CNs, each at one of eight ICUs in a not-for-profit Level 1 Trauma Center, coded to capture interprofessional interactions, decision making, team coordination phases, and support tools. A researcher shadowed each participant for 12 hours. Each shift began and ended with a face-to-face handoff that included summaries of each patient's condition; the current bed census; anticipated admissions, discharges, and transfers; and the number of nurses available to work the current and coming two shifts. The researcher, using a notebook, recorded the substantive content of all work conversations initiated by or directed to the CN from physicians, staff nurses, allied health workers, other employees, and patients/families. The tools used to support conversations were collected as blank forms or computer screen prints and annotated to describe how they were used, when, and for what purpose. Statistically significant three-way interactions suggest that CNs' conversations with colleagues depend on the team coordination phase and the decision-making level, and that the support tools that CNs use when talking to colleagues depend on the decision-making level and the team coordination phase. The role of ICU CNs appears to be continuing to evolve, now encompassing unit resource management in addition to supervising care delivery. Effective support tools, together with education that would enhance communication and resource management skills, will be essential to CNs' ability to support unit resilience and adaptability in an increasingly complex environment.

  8. A Sharp upper bound for the spectral radius of a nonnegative matrix and applications

    OpenAIRE

    You, Lihua; Shu, Yujie; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain a sharp upper bound for the spectral radius of a nonnegative matrix. This result is used to present upper bounds for the adjacency spectral radius, the Laplacian spectral radius, the signless Laplacian spectral radius, the distance spectral radius, the distance Laplacian spectral radius, the distance signless Laplacian spectral radius of a graph or a digraph. These results are new or generalize some known results.

  9. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  10. Characterisation of the protein corona using tunable resistive pulse sensing: determining the change and distribution of a particle's surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Emma L C J; Healey, Matthew J; Holton, Elizabeth; Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Manstana, Sarabjit; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The zeta potential of the protein corona around carboxyl particles has been measured using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). A simple and rapid assay for characterising zeta potentials within buffer, serum and plasma is presented monitoring the change, magnitude and distribution of proteins on the particle surface. First, we measure the change in zeta potential of carboxyl-functionalised nanoparticles in solutions that contain biologically relevant concentrations of individual proteins, typically constituted in plasma and serum, and observe a significant difference in distributions and zeta values between room temperature and 37 °C assays. The effect is protein dependent, and the largest difference between the two temperatures is recorded for the γ-globulin protein where the mean zeta potential changes from -16.7 to -9.0 mV for 25 and 37 °C, respectively. This method is further applied to monitor particles placed into serum and/or plasma. A temperature-dependent change is again observed with serum showing a 4.9 mV difference in zeta potential between samples incubated at 25 and 37 °C; this shift was larger than that observed for samples in plasma (0.4 mV). Finally, we monitor the kinetics of the corona reorientation for particles initially placed into serum and then adding 5 % (V/V) plasma. The technology presented offers an interesting insight into protein corona structure and kinetics of formation measured in biologically relevant solutions, i.e. high protein, high salt levels, and its particle-by-particle analysis gives a measure of the distribution of particle zeta potential that may offer a better understanding of the behaviour of nanoparticles in solution. Graphical Abstract The relative velocity of a nanoparticle as it traverses a nanopore can be used to determine its zeta potential. Monitoring the changes in translocation speeds can therefore be used to follow changes to the surface chemistry/composition of 210 nm particles that were placed

  11. Charge radii of neon isotopes across the sd neutron shell

    CERN Document Server

    Marinova, K; Kowalska, M; Kotrotsios, G; Kloos, S; Neugart, R; Blaum, K; Simon, H; Keim, M; Lievens, P; Wilbert, S; Kappertz, S

    2011-01-01

    We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable (20)Ne, based on the measurement of optical isotope shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on short-lived isotopes was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon isotopes all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate (17)Ne up to the neutron-rich (28)Ne in the vicinity of the ``island of inversion.{''} Within this range the charge radius is smallest for (24)Ne with N = 14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d(5/2) shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N = 8 and N = 20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates w...

  12. Space charges can significantly affect the dynamics of accelerator maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountis, Tassos; Skokos, Charalampos

    2006-10-01

    Space charge effects can be very important for the dynamics of intense particle beams, as they repeatedly pass through nonlinear focusing elements, aiming to maximize the beam's luminosity properties in the storage rings of a high energy accelerator. In the case of hadron beams, whose charge distribution can be considered as “frozen” within a cylindrical core of small radius compared to the beam's dynamical aperture, analytical formulas have been recently derived [C. Benedetti, G. Turchetti, Phys. Lett. A 340 (2005) 461] for the contribution of space charges within first order Hamiltonian perturbation theory. These formulas involve distribution functions which, in general, do not lead to expressions that can be evaluated in closed form. In this Letter, we apply this theory to an example of a charge distribution, whose effect on the dynamics can be derived explicitly and in closed form, both in the case of 2-dimensional as well as 4-dimensional mapping models of hadron beams. We find that, even for very small values of the “perveance” (strength of the space charge effect) the long term stability of the dynamics changes considerably. In the flat beam case, the outer invariant “tori” surrounding the origin disappear, decreasing the size of the beam's dynamical aperture, while beyond a certain threshold the beam is almost entirely lost. Analogous results in mapping models of beams with 2-dimensional cross section demonstrate that in that case also, even for weak tune depressions, orbital diffusion is enhanced and many particles whose motion was bounded now escape to infinity, indicating that space charges can impose significant limitations on the beam's luminosity.

  13. Space charges can significantly affect the dynamics of accelerator maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bountis, Tassos [Department of Mathematics, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece) and Center for Research and Applications of Nonlinear Systems (CRANS), University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)]. E-mail: tassos50@otenet.gr; Skokos, Charalampos [Center for Research and Applications of Nonlinear Systems (CRANS), University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2006-10-09

    Space charge effects can be very important for the dynamics of intense particle beams, as they repeatedly pass through nonlinear focusing elements, aiming to maximize the beam's luminosity properties in the storage rings of a high energy accelerator. In the case of hadron beams, whose charge distribution can be considered as 'frozen' within a cylindrical core of small radius compared to the beam's dynamical aperture, analytical formulas have been recently derived [C. Benedetti, G. Turchetti, Phys. Lett. A 340 (2005) 461] for the contribution of space charges within first order Hamiltonian perturbation theory. These formulas involve distribution functions which, in general, do not lead to expressions that can be evaluated in closed form. In this Letter, we apply this theory to an example of a charge distribution, whose effect on the dynamics can be derived explicitly and in closed form, both in the case of 2-dimensional as well as 4-dimensional mapping models of hadron beams. We find that, even for very small values of the 'perveance' (strength of the space charge effect) the long term stability of the dynamics changes considerably. In the flat beam case, the outer invariant 'tori' surrounding the origin disappear, decreasing the size of the beam's dynamical aperture, while beyond a certain threshold the beam is almost entirely lost. Analogous results in mapping models of beams with 2-dimensional cross section demonstrate that in that case also, even for weak tune depressions, orbital diffusion is enhanced and many particles whose motion was bounded now escape to infinity, indicating that space charges can impose significant limitations on the beam's luminosity.

  14. Predicting the failure load of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Monique E; Webber, Colin E; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2003-06-01

    The distal radius is an important site for the early detection of patients at risk for fracture. Since measuring bone strength in vivo is not possible, we evaluated which bone assessment method of the forearm would best predict failure load of the distal radius and computed a factor of risk for wrist fracture (Phi wrist). Thirty-eight cadaveric forearm specimens were measured by five different techniques to assess bone density, bone mineral content, geometry and trabecular structure at the distal forearm. The bone assessment techniques included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the radius, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the 4% and 20% distal sites of the radius, DXA of the phalanges, digital X-ray radiogrammetry of the forearm (DXR-BMD), and quantitative ultrasound of the radius. The failure load of each excised radius was determined by simulating a fall on an outstretched hand. The pQCT measurements of polar stress-strain index and cortical content explained the greatest portion of variance in failure load (r2=0.82-0.85). Bone mineral content measures were generally better predictors of failure load (r2=0.53-0.85) than the corresponding volumetric or areal bone mineral density values (r2=0.22-0.69) measured by either pQCT or DXA. Multiple regression analysis showed that the addition of a bone geometry measure improved the ability of a bone density measure alone to predict failure load. There was high variability in the ability of different techniques and different variables within a given technique to predict failure load. Estimates of the factor of risk for wrist fracture (Phi wrist) revealed that the women in this study would have been likely to fracture their distal radius upon falling from a standing height (Phi wrist= 1.04), whereas the men would have likely withstood the impact without fracturing their wrist (Phi wrist= 0.79).

  15. Local Structural and Electronic Changes Associated with the Bromination of YBCO: Charge Transfer and Cu-O Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Lamine M.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Croft, M.; Dogan, F.; Woicik, Joseph; Grow, James

    2000-03-01

    In order to understand the role of bromination in the recovery of superconductivity and metallic transport in underdoped YBCO, we have measured the local structural changes in brominated single crystal samples and compared them with normal samples. From the c-axis polarized near edge x-ray absorption measurements, we see, for the first time, direct evidence for the transfer of hole density into the Cu(2)O2 planes in brominated samples. The corresponding XAFS measurements show large changes in the c-axis Cu-O bond distribution. Measurements of the local structure about Ba and Br were also performed. No evidence was found for the incorporation of Br onto the O(4) sites as previously suggested by some authors. We were able to model the coordination of Br and found it to be consistent with BaBr2 as suggested by Fukuda et al. [1] and Potrepka et al. [2]. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Career Grant DMR-9733862. [1] Y. Fukuda et al. Phys. Rev. B 47, 418 (1993). [2] D. M. Potrepka et al., Phys. Rev. B 60, 10489 (1999).

  16. Numerical study of superradiant instability for charged stringy black hole-mirror system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the superradiant instability of charged massless scalar field in the background of charged stringy black hole with mirror-like boundary condition. We compare the numerical result with the previous analytical result and show the dependencies of this instability upon various parameters of black hole charge $Q$, scalar field charge $q$, and mirror radius $r_m$. Especially, we have observed that imaginary part of BQN frequencies grows with the scalar field charge $q$ rapidly.

  17. Numerical study of superradiant instability for charged stringy black hole-mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the superradiant instability of charged massless scalar field in the background of charged stringy black hole with mirror-like boundary condition. We compare the numerical result with the previous analytical result and show the dependencies of this instability upon various values of black hole charge Q, scalar field charge q, and mirror radius rm. Especially, we have observed that imaginary part of BQN frequencies grows with the scalar field charge q rapidly.

  18. Numerical study of superradiant instability for charged stringy black hole–mirror system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the superradiant instability of charged massless scalar field in the background of charged stringy black hole with mirror-like boundary condition. We compare the numerical result with the previous analytical result and show the dependencies of this instability upon various values of black hole charge Q , scalar field charge q , and mirror radius rm . Especially, we have observed that imaginary part of BQN frequencies grows with the scalar field charge q rapidly.

  19. Numerical study of superradiant instability for charged stringy black hole–mirror system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study the superradiant instability of charged massless scalar field in the background of charged stringy black hole with mirror-like boundary condition. We compare the numerical result with the previous analytical result and show the dependencies of this instability upon various values of black hole charge Q, scalar field charge q, and mirror radius rm. Especially, we have observed that imaginary part of BQN frequencies grows with the scalar field charge q rapidly.

  20. Accuracy of distal radius positioning using an anatomical plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroemen, Joy C; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Sierevelt, Inger N; Strackee, Simon D; Streekstra, Geert J

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, several anatomical plates have been introduced to improve the result of open reduction and internal fixation of the distal radius. Using 3-dimensional imaging techniques, the authors studied the accuracy and reproducibility of distal radius positioning using anatomical plates.Distal radius fractures and the correction of these fractures were simulated with plastic bone models of radii. The authors simulated a defect by removing an arbitrary wedge shape from the artificial radii. Two surgeons corrected these fractures by placing 2 anatomical plate types according to the plate manufacturers' instructions. The residual positioning errors of the distal segment in relation to the unaffected radii were determined using 3-dimensional imaging and were compared with naturally occurring bilateral radius differences in healthy individuals. In many cases, positioning does not agree with differences based on bilateral asymmetry in healthy patients.This study indicated the accuracy of anatomical plates. Positioning an anatomical plate may lead to considerable residual errors in individual patients. Volar distal radius plate shapes differ among plate manufacturers. Therefore, one plate may perform better than another in an individual.

  1. Evidence for a large radius of the 11Be projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, W. Y.; Choi, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kim, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate ratios of the elastic scattering cross section to Rutherford cross section, PE, and angular distributions of breakup cross section by using an optical model which exploits various long-range dynamic polarization potentials as well as short-range nuclear bare potentials for the 11Be projectile. From these simultaneous analyses, we extract a large radius of a halo projectile from the experimental data for PE and the angular distribution of the breakup cross section of the 11Be + 64Zn and 11 + 120Sn systems. It results from the fact that a large radius for the long-range nuclear potential is more reasonable for properly explaining these data simultaneously. The extracted reduced interaction radius turns out to be r0=3.18 ˜3.61 fm for 11Be nucleus, which is larger than the conventional value of r0=1.1 ˜1.5 fm used in the standard radius form R =r0A1 /3 . Furthermore, the larger radius as well as the normalization constant N is shown to be important for understanding Coulomb dipole strength distribution.

  2. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial sur-face potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crys-tallinity.

  3. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial surface potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crystallinity.

  4. The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron’s velocity about its average value [1]. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is h = 2 e 2 = c , where e , , and c are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory [2] derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.

  5. The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron's velocity about its average value. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is $h=2pi e^2/alpha c$, where $e$, $alpha$, and $c$ are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.

  6. The dependence of the atomic energy levels on a superstrong magnetic field with account of a finite nucleus radius and mass

    CERN Document Server

    Godunov, S I

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the finiteness of the proton radius and mass on the energies of a hydrogen atom and hydrogen-like ions in a superstrong magnetic field is studied. The finiteness of the nucleus size pushes the ground energy level up leading to a nontrivial dependence of the value of critical nucleus charge on the external magnetic field.

  7. ACS imaging of star clusters in M 51. I. Identification and radius distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmaker, R. A.; Haas, M. R.; Gieles, M.; Bastian, N.; Larsen, S. S.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    2007-07-01

    Context: Size measurements of young star clusters are valuable tools to put constraints on the formation and early dynamical evolution of star clusters. Aims: We use HST/ACS observations of the spiral galaxy M 51 in F435W, F555W and F814W to select a large sample of star clusters with accurate effective radius measurements in an area covering the complete disc of M 51. We present the dataset and study the radius distribution and relations between radius, colour, arm/interarm region, galactocentric distance, mass and age. Methods: We select a sample of 7698 (F435W), 6846 (F555W) and 5024 (F814W) slightly resolved clusters and derive their effective radii (R_eff) by fitting the spatial profiles with analytical models convolved with the point spread function. The radii of 1284 clusters are studied in detail. Results: We find cluster radii between 0.5 and ~10 pc, and one exceptionally large cluster candidate with R_eff = 21.6 pc. The median R_eff is 2.1 pc. We find 70 clusters in our sample which have colours consistent with being old GC candidates and we find 6 new “faint fuzzy” clusters in, or projected onto, the disc of M 51. The radius distribution can not be fitted with a power law similar to the one for star-forming clouds. We find an increase in R_eff with colour as well as a higher fraction of clusters with B-V ⪆ 0.05 in the interarm regions. We find a correlation between R_eff and galactocentric distance (RG) of the form R_eff∝ RG0.12±0.02, which is considerably weaker than the observed correlation for old Milky Way GCs. We find weak relations between cluster luminosity and radius: R_eff∝ L0.15±0.02 for the interarm regions and R_eff∝ L-0.11±0.01 for the spiral arm regions, but we do not observe a correlation between cluster mass and radius. Conclusions: The observed radius distribution indicates that shortly after the formation of the clusters from a fractal gas, the radii of the clusters have changed in a non-uniform way. We find tentative

  8. Contact areas of the scaphoid and lunate with the distal radius in neutral and extension: correlation of falling strategies and distal radial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y R; Wu, Y F; Tang, J B; Giddins, G

    2014-05-01

    The functional neutral of wrist movement is about 10° extension yet the distal radius has a volar tilt. This has not previously been explained. Assuming that the contact area between the carpus and the distal radius increased in wrist extension this would also help stabilize the carpus on the distal radius in positions where typically there is greater loading. To test this hypothesis we reconstructed three-dimensional structures of the carpal bones and distal radius using computed tomography scans of 13 normal wrists. The contact areas of the scaphoid with the distal radius were measured and were found progressively increased from flexion 20°, neutral, extension 20°, to extension 40°. The maximal increases in the contact area of the scaphoid and the distal radius was at full wrist extension. No significant changes in the contact areas of the lunate with the distal radius were found between the different positions. The contact characteristics provide greater stability to the carpus on the distal radius, and to help spread forces from impact to the wrist reducing the transmitted peak forces and thus the risk of distal radius and carpal injuries.

  9. Radius variation of optical fibers with angstrom accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a robust method for the unprecedentedly accurate angstrom-scale detection of local variations of the fiber radius based on the idea suggested by Birks et al. [IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000)]. The method uses an optical microfiber (MF) translated at a small distance along the tested fiber and periodically touching it at measurement points. At these points, the MF transmission spectrum exhibits whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonances shifting with the tested fiber radius. A simple and comprehensive optimization scheme, which determines the radius variation without visual recognition of resonances and treats their shifts simultaneously, is developed. The optics of WGM propagation is discussed, and the condition for the validity of the developed method is established.

  10. A Precise Estimate of the Radius of HD 149026b

    CERN Document Server

    Nutzman, Philip; Winn, Joshua N; Knutson, Heather A; Fortney, Jonathan J; Holman, Matthew J; Agol, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present Spitzer 8 micron transit observations of the extrasolar planet system HD 149026. At this wavelength, transit light curves are weakly affected by stellar limb-darkening, allowing for a simpler and more accurate determination of planetary parameters. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of R_p/R_s = 0.05158 +/- 0.00077, and in combination with ground-based data and independent constraints on the stellar mass and radius, we derive an orbital inclination of i = 85.4 +0.9/-0.8 deg. and a planet radius of 0.755 +/- 0.040 Jupiter radii. These measurements further support models in which the planet is greatly enriched in heavy elements.

  11. Effect of sample radius on stability of electromagnetic levitation melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟增; 郑红星; 季诚昌; 李建国

    2004-01-01

    Based on the power dissipating model of spherical sample in free convection gas medium and the expression of input power, the model of temperature calculation for electromagnetic levitation melting sample was established. Considering the limitation of levitation force and levitation sample temperature,the principle of stability levitation zone computation was determined. A spherical sample (ThDy)Fe2 under the protection of argon gas was examined, and the effect of radius of levitation sample and perturbation on the stable levitation zone was investigated.The results show that longitudinal perturbation and transverse perturbation can shorten the length of stable levitation zone and the range of levitation sample radius. By increasing the sample radius and weakening the perturbation the electromagnetic levitation melting stability of sample can be improved.

  12. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  13. Dome-shaped osteotomy for distal radius fracture malunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Giorgio A

    2003-06-01

    After having hinted to the various component of the malformity caused by malunions of the distal radius fracture, the various possibilities of correcting this deformity are described. The difficulty to correct all the components of the deformity are considered. Then a Dome-shaped osteotomy of the distal radius is described that allows to correct all the deformities in all the directions as the gliding plane of the osteotomy is spherical. The ulnar plus and the DRUJ alterations are corrected by means of an added Sauvé-Kapandji procedure that guarantees against any painful movement of the DRUJ preserving effective prono-supination.

  14. Equalizing Charging of Lithium Battery Pack on Change of Mode%更换模式下的锂电池组均衡充电

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昌银; 王桂棠; 赖雄辉; 江跃龙

    2012-01-01

    Aimming at the problem of short life and lack of stability for vehicle's Li-ion battery pack, this paper puts an equalization charging method of lithium battery on change of mode forward. The method combines a intelligence charging mode with the second equalization technology. It adopts a method of dissipation balance in first equalization design, the excess energy consumed in the resistance in the form of heat. In the second equalization design adopts energy transfer method, which divert the excess energy by capacitance to the battery of lower energy. The experiments show that the voltage of battery got a good consistency in this equalization method.%针对电动车的锂离子电池组寿命短、缺乏稳定性的问题,提出一种在更换模式下的充电均衡方案。采用了一次智能充电方式和二次均衡技术相结合,在第一次均衡设计中采用了耗散式均衡法,把多余能量以热能的形式在电阻消耗掉;在二次均衡设计中采用了能量转移的方法,通过电容把高能量电池的多余能量转移到低能量的电池中。实验表明该均衡方式得到很好的电压一致性。

  15. Transport rectification in nanopores with outer membranes modified with surface charges and polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Rabin, Yitzhak; Szleifer, Igal

    2013-10-22

    This work reports a comprehensive theoretical study of the transport-rectification properties of cylindrical nanopores with neutral inner walls and chemically modified outer membrane. The chemical species on the two outer sides of the membrane have charges of opposite sign and can be either surface-confined species (i.e., surface charges) or polyelectrolyte brushes. The advantage of this design over other types of rectifying nanopores is that it requires controlling the composition of the outer walls of the pore (which are easy to access) rather than the inner walls, thus simplifying the fabrication process. Ion-current rectification in nanopores with charged outer walls is ascribed to applied-potential-induced changes in the ionic concentration within the pore. The rectification efficiency is studied as a function of pore length, radius, surface charge and bulk electrolyte concentration. An analytical model is derived for the case of surface-confined charges that predicts the current-potential curves in very good agreement with the numerical calculations. Neutral nanopores with polyelectrolyte-modified outer walls have two distinct advantages compared to surface-charged systems: (i) they exhibit higher rectification factors due to the large charge density immobilized by the polyelectrolyte brushes, and (ii) the applied potential deforms the polyelectrolyte chains toward the oppositely charged electrode. This deformation brings the polyelectrolyte brushes into the pore in the low conductivity state and expels them from the pore in the high conductivity regime. Calculations of the potentials of mean-force suggest that the applied-field-induced conformational changes can be used to control the translocation of cargoes larger than ions, such as proteins and nanoparticles.

