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Sample records for charge pump circuit

  1. A high efficiency charge pump circuit for low power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Yunlong; Wu Nanjian

    2010-01-01

    A high efficiency charge pump circuit is designed and realized. The charge transfer switch is biased by the additional capacitor and transistor to eliminate the influence of the threshold voltage. Moreover, the bulk of the switch transistor is dynamically biased so that the threshold voltage gets lower when it is turned on during charge transfer and gets higher when it is turned off. As a result, the efficiency of the charge pump circuit can be improved. A test chip has been implemented in a 0.18 μm 3.3 V standard CMOS process. The measured output voltage of the eight-pumping-stage charge pump is 9.8 V with each pumping capacitor of 0.5 pF at an output current of 0.18 μA, when the clock frequency is 780 kHz and the supply voltage is 2 V. The charge pump and the clock driver consume a total current of 2.9 μA from the power supply. This circuit is suitable for low power applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  3. A Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter With Charge Pump Circuit Concept for Grid-Tied PV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Sabahi, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverter for grid-tied PV systems. The topology is derived from the concept of a charge pump circuit in order to eliminate the leakage current. It is composed of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors, and an LCL ou...

  4. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  5. New Discrete Fibonacci Charge Pump Design, Evaluation and Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the practical aspects of the realisation of Dickson and Fibonacci charge pumps. Standard Dickson charge pump circuit solution and new Fibonacci charge pump implementation are compared. Both charge pumps were designed and then evaluated by LTspice XVII simulations and realised in a discrete form on printed circuit board (PCB. Finally, the key parameters as the output voltage, efficiency, rise time, variable power supply and clock frequency effects were measured.

  6. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  7. Piezoelectric pump and pressurised circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric pump for use in a pressurised circuit is provided, comprising a pump chamber (5) with an inlet (6) provided with a one way inlet valve (7), for connection to a feeding line (8) of the pressurised circuit and an outlet (9) provided with a one way outlet valve (10), for connection to a

  8. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  9. Efficiency of Innovative Charge Pump versus Clock Frequency and MOSFETs Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek David

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charge pumps are circuits that produce the voltage higher than supply voltage or negative voltage. Today, charge pumps became an integral part of the electronic equipment. The integration of charge pumps directly into the system allows manufacturers to feed a complex system with many specific power requirements from a single source. However, charge pump efficiency is reduced by many phenomena. This paper is focused on the question of efficiency of proposed variant of the charge pump. In this article, the efficiency dependence on a number of stages, output current, clock frequency and MOSFETs sizes was simulated by Eldo. The aim of this study is to determine the MOSFETs sizes and theirs influence to efficiency and the output voltage. Complex optimization of the charge pump circuit will follow in further text.

  10. Thermodynamics of discrete-charge quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utreras-Díaz, C.A., E-mail: cutreras@uach.cl [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja s/n, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Laroze, D., E-mail: dlarozen@uta.cl [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    We study a dilute gas made of quantum circuits with discrete charge, interacting with a thermal reservoir at absolute temperature T, using Boltzmann statistics. This system is described by a quantum Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the effect of the discrete nature of the electric charge within a circuit approach. The eigenfunctions can be expressed as solutions of the Mathieu equation, and the energy spectrum is related to its characteristic values. We also make a comparative numerical study of the thermal properties, between the quantum case with discrete charge, and the so-called semiclassical approximation.

  11. 50V All-PMOS Charge Pumps Using Low-Voltage Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed

    2012-10-06

    In this work, two high-voltage charge pumps are introduced. In order to minimize the area of the pumping capacitors, which dominates the overall area of the charge pump, high density capacitors have been utilized. Nonetheless, these high density capacitors suffer from low breakdown voltage which is not compatible with the targeted high voltage application. To circumvent the breakdown limitation, a special clocking scheme is used to limit the maximum voltage across any pumping capacitor. The two charge pump circuits were fabricated in a 0:6m CMOS technology with poly0-poly1 capacitors. The output voltage of the two charge pumps reached 42:8V and 51V while the voltage across any capacitor did not exceed the value of the input voltage. Compared to other designs reported in the literature, the proposed charge pump provides the highest output voltage which makes it more suitable for tuning MEMS devices.

  12. A fast charge integrating and shaping circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, Z.; Szoncso, F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a low cost fast charge integrating and shaping circuit (FCISC) was motivated by the need for an interface between the photomultipliers of an existing hadronic calorimeter and recently developed new readout electronics designed to match the output of small ionization chambers for the upgraded UA1 detector at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. This paper describes the design principles of gated and ungated charge integrating and shaping circuits. An FCISC prototype using discrete components was made and its properties were determined with a computerized test setup. Finally an SMD implementation of the FCISC is presented and the performance is reported. (orig.)

  13. Charge coupled device open circuit image detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    An open circuit photodiode includes a capacitor plate formed monolithically with a forward biased P-N junction diode. The capacitor plate, together with one side of the P-N junction, forms a capacitor which is charged by the photocurrent of the diode. The voltage across the capacitor controls the output current of a charge coupled device (CCD) register. The invention operates in an open circuit configuration so that no net current flows across the diode junction as long as the flux of incident radiation is constant. If the incident radiation flux changes, current flows across the diode junction so that the capacitor is charged (or discharged) to a new voltage level corresponding to the new radiation flux level. As a result, the open circuit voltage of the capacitor modulates as a function of the change in incident radiation flux. The non-linearity inherent in the open circuit voltage response of the diode to incident radiation flux compensates for the nonlinearity in the output current response of the CCD register so that the total response is linear

  14. Cooperative Charge Pumping and Enhanced Skyrmion Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel

    2018-04-06

    The electronic pumping arising from the steady motion of ferromagnetic skyrmions is investigated by solving the time evolution of the Schrodinger equation implemented on a tight-binding model with the statistical physics of the many-body problem. It is shown that the ability of steadily moving skyrmions to pump large charge currents arises from their non-trivial magnetic topology, i.e. the coexistence between spin-motive force and topological Hall effect. Based on an adiabatic scattering theory, we compute the pumped current and demonstrate that it scales with the reflection coefficient of the conduction electrons against the skyrmion. Finally, we propose that such a phenomenon can be exploited in the context of racetrack devices, where the electronic pumping enhances the collective motion of the train of skyrmions.