  16. Social Support Contributes to Outcomes following Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J. Symonette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models (F-to-remove 0.10 were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5% and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, r(n=181=-0.22, P<0.05. Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, R2=4.7%, F (1, 181 = 9.98, P<0.05. Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes.

  17. Optimal Taylor-Couette flow: Radius ratio dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Monico, Rodolfo Ostilla; Jannink, Tim J G; van Gils, Dennis P M; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Taylor-Couette flow with independently rotating inner (i) and outer (o) cylinders is explored numerically and experimentally to determine the effects of the radius ratio {\\eta} on the system response. Numerical simulations reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=9.5 x 10^3 and Re_o=5x10^3, corresponding to Taylor numbers of up to Ta=10^8 for four different radius ratios {\\eta}=r_i/r_o between 0.5 and 0.909. The experiments, performed in the Twente Turbulent Taylor-Couette (T^3C) setup, reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=2x10^6$ and Re_o=1.5x10^6, corresponding to Ta=5x10^{12} for {\\eta}=0.714-0.909. Effective scaling laws for the torque J^{\\omega}(Ta) are found, which for sufficiently large driving Ta are independent of the radius ratio {\\eta}. As previously reported for {\\eta}=0.714, optimum transport at a non-zero Rossby number Ro=r_i|{\\omega}_i-{\\omega}_o|/[2(r_o-r_i){\\omega}_o] is found in both experiments and numerics. Ro_opt is found to depend on the radius ratio and the driving of the system. At a drivi...

  18. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  19. Radius-mass scaling laws for celestial bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Muradian, R.; S. Carneiro; Marques, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter we establish a connection between two-exponent radius-mass power laws for cosmic objects and previously proposed two-exponent Regge-like spin-mass relations. A new, simplest method for establishing the coordinates of Chandrasekhar and Eddington points is proposed.

  20. 3D imaging in corrective osteotomy of the distal radius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, Joy

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is on the development, design, implementation and testing of new techniques for corrective osteotomy of the distal radius. The goal of this thesis is threefold. At first, possible pitfalls of conventional corrective osteotomy surgery were determined and quantifi

  1. Surgical versus conservative treatment of distal radius fractures in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, C; Klumpp, R; Nava, V; Riccardi, D; Recalcati, W

    2013-10-01

    The distal radius fractures (DRFs) are the second most common fracture in the elderly population. Despite their frequency, the optimal treatment of these fractures remains controversial. Several dogmatic myths on DRFs management may adversely affect their outcome and despite a strong trend versus surgical options, systematic reviews suggest that conservative treatment remains the safest option for DRFs in most cases.

  2. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...... of consanguinity's deleterious effects affecting an entire human population is provided...

  3. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning, E-mail: liuxiao@ase.buaa.edu.cn; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao [School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Yong-Gang [Department of Applied Mechanics, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.

  4. Individualist-Collectivist Culture and Trust Radius : A Multilevel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    2015-01-01

    We apply a multilevel approach to examine empirically the nexus between individualist and collectivist culture on the one hand and people’s radius of trust on the other. People’s trust level (i.e., the intensity with which people trust other people) has been extensively studied. Increasingly, howeve

  5. Injectivity Radius and Cartan Polyhedron for Simply Connected Symmetric Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YANG

    2007-01-01

    The author explores the relationship between the cut locus of. an arbitrary simply connected and compact Riemannian symmetric space and the Cartan polyhedron of corresponding restricted root system, and computes the injectivity radius and diameter for every type of irreducible ones.

  6. On the mass–radius relation of hot stellar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieles, M.; BAumgardt, H.; Heggie, D.C.; Lamers, J.T.W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Most globular clusters have half-mass radii of a few pc with no apparent correlation with their masses. This is different from elliptical galaxies, for which the Faber–Jackson relation suggests a strong positive correlation between mass and radius. Objects that are somewhat in between globular clust

  7. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Yong-Gang; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao

    2014-04-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.

  8. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients in a finite Larmor radius expansion for ion cyclotron heated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, Erwin F.; Valeo, Ernest; Harvey, Robert; Bonoli, Paul

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a reduced model of quasilinear velocity diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell's equations and the Fokker Planck equation self-consistently for the ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change ( W ˙ ) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping (n = 1) and the second harmonic damping (n = 2) to the lowest order of the finite Larmor radius expansion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficients are implemented in a coupled code (TORIC-CQL3D) with the equivalent reduced model of the dielectric tensor. We also present the simulations of the ITER minority heating scenario, in which the reduced model is verified within the allowable errors from the full model results.

  9. Unstable Distal Radius Fractures Treated by Volar Locking Anatomical Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anto; Deniese, Pascal Noel; Babu, Abey Thomas; Rengasamy, Kanagasabai; Najimudeen, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fracture of the distal end of radius represents the most common fracture of the upper extremity accounting for 16-20% of all fractures. Plating is now emerging as the gold standard for management of distal radius fractures due to increased rate of complications such as malunion, subluxation/dislocation of distal radio-ulnar joint or late collapse of fracture. Procedures such as closed reduction and cast immobilization, ligamentotaxis with external fixator and percutaneous pin fixation are no longer acceptable. Aim The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome of unstable distal radius fractures treated with the volar locking plate. Materials and Methods We reviewed 53 patients from January 2011 to December 2015, treated for unstable distal radius fractures using a volar locking compression plate. Standard radiographic and clinical assessment after 12 months (range 12-16 months) were measured and final functional and radiological outcome were assessed using the Modified Mayo wrist scoring system and Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria respectively. Results There were 42 males and 11 females with an average age of 39.12±31.78 years (18-71 years). At the end of 12 months, 36 patients had an excellent radiological outcome and 10 patients had good radiological outcome as per Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria. Eleven patients had an excellent functional outcome and 26 patients had a good functional outcome as per modified Mayo wrist scoring system. There was one case of superficial wound infection which subsided with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusion The volar locking plate fixation helps in early mobilization of the wrist, restores anatomy, allows early return to function, prevents secondary loss of reduction and hence is an effective treatment for unstable fractures of the distal radius. PMID:28274009

  10. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2017-06-15

    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν(r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations. (orig.)

  11. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive ep scattering & contact interactions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip

    2016-01-01

    The high-precision HERA data allow searches for up to TeV scales "Beyond the Standard Model" contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined H1 and ZEUS measurements of inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current ep scattering are considered, corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb$^{-1}$. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive $ep$ data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions and contributions of "new physics" processes are performed. Considered are possible deviations from the Standard Model due to a finite radius of quarks, described within the quark form-factor model, and due to new electron-quark interactions in the framework of $eeqq$ contact interactions (CI). The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is $0.43\\cdot 10^{-16}$ cm. The limits on the CI mass scale extend up to 10 TeV depending on the CI scenario.

  12. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214-family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal ``quasiparticles'' and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  13. Search for contact interactions, large extra dimensions and finite quark radius in ep collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, A A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, M; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Mus, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, U; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Rurua, L; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, K; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E

    2004-01-01

    A search for physics beyond the Standard Model has been performed with high-Q^2 neutral current deep inelastic scattering events recorded with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Two data sets, e^+ p \\to e^+ X and e^- p \\to e^- X, with respective integrated luminosities of 112 pb^-1 and 16 pb^-1, were analyzed. The data reach Q^2 values as high as 40000 GeV^2. No significant deviations from Standard Model predictions were observed. Limits were derived on the effective mass scale in eeqq contact interactions, the ratio of leptoquark mass to the Yukawa coupling for heavy leptoquark models and the effective Planck mass scale in models with large extra dimensions. The limit on the quark charge radius, in the classical form factor approximation, is 0.85 10^-16 cm.

  14. Charge-changing transitions and capture strengths of pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = -2$ at proton drip-line

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Muneeb-Ur

    2016-01-01

    Charge-changing transitions, commonly referred to as Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, and electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay strengths for pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = - 2$ at proton drip-line have been calculated using the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) model. The total GT$_{+}$ strength values and electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution. The pn-QRPA theory is used for a microscopic calculation of GT strength distribution functions and associated stellar electron capture/$\\beta^{+}$-decay rates of proton-rich pf-shell nuclei with $T_{z} = - 2$ in the mass range 46 $\\leq$ A $\\leq$ 56 at proton drip-line. Standard quenching factor of 0.74, usually implemented in the shell model calculation, has been incorporated for the comparison with experimental data (wherever available). The calculated GT strength of the two proton-rich nuclei, $^{52}$Ni and $^{56}$Zn are compared with experimental data of corresponding...

  15. How and why electrostatic charge of combustible nanoparticles can radically change the mechanism and rate of their oxidation in humid atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatically charged aerosol nanoparticles strongly attract surrounding polar gas molecules due to a charge-dipole interaction. In humid air, the substantial electrostatic attraction and acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles by accelerated water vapor molecules rather than non-polar oxygen molecules. In particular, electrostatic acceleration, acquired by surrounding water vapour molecules at a distance of their mean free path from the minimally charged iron metal nanoparticle can increase an oxidative activity of these polar molecules with respect to the nanoparticle by a factor of one million. Intense electrostatic hydration of charged metal nanoparticles converts the nanoparticle's oxide based shells into the hydroxide based electrolyte shells, transforming these nanoparticles into metal/air core-shell nanobatteries, periodically short-circuited by intra-particl...

  16. Variable radius cartography - History and perspectives of a new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    The map that Toscanelli sent to Columbus was an unconscious application of cartography at a smaller radius than the real. The first really conscious attempts to represent the geography of Earth on globes of radius less than the current one occurred after the formulation of the concept of expanding Earth through geological time. The American chemist and geologist Richard Owen (1810-1890) in his book Key to the geology of the globe (1857) described the principles of what he himself called Anatomical Geology, with the Earth growing as a biological organism. The book contained a global paleogeographic map of the Earth that would have had a radius of about 4000 kilometers. In 1928 J.A.H. Kerkhoff (under the pseudonym Aero-dilettant) published a series of paleogeographic globes on which the modern oceans disappeared. With the same artisan methods of transfer continental outlines from a sphere to a smaller one, in 1933 O.C. Hilgenberg represented three different geological epochs, and, later, for the first time mapped paleopoles with their site-pole segments of meridian. Even today the traditional method of Hilgenberg is followed by senior researchers (Klaus Vogel, 2003) and younger geologists (James Maxlow). In England Hugh Owen applied the methods of traditional cartography to the variable radius one. His Atlas of Continental Displacement was in the 70s and 80s, for this discipline, a real milestone. While in the field of constant radius paleogeography the adherents to plate tectonics created many computer codes of automatic mapping (Bullard et al., 1965; Smith & Hallam, 1970; Scotese et al., 1979; and many others), in the variable radius field few tried to reach the same task. In 1972 in United States a first very simple attempt (but was not further developed) came from a private, R.B. Perry, followed by the still not-computerized Atlas of Owen, and both them constituted inspiration for the construction of a FORTRAN variable radius mapping code at INGV, with which it

  17. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device is an AC-powered device that is a microscope and dial gauge intended to measure the radius of a...

  18. Control of donor charge states with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Garlef, J.K.; Wijnheijmer, A.P.; Koenraad, P.M. [PSN, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The functionality of nanoscale semiconductor devices crucially depends on details of the electrostatic potential landscape on the atomic scale and its microscopic response to external electric fields. We report here an investigation of charge state switching of buried single Si donors in 6.10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} n-doped GaAs with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) under UHV conditions at 5 K. The effect of tip induced band bending (TIBB) through the freshly cleaved (110)-surface was used to change the charge state of individual donors from neutral to positively charged and reverse. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) revealed a ring like feature around each donor center. The ring radius depends on tip bias voltage. The charge state of each donor in the random arrangement of dopants was in most cases unambiguously fixed by the extension of the tip-induced space charge cloud, which was located under the tip and controlled by the applied voltage. For certain geometric configurations the system showed bi- (or multi-) stable behaviour, this lead to dynamic flickering of the ionization sequence.

  19. Error analysis for a laser differential confocal radius measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-02-10

    In order to further improve the measurement accuracy of the laser differential confocal radius measurement system (DCRMS) developed previously, a DCRMS error compensation model is established for the error sources, including laser source offset, test sphere position adjustment offset, test sphere figure, and motion error, based on analyzing the influences of these errors on the measurement accuracy of radius of curvature. Theoretical analyses and experiments indicate that the expanded uncertainty of the DCRMS is reduced to U=0.13  μm+0.9  ppm·R (k=2) through the error compensation model. The error analysis and compensation model established in this study can provide the theoretical foundation for improving the measurement accuracy of the DCRMS.

  20. Predicting jet radius in electrospinning by superpositioning exponential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widartiningsih, P. M.; Iskandar, F.; Munir, M. M.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the correlation between viscosity and fiber diameter in electrospinning. Control over fiber diameter in electrospinning process was important since it will determine the performance of resulting nanofiber. Theoretically, fiber diameter was determined by surface tension, solution concentration, flow rate, and electric current. But experimentally it had been proven that significantly viscosity had an influence to fiber diameter. Jet radius equation in electrospinning process was divided into three areas: near the nozzle, far from the nozzle, and at jet terminal. There was no correlation between these equations. Superposition of exponential series model provides the equations combined into one, thus the entire of working parameters on electrospinning take a contribution to fiber diameter. This method yields the value of solution viscosity has a linear relation to jet radius. However, this method works only for low viscosity.

  1. Network partition via a bound of the spectral radius

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragon, R J

    2015-01-01

    Based on the density of connections between the nodes of high degree, we introduce two bounds of the spectral radius. We use these bounds to split a network into two sets, one of these sets contains the high degree nodes, we refer to this set as the spectral--core. The degree of the nodes of the subnetwork formed by the spectral--core gives an approximation to the top entries of the leading eigenvector of the whole network. We also present some numerical examples showing the dependancy of the spectral--core with the assortativity coefficient, its evaluation in several real networks and how the properties of the spectral--core can be used to reduce the spectral radius.

  2. Core Deuterium Fusion and Radius Inflation in Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Prashanth; Rachid Ouyed

    2016-06-01

    Several laboratory-based studies have shown that the Deuterium fusion cross-section is enhanced in a solid deuterated target as compared to a gas target, attributable to enhanced mobility of deuterons in a metal lattice. As an application, we propose that, for core temperatures and compositions characterizing hot Jupiters, screened Deuterium fusion can occur deep in the interior, and show that the amount of radius inflation from this effect can be important if there is sufficient rock-ice in the core. The mechanism of screened Deuterium fusion, operating in the above temperature range, is generally consistent with the trend in radius anomaly with planetary equilibrium temperature. We also explore the trend with planetary mass using a simple analytic model.

  3. External Fixation of Unstable Distal Radius Fracture. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniel Truffin Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unstable fracture of the distal radius is a common injury. If not properly treated, it can cause major disturbance in the radiocarpal joint and impaired hand function. A case of a 42-year-old patient of rural origin without a history of previous conditions treated at the Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. He suffered a fall on the outstretched hand, which led to an unstable fracture of the left distal radius. Emergency surgery consisting of manual fracture reduction under general anesthesia and fixation with RALCA minifixator plus a percutaneously placed Kirschner wire was performed. Since this fracture is often inadequately treated, the presentation of this case can be helpful to many orthopedic surgeons.

  4. Development of prediction models for radioactive caesium distribution within the 80-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinase, Sakae; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Sato, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-08-01

    Preliminary prediction models have been studied for the radioactive caesium distribution within the 80-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The models were represented by exponential functions using ecological half-life of radioactive caesium in the environment. The ecological half-lives were derived from the changes in ambient dose equivalent rates through vehicle-borne surveys. It was found that the ecological half-lives of radioactive caesium were not constant within the 80-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The ecological half-life of radioactive caesium in forest areas was found to be much larger than that in urban and water areas.

  5. Influence of beam wander on uplink of ground-to-satellite laser communication and optimization for transmitter beam radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Luo, Bin; Ren, Yongxiong; Zhao, Sinan; Dang, Anhong

    2010-06-15

    We restudy the influence of beam wander on the uplink of ground-to-satellite laser communication, using the effective pointing error method, for a collimated untracked Gaussian beam under a weak atmospheric turbulence condition. It shows that the beam wander may cause significant increase in bit error rate (BER), and there exists an optimal transmitter radius for minimizing the value of BER. Further studies manifest that this optimal radius only changes with the laser wavelength and zenith angle, while independent on the satellite altitude and the fade threshold at the receiver. These results can be used in system design and optimization for the transmitter.

  6. Radius fracture from an electrical injury involving an electric guitar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Dante

    2010-03-01

    Electrical injury ranges widely from simple shock and mild burns to more extensive superficial injury, internal injury, and mortality. Bony fracture from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contraction is a rare but recognized injury. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered a minor burn and radius fracture related to an electrical injury involving his electric guitar. An interesting pattern is emerging from available case reports of similar injuries.

  7. Biomechanical Stability of Four Fixation Constructs for Distal Radius Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Capo, John T.; Kinchelow, Tosca; Brooks, Kenneth; Tan, Virak; Manigrasso, Michaele; Francisco, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Implants available for distal radius fracture fixation include dorsal nonlocked plating (DNLP), volar locked plating (VLP), radial–ulnar dual-column locked plating (DCPs), and locked intramedullary fixation (IMN). This study examines the biomechanical properties of these four different fixation constructs. In 28 fresh-frozen radii, a wedge osteotomy was performed, creating an unstable fracture model and the four fixation constructs employed (DNLP, VLP, DCPs, and IMN). Dorsal bending loads wer...

  8. Responsiveness of EQ-5D in Patients With a Distal Radius Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Johanna; Enocson, Anders; Mellstrand Navarro, Cecilia; Bergström, Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    The EuroQol Group 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire is frequently used as an outcome measure of general patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the internal and external responsiveness of EQ-5D (specifically EQ-5Dindex score) in patients with a surgically treated distal radius fracture. Within the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 132 patients with a surgically treated distal radius fracture filled out EQ-5D and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE-Swe) at baseline (preinjury state), and at 3 and 12 months. Internal responsiveness was evaluated by calculating mean change score and standardized response mean (SRM) of the EQ-5Dindex scores. External responsiveness was evaluated with PRWE-Swe as the external criterion. PRWE-Swe was used to define 4 subgroups of patients with different clinical outcomes. The ability of EQ-5Dindex change score to discriminate between these subgroups was analyzed with logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Correlation analysis was made with Spearman's ρ test. The mean change in EQ-5Dindex score from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was -16.1 and from the 3- to the 12-month follow-up was 7.6. The corresponding SRMs were large (0.93) and small to moderate (0.47). Analysis of external responsiveness displayed odds ratios >1 and AUROCs between 0.70 and 0.76 in all 4 subgroups. The proportion of patients correctly classified into the 4 subgroups by the EQ-5Dindex change scores was 78% to 94%. Spearman's ρ was 0.35. EQ-5D displayed an overall acceptable to good responsiveness in patients with a distal radius fracture. It may thus be used as a measure of HRQoL in this patient group.

  9. Formation scenarios and mass-radius relation for neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zdunik, J L

    2011-01-01

    Neutron star crust, formed via accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), has an equation of state (EOS) stiffer than that of catalyzed matter. At a given neutron star mass, M, the radius of a star with an accreted crust is therefore larger, by DR(M), than for usually considered star built of catalyzed matter. Using a compressible liquid drop model of nuclei, we calculate, within the one-component plasma approximation, the EOSs corresponding to different nuclear compositions of ashes of X-ray bursts in LMXB. These EOSs are then applied for studying the effect of different formation scenarios on the neutron-star mass-radius relation. Assuming the SLy EOS for neutron star's liquid core, derived by Douchin & Haensel (2001), we find that at M=1.4 M_sun the star with accreted crust has a radius more than 100 m larger that for the crust of catalyzed matter. Using smallness of the crust mass compared to M, we derive a formula that relates DR(M) to the difference in the crust EOS. Thi...

  10. Habitability of Exomoons at the Hill or Tidal Locking Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkel, Natalie R

    2013-01-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets mu Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at it's furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves it's largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar ...

  11. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  12. The Radius Distribution of Small Planets Around Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    We calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the radius distribution of small planets with periods less than 90 days using the small yet well-characterized sample of cool T_eff <4000 K dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. Using a new technique we call a modified kernel density estimator (MKDE) and carefully correcting for incompleteness, we show that planets with radii ~1.25 R_earth are the most common planets around these stars. An apparent overabundance of planets with radii 2-2.5 R_earth may be evidence for a population of planets with H/He atmospheres. Lastly, the sharp rise in the radius distribution from ~4 R_earth to 2 R_earth implies that a large number of planets await discovery around cool dwarfs as the sensitivities of ground-based surveys increase. The radius distribution will continue to be tested with future Kepler results, but the features reported herein are robust features of the current dataset and thus invite theoretical explanation in the context of planetary system ...

  13. Conversion of radius of curvature to power (and vice versa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenhagen, Sven; Endo, Kazumasa; Fuchs, Ulrike; Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing optical components relies on good measurements and specifications. One of the most precise measurements routinely required is the form accuracy. In practice, form deviation from the ideal surface is effectively low frequency errors, where the form error most often accounts for no more than a few undulations across a surface. These types of errors are measured in a variety of ways including interferometry and tactile methods like profilometry, with the latter often being employed for aspheres and general surface shapes such as freeforms. This paper provides a basis for a correct description of power and radius of curvature tolerances, including best practices and calculating the power value with respect to the radius deviation (and vice versa) of the surface form. A consistent definition of the sagitta is presented, along with different cases in manufacturing that are of interest to fabricators and designers. The results make clear how the definitions and results should be documented, for all measurement setups. Relationships between power and radius of curvature are shown that allow specifying the preferred metric based on final accuracy and measurement method. Results shown include all necessary equations for conversion to give optical designers and manufacturers a consistent and robust basis for decision-making. The paper also gives guidance on preferred methods for different scenarios for surface types, accuracy required, and metrology methods employed.

  14. Methane Planets and their Mass-Radius Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit; Vos, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of both the mass and radius of an exoplanet allows us to estimate its mean density, and therefore, its composition. Exoplanets seem to fill a very large parameter space in terms of mass and composition, and unlike the solar-system's planets, exoplanets also have intermediate masses (~5-50 M_Earth) with various densities. In this letter, we investigate the behavior of the Mass-Radius relation for methane (CH_4) planets and show that when methane planets are massive enough (M_planet > ~15 M_Earth) the methane can dissociate and lead to a differentiated planet with a carbon core, a methane envelope, and a hydrogen atmosphere. The contribution of a rocky core to the behavior of CH_4 planet is considered as well. We also develop interior models for several detected intermediate-mass planets that could, in principle, be methane/methane-rich planets. The example of methane planets emphasizes the complexity of the Mass-Radius relation and the challenge in inferring the planetary composition uniquely.

  15. Millimeter Wave Scattering from Neutral and Charged Water Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Heifetz, Alexander; Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, N Sami; Raptis, A C Paul

    2010-01-01

    We investigated 94GHz millimeter wave (MMW) scattering from neutral and charged water mist produced in the laboratory with an ultrasonic atomizer. Diffusion charging of the mist was accomplished with a negative ion generator (NIG). We observed increased forward and backscattering of MMW from charged mist, as compared to MMW scattering from an uncharged mist. In order to interpret the experimental results, we developed a model based on classical electrodynamics theory of scattering from a dielectric sphere with diffusion-deposited mobile surface charge. In this approach, scattering and extinction cross-sections are calculated for a charged Rayleigh particle with effective dielectric constant consisting of the volume dielectric function of the neutral sphere and surface dielectric function due to the oscillation of the surface charge in the presence of applied electric field. For small droplets with (radius smaller than 100nm), this model predicts increased MMW scattering from charged mist, which is qualitative...

  16. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-03-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius.

  17. Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Thomas M., E-mail: baumannt@nscl.msu.edu; Lapierre, Alain, E-mail: lapierre@nscl.msu.edu; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r{sub 80%}=(212±19)μm in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm{sup 2} is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments.

  18. 组合相变材料柱状储热单元的储热特性实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CHARGING PROCESSES OF CYLINDRICAL CAPSULE USING MULTIPLE PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑锋; 高广春; 欧阳应秀; 陈光明

    2001-01-01

    This paper dealt with the charging process of a cylindrical heat storage capsule filled with stearic acid,sliced paraffin and lauric acid as phase change materials.The experimental results demonstrated that,compared with the traditional heat storage capsule using single type of phase change material,the charging rate of the capsule with the three types of phase change materials increases considerably.%主要研究由硬脂酸、切片石蜡和月桂酸三种相变材料组合的圆柱型储热单元的储热特性。测试结果表明,与单一相变材料的储热单元相比,组合相变材料的储热单元的储热速率明显提高。

  19. Fractional Effective Charges and Misner-Wheeler Charge without Charge Effect in Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Smolyaninov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transformation optics enables engineering of the effective topology and dimensionality of the optical space in metamaterials. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials may mimic Kaluza-Klein theories having one or more kinds of effective charges. As a result, novel photon blockade devices may be realized. Here we demonstrate that an electromagnetic wormhole may be designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topological connectivity. Electromagnetic field configurations, which exhibit fractional effective charges, appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler “charge without charge” may be replicated.

  20. Influence of Surface Radius Curvature on Laser Plasma Propulsion with Ablation Water Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tian; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Siqi; Tang, Weichong; Xiao, Ke; Liang, Wenfei; Gao, Lu; Gao, Hua

    2016-10-01

    The surface shape of liquid water is well controlled during nanosecond pulse laser ablation plasma propulsion. In this study, we measured the effect of the shape on the coupling coefficient and the specific impulse. We found that the coupling coefficient and specific impulse could be optimized by varying the surface convexity. Based on the analysis of the surface radius curvature, we demonstrate that the convex surface changes the laser focal positions to achieve high efficiency. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10905049) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Nos. 53200859165, 2562010050)

  1. Mass and charge transport in micro and nanofluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Okkels, Fridolin

    2007-01-01

    and charge transport coefficients that satisfy Onsager relations. In the limit of nonoverlapping Debye layers the transport coefficients are simply expressed in terms of parameters of the electrolyte as well as the hydraulic radiusR ¼ 2A=P with Aand P being the cross-sectional area and perimeter...

  2. Charge segregation in weakly ionized microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, John S.; Douglas, Alison M.; Stanley, Chris; Do, Changwoo; Barker, Thomas H.; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We investigate microgels synthesized from N -isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) copolymerized with a large mol% of acrylic acid, finding that when the acid groups are partially ionized at high temperatures, competition between ion-induced swelling and hydrophobic deswelling of poly(NIPAM) chains results in microphase separation. In cross-linked microgels, this manifests as a dramatic decrease in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius to ˜0.2 , indicating that almost all the mass of the microgel is concentrated near the particle center. We also observe a concurrent decrease of the polymer network length scale via small-angle neutron scattering, confirming the presence of a dense, deswollen core surrounded by a diffuse, charged periphery. We compare these results to those obtained for a system of charged ultralow-cross-linked microgels; the form factor shows a distinct peak at high q when the temperature exceeds a threshold value. We successfully fit the form factor to theory developed to describe scattering from weakly charged gels in poor solvents, and we tie this behavior to charge segregation in the case of the cross-linked microgels.

  3. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  4. Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-12-20

    Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass.

  5. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

  6. A view about the nature and origin of the (elementary electric charge and the possible size of the photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Matsiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends: on the one hand, to give an explanation of the origin and the nature of the elementary electric charge (e-, by determining the most possible reason why the electron shows Coulomb field, and by finding the mechanic equivalent to the electric charge; and on the other hand, to suggest a possible size for the photon by comparing maximum power wave lengths of photons and particles, taking into consideration the Planck length.The initial idea arose from a previous paper of the author [1] entitled “Dwarf Primary Black Holes and Nucleons – Indirect Theory of Unified Fields – Relation between Gravitational and Nuclear Potentials”, where a new transformation formula of a collapsing mass and its reverse formula are introduced. From the application of the reverse formula, we conclude that electrons and nucleons (from quarks were created from the crash of initial (primary matter of the Universe, 9.11 millions and 1.674 billions of tons respectively, in the first infinitesimal flashes just after the Big Bang.Moreover, it is proved that: a the nuclear forces of the nucleons come from the gravitational potential of their initial mass that is stored in them, b the velocity of the collapse (crash of a mass increases vertically, when its volume gets a critical value (critical volume, c the gravity radius of the particle’s initial mass is smaller or equal to the radius of the critical volume and the two radii take the same value, when the radius of the particle concurs with the gravity radius of the particle’s mass and d when the final velocity of collapse is equal to the velocity of light, then the collapsing mass changes into antimass (antimatter

  7. The role of effective charges in the electrophoresis of highly charged colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Apratim; Horbach, Jürgen

    2010-12-15

    We study the variation of electrophoretic mobility μ of highly charged spherical colloidal macroions for varying surface charge density σ on the colloid using computer simulations of the primitive model for charged colloids. Hydrodynamic interactions between ions are incorporated by coupling the primitive model of charged colloids to the lattice Boltzmann model (LB) of the fluid. In the highly charged regime, the mobility μ of the colloid is known to decrease with the increase of bare charge Q of the colloid; the aim of this paper is to investigate the cause of this. We have identified that the two main factors contributing to the decrease of μ are counterion charge condensation on the highly charged colloid and an increase in effective friction of the macroion-counterion complex due to the condensed counterions. Thus the established O'Brien and White theory, which identified the dipolar force originating from distortion of the electric double layer as the cause of decreasing μ, seems to break down for the case of highly charged colloids with σ in the range of 30-400 µC cm (- 2). To arrive at our conclusions, we counted the number of counterions q0 moving along with the spherical macroion. We observe in our simulations that q0 increases with the increase of bare charge Q, such that the effective charge Qeff = Q - q0 remains approximately constant. Interestingly for our nanometer-sized charged colloid, we observe that, if surface charge density σ of the colloid is increased by decreasing the radius RM of the colloid but fixed bare charge Q, the effective charge Q - q0 decreases with the increase of σ. This behavior is qualitatively different when σ is increased by increasing Q keeping RM fixed. Our observations address a controversy about the effective charge of a strongly charged macroion: some studies claim that effective charge is independent of the bare charge (Alexander et al 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 80 5776; Trizac et al 2003 Langmuir 19 4027) whereas

  8. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  9. A generalized spectral radius formula and Olsen's question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loring, Terry; Shulman, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Let A be a C⁎C⁎-algebra and I be a closed ideal in A. For x∈Ax∈A, its image in A/IA/I is denoted by x˙, and its spectral radius is denoted by r(x)r(x). We prove that max{r(x),‖x˙‖}=inf‖(1+i)−1x(1+i)‖ (where the infimum is taken over all i∈Ii∈I such that 1+i1+i is invertible), which generalizes th...

  10. Guidelines for measuring solar radius with Baily beads analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIGISMONDI Costantino

    2009-01-01

    By inspection of central eclipses videorecords, data of Baily beads timings are retrievable. Knowing the lunar limb profile at the moment of the eclipse we evaluate the excess or defect of solar limb when the Sun is assumed at its standard radius. Two procedures of data analysis are here presented: one based on limb heights and the other on times. While these methods are based upon Occult 4 software, they can be used with other ephemerides and new lunar profiles. The example of 2006 total eclipse data, with its remarkably negative value of ΔR=-0.41"±0.04", is presented.

  11. Guidelines for measuring solar radius with Baily beads analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIGISMONDI; Costantino

    2009-01-01

    By inspection of central eclipses videorecords, data of Baily beads timings are retrievable. Knowing the lunar limb profile at the moment of the eclipse we evaluate the excess or defect of solar limb when the Sun is assumed at its standard radius. Two procedures of data analysis are here presented: one based on limb heights and the other on times. While these methods are based upon Occult 4 software, they can be used with other ephemerides and new lunar profiles. The example of 2006 total eclipse data, with its remarkably negative value of ΔR= - 0.41"± 0.04", is presented.

  12. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...

  13. Finite Larmor radius influence on MHD solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mjølhus

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available MHD solitons are studied in a model where the usual Hall-MHD model is extended to include the finite Larmor radius (FLR corrections to the pressure tensor. The resulting 4-dimensional set of differential equations is treated numerically. In this extended model, the point at infinity can be of several types. Necessary for the existence of localized solutions is that it is either a saddle-saddle, a saddle-center, or, possibly, a focus-focus. In cases of saddle-center, numerical solutions for localized travelling structures have been obtained, and compared with corresponding results from the Hall-MHD model.

  14. Experimental Method for Microbubbles Dynamics Monitoring and Radius Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouan, Damien; Achaoui, Younes; Payan, Cedric; Mensah, Serge

    Rationale and aim: Within the context of divers' decompression illness prevention, ultrasonic detection and sizing of circulating microbubbles in blood is of great interest. In order to be representative of the divers gas tension level (supersaturation) and thus, to optimize decompression stages, the measurements (made in the right ventricle region) should be performed during a short period of time (ventricle filling <20 ms), efficient to detect a broad range of bubbles' radii population (radius from 20 to 200 _m) and harmless (Mechanical Index MI<0.3).

  15. Paediatric post-traumatic cortical defects of the distal radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Richard T.; Summers, Bruce N. [Department of Orthopaedics, Princess Royal Hospital, Telford (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, Victor [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    Paediatric post-traumatic cortical defects, although rare, are predominately seen affecting the distal radius following a greenstick or torus fracture. We review the literature and present a further two cases supported by CT and MRI. Images from an acute greenstick fracture are also presented to help understand the pathogenesis. Defects are typically solitary on plain radiographs and are usually noticed late, proximal to the site of compression. They are non-expansile in an otherwise healthy child. CT and MRI may reveal smaller multiple subperiosteal defects. Typical defects require no further management other than reassurance and advice that they may occasionally cause discomfort but resolve with time. (orig.)

  16. Trajectory Calculator for Finite-Radius Cutter on a Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan

    2009-01-01

    A computer program calculates the two-dimensional trajectory (radial vs. axial position) of a finite-radius-of-curvature cutting tool on a lathe so as to cut a workpiece to a piecewise-continuous, analytically defined surface of revolution. (In the original intended application, the tool is a diamond cutter, and the workpiece is made of a crystalline material and is to be formed into an optical resonator disk.) The program also calculates an optimum cutting speed as F/L, where F is a material-dependent empirical factor and L is the effective instantaneous length of the cutting edge.

  17. Comments on “Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari Shalkouhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this letter is to comment on the article "Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms" by Mijić and Mašović (2010. Mijić and Mašović measured critical distance and reverberation time in four different size rooms from 125 Hz to 4 kHz octave bands. They proposed a method for measurement of critical distance. This paper confirms that the measurements of critical distance made by Mijić and Mašović were not accurate at some frequencies.

  18. Post-traumatic cystic lesion following fracture of the radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Nikolaos G.; Christophorides, John; Beslikas, Theodoros A.; Papadimitriou, Ageliki G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2. Orthopaedic University Clinic, Thessaloniki (Greece); Doulianaki, Eleni G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1. Pediatric University Clinic, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    Post-traumatic cystic lesions are an uncommon complication of fractures in children. They are benign, asymptomatic, non-expansive and tend to resolve spontaneously. Their cause seems to be the invasion of bone-marrow fat by subperiosteal hematoma, which may be visible on radiographs during fracture consolidation of the newly formed subperiosteal bone. The case we present is of cyst formation following a fracture of the distal radius and we evaluate the role of yellow bone marrow in the pathogenesis of the cyst. Its typical features clear differentiation from other lesions, preventing unnecessary and, possibly, invasive examinations. (orig.)

  19. Holography, charge and baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mongan, T R

    2009-01-01

    The holographic principle indicates the finite number of bits of information available on the particle horizon describes all physics within the horizon. Linking information on the horizon with Standard Model particles requires a holographic model describing constituents (preons) of Standard Model particles in terms of bits of information on the horizon. Standard Model particles have charges 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1 in units of the electron charge e, so bits in a preon model must be identified with fractional charge. Energy must be transferred to change the state of a bit, and labeling the low energy state of a bit e/3n and the high energy state -e/3n amounts to defining electric charge. Any such charged preon model will produce more protons than anti-protons at the time of baryogenesis and require baryon asymmetry. It will also produce more positrons than electrons, as suggested by astrophysical measurements.

  20. Spins, charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-rich Mn isotopes measured with bunched beam Collinear Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085887; Heylen, Hanne

    In this work, the odd-even $^{51–63}$Mn isotopes have been analyzed using collinear laser spectroscopy, from which the magnetic dipole moment and the change in change in mean square charge radius can be determined. The magnetic moment is very sensitive to the composition of the total nuclear wave function, while the charge radius gives information about the relative size and degree of deformation of the nucleus. An additional advantage of collinear laser spectroscopy is the possibility of direct measurement of the nuclear spin. The main motivation behind the study of these isotopes is to investigate the change in nuclear structure when approaching neutron number N = 40. This region is of interest due to the apparent doubly magic nature of $^{68}$Ni , which is not seen in the N = 40 isotopes of $^{26}$Fe and $^{24}$Cr. Mn, situated between these elements, offers another perspective due to its uncoupled proton. Based on the observed spectra and extracted moments, spins were assigned to $^{59,61,63}$Mn. The ex...

  1. Modelling of Charged anisotropic compact stars with EOS $\\rho=f(p)$

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K

    2016-01-01

    Charged compact star models have been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein's- Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star models by using radial pressure, metric function $e^{\\lambda}$ and electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like, causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via. adiabatic index, TOV equations and Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. However we also presented the EOS $\\rho=f(p)$ for present charged compact star model.

  2. [Postoperative morbidity in surgically treated extension fractures of the distal radius. A comparative study of dorsal and volar approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, R P; Ruchholtz, S; Taeger, G; Obertacke, U; Nast-Kolb, D

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perioperative morbidity in operative interventions in distal radiusfractures, comparing the operative approach from volar and dorsal. Only problems, resulting from the operative approach towards the distal aspect of the radius, were examined. In a Case-Control-Study, we investigated patients with operative by plate-osteosynthesis treated distal radius-extensions-fractures. During 3 years we investigated 92 patients. 49 were operated with a volar approach, and after changing the operative management, consecutive 43 patients with a dorsal approach to the distal radius. Indications for operative treatment were not changed. The approach to the distal aspect of the radius corresponded to the recent guidelines. Further perioperative procedures were identical, including procedures in anesthesiology. Datas of patients have been investigated for epidemiology, kind of operations, point of time in treatment, duration of operation, X-Ray, immobilisation and time of inhospital stay as well as all documented complications. It has been shown, that in respect of all criterias, concerning length of operation (106 vs. 83 min), intraoperative X-Ray (3.0 vs. 1.65 min) as well as postoperative immobilisation (33 vs. 25 days), and documented incidences of complications like secondary wound-healing (19/49 vs. 0/43) or nerval irritations (13/49 vs. 1/43), the dorsal osteosynthesis is definitively to be favored.

  3. Experiment for a measurement of the charge radius of the proton at the S-DALINAC and investigation of the fine structure of giant resonances in {sup 28}Si, {sup 48}Ca and {sup 166}Er with the help of the wavelet analysis; Experiment zur Messung des Ladungsradius des Protons am S-DALINAC und Untersuchung der Feinstruktur von Riesenresonanzen in {sup 28}Si, {sup 48}Ca und {sup 166}Er mit Hilfe der Waveletanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysmenetska, Inna

    2009-07-22

    The present thesis consists of two parts. In the first part a novel experimental method for the measurement of the proton root-mean-square radius at the S-DALINAC is presented. A setup based on semiconductor detectors is realized. In contrast to previous experiments it allows a simultaneous measurement of the momentum transfer dependence of the elastic electron scattering cross section. A possible suppression of the significant electron and bremsstrahlung background observed in a test experiment was investigated with the help of different methods, such as {delta}E-E telescopes, the time of flight method with a pulsed beam and pulse shape discrimination. The combination of these methods allows a reduction of the background at all scattering angles, which should allow a successful measurement. The response of the detector system was studied with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations with an emphasis on the dependence of the expected accuracy of different parameters. The second part of this work describes an investigation of the fine structure of giant resonances in {sup 28}Si, {sup 48}Ca and {sup 166}Er with the help of a wavelet analysis. The discrete wavelet transform was used for a background determination in spectra of the iso vector E1 and the M2 giant resonances in {sup 48}Ca. This allows the extraction of 1{sup -} und 2{sup -} level densities in the excitation energy region of the respective resonances with the help of a fluctuation analysis. A fluctuation analysis of the fine structure of the isoscalar E2 resonance in {sup 166}Er allows the extraction of the coherent widths of the 2{sup +} states. In the excitation energy region E{sub x}=10-16 MeV widths between 30 and 80 eV are found. The fine structure of the giant resonances is furthermore specified by characteristic scales. In this thesis scales in {sup 28}Si and {sup 48}Ca are extracted with the help of the above mentioned wavelet transform. In {sup 28}Si the isovector E1 and isoscalar E2 resonances were

  4. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF RADIUS OF GYRATION OF CHAINS IN THE MELT IN THE CRYSTALIZATION OF POLY(1-BUTENE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Fu; G.Strobl

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization in polymer systems actually is a process that transfers the entangled melts into a semi-crystalline layered structure. Whether or not a chain disentangles may result in different crystallization mechanism. When compared to the crystal thickness (dc), the volume occupied by the chain in the melt, i.e., the radius of gyration (Rg), plays a very important role in polymer crystallization. When dc ≤ Rg, crystallization does not necessitate a chain disentangling. The entanglements are just shifted into the amorphous regions. However, as dc>Rg, i.e., as the crystal thickness gets larger than the radius of gyration of the chain in the melt, it becomes necessary for a chain to disentangle. Then a change of crystallization mechanism occurs. Such change has been experimentally observed in the crystallization of poly(1-butene). A change in the crystal morphologies from spherulite to quadrangle, is seen via PLM, as crystallization temperatures increase.Even more, such a change is molecular weight dependent, and shifts to lower temperature as molecular weight decreases. There exists a jump of crystal thickness and crystallinity associated with morphological change, as seen via SAXS. A change of crystallization kinetics and crystallinity is further evidenced via dilatometry. The unique feature of P1b crystallization has been discussed based on the radius of gyration of chain in the melt (Rg), and very good agreement is obtained.

  5. Charge transfer in multicomponent oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, A. F.; Ceder, G.

    1998-02-01

    The transfer of charge between different ions in an oxide plays an essential role in the stability of these compounds. Since small variations in charge can introduce large changes in the total energy, a correct description of this phenomenon is critical. In this work, we show that the ionic charge in oxides can strongly depend on its atomic environment. A model to assign point charges to atoms as a function of their atomic environment has recently been proposed for binary alloys [C. Wolverton, A. Zunger, S. Froyen, and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 54, 7843 (1996)] and proven to be very successful in screened solids such as semiconductors and metals. Here, we extend this formalism to multicomponent oxides and we assess its applicability. The simple point-charge model predicts a linear relation between the charge on an atom and the number of unlike neighbors, and between the net value of the charge and the Coulomb field at a given site. The applicability of this approach is tested in a large-supercell self-consistent tight-binding calculation for a random Zr-Ca-O alloy. The observed fluctuations of the ionic charge about the average linear behavior (as a function of the number of unlike neighbors) was larger than 0.25 electrons even when many shells of atomic neighbors were considered in the fit. This variation is significant since it can introduce large errors in the electrostatic energy. On the other hand, for small absolute values of the charge, the ionic charge varied linearly with the Coulomb field, in agreement with previous findings. However, for large Coulomb fields, this function saturates at the formal chemical charge.

  6. Two empirical regimes of the planetary mass-radius relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Dolev; Helled, Ravit; Zucker, Shay; Mordasini, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Today, with the large number of detected exoplanets and improved measurements, we can reach the next step of planetary characterization. Classifying different populations of planets is not only important for our understanding of the demographics of various planetary types in the galaxy, but also for our understanding of planet formation. We explore the nature of two regimes in the planetary mass-radius (M-R) relation. We suggest that the transition between the two regimes of "small" and "large" planets occurs at a mass of 124 ± 7M⊕ and a radius of 12.1 ± 0.5R⊕. Furthermore, the M-R relation is R ∝ M0.55 ± 0.02 and R ∝ M0.01 ± 0.02 for small and large planets, respectively. We suggest that the location of the breakpoint is linked to the onset of electron degeneracy in hydrogen, and therefore to the planetary bulk composition. Specifically, it is the characteristic minimal mass of a planet that consists of mostly hydrogen and helium, and therefore its M-R relation is determined by the equation of state of these materials. We compare the M-R relation from observational data with the relation derived by population synthesis calculations and show that there is a good qualitative agreement between the two samples.

  7. What is the largest Einstein radius in the universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Masamune

    2008-01-01

    The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterises the strength of gravitational lensing. The distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cutoff should probe the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of all-sky Monte-Carlo realisations. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to the cosmological model: for a source redshift z=1, they are 42^{+9}_{-7}, 35^{+8}_{-6}, and 54^{+12}_{-7} arcseconds, assuming best-fit parameters of the WMAP5, WMAP3 and WMAP1 data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. For the same source redshift, we expect in all-sky 35 (WMAP5), 15 (WMAP3), and 150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 20''. Whilst the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the primordial non-Gauss...

  8. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  9. Biomechanical stability of four fixation constructs for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Kinchelow, Tosca; Brooks, Kenneth; Tan, Virak; Manigrasso, Michaele; Francisco, Kristin

    2009-09-01

    Implants available for distal radius fracture fixation include dorsal nonlocked plating (DNLP), volar locked plating (VLP), radial-ulnar dual-column locked plating (DCPs), and locked intramedullary fixation (IMN). This study examines the biomechanical properties of these four different fixation constructs. In 28 fresh-frozen radii, a wedge osteotomy was performed, creating an unstable fracture model and the four fixation constructs employed (DNLP, VLP, DCPs, and IMN). Dorsal bending loads were applied and bending stiffness, load to yield 5 mm displacement, and ultimate failure were measured. Bending stiffness for VLP (16.7 N/mm) was significantly higher than for DNLP (6.8 N/mm), while IMN (12.6 N/mm) and DCPs (11.8 N/mm) were similar. Ultimate load to failure occurred at 278.2 N for the VLP, 245.7 N for the IMN, and 52.0 N for the DNLP. The VLP was significantly stronger than the DNLP and DCPs, and the IMN and DCPs were stronger than the DNLP. The VLP has higher average bending stiffness, ultimate bending strength, and resistance to 5 mm displacement than the other constructs and significantly higher ultimate bending strength than the DCPs and DNLP. There was no statistically significant difference between the VLP and IMN. VLP and IMN fixation of distal radius fractures can achieve comparable stability.

  10. Maximum wind radius estimated by the 50 kt radius: improvement of storm surge forecasting over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    Even though the maximum wind radius (Rmax) is an important parameter in determining the intensity and size of tropical cyclones, it has been overlooked in previous storm surge studies. This study reviews the existing estimation methods for Rmax based on central pressure or maximum wind speed. These over- or underestimate Rmax because of substantial variations in the data, although an average radius can be estimated with moderate accuracy. As an alternative, we propose an Rmax estimation method based on the radius of the 50 kt wind (R50). Data obtained by a meteorological station network in the Japanese archipelago during the passage of strong typhoons, together with the JMA typhoon best track data for 1990-2013, enabled us to derive the following simple equation, Rmax = 0.23 R50. Application to a recent strong typhoon, the 2015 Typhoon Goni, confirms that the equation provides a good estimation of Rmax, particularly when the central pressure became considerably low. Although this new method substantially improves the estimation of Rmax compared to the existing models, estimation errors are unavoidable because of fundamental uncertainties regarding the typhoon's structure or insufficient number of available typhoon data. In fact, a numerical simulation for the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan as well as 2015 Typhoon Goni demonstrates a substantial difference in the storm surge height for different Rmax. Therefore, the variability of Rmax should be taken into account in storm surge simulations (e.g., Rmax = 0.15 R50-0.35 R50), independently of the model used, to minimize the risk of over- or underestimating storm surges. The proposed method is expected to increase the predictability of major storm surges and to contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in the western North Pacific, including countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

  11. On the signature of positively charged dust particles on plasma irregularities in the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    Recent rocket payloads have studied the properties of aerosol particles within the ambient plasma environment in the polar mesopause region and measured the signature of the positively charged particles with number densities of (2000 cm-3) for particles of 0.5-1 nm in radius. The measurement of significant numbers of positively charged aerosol particles is unexpected from the standard theory of aerosol charging in plasma. Nucleation on the cluster ions is one of the most probable hypotheses for the positive charge on the smallest particles. This work attempts to study the correlation and anti-correlation of fluctuations in the electron and ion densities in the background plasma by adopting the proposed hypothesis of positive dust particle formation. The utility being that it may provide a test for determining the presence of positive dust particles. The results of the model described show good agreement with observed rocket data. As an application, the model is also applied to investigate the electron irregularity behavior during radiowave heating assuming the presence of positive dust particles. It is shown that the positive dust produces important changes in the behavior during Polar Mesospheric Summer Echo PMSE heating experiments that can be described by the fluctuation correlation and anti-correlation properties.

  12. The use of the radius of gyration in a WLC polymer model of cancer cell adhesion to glycosaminoglycans substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramo, Antonio; Matthews, Garrett

    2009-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are a group of polysaccharides involved in several biological functions, including cell adhesion. Most of their biological properties are derived from the interactions of the chains with their environment, hence the interest in developing physical models that could describe their interactions with whole cells. As linear biopolymers with low polydispersity, GAG can be described using polymer models of Gaussian chain distributions, like the WLC (worm-like chain) model. We found that the adhesion of whole cancer cells to glass substrates coated with GAG appear to be dependent on the charge per dimer and degree of sulfation of the GAG chain. We have hypothesized that the adhesion of whole cancer cells to GAG substrates can be described as a function of polysaccharide radius of gyration and used the WLC model describing the global structure of the GAGs to analyze this relationship. We will show that the adhesion of the cancer cells has a linear response with the radius of gyration and is essentially controlled by the charge per dimer. This dominating mechanism is not eliminated when the cells are resuspended in media with heparin. We then propose how these physical properties could be used to predict the preferred molecular structures of compounds for use as anti-metastatic or anti-inflammatory agents.

  13. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In contrast to the nuclear charge densities, which have been accurately measured with electron scattering, the knowledge of neutron densities still lack precision. Previous model-dependent hadron experiments suggest the difference between the neutron radius, Rn, of a heavy nucleus and the proton radius, Rp, to be in the order of several percent. To accurately obtain the difference, Rn-Rp, which is essentially a neutron skin, the Jefferson Lab Lead (208Pb) Radius Experiment (PREX) measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb at an energy of 1.06 GeV and a scattering angle of 5° . Since Z0 boson couples mainly to neutrons, this asymmetry provides a clean measurement of Rn with respect to Rp. PREX was conducted at the Jefferson lab experimental Hall A, from March to June 2010. The experiment collected a final data sample of 2x 107 helicity-window quadruplets. The measured parity-violating electroweak asymmetry APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.014 (syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions, Rn-Rp = 0.33+0.16-0.18 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin as expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus. The value of the neutron radius of 208Pb has important implications for models of nuclear structure and their application in atomic physics and astrophysics such as atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and neutron stars.

  14. A note on charged interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Huaqiang [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Yu, M Y [Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    A condition associated with the plasma boundary or other charged interface is reviewed. It is pointed out that in comparing theories and simulations of such interfaces, in order to avoid conflicting results it should be ascertained that the systems under consideration are thermodynamically equivalent. For the plasma-wall interface in equilibrium, the rate of change of the surface-charge density with respect to the surface potential must be positive.

  15. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, J.M

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal 'quasiparticles' and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  16. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal “quasiparticles” and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  17. Biomechanical comparison of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed by distal locking screws with different length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Wu, Wei-dong; Fang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Mei-chao; Huang, Wen-hua

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the postoperative stability of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed with distal locking screws with different length. A comminuted extra-articular dorsally unstable distal radius fracture, treated with volar locking plate system, was created. The 18 specimens were randomized into 3 groups based on distal locked screws with different length: Group A had unicortical screws with 50% length to the dorsal cortex. Group B had unicortical screws with 75% length to the dorsal cortex. Group C had bicortical screws. Axial compression and bending loads were imposed on the models before and after cycling testing as well as load to clinical and catastrophic failure. Minimum change in stiffness was observed before and after fatigue for all groups. The final stiffness to bending forces was statistically similar in all groups, but stiffness to axial compression was statistically significant different: Group A approached significance with respect to groups B and C (P = 0.017, 0.009), whereas stiffness in group B and C was statistically similar (P = 0.93). Load to clinical failure was significantly less for group A (456.54±78.59 N) compared with groups B (580.24±73.85 N) and C (591.07±38.40 N). Load to catastrophic failure was statistically similar between groups, but mean values for Group A were 18% less than means for Group C. The volar locking plate system fixed with unicortical locking screws with at least 75% length not only produced early stability for osteoporotic distal radius fractures, but also avoided extensor tendon complications due to dorsal screw protrusion.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed by distal locking screws with different length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the postoperative stability of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed with distal locking screws with different length.A comminuted extra-articular dorsally unstable distal radius fracture, treated with volar locking plate system, was created. The 18 specimens were randomized into 3 groups based on distal locked screws with different length: Group A had unicortical screws with 50% length to the dorsal cortex. Group B had unicortical screws with 75% length to the dorsal cortex. Group C had bicortical screws. Axial compression and bending loads were imposed on the models before and after cycling testing as well as load to clinical and catastrophic failure.Minimum change in stiffness was observed before and after fatigue for all groups. The final stiffness to bending forces was statistically similar in all groups, but stiffness to axial compression was statistically significant different: Group A approached significance with respect to groups B and C (P = 0.017, 0.009, whereas stiffness in group B and C was statistically similar (P = 0.93. Load to clinical failure was significantly less for group A (456.54±78.59 N compared with groups B (580.24±73.85 N and C (591.07±38.40 N. Load to catastrophic failure was statistically similar between groups, but mean values for Group A were 18% less than means for Group C.The volar locking plate system fixed with unicortical locking screws with at least 75% length not only produced early stability for osteoporotic distal radius fractures, but also avoided extensor tendon complications due to dorsal screw protrusion.

  19. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  20. On the inner radius of univalency by pre-Schwarzian derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the inner radius of univalency of hyperbolic domains by pre-Schwarzian derivative is studied,and some general formulas for the lower bound of the inner radius are established. As their applications,the lower bounds of inner radiuses for angular domains and strongly starlike domains are obtained.

  1. STABILITY RADIUS OF NON-SMOOTH PRITCHARD-SALAMON SYSTEMS AND THE ALGEBRAIC RICCATI EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisheng JIANG; Falun HUANG; Tingyu ZHU

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the stability radius of the non-smooth Pritchard-Salamon systems under structured perturbations. A formula for the stability radius in terms of the norm of a certain input-output operator is obtained. Furthermore, the relationship between stability radius and the solvability of some type of algebraic Riccati equations is given.

  2. On the inner radius of univalency by pre-Schwarzian derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao CHENG; Ji-xiu CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the inner radius of univalency of hyperbolic domains by pre-Schwarzian derivative is studied, and some general formulas for the lower bound of the inner radius are established.As their applications, the lower bounds of inner radiuses for angular domains and strongly starlike domains are obtained.

  3. Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the lunate after fracture of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akito; Yajima, Hiroshi; Kisanuki, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    We present a case of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the lunate after fracture of the distal radius. Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the carpal lunate after a fracture of the distal radius has, to our knowledge, not been reported previously. We treated the patient with vascularised bone graft from the distal radius, with a satisfactory result.

  4. The role of charge transfer in the oxidation state change of Ce atoms in the TM13-CeO2(111) systems (TM = Pd, Ag, Pt, Au): a DFT + U investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchuk, Polina; Freire, Rafael L H; Ungureanu, Crina G; Seminovski, Yohanna; Kiejna, Adam; Da Silva, Juarez L F

    2015-05-28

    Despite extensive studies of transition metal (TM) clusters supported on ceria (CeO2), fundamental issues such as the role of the TM atoms in the change in the oxidation state of Ce atoms are still not well understood. In this work, we report a theoretical investigation based on static and ab initio molecular dynamics density functional theory calculations of the interaction of 13-atom TM clusters (TM = Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) with the unreduced CeO2(111) surface represented by a large surface unit cell and employing Hubbard corrections for the strong on-site Coulomb correlation in the Ce f-electrons. We found that the TM13 clusters form pyramidal-like structures on CeO2(111) in the lowest energy configurations with the following stacking sequence, TM/TM4/TM8/CeO2(111), while TM13 adopts two-dimensional structures at high energy structures. TM13 induces a change in the oxidation state of few Ce atoms (3 of 16) located in the topmost Ce layer from Ce(IV) (itinerant Ce f-states) to Ce(III) (localized Ce f-states). There is a charge flow from the TM atoms to the CeO2(111) surface, which can be explained by the electronegativity difference between the TM (Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) and O atoms, however, the charge is not uniformly distributed on the topmost O layer due to the pressure induced by the TM13 clusters on the underlying O ions, which yields a decrease in the ionic charge of the O ions located below the cluster and an increase in the remaining O ions. Due to the charge flow mainly from the TM8-layer to the topmost O-layer, the charge cannot flow from the Ce(IV) atoms to the O atoms with the same magnitude as in the clean CeO2(111) surface. Consequently, the effective cationic charge decreases mainly for the Ce atoms that have a bond with the O atoms not located below the cluster, and hence, those Ce atoms change their oxidation state from IV to III. This increases the size of the Ce(III) compared with the Ce(IV) cations, which builds-in a strain within the topmost Ce layer, and

  5. Image-based micro-finite-element modeling for improved distal radius strength diagnosis: moving from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistoia, W; van Rietbergen, B; Lochmüller, E-M; Lill, C A; Eckstein, F; Rüegsegger, P

    2004-01-01

    Although osteoporosis is characterized by quantitative (mass) and qualitative (structural) changes, standard clinical techniques (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA) only measure the former. Three-dimensional micro-finite-element (micro-FE) models based on high-resolution images can account for structural aspects as well, and it has recently been shown that an improved prediction of distal radius strength is possible with micro-FE analysis. A clinical application of this technique, however, is limited by its high imaging and computational demands. The objective of this study is to investigate if an improved prediction of bone strength can be obtained as well when only a small part of the radius is used for micro-FE modeling. Images of a 1-cm region of the metaphysis of the distal radius of 54 cadaver arms (mean age: 82 +/- 9 SD) made with a three-dimensional peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) device at 165- micro m resolution formed the basis for micro-FE models that were used to predict the bone failure load. Following imaging, specimens were experimentally compressed to failure to produce a Colles'-type fracture. Failure loads predicted from micro-FE analyses agreed well with those measured experimentally (R2 = 0.66, p radius strength.

  6. Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a “signature pattern injury” caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.

  7. Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Rajan, Sunil; Srivastava, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones) along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a "signature pattern injury" caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.

  8. How to extract physics from HBT radius parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W

    1996-01-01

    I review recent progress in the understanding of the connection between the space-time structure of the particle emitting source and the form of the two-particle correlation function in momentum space. Based on a new scheme for calculating the HBT radius parameters from the emission function, strategies are suggested to separate for rapidly expanding sources the information on the spatial and temporal structure of the source. To this end a new fitting function for the two-particle correlation function is proposed. Its usefulness is demonstrated for a typical expanding model source, and it is shown how the dependence of the resulting fit parameters on the momentum of the particle pair can be used to measure the longitudinal and transverse expansion of the source.

  9. Inductive voltage adder (IVA) for submillimeter radius electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The authors have already demonstrated the utility of inductive voltage adder accelerators for production of small-size electron beams. In this approach, the inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed foilless diode to produce high-energy (10--20 MeV), high-brightness pencil electron beams. This concept was first demonstrated with the successful experiments which converted the linear induction accelerator RADLAC II into an IVA fitted with a small 1-cm radius cathode magnetically immersed foilless diode (RADLAC II/SMILE). They present here first validations of extending this idea to mm-scale electron beams using the SABRE and HERMES-III inductive voltage adders as test beds. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 9-MeV electron beams with envelope diameter of 1.5-mm FWHM. The HERMES-III experiments are currently underway.

  10. The muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and the proton radius

    CERN Document Server

    Peset, Clara

    2014-01-01

    We obtain a model independent expression for the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift up to $\\mathcal O (m_\\mu \\alpha^6, m_\\mu \\alpha^5 \\frac{m_\\mu^2}{m_\\rho^2})$. The hadronic effects are controlled by the chiral theory, which allows for their model independent determination. We give their complete expression including the pion and Delta particles. Out of this analysis and the experimental measurement of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift we determine the electromagnetic proton radius: $r_p$=0.8412(15) fm. This number is at 6.8$\\sigma$ variance with respect to the CODATA value. The parametric control of the uncertainties allows us to obtain a model independent determination of the error, which is dominated by hadronic effects.

  11. Constraints on the distribution of supernova remnants with Galactocentric radius

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D A

    2015-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy are an important source of energy injection into the interstellar medium, and also of cosmic rays. Currently there are 294 known SNRs in the Galaxy, and their distribution with Galactocentric radius is of interest for various studies. Here I discuss some of the statistics of Galactic SNRs, including the observational selection effects that apply, and difficulties in obtaining distances for individual remnants from the `Sigma-D' relation. Comparison of the observed Galactic longitude distribution of a sample of bright Galactic SNRs -- which are not strongly affected by selection effects -- with those expected from models is used to constrain the Galactic distribution of SNRs. The best-fitting power-law/exponential model is more concentrated towards the Galactic centre than the widely used distribution obtained by Case & Bhattacharya (1998).

  12. Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubo, M

    2001-01-01

    Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not suc...

  13. Large-radius bipolaron and the polaron-polaron interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashirina, N I [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Lakhno, Viktor D [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-09

    Research on the polaron-polaron interaction and the theory of large-radius bipolarons are reviewed. The difference between the two-center and one-center continuum bipolaron models in isotropic and anisotropic crystals is discussed. It is shown that the inclusion of electron-electron correlations can significantly reduce the bipolaron and D{sup -}-center energies as well as the energies of exchange-bound pairs of shallow hydrogen-like centers. The two-center bipolaron configuration corresponds to a shallow secondary minimum and is unstable. The phonon-mediated exchange interaction between Pekar polarons has an antiferromagnetic nature and exceeds the ferromagnetic interaction due to the Coulomb interaction of electrons localized in polaron potential wells. The possibility that the superfluidity of bipolarons can give rise to high-temperature superconductivity is discussed and problems related to the Wigner crystallization of a polaron gas are examined. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...

  15. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-11-01

    Nanofluidics is the frontier where the continuum picture of fluid mechanics confronts the atomic nature of matter. Recent reports indicate that carbon nanotubes exhibit exceptional water transport properties due to nearly frictionless interfaces and this has stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for desalination, nano-filtration, and energy harvesting. However, the fundamental mechanisms of water transport inside nanotubes and at water-carbon interfaces remain controversial, as existing theories fail to provide a satisfying explanation for the limited experimental results. We report a study of water jets emerging from single nanotubes made of carbon and boron-nitride materials. Our experiments reveal extensive and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes (CNT). In stark contrast, boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNT), which are crystallographically similar to CNTs but electronically different, exhibit no slippage. This shows that slippage originates in subtle atomic-scale details of the solid-liquid interface. ERC StG - NanoSOFT.

  16. Heliocentric radius of the cosmic ray modulation boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, B. A.; Van Allen, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A semiempirical analysis is made of an extensive body of observed cosmic ray intensity data from Pioneers 10 and 11, and related spectral information from other authors, in order to infer the radius R of the modulation region surrounding the sun. During the period 1972-1985, the inferred values of R vary with time systematically and in a manner generally similar to that of sunspot numbers. The range of values of R is from 42 AU at the time of minimum solar activity (circa 1976) to 88 AU about 1.5 yr following the time of maximum solar activity (circa 1980). A specific, testable prediction is that Pioneer 10 will reach the modulation boundary in 1988, and will remain in its vicinity for several years thereafter.

  17. Galaxy Mass, Metallicity, Radius and Star Formation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Brisbin, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Working with 108,786 Sloan Digital Sky Survey low redshift galaxies, we have examined the relation between galaxy mass, metallicity, radius, and star formation rates. We subdivided the redshift range covered in our sample 0.072.8E10 Msun and exhibit high metallicities at high star formation rates, suggesting that for these galaxies star formation independent of mass infall plays a significant role. A toy model for the physics of infall accounts for the SFR Mi^(3/2) relation and permits us to estimate the mean densities and velocities of clumps of baryonic matter traversing the dark matter halos in which the SDSS galaxies may be embedded. The model also reproduces the gross features of the galaxy main sequence.

  18. Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.

  19. Effect of 4-week Whole Body Vibration on Distal Radius Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Tan; Yan-hui Li; Xin Dong; Bin Zhao; Dong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of high-frequency loading using whole body vibration on distal radius density in adults. Methods The volunteers diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia in the First Hospital of Jilin University from January 2011 to December 2014 were recruited. All the subjects performed foot-based, whole body vibrations on the vibration platform (35 Hz, 0.25 g) once a day, for 15 minutes per session over a period of 4 weeks. The bone mineral density of distal radius (rBMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at before, 2-week, and 4-week after the vibration treatment. Blood pressures were measured at the end of the vibration treatment. Results A total of 114 volunteers were enrolled. The average rBMD before the treatment was 0.331±0.014 g/cm2. It was reached 0.337±0.019 g/cm2at the end of the fourth week, increased by 1.79% (P<0.05). Whole body vibration increased rBMD of men and women respectively (1.77% and 1.80%, P<0.05). Blood pressures did not change in any of the groups. Conclusion A 4-week whole body vibration was feasible and contributed to increase of rBMD.

  20. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is the standard procedure for correcting positive ulnar variance. Goal of this procedure is to minimize the symptoms by restoring the neutral radio - ulnar variance. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for ulnar shorthening osteotomy, their advantages and drawbacks. Methods of ulnar shortening osteotomies are divided into intraarticular and extraarticular. Intraarticular method of ulnar shortening can be performed arthroscopically or through open approach. Extraarticular methods include subcapital osteotomy and osteotomy of ulnar diaphysis, which depending on shape can be transverse, oblique, and step cut. All of those osteotomies can be performed along wrist arthroscopy in order to dispose and treat possibly existing triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. At the end we described surgical procedures that can be done in case of ulnar shorthening osteotomy failure. PMID:26157524

  1. Measurement of ulnar variance and radial inclination on X-rays of healed distal radius fractures. With the axis of the distal radius or ulna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuysbaert, Gilles; Ringburg, Akkie; Petronilia, Steven; Vanden Berghe, Alex; Hollevoet, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Ulnar variance and radial inclination are radiological parameters frequently used to evaluate displacement of distal radius fractures. In most studies measurements are based on the long central axis of the distal radius, although the axis of the distal ulna can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine which axis is more reliable. Four observers performed measurements on standard anteroposterior digital wrist X-rays of 20 patients taken 1 and 2 months after sustaining an extra-articular distal radius fracture. Intraobserver reliability was similar with both methods. No difference was found in interobserver reliability between both methods for ulnar variance, but for radial inclination it was better with the axis through the radius. Measurements on two X-rays of the same wrist taken at a different moment were similar with both methods. It can be concluded that the central axis of the distal radius can remain the basis to determine ulnar variance and radial inclination.

  2. Stability of gravitating charged-scalar solitons in a cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai; Dolan, Sam R

    2016-01-01

    We present new regular solutions of Einstein-charged scalar field theory in a cavity. The system is enclosed inside a reflecting mirror-like boundary, on which the scalar field vanishes. The mirror is placed at the zero of the scalar field closest to the origin, and inside this boundary our solutions are regular. We study the stability of these solitons under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, scalar and electromagnetic fields. If the radius of the mirror is sufficiently large, we present numerical evidence for the stability of the solitons. For small mirror radius, some of the solitons are unstable. We discuss the physical interpretation of this instability.

  3. Radius of lunar core estimated by GRAIL results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K.; Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, F.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Sasaki, S.

    2013-12-01

    Internal structure and composition of the Moon provide important clue and constraints on theories for how the Moon formed and evolved. The Apollo seismic network has contributed to the internal structure modeling. Efforts have been made to detect the lunar core from the noisy Apollo data (e.g., [1], [2]), but there is scant information about the structure below the deepest moonquakes at about 1000 km depth. On the other hand, there have been geodetic studies to infer the deep structure of the Moon. For example, LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) data analyses detected a displacement of the lunar pole of rotation, indicating that dissipation is acting on the rotation arising from a fluid core [3]. Bayesian inversion using geodetic data (such as mass, moments of inertia, tidal Love numbers k2 and h2, and quality factor Q) also suggests a fluid core and partial melt in the lower mantle region [4]. Recent analyses of GRAIL data have achieved the improved k2 accuracy; JPL solution is 0.02405 × 0.00018 [5], and GSFC solution is 0.02427 × 0.00026 [6]. The two solutions are consistent with each other within their error bounds, and the accuracy of k2 is now about 1 %. Such an accurately-determined Love number will contribute to constrain the structure of the lunar deep interior, such as the radius of the possible liquid core. We used geodetic data of the mass, the mean moment of inertia, the Love numbers h2 and k2 to infer the size of liquid core. It is difficult to tightly constrain the internal structure from the geodetic data only because there are trade-offs among the structures of crust, mantle, and core. In our preliminary analysis we used a 5-layer model and the mantle structure was constrained by VPREMOON [2] with 5 % error for density and 10 % error for shear and bulk moduli being assumed. An inversion using Markov chain Monte Carlo method indicates that the core radius is 480 × 50 km, but the density values were sampled around the assumed lower limit of 3600 kg/m3. When

  4. ABCD-Type Law for Charged-Particle Beam Transport in Paraxial Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝信; 孙别和

    2003-01-01

    Based on the similarity between charged-particle beam transversal transport and transmission of ellipse Gaussian light beam in paraxial approximation, it is shown that charged-particle beam transversal transport in real space is governed by the ABCD-type law for a complex curvature radius of the charged-particle beam in which the beam transverse emittance plays the role of wavelength; from this, a novel technique for characterizing charged-particle beam is proposed. Finally, this analogy provides an insight observation that it is hopeful to attain possible coherent charged-particle beam in favourable accelerator environment.

  5. On the Field of a Spherical Charged Pulsating Distribution of Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of the gravitational field generated by an isotropic spherical mass, the spheres centered at the origin of $R^3$ are non-Euclidean objects, so that each of them possesses a curvature radius distinct from its Euclidean radius. The classical theory suppresses this distinction and consequently leads to inadmissible errors. Specifically, it leads to the false idea that the field of a pulsating source is static. In a number of our previous publications (see references, we have exposed the inevitable role that the curvature radius plays and demonstrated that the field generated by a pulsating not charged spherical course is dynamical. In the present paper we prove that the curvature radius plays also the main role in the description of the gravitational field generated by a charged pulsating source.

  6. What Is the Largest Einstein Radius in the Universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Blandford, Roger D.

    2008-08-05

    The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterizes the strength of gravitational lensing. In particular, the distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cutoff should probe the probability distribution of the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of Monte-Carlo realizations of all-sky catalogues of massive clusters. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to parameters characterizing the cosmological model, especially {sigma}{sub s}: for a source redshift of unity, they are 42{sub -7}{sup +9}, 35{sub -6}{sup +8}, and 54{sub -7}{sup +12} arcseconds (errors denote 1{sigma} cosmic variance), assuming best-fit cosmological parameters of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year (WMAP5), three-year (WMAP3) and one-year (WMAP1) data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. The mass of the largest lens cluster can be as small as {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}}. For the same source redshift, we expect in all-sky {approx} 35 (WMAP5), {approx} 15 (WMAP3), and {approx} 150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 2000. For a larger source redshift of 7, the largest Einstein radii grow approximately twice as large. While the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the level of the primordial non-Gaussianity currently of interest, the measurement of the abundance of moderately large lens clusters should probe non-Gaussianity competitively with cosmic microwave background experiments, but only if other cosmological parameters are well-measured. These semi-analytic predictions are based on a rather simple representation of clusters, and hence calibrating them with N-body simulations will help to improve the accuracy. We also find that these &apos

  7. Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatti Giovanni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Materials and Methods Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics® in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. Results At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8–12 years, 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%. The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50,15 to a postoperative value of 92,69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1,25 mm (min. 0,08, max. 3,9 mm, with a mean annual wear of 0,17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1,6 mm and 1,8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases. The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint at the time was 88,9%. Conclusion Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the

  8. [Py-Desmanet pinning in distal radius fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O; Popia, I

    2009-01-01

    Internal fixation by pinning is one of the most used methods of surgical treatment in fractures of the distal extremity of the radius. As in stable fractures a styloid pinning is satisfactory, in unstable fractures however we must resort to different patterns of pin insertion, in order to effectively prevent the secondary displacement of the fractured fragments. The elastic pinning described by Py and Desmanet is one of the possibilities of inserting the pins. The principle of this method is to use the bending-induced tension in the pins to counteract the postero-lateral displacing forces. The authors have treated by this technique five patients with distal radius fractures (3 women and 2 men) about 56 years of average age, all with good-quality bone, all with Colles' fracture pattern (2-4 cm above the radio-carpal articulation, no articular involvement, posterior displacement of the distal fragment). The reduction of the fractures was achieved by closed manipulation and controlled intraoperatively with the C-arm. We preferred to reduce the fractures before inserting the pins, although this is not compulsory, according to the authors of the technique. The approach was minimally-invasive, through two 1-cm long incisions. The pins, previously blunted and curved along the last centimeters, were introduced using a "T"-shaped handle. The potential complications, consisting of injuries of the many elements which cross the region, were avoided by sufficiently long incisions and identification and retraction of these elements (tendons, nervous branches) in order not to penetrate them with the pins. The aftertreatment consisted of immediate mobilization of the wrist in one patient, 21-day splinting in other two and 30-day splinting in the last two, depending on the intraoperative assessment of the stability of the fixation. The pins were removed at 45 days postoperatively in all cases. There were no complications such as loss of reduction or pin migration. In all cases

  9. Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Fabio; Molina, Mauro; Riva, Giacomo; Zatti, Giovanni; Cherubino, Paolo

    2008-08-07

    Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8-12 years), 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%). The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50.15 to a postoperative value of 92.69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1.25 mm (min. 0.08, max 3.9 mm), with a mean annual wear of 0.17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1.6 mm and 1.8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases). The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint) at the time was 88,9%. Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the patient refuses the possibility of a revision.

  10. Photoinduced Change in the Charge Order Pattern in the Quarter-Filled Organic Conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with a Strong Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Yonemitsu, Kenji; Maeshima, Nobuya; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The quasistable state in the photoinduced phase transition for the quasi-one-dimensional quarter-filled organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 has been examined by ultrafast reflective measurements and time-dependent model calculations incorporating both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. The transient optical conductivity spectrum over a wide probe photon-energy range revealed that photoexcitation induced a new type of charge-disproportionate state. Additionally, coherent and incoherent oscillations dependent on probe photon energies were found, as predicted by the calculation.

  11. On the Field of a Stationary Charged Spherical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of gravitation related to the field of a spherical charged source imply the existence of an interdependence between gravitation and electricity [5]. The present paper deals with the joint action of gravitation and electricity in the case of a stationary charged spherical source. Let m and " be respectively the mass and the charge of the source, and let k be the gravitational constant. Then the equations of gravitation need specific discussion according as j " j m p k (source strongly charged. In any case the curvature radius of the sphere bounding the matter possesses a strictly positive greatest lower hound, so that the source is necessarily an extended object. Pointwise sources do not exist. In particular, charged black holes do not exist.

  12. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  13. Effect of Zn Adsorption on Charge of Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNHAN-YUAN

    1993-01-01

    The variation in appa rent carge of two typical variable charge soils resulting from Zn adsorption were studied by KCl saturation and NH4NO3 replacement methods.Results showed that zinc were adsorbed specifically to those sites with negative charge.As in different pH ranges,the percantages of specific and electrostatic adsorptions of zine and the mechanisms of specific adsorption were different,the effects of Zn adsorption on apparent charge were varied and could be characterized as:when 1 mmol Zn2+ was adsorbed,a change about 1 mmol in the apparent charge was observed in the low pH range(1),1.4 to 1.5mmol in the moderate pH range(II) and 0.55 to 0.6mmol in the high pH range (III).These experimental data,in terms of soil charge,proved once more author's conclusion in the preceding paper(Sun,1993) that in accordance with the behaviors of Zn adsorption by the variable charge soils in relation to pH,three pH ranges with different adsorption mechanisms were delineated;that is,in Range I,specific adsorption was the predominant mechanism,in Ranges II and III,specific and electrostatic adsorptions co-existed,but their specific adsorption mechanisms were not identical.

  14. Recombination radius of a Frenkel pair and capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by vacancy clusters in bcc Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-08-26

    The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in irradiated materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1.0a0 to 3.3a0 have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomic level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a0 by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster.

  15. Possible Solutions to the Radius Anomalies of Transiting Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A; Budai, J D; Hubbard, W B

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical evolution of the radii of all fourteen of the known transiting extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a variety of atmospheric metallicities, dense inner core masses, and possible internal power sources. We incorporate the effects of stellar irradiation and customize such effects for each EGP and star. Looking collectively at the family as a whole, we find that there are in fact two radius anomalies to be explained. Not only are the radii of a subset of the known transiting EGPs larger than expected from previous theory, but many of the other objects are smaller than the default theory would allow. We suggest that the larger EGPs can be explained by invoking super-solar metallicity atmospheres and opacities that naturally retain internal heat and straightforwardly comport with the observed correlation between the statistics of EGPs and parent metallicity. This explanation might obviate the necessity for an extra internal power source. We explain the smaller radii by the presence in p...

  16. Placing molecules with Bohr radius resolution using DNA origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jonas J.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly with nucleic acids can be used to fabricate discrete objects with defined sizes and arbitrary shapes. It relies on building blocks that are commensurate to those of biological macromolecular machines and should therefore be capable of delivering the atomic-scale placement accuracy known today only from natural and designed proteins. However, research in the field has predominantly focused on producing increasingly large and complex, but more coarsely defined, objects and placing them in an orderly manner on solid substrates. So far, few objects afford a design accuracy better than 5 nm, and the subnanometre scale has been reached only within the unit cells of designed DNA crystals. Here, we report a molecular positioning device made from a hinged DNA origami object in which the angle between the two structural units can be controlled with adjuster helices. To test the positioning capabilities of the device, we used photophysical and crosslinking assays that report the coordinate of interest directly with atomic resolution. Using this combination of placement and analysis, we rationally adjusted the average distance between fluorescent molecules and reactive groups from 1.5 to 9 nm in 123 discrete displacement steps. The smallest displacement step possible was 0.04 nm, which is slightly less than the Bohr radius. The fluctuation amplitudes in the distance coordinate were also small (±0.5 nm), and within a factor of two to three of the amplitudes found in protein structures.

  17. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-09-08

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.

  18. Mass-Radius Relation of Strongly Magnetized White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, P.; Bhattacharya, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of the white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M⊙ may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 1010 T. On the other hand if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of the Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of the equation of state due to Landau quantization, ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, iii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iv) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.

  19. Mass-Radius Relation for Rocky Planets based on PREM

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Several small dense exoplanets are now known, inviting comparisons to Earth and Venus. Such comparisons require translating their masses and sizes to composition models of evolved multi-layer-interior planets. Such theoretical models rely on our understanding of the Earth's interior, as well as independently derived equations of state (EOS), but have so far not involved direct extrapolations from Earth's seismic model -PREM. In order to facilitate more detailed compositional comparisons between small exoplanets and the Earth, we derive here a semi-empirical mass-radius relation for two-layer rocky planets based on PREM: ${\\frac{R}{R_\\oplus}} = (1.07-0.21\\cdot \\text{CMF})\\cdot (\\frac{M}{M_\\oplus})^{1/3.7}$, where CMF stands for Core Mass Fraction. It is applicable to 1$\\sim$8 M$_{\\oplus}$ and CMF of 0.0$\\sim$0.4. Applying this formula to Earth and Venus and several known small exoplanets with radii and masses measured to better than $\\sim$30\\% precision gives a CMF fit of $0.26\\pm0.07$.

  20. Mass-Radius Relation for Rocky Planets Based on PREM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-03-01

    Several small dense exoplanets are now known, inviting comparisons to Earth and Venus. Such comparisons require translating their masses and sizes to composition models of evolved multi-layer interior planets. Such theoretical models rely on our understanding of the Earth’s interior, as well as independently derived equations of state, but so far have not involved direct extrapolations from Earth’s seismic model: the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). To facilitate more detailed compositional comparisons between small exoplanets and the Earth, we derive here a semi-empirical mass-radius relation for two-layer rocky planets based on PREM, \\frac{R}{{R}\\oplus }=(1.07-0.21\\cdot {CMF})\\cdot {≤ft(\\frac{M}{{M}\\oplus }\\right)}1/3.7, where CMF stands for core mass fraction. It is applicable to 1 ˜ 8 M⊕ and a CMF of 0.0 ˜ 0.4. Applying this formula to Earth and Venus and several known small exoplanets with radii and masses measured to better than ˜30% precision gives a CMF fit of 0.26 ± 0.07.

  1. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-09-01

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.

  2. Mass-radius relation of strongly magnetized white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Prasanta; Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M_{⊙} may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 10^{10} T. On the other hand, if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M_⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of equation of state due to Landau quantization ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, ii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iii) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.

  3. Photospheric radius expansion in superburst precursors from neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data was of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the PCA instrument on RXTE, we perform the first detailed time resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the lacking energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our techniq...

  4. System Estimates Radius of Curvature of a Segmented Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John

    2008-01-01

    A system that estimates the global radius of curvature (GRoC) of a segmented telescope mirror has been developed for use as one of the subsystems of a larger system that exerts precise control over the displacements of the mirror segments. This GRoC-estimating system, when integrated into the overall control system along with a mirror-segment- actuation subsystem and edge sensors (sensors that measure displacements at selected points on the edges of the segments), makes it possible to control the GROC mirror-deformation mode, to which mode contemporary edge sensors are insufficiently sensitive. This system thus makes it possible to control the GRoC of the mirror with sufficient precision to obtain the best possible image quality and/or to impose a required wavefront correction on incoming or outgoing light. In its mathematical aspect, the system utilizes all the information available from the edge-sensor subsystem in a unique manner that yields estimates of all the states of the segmented mirror. The system does this by exploiting a special set of mirror boundary conditions and mirror influence functions in such a way as to sense displacements in degrees of freedom that would otherwise be unobservable by means of an edge-sensor subsystem, all without need to augment the edge-sensor system with additional metrological hardware. Moreover, the accuracy of the estimates increases with the number of mirror segments.

  5. Closing capacity of segmental radius defects in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodde, Esther W H; Spauwen, Paul H M; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A

    2008-04-01

    In the research of synthetic bone graft substitutes, the relevance for bone regeneration can be confirmed in a critical-sized model. In this study the rabbit radial defect was investigated as an ingenious model of critical size, due to its defect immobilizing intact ulna. In addition, the influence of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on bone regeneration was determined. Sixteen, 4-month-old rabbits received bilateral segmental radial defects of 15 or 20 mm. The osteotomy ends were marked with small titanium pins. Half of the group received injected PLGA microparticle/carboxymethylcellulose implants. Implantation time was 12 weeks. Evaluation consisted of radiographs after surgery and sacrifice, microcomputed tomography and histology. The radiographs revealed that the created defects were significantly smaller after sacrifice. Further a number of radii showed fibrocartilaginous interposition. Both findings indicated instability of the created defect. All evaluation techniques revealed that 15 and 20 mm were not of critical size, as most defects were more or less regenerated. PLGA microparticles did not influence bone regeneration significantly. In conclusion, 15- and 20-mm radius defects in 4-month-old rabbits were not a suitable model for bone regeneration as these defects were neither critical size nor stable. PLGA-microparticle degradation did not influence bone regeneration.

  6. Mass-radius relations for helium white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Civelek, R

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, white dwarf stars are receiving increasing attension. The recent studies on the relation of M-R for the WDs are those of Wood (1990), Vennes et al. (1995) and Althaus and Benvenuto (1997, 1998). Vennes et al. (1995) computed static M-R relation for masses between 0.4 $M_\\odot$ and 0.7 $M_\\odot$ assuming non zero temperature effects. They assumed the luminosity is proportional to the mass which works for cool WDs but their results are in the range of high effective temperatures. As Althaus and Benvenuto (1997) mentioned, luminosity is not proportional to a constant for hot WD interiors because of neutrino emission. The purpose of this study is to present the effect of neutrino emission at finite temperatures. We considered fully degenerate configuration for WDs with pure helium composition to obtain static mass-radius relation for masses greater than 0.4 $M_\\odot$ with luminosity mass ratio due to neutrino energy loss.

  7. Photogrammetric analysis of the articular surface of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, A; Seker, D Z; Tuncay, I; Duran, Z

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional measurements made using photogrammetry have recently gained popularity with the development of real-time detection facilities and up-to-date equipment. The modelling of human bones presents a particular challenge as the measurements required are difficult to obtain, especially from uneven surfaces. In this study, the articular surfaces of 12 radius bones were evaluated using photogrammetry to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of certain points. Morphometric characteristics of the digital topography of the articular surface were analysed using three-dimensional data from more than 200 points for each specimen. The coronal plane curve, from the tip of the styloid process to the centre of the distal radioulnar articular notch, was found to be similar to the fourth degree polynomial function. A mathematical expression representing the sagittal curve passing through scapholunate border could not be found. Close-range photogrammetry is a safe and precise technique that can provide reliable, reproducible and accurate data for evaluating complex morphological surfaces.

  8. Volar morphology of the distal radius in axial planes: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, Keiichiro; Oka, Kunihiro; Kawanishi, Yohei; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the cause of rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) after volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures, previous studies have examined the shape of the distal radius in the sagittal plane or in the lateral view. However, there are no reports on the anatomical shape of the volar surface concavity of the distal radius in the axial plane. We hypothesized that this concavity might contribute to the mismatch between the plate and the surface of the radius. To test this hypothesis, we constructed three-dimensional models of the radius and FPL based on computed tomography scans of 70 normal forearms. We analyzed axial cross-sectional views with 2 mm intervals. In all cases, the volar surface of the distal radius was concave in the axial plane. The concavity depth was maximum at 6 mm proximal to the palmar edge of the lunate fossa and progressively decreased toward the proximal radius. FPL was closest to the radius at 2 mm proximal to the palmar edge of the lunate fossa. The volar surface of the distal radius was externally rotated from proximal to distal. These results may help to develop new implants which fit better to the radius and decrease tendon irritation.

  9. Preresonance Raman studies of metal-to-ligand charge transfer in (NH sub 3 ) sub 4 Ru(2,2 prime -bpy) sup 2+. In situ bond length changes, force constants, and reorganization energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, S.K.; Hupp, J.T. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))

    1989-06-21

    As a prototype for charge-transfer reactions in general, the intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition occurring in Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}(bpy){sup 2+} (bpy = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine) has been examined experimentally by resonance and preresonance Raman spectroscopy and analytically by time-dependent scattering theory. To their knowledge, the present example represents the first application of the theory to charge-transfer problems. From the experiments and corresponding theory, the normal-coordinate changes accompanying the transition have been calculated. Both metal-ligand and intraligand bonds are found to distort significantly. When the distortion data are combined with the observed vibrational frequencies, a mode-by-mode assessment of the inner-shell reorganization energy is possible. Further experiments, in which the nature of the solvent is systematically varied, show that selected force constants (and therefore selected components of the internal reorganization energy) are modulated significantly (ca. 6-11 %) by ligand-solvent hydrogen bonding. Finally, variations in the nature of the solvent are found to shift ground- and/or excited-state energies in such a way as to either enhance or attenuate the occurrence of net photochemistry.

  10. Retrospective comparison of percutaneous fixation and volar internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A; Doornberg, Job N; Ring, David

    2008-06-01

    A change in the practice of a single surgeon provided an opportunity for retrospective comparison of comparable cohorts treated with percutaneous fixation (17 patients) or a volar plate and screws (23 patients) an average of 30 months after surgery. The final evaluation was performed according to the Gartland and Werley and Mayo rating systems and the DASH questionnaire. There were no significant differences on the average scores for the percutaneous and volar plating groups, respectively: Gartland and Werley, 4 vs 5; Mayo, 82 vs 83; and DASH score 13 for both cohorts. Motion, grip, and radiographical parameters were likewise comparable. Volar internal plate and screw fixation can achieve results comparable to percutaneous fixation techniques in the treatment of fractures of the distal radius.

  11. Effect of ring notch radius on the decohesion mode in AlSi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pieklo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of the, determined by tensile test, non-linear characteristics of AlSi alloys on the value of the shape factor k for the three different sizes of the radius of the ring notch made on round specimens. Applying a numerical solution, the changes of stress in the notch plane were determined in function of the notch configuration and the value of instantaneous load. Tensile tests were carried out on round bars with ring notches. The appearance of fractures was examined on scanning images. Differences in notch effect observed in the linear-elastic and elastic-plastic model of material hardening in a non-linear mode were described.

  12. A possible correlation between planetary radius and orbital period for small planets

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit; Zucker, Shay

    2015-01-01

    We suggest the existence of a correlation between the planetary radius and orbital period for planets with radii smaller than 4 R_Earth. Using the Kepler data, we find a correlation coefficient of 0.5120, and suggest that the correlation is not caused solely by survey incompleteness. While the correlation coefficient could change depending on the statistical analysis, the statistical significance of the correlation is robust. Further analysis shows that the correlation originates from two contributing factors. One seems to be a power-law dependence between the two quantities for intermediate periods (3-100 days), and the other is a dearth of planets with radii larger than 2 R_Earth in short periods. This correlation may provide important constraints for small-planet formation theories and for understanding the dynamical evolution of planetary systems.

  13. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  14. Solvation effects on like-charge attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Shahzad; Rottler, Jörg

    2013-02-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the electrostatic interaction between two parallel charged rods in the presence of divalent counterions. Such polyelectrolytes have been considered as a simple model for understanding electrostatic interactions in highly charged biomolecules such as DNA. Since there are correlations between the free charge carriers, the phenomenon of like charge attraction appears for specific parameters. We explore the role of solvation effects and the resulting deviations from Coulomb's law on the nanoscale on this peculiar phenomenon. The behavior of the force between the charged rods in a simulation with atomistic representation of water molecules is completely different from a model in which water is modeled as a continuum dielectric. By calculating counterion-rodion pair correlation functions, we find that the presence of water molecules changes the structure of the counterion cloud and results in both qualitative and quantitative changes of the force between highly charged polyelectrolytes.

  15. Design and experimental research of a novel inchworm type piezo-driven rotary actuator with the changeable clamping radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Lu; Ren, Luquan; Huang, Hu; Fan, Zunqiang; Li, Jianping; Qu, Han

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel piezo-driven rotary actuator with the changeable clamping radius is developed based on the inchworm principle. This actuator mainly utilizes three piezoelectric actuators, a flexible gripper, a clamping block, and a rotor to achieve large stroke rotation with high resolution. The design process of the flexible gripper consisting of the driving unit and the clamping unit is described. Lever-type mechanisms were used to amplify the micro clamping displacements. The amplifying factor and parasitic displacement of the lever-type mechanism in the clamping unit was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. In order to investigate the rotation characteristics of the actuator, a series of experiments was carried out. Experimental results indicate that the actuator can rotate at a speed of 77,488 μrad/s with a driving frequency of 167 Hz. The rotation resolution and maximum load torque of the actuator are 0.25 μrad and 37 N mm, respectively. The gripper is movable along the z direction based on an elevating platform, and the clamping radius can change from 10.6 mm to 25 mm. Experimental results confirm that the actuator can achieve different rotation speeds by changing the clamping radius.

  16. Research on the relation between the contact angle and the interface curvature radius of electrowetting liquid zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cunhua; Liang, Huiqin; Cui, Dongqing; Hong, Xinhua; Wei, Daling; Gao, Changliu

    2011-08-01

    In the ultralight or ultrathin applied domain of zoom lens, the traditional glass / plastic lens is limited for manufacture technology or cost. Therefore, a liquid lens was put forward to solve the problems. The liquid zoom lens has the merits of lower cost, smaller volume, quicker response, lower energy consumption, continuous zoom and higher accuracy. In liquid zoom lens the precise focal length is obtained by the contact angle changing to affect the curvature radius of interface. In our works, the relations of the exerted voltage, the contact angle, the curvature radius and the focal length were researched and accurately calculated. The calculation of the focal length provides an important theoretical basis for instructing the design of liquid zoom lens.

  17. Effective dynamics of a classical point charges

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham-Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out.

  18. Thermodynamics and Charging of Interstellar Iron Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Brandon S.; Draine, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    Interstellar iron in the form of metallic iron nanoparticles may constitute a component of the interstellar dust. We compute the stability of iron nanoparticles to sublimation in the interstellar radiation field, finding that iron clusters can persist down to a radius of ≃4.5 Å, and perhaps smaller. We employ laboratory data on small iron clusters to compute the photoelectric yields as a function of grain size and the resulting grain charge distribution in various interstellar environments, finding that iron nanoparticles can acquire negative charges, particularly in regions with high gas temperatures and ionization fractions. If ≳10% of the interstellar iron is in the form of ultrasmall iron clusters, the photoelectric heating rate from dust may be increased by up to tens of percent relative to dust models with only carbonaceous and silicate grains.

  19. Thermodynamics and Charging of Interstellar Iron Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Hensley, Brandon S

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar iron in the form of metallic iron nanoparticles may constitute a component of the interstellar dust. We compute the stability of iron nanoparticles to sublimation in the interstellar radiation field, finding that iron clusters can persist down to a radius of $\\simeq 4.5\\,$\\AA, and perhaps smaller. We employ laboratory data on small iron clusters to compute the photoelectric yields as a function of grain size and the resulting grain charge distribution in various interstellar environments, finding that iron nanoparticles can acquire negative charges particularly in regions with high gas temperatures and ionization fractions. If $\\gtrsim 10\\%$ of the interstellar iron is in the form of ultrasmall iron clusters, the photoelectric heating rate from dust may be increased by up to tens of percent relative to dust models with only carbonaceous and silicate grains.

  20. Radius model of convex vertical curve of freeway based on attachment coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-ling; PEI Yu-long

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal slope brake model was established for the radius calculation of vertical curve of free-way through analyzing the dynamics of brake-running of vehicles running on the longitudinal slope road section. To satisfy the requirement of sight distance, a relation model was established for the attachment coefficient and the convex vertical curve radius. Using MATLAB simulation technique, the convex vertical curve radius at different attachment conditions was calculated accurately and a three-dimensional figure was drawn to describe the relation between the adhesive coefficient, the driving velocity and the radius of vertical curve. The correlation between the convex vertical curve radius and the adhesive coefficient was further analyzed and compared with National Technical Standards. The suggested radius of vertical curve was then put forward to provide a theoretical platform for the security design of the convex vertical curve.

  1. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Greenwald

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge-exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  2. Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control During Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved

  3. Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control During Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved

  4. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for distal radius fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of distal radius are common injury in all age groups. Cast treatment with or without close reduction is a viable option. However, the results are often unsatisfactory with restricted function. The open reduction and internal fixation often results in extensive soft tissue dissection and associated high rates of infection and delayed/nonunion. The distractor/external fixator have reported good functional and anatomical results but the incidence of pin traction infection nerve injury and cosmedic deformity are high. We introduced a modified operative technique for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO for distal radial fracture and evaluated the functional outcomes and complications. Materials and Methods: 22 distal radial fractures (10 left, 12 right were treated using the MIPO technique and two small incisions with a palmar locking plate from August 2009 to August 2010. The wrist function was assessed according to Dienst wrist rating system, and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: According to Dienst wrist rating system, 13 patients showed excellent results, 6 cases showed good results and 3 patients had moderate results. No patient had poor results. Thus, the excellent and good rate was 86.4%. One patient had anesthesia in the thenar eminence and this symptom disappeared after 3 months. One patient had delayed healing in the proximal wrist crease. Two patients had mild pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and two patients had limited wrist joint function. Conclusion: The MIPO technique by using two small palmar incisions is safe and effective for treatment of distal radial fractures.

  5. The strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Currently available polyaxial locking plates represent the consequent enhancement of fixed-angle, first-generation locking plates. In contrast to fixed-angle locking plates which are sufficiently investigated, the strength of the new polyaxial locking options has not yet been evaluated biomechanically. This study investigates the mechanical strength of single polyaxial interfaces of different volar radius plates. Single screw-plate interfaces of the implants Palmar 2.7 (Königsee Implantate und Instrumente zur Osteosynthese GmbH, Allendorf, Germany), VariAx (Stryker Leibinger GmbH & Co. KG, Freiburg, Germany) und Viper (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ, USA) were tested by cantilever bending. The strength of 0 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees screw locking angle was obtained during static and dynamic loading. The Palmar 2.7 interfaces showed greater ultimate strength and fatigue strength than the interfaces of the other implants. The strength of the VariAx interfaces was about 60% of Palmar 2.7 in both, static and dynamic loading. No dynamic testing was applied to the Viper plate because of its low ultimate strength. By static loading, an increase in screw locking angle caused a reduction of strength for the Palmar 2.7 and Viper locking interfaces. No influence was observed for the VariAx locking interfaces. During dynamic loading; angulation had no influence on the locking strength of Palmar 2.7. However, reduction of locking strength with increasing screw angulation was observed for VariAx. The strength of the polyaxial locking interfaces differs remarkably between the examined implants. Depending on the implant an increase of the screw locking angle causes a reduction of ultimate or fatigue strength, but not in all cases a significant impact was observed.

  6. Microscopic Charge Density Wave Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the work performed on crystals with a phase transition to a Charge-Density Wave (CDW). The electrical transport properties change when crystal sizes are smaller than characteristic length scales for CDWs, typically 1 micrometer. In contrast to metals, semiconductors and superco

  7. Research on the expanding deformation of ring radius in cold profiled ring rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cold profiled ring rolling is an advanced local plastic deformation technology widely used to precisely manufacture various complex seamless ring parts.It plays an important role in many industrial fields such as aeronautics,astronautics,automobile,bearings,etc.In the cold ring rolling process,the ring radius expands gradually with the increase of the feeding amount(i.e.rolling reduction),and the expanding deformation of the ring radius is closely related to the rolling reduction.It is very important to investigate the expanding deformation of ring radius for the precise control of ring dimensions and the design of feeding movement.In this paper,the relation between the expanding deformation of the ring radius and the rolling reduction in the stepped ring rolling process,a typical profiled ring rolling process,is analyzed by using analytical method.The results show that the growth amount of the filling depth of groove can’t exceed the rolling reduction,that in the inner stepped ring rolling process,the curves of the outer radius and big inner radius with the rolling reduction are monotonous,ascending and concave,i.e.,the outer radius and big inner radius expand faster and faster with the increase of the rolling reduction,and that in the outer stepped ring rolling process,the curves of the inner radius and small outer radius with the rolling reduction are also monotonous,ascending and concave,i.e.,the inner radius and small outer radius expand faster and faster with the increase of the roll reduction.

  8. Posterolateral Elbow Dislocation with Ipsilateral Fractures of Head and Distal End Radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dislocation associated with ipsilateral fracture head and distal end radius is a rare pattern of Injury, although it is common for elbow dislocation and radius fractures to occur separately. We report a case of 35 year-old male who had a posterolateral elbow dislocation with ipsilateral fractures of head and distal end radius that underwent closed reduction and POP application and outcome is excellent with 9 months of follow-up.

  9. Radius of robust feasibility formulas for classes of convex programs with uncertain polynomial constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Goberna, Miguel A.; Jeyakumar, Vaithilingam; Li, Guoyin; Linh, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    The radius of robust feasibility of a convex program with uncertain constraints gives a value for the maximal ‘size’ of an uncertainty set under which robust feasibility can be guaranteed. This paper provides an upper bound for the radius for convex programs with uncertain convex polynomial constraints and exact formulas for convex programs with SOS-convex polynomial constraints (or convex quadratic constraints) under affine data uncertainty. These exact formulas allow the radius to be comput...

  10. Brodie's abscess of the distal radius: an unusual complication after percutaneous pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff W; Bindra, Randip R

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Brodie's abscess of the distal radius that presented 4 years after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for a closed distal radius fracture. This condition has not been previously reported in the adult distal radius and we detail the clinical features and imaging findings. We also present a new way of management of Brodie's abscess using injectable bone substitute along with adjunctive parenteral antibiotic therapy.

  11. Brodie’s Abscess of the Distal Radius: An Unusual Complication after Percutaneous Pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Randip R.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Brodie’s abscess of the distal radius that presented 4 years after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for a closed distal radius fracture. This condition has not been previously reported in the adult distal radius and we detail the clinical features and imaging findings. We also present a new way of management of Brodie’s abscess using injectable bone substitute along with adjunctive parenteral antibiotic therapy. PMID:18780011

  12. Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1976-01-01

    If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to

  13. The proximal and distal position of the radius relative to the ulna through a full range of elbow flexion and forearm rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, R J; Robicheaux, G W; Lee, T Q

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the position of the radius relative to the ulna through a complete range of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. Twenty cadaveric upper extremities were mounted on a testing jig that allowed simultaneous control of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. The longitudinal position of the radius relative to the ulna was measured using a three-dimensional digitizer at full pronation, mid-pronation (45°), neutral (0°), mid-supination (45°) and full supination at 10°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of elbow flexion. Our results showed that the radius is located distally when in supination and is located more proximally as it is rotated into pronation. The longitudinal position of the radius changes over 9 mm when moving through a complete arc of forearm rotation. The angle of elbow flexion had a secondary effect on the longitudinal position of the radius, causing changes of less than 0.8 mm.

  14. The effects of the flyer plate's radius of curvature on the performance of an explosively formed projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Phillip; Baird, Jason; Hoffman, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    An explosively formed projectile (EFP) is known for its ability to penetrate vehicle armor effectively. Understanding how an EFP's physical parameters affect its performance is crucial to development of armor capable of defeating such devices. The present study uses two flyer plate radii of curvature to identify the experimental effects of the flyer plate's radius of curvature on the measured projectile velocity, depth of penetration, and projectile shape. The Gurney equation is an algebraic relationship for estimating the velocity imparted to a metal plate in contact with detonating explosives [1]. The authors of this research used a form of the Gurney equation to calculate the theoretical flyer plate velocity. Two EFP designs that have different flyer plate radii of curvature, but the same physical parameters and the same flyer-weight to charge-weight ratio should theoretically have the same velocity. Tests indicated that the flyer plate's radius of curvature does not affect the projectile's velocity and that a flat flyer plate negatively affects projectile penetration and formation.

  15. Fractures of the bilateral distal radius and scaphoid: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Korhan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral fractures of the distal radius and scaphoid are extremely rare injuries. Case presentation A patient with bilateral comminuted, displaced distal fractures of the radius and bilateral fractures of the scaphoid was treated via internal fixation of the scaphoid fractures with Herbert screws and internal fixation of the distal radius fractures with locked volar plating. Conclusion Rigid internal fixation of distal radius and scaphoid fractures is mandatory to start early active rehabilitation of the wrist without the need for wrist immobilization with a plaster or external skeletal fixation.

  16. Estimation of weapon-radius versus maneuverability trade-off for air-to-air combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1977-01-01

    A chase in a horizontal plane between a pursuer with a large capture radius and a more maneuverable evading vehicle is examined with constant-speed vehicle models. An approximation to the 'sidestepping' maneuver of the Homicidal Chauffeur Game is modified to account for the effect of evader turning rate, and an estimate of capture radius required is so obtained which agrees remarkably well with Cockayne's point-capture result. The maneuver assumes central importance for barrier surfaces appearing in the Game of Two Cars. Results are given for required weapon capture-radius in terms of the maneuverability of the two vehicles. Some calculations of capture radius are presented.

  17. An analytic map for space charge in a nonlinear lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: benedetti@bo.infn.it; Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2005-06-13

    We propose a simple analytical model for an intense beam in a lattice with localized nonlinearities. In the thin lens limit a single nonlinearity leads to a Henon like map. When the space charge is present and the core radius is small with respect to the dynamic aperture, the use of a frozen core distribution like KV is justified. In this case we define an analytic map M by composing the phase advance due to space charge, computed at the first perturbation order, with the kick due to the nonlinear force. The corresponding dynamics is almost indistinguishable from the dynamics of the 'exact' map, which requires an accurate symplectic integration, if the tune depression is weak enough. The same accuracy is preserved for parametric modulations of the perveance or the beam core radius. The extension to any other distribution is straightforward.

  18. First-principles study of Sr2Ir1-xRhxO4: charge transfer, spin-orbit coupling change, and the metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Heung-Sik; Han, Myung Joon

    2015-03-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated the electronic structure of Rh-doped iridate, Sr2Ir1-xRhxO4 for which the doping (x) dependent metal-insulator transition (MIT) has been reported experimentally and the controversial discussion developed regarding the origin of this transition. Our DFT+U calculation shows that the value of remains largely intact over the entire doping range considered here (x = 0 . 0 , 0 . 125 , 0 . 25 , 0 . 50 , 0 . 75 , and 1 . 0) in good agreement with the branching ratio measured by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Also contrary to a previous picture to explain MIT based on the charge transfer between the transition-metal sites, our calculation clearly shows that those sites remain basically isoelectronic while the impurity bands of predominantly rhodium character are introduced near the Fermi level. As the doping increases, this impurity band overlaps with lower Hubbard band of iridium, leading to metal-insulator transition. The results will be discussed with comparison to the case of Ru doping. Computational resources were suported by The National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking/Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information with supercomputing resources including technical spport (Grant No. KSC-2013-C2-23).

  19. The evolution of discharge current and channel radius in cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Xuejuan; Cen, Jianyong; Chang, Xuan; Zhao, Yanyan

    2017-09-01

    The spectra of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharge processes with multi-return strokes are obtained by a slit-less high-speed spectrograph, which the temporal resolution is 110 μs. Combined with the synchronous electrical observation data and theoretical calculation, the physical characteristics during return strokes process are analysed. A positive correlation between discharge current and intensity of ionic lines in the spectra is verified, and based on this feature, the current evolution characteristics during four return strokes are investigated. The results show that the time from peak current to the half-peak value estimated by multi point-fitting is about 101 μs-139 μs. The Joule heat in per unit length of four return strokes channel is in the order of 105J/m-106 J/m. The radius of arc discharge channel is positively related to the discharge current, and the more intense the current is, the greater the radius of channel is. Furthermore, the evolution for radius of arc core channel in the process of return stroke is consistent with the change trend of discharge current after the peak value. Compared with the decay of the current, the temperature decreases more slowly.

  20. Effects of Applied Electric Current on the Tip Radius and the Universal Amplitude Coefficient of a Single Growing Dendrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasresfahani, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Raeissi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Modification of solidification structures by applying electric current has been the subject of interest in recent years. However, the exact relationships between the dendrite growth parameters and the current density are not yet clear. The dendrite tip geometry is an important growth parameter which can be characterized using the dendrite tip radius and the universal amplitude coefficient. In this paper, the dendrite tip shape was investigated in the absence and presence of an electric field using a transparent model material, i.e. the succinonitrile-acetone alloy. The results showed that both dendrite tip radius and universal amplitude coefficient increased by increasing the applied current density. The increase in the tip radius was attributed to the Joule heat produced at the solid-liquid interface which reduced the interface undercooling. The increase in the universal amplitude coefficient was postulated to be due to the changes in the distribution coefficient of the alloy system which would result in higher solute concentration in front of the solid-liquid interface. Owing to the increased universal amplitude coefficient, more prominent dendritic fins were observed at dendrites tips under electric current.

  1. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N.R. Rao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer phenomenon in graphene and SWNTs in this article in view of its potential utility in device applications.

  2. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  3. The minimum mass of a charged spherically symmetric object in D dimensions, its implications for fundamental particles, and holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Cheamsawat, Krai [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Imperial College, Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-03-15

    We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a D-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows one to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamental constants. Evaluating this limit numerically, we obtain again the correct order of magnitude value for the charge/mass ratio of the electron, as required by the stability conditions. This suggests that, if the electron were either less massive (with the same charge) or if its charge were any higher (for fixed mass), a combination of electrostatic and dark energy repulsion would destabilize the Compton radius. In other words, the electron would blow itself apart. Our results suggest the existence of a deep connection between gravity, the presence of the cosmological constant, and the stability of fundamental particles. (orig.)

  4. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  5. Research on the fast charging of VRLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available VRLA can be the energy storing device of the HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle, photovoltaic system and so on. The most important factor that restricts the improvement of these fields is the service lifetime of the battery cannot reach the expectation. In the charging process, traditional charging method has serious polarization phenomenon. It will decrease its service life. Aimed at the purpose of reducing the polarization phenomenon, this paper proposed the changing current depolarization pulse charging method which is combining the dynamic model of the battery on the basis of analyzing the existential issues in the pulse charging method. By building the hardware circuit to achieve the function and verify their feasibility. The results indicate that, compared with pulse charging method, the new method makes battery fully charged in shorter time obviously and the temperature of batteries rise more slowly.

  6. Charge transport network dynamics in molecular aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nicholas E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chen, Lin X. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Science and Engineering Division; Ratner, Mark A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-20

    Due to the nonperiodic nature of charge transport in disordered systems, generating insight into static charge transport networks, as well as analyzing the network dynamics, can be challenging. Here, we apply time-dependent network analysis to scrutinize the charge transport networks of two representative molecular semiconductors: a rigid n-type molecule, perylenediimide, and a flexible p-type molecule, bBDT(TDPP)2. Simulations reveal the relevant timescale for local transfer integral decorrelation to be ~100 fs, which is shown to be faster than that of a crystalline morphology of the same molecule. Using a simple graph metric, global network changes are observed over timescales competitive with charge carrier lifetimes. These insights demonstrate that static charge transport networks are qualitatively inadequate, whereas average networks often overestimate network connectivity. Finally, a simple methodology for tracking dynamic charge transport properties is proposed.

  7. Experimental study of diffusion charging of aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, D.Y.H.

    1976-03-01

    The electrical charging of aerosol particles by unipolar gaseous ions was studied theoretically and experimentally. The primary objective of the study was to make precise determinations of the aerosol particle charge under various conditions of charging and to compare the experimental results with those predicted by theory. Experiments were performed using monodisperse oleic acid aerosols generated by a vibrating orifice generator, monodisperse NaCl and DOP (di-octyl phthalate) aerosols generated by an electrostatic classification method, and sulfuric acid aerosols generated by the photo-chemical conversion of gaseous SO/sub 2/ in the smog chamber. The experiments covered a particle size range of 0.0075 ..mu..m to 5.04 ..mu..m diameter. The corresponding range in Knudsen number (Kn = lambda/sub i//a, lambda/sub i/ = mean free path of ions, a = particle radius) was from 0.0056 to 3.86. The charging parameter, n/sub 0/t, was varied between 2.56 x 10/sup 6/ to 5.1 x 10/sup 7/ ion-s/cc, where n/sub 0/ is the concentration of ions and t is the charging time. Comparisons of the results with available aerosol charging theories indicate that there is reasonable agreement between the theory and experiment in the continuum regime (Kn << 1) where the classical Fuchs--Pluvinage equation is expected to apply. However, in the free molecular (Kn >> 1) and the transition regimes (Kn approx. or equal to 1), where the ion mean free path is no longer small in comparison with particle size, there is considerable discrepancy between the experimental data and available charging theories. A semi-empirical equation was developed which agrees well with the experimental data over the entire range of particle size and charging parameters covered in the experiments. Theoretical results are presented showing the distribution of charges on the particles as a function of particle size and the charging parameter n/sub 0/t. 70 figures, 24 tables, 112 references. (auth)

  8. Charge induced stability of water droplets in subsaturated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Nielsen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric liquid and solid water particles are stabilized if they are coated with either negative or positive electric charge. The surface charge causes an increase of the partial pressure of water vapour close to the surface of each particle, effectively allowing the particles to remain in their condensed phase even if the environmental relative humidity drops below unity. The theory, briefly presented in this paper, predicts a zero parameter relation between surface charge density and water vapour pressure. This relation was tested in a series of Electrodynamic Balance experiments. The measurements were performed by stabilizing charged droplets of pure water near an ice-surface. We observed a divergence in radius as the temperature approached the freezing point from below. We find that the measurements confirm the theory within the experimental uncertainty. In some cases this generally overlooked effect may have impact on cloud processes and on results produced by Electrodynamic Balance experiments.

  9. Effects of Leading-Edge Radius on Aerodynamic Characteristics of 50º Delta Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    The study focuses on the effects of the leading-edge radius on the flow over 50º swept delta wing models. Three models were tested, one model having a sharp leading edge and the other two having a semi-circular leading edge of different radius. The vortical flow on and off the surface of the models

  10. The Minimum Spectral Radius of Signless Laplacian of Graphs with a Given Clique Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we observe that the minimal signless Laplacian spectral radius is obtained uniquely at the kite graph PKn−ω,ω among all connected graphs with n vertices and clique number ω. In addition, we show that the spectral radius μ of PKm,ω (m ≥ 1 satisfies

  11. Osteonecrosis of the trapezium treated with a vascularized distal radius bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Manuel; Carpintero, Pedro; Cansino, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with early stage osteonecrosis of the trapezium, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. A vascularized distal radius bone graft was performed, with good clinical and radiologic results over a 1-year follow-up period. The authors believe that a vascularized distal radius bone graft is an ideal treatment for early stage carpal bone necrosis.

  12. CT virtual reality in the preoperative workup of malunited distal radius fractures: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Michael; Gruber, Hannes; Jaschke, Werner R. [Innsbruck University Hospital, Department of Radiology I, Innsbruck (Austria); Gabl, Markus [Innsbruck University Hospital, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Mallouhi, Ammar [Innsbruck University Hospital, Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2005-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of CT virtual preoperative planning in the surgical repositioning of malunited distal radius fracture. Eleven patients with malunited distal radius fracture underwent multislice CT of both wrists. A preoperative workup was performed in a virtual reality environment created from the CT data sets. Virtual planning comprised three main procedures, carrying out the virtual osteotomy of the radius, prediction of the final position of the distal radius after osteotomy and computer-assisted manufacturing of a repositioning device, which was later placed at the surgical osteotomy site to reposition objectively the distal radius fragment before fixation with the osteosynthesis. All patients tolerated the surgical procedure well. During surgery, the orthopedic surgeons were not required in any of the cases to alter the position of the distal radius that was determined by the repositioning device. At postoperative follow-up, the anatomic relationship of the distal radius was restored (radial inclination, 21.4 ; volar tilt, 10.3 ; ulnar variance, 0.5 mm). Clinically, a significant improvement of pronation (P=0.012), supination (P=0.01), flexion (P=0.001) and extension (P=0.006) was achieved. Pain decreased from 54 to 7 points. CT virtual reality is a valuable adjunct for the preoperative workup and surgical reposition of malunited distal radius fractures. (orig.)

  13. A Precise Asteroseismic Age and Radius for the Evolved Sun-like Star KIC 11026764

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.; Monteiro, Mario J.P.F.G.; Thompson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    that attempt to match the asteroseismic and spectroscopic constraints simultaneously. We determine both the radius and the age of KIC 11026764 with a precision near 1%, and an accuracy near 2% for the radius and 15% for the age. Continued observations of this star promise to reveal additional oscillation...

  14. Active space of pheromone plume and its relationship to effective attraction radius in applied models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any lure’s semiochemical release rate that is attractive to flying insects has a specific effective attraction radius (EAR) that corresponds to the lure’s orientation response strength. The EAR was defined as the radius of a passive sphere that would intercept the same number of insects as a semioch...

  15. Collision free path generation in 3D with turning and pitch radius constraints for aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, F.; La Cour-Harbo, A.; Bisgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    assumes that most of the aircraft structural and dynamic limitations can be formulated as a turn radius constraint, and that any two consecutive waypoints have line-of-sight. The generated trajectories are collision free and also satisfy a constraint on the minimum admissible turning radius, while...

  16. Acceleration of charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study dynamics of charged test particles in vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes od the charged particle dynamics provides mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is larg...

  17. Noncircular features in Saturn's rings IV: Absolute radius scale and Saturn's pole direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee-French, Colleen A.; Lonergan, Katherine; Sepersky, Talia; Jacobson, Robert A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Mathew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Colwell, Joshua E.

    2017-07-01

    direction of Saturn's pole in the reconstructed Cassini spacecraft ephemerides. Overall, the agreement of our results with the widely-used French et al. (1993, Icarus 103, 163-214) radius scale is excellent, with very small (≲ 0.1 km) systematic differences, although differences in a few individual feature radii are as large as 6 km. Our new solution incorporates many more features across the ring system, and the fitted orbital elements correct for the several-km biases in the radii of many ring features in the French et al. (1993) catalog that were unresolved because of the large projected diameter of the occulted star in the 28 Sgr event. The formal errors in the fitted radii are generally quite small - on the order of tens of meters. Systematic errors stemming from uncertainty in the precession rate of Saturn's pole and its effect on the accuracy of the reconstructed Cassini trajectories are somewhat larger, but the absolute radius scale is relatively insensitive to 5-σ changes in the pole direction or precession rate, and we estimate the combined magnitude of these systematic errors and pole uncertainties to be of order 250 m. This estimate is likely to be improved once a new set of reconstructed Cassini trajectories has been developed, based on a self-consistent model for Saturn's pole. We demonstrate the utility of the new radius scale and the associated trajectory corrections in the analysis of short-wavelength density waves in the C ring. In online supplementary material, we provide in machine-readable form the more than 15,000 individual ring measurements used in this study, as well as details of the ring orbit fits underlying this work.

  18. Vertical profiles of droplet effective radius in shallow convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional satellite retrievals can only provide information on cloud-top droplet effective radius (re. Given the fact that cloud ensembles in a satellite snapshot have different cloud-top heights, Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 used the cloud-top height and the corresponding cloud-top re from the cloud ensembles in the snapshot to construct a profile of re representative of that in the individual clouds. This study investigates the robustness of this approach in shallow convective clouds based on results from large-eddy simulations (LES for clean (aerosol mixing ratio Na = 25 mg−1, intermediate (Na = 100 mg−1, and polluted (Na = 2000 mg−1 conditions. The cloud-top height and the cloud-top re from the modeled cloud ensembles are used to form a constructed re profile, which is then compared to the in-cloud re profiles. For the polluted and intermediate cases where precipitation is negligible, the constructed re profiles represent the in-cloud re profiles fairly well with a low bias (about 10 %. The method used in Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 is therefore validated for nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds. For the clean, drizzling case, the in-cloud re can be very large and highly variable, and quantitative profiling based on cloud-top re is less useful. The differences in re profiles between clean and polluted conditions derived in this manner are however, distinct. This study also investigates the subadiabatic characteristics of the simulated cumulus clouds to reveal the effect of mixing on re and its evolution. Results indicate that as polluted and moderately polluted clouds develop into their decaying stage, the subadiabatic fraction

  19. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  20. The minimum mass of a charged spherically symmetric object in $D$ dimensions, its implications for fundamental particles, and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Burikham, Piyabut; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a $D$-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of a dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamenta...

  1. Functional outcomes used to compare single radius and multiradius of curvature designs in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laurence E; Klika, Alison K; Szubski, Caleb R; Rosneck, James; Molloy, Robert; Barsoum, Wael K

    2012-07-01

    A recent development to better recreate joint kinematics has been a change from a multiradius (MR) design to a single radius (SR) design. We analyzed 559 primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures which used either a SR (n = 426 Triathlon; Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ) or MR of curvature knee system (n = 133 Duracon; Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ) (79.3% follow-up; 705 total TKA procedures identified). Patients were administered a modification of the Knee Society score (KSS) (3.9 years average follow-up). The SR design showed improvements over the MR design in pain (p = 0.021), stability (p = 0.002), flexion (p = 0.006), ability to completely straighten the knee (p = 0.025), stair climbing (p = 0.0001), walking (p = 0.0001), use of assistive devices (p = 0.0005), postoperative knee score (p = 0.0005), and postoperative function (p < 0.0001). Analysis of the change in KSS knee (p = 0.002) and function scores (p = 0.002) from preoperative visit to postoperative follow-up favored the SR design as well. These data support the use of SR implants and provide evidence of improved outcomes in terms of function, stability, and pain.

  2. A novel method to bracket the corotation radius in galaxy discs: vertex deviation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Antoja, Teresa; Figueras, Francesca; Valenzuela, Octavio; Romero-Gómez, Mercè; Pichardo, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy discs with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high-resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the tight winding approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models, spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex deviation values correlate with the density peak's position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex deviation sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disc rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation radius (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive. We propose that measurements of the vertex deviation's pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disc material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.

  3. 太阳半径测量与研究进展%Progress in the Measurement and Study of the Solar Radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈智宁; 李可军

    2013-01-01

    Solar radius is the distance from the center of the Sun to the outer boundary of the photo-sphere. The solar radius has been measured systematically since 19th century. The adopted standard value of the solar radius is 959.6300published by Auwers in 1891. From ancient to now, a variety of instruments and different methods have been used to measure the solar radius: (1) Meridian circle measurements(Greenwich Royal Observatory);(2) Solar eclipse and Mercury transit;(3) Drift-scan technology;(4) Danjon solar style astrolabes(the Calern Observatory and the Tubitak National Ob-servatory);(5) Satellite direct angular measurement(SOHO/MDI, Picard). Some researchers have reported that the solar radius shows a secular decrease. However, other researchers have reported that the solar radius is stationary. Some researchers have studied the variation of the solar radius with solar activity, the results show that the variations of the solar radius occur over periods of some days to several tens of years. Has the solar radius changed or not? If it changes, how it changes? Accompanied with data from ancient to now, lots of work has been done. It is believed that the variability of the solar radius is a critical probe for our understanding of solar interior stratification, radiation mechanisms, space weather and Earth’s climate. In this paper, we present the history measurement and progress study of the solar radius. In Sect. 2, an overview about different solar radius methods is presented. Sect. 3 describes the different study results. Finally, Sect. 4, a proposal for future study is made.%太阳半径是指从太阳球心到光球层外边界的距离。测量太阳半径历史悠久,系统性测量始于19世纪,其标准值为959.6300。主要有以下几种测量方法:(1)子午圈测量;(2)日食和水星凌日;(3)望远镜漂移扫描技术;(4)等高方法;(5)卫星角距离测量。对于太阳半径的研究,主要集中在以下三类观点:一是

  4. New interferometric technique to evaluate the electric charge of gas bubbles in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Mario; Bonomo, Marco; Raudino, Antonio

    2012-04-10

    We report a new interferometric technique to measure the electric charge at the gas-liquid interface of a bubble in a liquid. The bubble rests by buoyancy against an electrode, and an alternating electric field excites its capillary oscillations. The oscillation amplitude of the quadrupolar mode frequency is measured by the interferometer, and it is used to evaluate the electric charge. The mode frequency scales with the square root of the interfacial tension and with a -(3)/(2) power law as a function of the bubble radius. For bubbles in the millimeter diameter range in pure water, the measured negative charge scales with the square of the radius, hence, giving a constant surface charge density on the order of 1.8 × 10(-5) C m(-2), which is rather consistent with the electrophoretic values reported in the literature.

  5. Radiation reaction from electromagnetic fields in the neighborhood of a point charge

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    From the electromagnetic field in the neighborhood of a "point charge" in arbitrary motion, it is shown that the Poynting flux across a spherical surface of vanishingly small radius, surrounding the charge in its instantaneous rest-frame, is nil. The absence of the Poynting flux in the neighborhood of such a charge explicitly shows that there are no radiative losses from an instantly stationary point charge. While this might appear to contradict Larmor's formula for radiation, nevertheless, it is in complete conformity with energy conservation. After all a charge stationary, even if for an instant, possesses no kinetic energy at the moment that could be lost into radiation. Further, from the rate of electromagnetic momentum flow, calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor, across a surface surrounding the charge, the radiation reaction is determined which turns out to be proportional to the first time derivative of the acceleration of the charge. The power loss due to radiation reaction, hitherto derived in t...

  6. Modèle multi-échelle du transport de fluide dans un milieu poreux chargé avec échanges cationiques : application aux tissus osseux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Joanna; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah; Sansalone, Vittorio

    2009-11-01

    To better understand the bone diseases, many models of porous cortical bone have been developed to simulate its in vivo behaviour. Thus we proposed multiscale models including multiphysical phenomena governing the hydraulic response of bone. However, all these models neglected the possible ionic exchanges at the cellular level. Since such chemical reactions directly change the physico-chemical properties of the tissue, the interstitial flow is also modified. The aim of this study is so to include these ionic exchanges in the bone fluid transport description by deriving their consequences at the macroscale. To cite this article: J. Kaiser et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  7. Effects of odanacatib on the radius and tibia of postmenopausal women: improvements in bone geometry, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Angela M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Brixen, Kim; Chapurlat, Roland; Fuerst, Thomas; Engelke, Klaus; Dardzinski, Bernard; Cabal, Antonio; Verbruggen, Nadia; Ather, Shabana; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; de Papp, Anne E

    2014-08-01

    The cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib (ODN), currently in phase 3 development for postmenopausal osteoporosis, has a novel mechanism of action that reduces bone resorption while maintaining bone formation. In phase 2 studies, odanacatib increased areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine and total hip progressively over 5 years. To determine the effects of ODN on cortical and trabecular bone and estimate changes in bone strength, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, using both quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and high-resolution peripheral (HR-p)QCT. In previously published results, odanacatib was superior to placebo with respect to increases in trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) and estimated compressive strength at the spine, and integral and trabecular vBMD and estimated strength at the hip. Here, we report the results of HR-pQCT assessment. A total of 214 postmenopausal women (mean age 64.0 ± 6.8 years and baseline lumbar spine T-score -1.81 ± 0.83) were randomized to oral ODN 50 mg or placebo, weekly for 2 years. With ODN, significant increases from baseline in total vBMD occurred at the distal radius and tibia. Treatment differences from placebo were also significant (3.84% and 2.63% for radius and tibia, respectively). At both sites, significant differences from placebo were also found in trabecular vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical thickness, cortical area, and strength (failure load) estimated using finite element analysis of HR-pQCT scans (treatment differences at radius and tibia = 2.64% and 2.66%). At the distal radius, odanacatib significantly improved trabecular thickness and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) versus placebo. At a more proximal radial site, odanacatib attenuated the increase in cortical porosity found with placebo (treatment difference = -7.7%, p = 0.066). At the distal tibia, odanacatib significantly improved trabecular number, separation, and BV/TV versus placebo. Safety

  8. Differences in liquid cloud droplet effective radius and number concentration estimates between MODIS collections 5.1 and 6 over global oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rausch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Differences in cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC estimates inferred from the Aqua–MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collections 5.1 (C5.1 and 6 (C6 cloud products (MYD06 are examined for warm clouds over global oceans for the year 2008. Individual pixel level retrievals for both collections are aggregated to 1°  ×  1° and compared globally and regionally for the three main spectral channel pairs used for MODIS cloud optical property retrievals. Comparisons between both collections are performed for cases in which all three effective radii retrievals are classified by the MODIS cloud product as valid. The contribution to the observed differences of several key MYD06 Collection 6 algorithm updates are also explored, with a focus on changes to the surface reflectance model, assumed solar irradiance, above-cloud emission, cloud-top pressure (CTP, and pixel registration. Global results show a neutral to positive (> 50 cm−3 change for C6-derived CDNC relative to C5.1 for the 1.6 and 2.1 µm channel retrievals, corresponding to a neutral to −2 µm difference in droplet effective radius (re. For 3.7 µm retrievals, CDNC results show a negative change in the tropics, with differences transitioning toward positive values with increasing latitude spanning −25 to +50 cm−3 related to a +2.5 to −1 µm transition in effective radius. Cloud optical thickness (τ differences were small relative to effective radius and found to not significantly impact CDNC estimates. Regionally, the magnitude and behavior of the annual CDNC cycle are compared for each effective radius retrieval. Results from this study indicate significant inter-collection differences in aggregated values of effective radius due to changes to the precomputed retrieval lookup tables (LUTs for ocean scenes, changes to retrieved cloud-top pressure, solar irradiance, or above-cloud thermal emission

  9. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  10. A changing inner radius in the accretion disc of Q0056-363?

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, G; Bianchi, S; Falocco, S; Maiolino, R; Reeves, J N; Zappacosta, L

    2005-01-01

    Q0056-363 is the most powerful X-ray quasar known to exhibit a broad, likely relativistic iron line (Porquet & Reeves 2003). It has been observed twice by XMM-$Newton$, three and half years apart (July 2000 and December 2003). In the second observation, the UV and soft X-ray fluxes were fainter, the hard X-ray power law flatter, and the iron line equivalent width (EW) smaller than in the 2000 observation. These variations can all be explained, at least qualitatively, if the disc is truncated in the second observation. We report also on the possible detection of a transient, redshifted iron absorption line during the 2003 observation.

  11. Anatomical variations of the proximal radius and their effects on osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannicola, Giuseppe; Manauzzi, Erica; Sacchetti, Federico M; Greco, Alessandro; Bullitta, Gianluca; Vestri, Annarita; Cinotti, Gianluca

    2012-05-01

    In fractures of the radial head and neck requiring open reduction and internal fixation, osteosynthesis may be safely applied in a limited zone. We conducted a morphometric study of the proximal radius at the level of the safe zone to identify different morphologic types of this anatomical region. We analyzed 44 dried cadaveric radii. We measured the whole length of the radius, the length of the neck and head, and the minimum and maximum diameter of the radial head. The morphologic aspect of the neck-head curvature of the safe zone was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The proximal radius at the level of the safe zone exhibited different radii of bending. In particular, we identified a morphologic type A, which showed a flat profile (25% of cases), morphologic types B and C, which showed a low concave curvature (64%), and a marked concave curvature (11%), respectively, of the safe zone. The profile of the proximal radius in the safe zone shows substantial morphologic variations that should be taken into account when operating on fractures of the proximal radius, to avoid malunions, pain, and stiffness of the elbow joint. A preoperative radiograph of the contralateral uninjured radius may be helpful in selecting the most appropriate internal fixation device to reconstruct the proximal radius after comminuted fractures. Knowledge of the proper bending radius of the safe zone allows the surgeon to select the most appropriate plate, and to achieve good fracture reduction and anatomical restoration of the proximal radius. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Charge-regularization effects on polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2012-02-01

    When electrically charged macromolecules are dispersed in polar solvents, their effective net charge is generally different from their chemical charges, due to competition between counterion adsorption and the translational entropy of dissociated counterions. The effective charge changes significantly as the experimental conditions change such as variations in solvent quality, temperature, and the concentration of added small electrolytes. This charge-regularization effect leads to major difficulties in interpreting experimental data on polyelectrolyte solutions and challenges in understanding the various polyelectrolyte phenomena. Even the most fundamental issue of experimental determination of molar mass of charged macromolecules by light scattering method has been difficult so far due to this feature. We will present a theory of charge-regularization of flexible polyelectrolytes in solutions and discuss the consequences of charge-regularization on (a) experimental determination of molar mass of polyelectrolytes using scattering techniques, (b) coil-globule transition, (c) macrophase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions, (c) phase behavior in coacervate formation, and (d) volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels.

  13. Electric Charge in Interaction with Magnetically Charged Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J H

    2007-01-01

    We examine the angular momentum of an electric charge e placed at rest outside a dilaton black hole with magnetic charge Q. The electromagnetic angular momentum which is stored in the electromagnetic field outside the black hole shows several common features regardless of the dilaton coupling strength, though the dilaton black holes are drastically different in their spacetime structure depending on it. First, the electromagnetic angular momentum depends on the separation distance between the two objects and changes monotonically from eQ to 0 as the charge goes down from infinity to the horizon, if rotational effects of the black hole are discarded. Next, as the black hole approaches extremality, however, the electromagnetic angular momentum tends to be independent of the distance between the two objects. It is then precisely $eQ$ as in the electric charge and monopole system in flat spacetime. We discuss why these effects are exhibited and argue that the above features are to hold in widely generic settings ...

  14. Use of High-Speed X ray and Video to Analyze Distal Radius Fracture Pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Christina; Darvish, Kurosh; Liss, Frederic E; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the failure sequence of the distal radius during a simulated fall onto an outstretched hand using cadaver forearms and high-speed X ray and video systems. This apparatus records the beginning and propagation of bony failure, ultimately resulting in distal radius or forearm fracture. The effects of 3 different wrist guard designs are investigated using this system. Serving as a proof-of-concept analysis, this study supports this imaging technique to be used in larger studies of orthopedic trauma and protective devices and specifically for distal radius fractures.

  15. Hyperextension trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    Loads applied to the forearm result in hyperextension of the elbow. The pathomechanics of hyperextension trauma with load applied to the distal radius and ulna were studied in 10 macroscopically normal cadaver elbow joint specimens to reveal patterns of injury with radial traction (n = 5) compared...... trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius produced the same pattern of injury as reported in hyperextension of the elbow with traction to the forearm when free rotation of the radius relative to the ulna was allowed....

  16. The Effect of Osteoporosis on Healing of Distal Radius Fragility Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Jacob; Jones, Christopher M; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-10-01

    Although the decision for operative versus nonoperative treatment of distal radius fractures remains subjective and is performed on a case-by-case basis, evaluation and treatment of patients with concomitant osteoporosis requires understanding of the behavior of this injury as a distinct subset of distal radius fractures. Age, infirmity, and osteoporosis affect every aspect of the fracture. Understanding what makes these fractures unique assists surgeons in more effective and efficient treatment. The authors present the current understanding of osteoporotic fragility fractures of the distal radius, focusing on epidemiology, biomechanics of bone healing, and its implication on strategies for management.

  17. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumour (GCT is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge.

  18. Prospective study of treatment of extraarticular fractures of distal end radius by cross K wire fixation and cast immobilisation and its comparison with Kapandji's method of intrafocal pinning anatomically and functionally

    OpenAIRE

    Paresh Patil; Kiran Gaonkar; Adish Patil; Nishant Gaonkar; Ketan Gupta; Nirav Patel; Himanshu Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Distal radius fractures account for 17% of all fractures in adults. The fracture of the lower end of radius crushes the mechanical foundation of man's most elegant tool, the hand. No other fracture has a greater potential to devastate hand function. Extra-articular fractures (type A in the AO classification) require avoidance of malunion with angulation and shortening. Malalignment results in limitation of movement, changes in load distribution, midcarpal instability and an increa...

  19. Nonunion of distal radius fracture and distal radioulnar joint injury: a modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure with a cubitus proradius transposition as autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Angel; Rios-Luna, Antonio; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Fahandezh-Saddi, Homid

    2008-12-01

    The Sauvé-Kapandji (SK) procedure is indicated in distal radius nonunion or malunion and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. It can also be used to treat the rheumatoid wrist with severe degenerative changes in the DRUJ. The main objective is to allow a pain-free range of movement. We present a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and distal radius nonunion who, after three operations, was treated with the SK procedure. The clinical and radiological results were excellent. A 53-year-old woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis fell on her forearm at home 2 years ago. Examination at an outpatient clinic revealed a distal radius fracture classified as type V according to the Frykman classification. She had been operated three times with open reduction internal fixation using a plate, screws, and bone allograft. She came to our institution with a distal radius nonunion, positive post-traumatic ulnar variance, and ulnar nerve paresis. The range of movements was 20 degrees -10 degrees flexion-extension and 40 degrees -30 degrees pronation-supination, and she needed daily fentanyl. We performed a modified SK procedure with an autologous iliac crest bone graft and ulnar bone graft from the osteotomy area (cubitus proradius), bone morphogenetic protein, and a low profile distal radius plate. After 1 year of follow-up, the distal radius fracture has healed and the wrist is pain-free with a complete range of movement in flexion-extension and pronation-supination. The main indication for the SK procedure is post-traumatic positive ulnar variance and associated ulnocarpal impaction. The cubitus proradius bone graft transposition is an interesting technical note that makes this case a challenge for skilled orthopedic hand surgeons.

  20. Economic Analysis of Different Electric Vehicle Charging Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Haiming, Zhou; Xiufan, Ma; Hao, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Influence of electric vehicles (EV) to grid cannot be ignored. Research on the economy analysis of different charging scenarios is helpful to guide the user to charge or discharge orderly. EV charging models are built such as disordered charging, valley charging, intelligent charging, and V2G (Vehicle to Grid), by which changes of charging load in different scenarios can be seen to analyze the influence to initial load curve, and comparison can be done about user’s average cost. Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the electric vehicle charging behavior, cost in different charging scenarios are compared, social cost is introduced in V2G scene, and the relationship between user’s average cost and social cost is analyzed. By test, it is proved that user’s cost is the lowest in V2G scenario, and the larger the scale of vehicles is, the more the social cost can save.

  1. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Luke S. [Bluffton University, Bluffton, OH; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arrington, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  2. The 3H–3He Charge Radii Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  3. Vertex deviation maps to bracked the Milky Way resonant radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Fàbrega, S.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Valenzuela, O.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Pichardo, B.

    2015-05-01

    We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy disks with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the Tight Winding Approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex deviation values correlate with the density peaks position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex deviation sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disk rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive.We propose that measurements of the vertex deviations pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APOGEE surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disk material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.

  4. Lensing Constraints on the Mass Profile Shape and Splashback Radius of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Umetsu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The lensing signal around galaxy clusters can, in principle, be used to test detailed predictions for their average mass profile from numerical simulations. However, the intrinsic shape of the profiles can be smeared out when a sample that spans a wide range of cluster masses is averaged in physical length units. This effect especially conceals rapid changes in gradient such as the steep drop associated with the splashback radius, a sharp edge corresponding to the outermost caustic in accreting halos. We optimize the extraction of such local features by scaling individual halo profiles to a number of spherical overdensity radii, and apply this method to 16 X-ray-selected high-mass clusters targeted in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. By forward-modeling the weak and strong lensing data presented in Umetsu et al., we show that, regardless of the scaling overdensity, the projected ensemble density profile is remarkably well described by an NFW or Einasto profile out to $R \\sim 2.5h^{-1}$Mpc...

  5. Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in 17 Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koshida, S; Yoshii, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sakata, Y; Sugawara, S; Enya, K; Suganuma, M; Tomita, H; Aoki, T; Peterson, B A

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a dust reverberation survey for 17 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies, which provides the largest homogeneous data collection for the radius of the innermost dust torus. A delayed response of the K-band light curve after the V-band light curve was found for all targets, and 49 measurements of lag times between the flux variation of the dust emission in the K band and that of the optical continuum emission in the V band were obtained. The lag times strongly correlated with the optical luminosity in the luminosity range of M_V=-16 to -22 mag, and the regression analysis was performed to obtain the correlation log $\\Delta t$ (days) = -2.11 -0.2 M_V assuming $\\Delta t \\propto L^{0.5}$, which was theoretically expected. We discuss the possible origins of the intrinsic scatter of the dust lag-luminosity correlation, which was estimated to be about 0.13 dex, and we find that the difference of internal extinction and delayed response of changes in lag times to the flux variations could have partly co...

  6. Universality of the topological string at large radius and NS-brane resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Couso-Santamaria, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    We show that there is a natural universal limit of the topological string free energies at the large radius point. The new free energies keep a nonholomorphic dependence on the complex structure moduli space and their functional form is the same for all Calabi-Yau geometries, compact and noncompact alike. The asymptotic nature of the free energy expansion changes in this limit due to a milder factorial growth of its coefficients, and this implies a transseries extension with instanton effects in $\\exp(- 1/g_s^2)$, of NS-brane type, rather than $\\exp(-1/g_s)$, of D-brane type. We show a relation between the instanton action of NS-brane type and the volume of the Calabi-Yau manifold which points to a possible interpretation in terms of NS5-branes. A similar rescaling limit has been considered recently leading to an Airy equation for the partition function which is here used to explain the resurgent properties of the rescaled transseries.

  7. Mechanical morphogenesis: a concept applied to the surface of the radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtés, Ignasi; Rodríguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a detailed morphological analysis of the changes that occur at the attachment sites of muscles, tendons, and ligaments on the radius. We consider the osteological, anatomical, and pathological aspects in detail, devising a visual standard for ranking the development of osseous expression at each attachment. We also discuss the etiology, particularly through focus on the relationship with the activity and age variables. In a sample of 148 radii from archeological and contemporary samples, 11 osteological sites were analyzed in each specimen. The osteological sites included nine muscular attachments, the attachment of the interosseous membrane, and the groove of the extensor pollicis longus tendon. The results show that mechanical loading is the main cause of different types of markings appearing and developing on the bone surface. Furthermore, there is a relationship between the osteological appearance of enthesis and its morphological type. It is possible to grade osteological appearance with a visual reference method that establishes an identifiable threshold for each grade and eliminates relying completely on observer experience. This methodology is applicable to the field of physical anthropology and to its forensic subfield, identifying individuals by attributing to them specific work or given activities through the use of skeletal remains.

  8. Finite Larmor radius effects in the nonlinear dynamics of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sarto, D [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy University, Campus Victor Grignard - BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Marchetto, C [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pegoraro, F; Califano, F, E-mail: daniele.delsarto@ijl.nancy-universite.fr, E-mail: marchetto@ifp.cnr.it, E-mail: pegoraro@df.unipi.it, E-mail: califano@df.unipi.it [Physics Department and CNISM, Pisa University, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We provide numerical evidence of the role of finite Larmor radius effects in the nonlinear dynamics of magnetic field line reconnection in high-temperature, strong guide field plasmas in a slab configuration, in the large {Delta}' regime. Both ion and electron temperature effects introduce internal energy variations related to mechanical compression terms in the energy balance, thus contributing to regularize the gradients of the ion density with respect to the cold regimes. For values of the Larmor radii that are not asymptotically small, the two temperature effects are no longer interchangeable, in contrast to what is expected from linear theory, and the differences are measurable in the numerical growth rates and in the nonlinear evolution of the density layers. We interpret such differences in terms of the change, due to ion temperature effects, of the Lagrangian advection of the 'plasma invariants' that are encountered in the cold-ion, warm-electron regime. The different roles of the ion and ion-sound Larmor radii in the reconnection dynamics near the X- and O-points are evidenced by means of a local quadratic expansion of the fields.

  9. Research of RADIUS in access convergence router%RADIUS协议在ACR中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单康康; 张兴明

    2011-01-01

    针对大规模接入汇聚路由器(ACR)可运营的要求,根据ACR用户实际业务需求提出了在ACR中利用远程用户拨号认证协议(RADIUS)实现AAA的方案,制定了相应的RADIUS报文数据项,最后给出了RADIUS单元模块的实现.%To fulfil the operational requirements of the Access Convergence Router (ACR) , a method in which RADIUS is incorperated into the ACR to better serve the actual needs of users and facilitate an AAA scheme, is proposed. This paper also presents the related attributes of RADIUS packets. Finally, the realization of RADIUS module is presented.

  10. Ambipolar Diffusion in Direct-Current Positive Column with Variations in Radius of Discharge Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. AKBAR; S. BILIKMEN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The ambipolar diffusion and argon ion mobility as functions of the reduced electric field and pressure times the tube radius are investigated in a weakly ionized non-uniform glow discharge plasma system.

  11. Mitigation Effect of Finite Larmor Radius on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Z-Pinch Implosions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱孝明; 黄林; 简广德

    2002-01-01

    Based on the framework of magnetohydrodynamic theory, a simple model is proposed to study the mitigation effect of finite Larmor radius on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions. In this model, taking account of Ti ≥ Te in Z-pinch implosions we believe that the magnetohydrodynamic plasma responds to a perturbation (~ exp [i (k. x - ωt)]) at frequency (ω + ik2⊥ρ2iΩi) instead of frequency ω, where k2⊥ρ2i is due to the finite Larmor radius effects expressed from the generalkinetic theory of magnetized plasma. Therefore the linearized continuity and momentum equations for the perturbed mass-density and velocity include the finite Larmor radius effects. The calculations indicate that, in the wavenumber region of interest, the finite Larmor radius effects can mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions.

  12. Water Well Locations - MO 2010 Public Water System Wells Half-Mile Radius (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This shapefile represents a one-half mile radius around public water system (PWS) wells. This data set does not include wells classified as plugged, observation,...

  13. Optimization research of sextant fan baffle curvature radius in shell and tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M.; Liu, H. J.; Wang, X. Y.

    2017-09-01

    For a high shell side pressure drop of the conventional segmental baffles in shell and tube heat exchanger, a novel sextant fan baffle was put forward. To research the influence of baffle curvature radius of the sextant fan baffled shell and tube heat exchanger (SFTHX) on the shell side pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient and the comprehensive heat transfer performance, six different curvature radius baffles were numerically simulated and experimental studied in this paper. Based on the numerically simulation results, under the same inlet flow conditions, a better comprehensive heat transfer performance can be found in SFTHX with the baffle curvature radius of 1 D, which is higher by 0.84-6.85% more than that of the others. Moreover, the experimental investigation data of SFTHX with baffle curvature radius of 1 D indicates that the numerically simulation can well predict the flow and heat transfer characteristics with the experiment.

  14. Lensing Constraints on the Mass Profile Shape and the Splashback Radius of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    The lensing signal around galaxy clusters can, in principle, be used to test detailed predictions for their average mass profile from numerical simulations. However, the intrinsic shape of the profiles can be smeared out when a sample that spans a wide range of cluster masses is averaged in physical length units. This effect especially conceals rapid changes in gradient such as the steep drop associated with the splashback radius, a sharp edge corresponding to the outermost caustic in accreting halos. We optimize the extraction of such local features by scaling individual halo profiles to a number of spherical overdensity radii, and apply this method to 16 X-ray-selected, high-mass clusters targeted in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. By forward-modeling the weak- and strong-lensing data presented by Umetsu et al., we show that, regardless of the scaling overdensity, the projected ensemble density profile is remarkably well described by a Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) or Einasto profile out to R∼ 2.5 {h}-1 {Mpc}, beyond which the profiles flatten. We constrain the NFW concentration to {c}200{{c}}=3.66+/- 0.11 at {M}200{{c}}≃ 1.0× {10}15 {h}-1 {M}ȯ , consistent with and improved from previous work that used conventionally stacked lensing profiles, and in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Assuming the profile form of Diemer & Kravtsov and generic priors calibrated from numerical simulations, we place a lower limit on the splashback radius of the cluster halos, if it exists, of {R}{sp}3{{D}}/{r}200{{m}}> 0.89 ({R}{sp}3{{D}}> 1.83 {h}-1 {Mpc}) at 68% confidence. The corresponding density feature is most pronounced when the cluster profiles are scaled by {r}200{{m}}, and smeared out when scaled to higher overdensities. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Society of Japan.

  15. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  16. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  17. When the expansion of finite-size corrections to hydrogen Lamb shift in moments of charge distribution breaks down

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelstein, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    We point out a limitation of the standard way of accounting the finite-size effects, i.e., when the leading $[(Z\\alpha)^4]$ and subleading $[(Z\\alpha)^5]$ contributions to the Lamb shift are given by the mean-square radius and the third Zemach moment of the charge distribution. This limitation may have profound consequences for the interpretation of the "proton size puzzle". We find, for instance, that the de R\\'ujula toy model of the proton form factor does not resolve the puzzle as claimed, despite the large value of the third Zemach moment. Given the formula which does not rely on the radii expansion, we show how tiny (less than a hundredth of percent) changes in the proton electric form factor at a MeV scale would be able to explain the puzzle.

  18. Distal radius fracture after Sauvé-Kapandji procedure in a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Matsumura, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsukazu; Takei, Terue; Yabe, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    We report a case of distal radius fracture after a Sauvé-Kapandji procedure combined with synovectomy and tendon transfer in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. This case shared several unusual features that were also seen in a previously reported case. Based on these features, we discuss favorable surgical treatment for the rheumatoid wrist with extensor tendon rupture, and also the optimal treatment for distal radius fracture after such procedures.

  19. indications of r-mode oscillations in soho/mdi solar radius measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sturrock, P A; Gough, D O; Scargle, J D

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of solar radius measurements acquired by the Michelson Doppler Imager on the SOHO spacecraft supports previously reported evidence of solar internal r-mode oscillations in Mt Wilson radius data and in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. The frequencies of these oscillations are compatible with oscillations in a putative inner tachocline that separates a slowly rotating core from the radiative envelope.

  20. "Osteoporosis and orthopods" incidences of osteoporosis in distal radius fracture from low energy trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bahari, Syah

    2007-07-01

    Fracture of the distal radius from low energy trauma is a common presentation to orthopaedic trauma services. This fragility type fracture is associated with underlying osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a \\'silent disease\\' where fragility fracture is a common presentation. Orthopaedic surgeons may be the only physician that these patients encounter. We found a high percentage of female patients who sustained a fragility fracture of the distal radius have an underlying osteoporosis. Further management of osteoporosis is important to prevent future fragility fractures.