  15. Quantum charge pumping in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejinder; Arrachea, Liliana; Sandler, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The mechanism to generate DC currents in open-quantum systems by applying local de-phased time-dependent potentials is known as charge pumping. For graphene ribbons, pumping techniques provide an alternative route for current production that overcomes the role of contacts. We have analyzed the properties of zero-bias current through graphene nanoribbons using a tight-binding Hamiltonian description and the Keldysh formalism, which provides the proper description for these systems in the quantum non-equilibrium regime. After reviewing results for quantum pumping in a one-dimensional chain attached to two reservoirs, with two local single-harmonic potentials oscillating in time, we will introduce results for finite-width ribbons of square and graphene lattices. A discussion on the differences in transmission functions and DC currents between these two cases will be presented and the role of edge termination in graphene ribbons will be addressed. Supported by NSF-PIRE and DMR-MWN/CIAM.

  16. An area-saving and high power efficiency charge pump built in a TFT-LCD driver IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ran; Wei Tingcun; Wang Jia; Gao Deyuan

    2009-01-01

    An area-saving and high power efficiency charge pump is proposed, and methods for optimizing the operation frequency and improving the power efficiency are discussed. Through sharing coupling capacitors the proposed charge pump realizes two DC-DC functions in one circuit, which can generate both positive and negative high voltages. Due to sharing of the coupling capacitors, as compared with a previous charge pump designed by us for a TFT-LCD driver IC, the die area and the amounts of necessary external capacitors are reduced by 40% and 33%, respectively. Furthermore, the charge pump's power efficiency is improved by 8% as a result of employing the new topology. The designed circuit has been successfully applied in a one-chip TFT-LCD driver IC implemented in a 0.18 μm low/mid/high mixed-voltage CMOS process.

  17. On-chip high-voltage generator design design methodology for charge pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    This book provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.  This new edition includes a variety of useful updates, including coverage of power efficiency and comprehensive optimization methodologies for DC-DC voltage multipliers, modeling of extremely low voltage Dickson charge pumps, and modeling and optimum design of AC-DC switched-capacitor multipliers for energy harvesting and power transfer for RFID.

  18. Magnonic Charge Pumping via Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Chiara; Hals, Kjetil; Irvine, Andrew; Novak, Vit; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Brataas, Arne; Ferguson, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The interplay between spin, charge and orbital degrees of freedom has led to the development of spintronic devices such as spin-torque oscillators and spin-transfer torque MRAM. In this development, spin pumping represents a convenient way to electrically detect magnetization dynamics. The effect originates from direct conversion of low-energy quantized spin waves in the magnet, known as magnons, into a flow of spins from the precessing magnet to adjacent leads. In this case, a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle or multilayer layouts, is required to convert the spin current into a charge signal. Here, we report the observation of charge pumping in which a precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current, demonstrating direct conversion of magnons into high-frequency currents via spin-orbit interaction. The generated electric current, unlike spin currents generated by spin-pumping, can be directly detected without the need of any additional spin-charge conversion mechanism. The charge-pumping phenomenon is generic and gives a deeper understanding of its reciprocal effect, the spin orbit torque, which is currently attracting interest for their potential in manipulating magnetic information.

  19. Circuit with a Switch for Charging a Battery in a Battery Capacitor Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor); Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A circuit for charging a battery combined with a capacitor includes a power supply adapted to be connected to the capacitor, and the battery. The circuit includes an electronic switch connected to the power supply. The electronic switch is responsive to switch between a conducting state to allow current and a non-conducting state to prevent current flow. The circuit includes a control device connected to the switch and is operable to generate a control signal to continuously switch the electronic switch between the conducting and non-conducting states to charge the battery.

  20. The RF charge pump technique for measuring the interface state density on leaky dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Hendrikus; Vries, Henk; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    In this work the RF charge pump technique is presented. It is shown that this technique can rovide charge pump data of devices that have a leakage current too high for classical charge pump measurements. The methodology of accurately performing RF charge pump measurements is discussed and

  1. Charge pumping at radio frequencies [MOSFET device interface state density measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Hendrikus; de Vries, H.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    In this work, for the first time, charge pump results are shown that are obtained at frequencies in the GHz range. A comparison is made with charge pump results at lower frequencies. A very good agreement is seen between the low frequency charge pump data and the RF charge pump data. Measurement

  2. Development of Discrete Power Supply with Charge Pump Method for High Powered Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Power supply is one of the electronic devices that can provide electric energy for electronic systems or other systems. There are several types of power supplies that can be applied depend on the requirement and functions. One example is the use of power supply for sonar systems. Sonar system is a device which can be used to detect a target under water. The sonar system is an electronic circuit that requires a power supply with specific characteristics when the sonar functions as a transmitter and a receiver in the specific span time (when on and the specific lag time (when off. This paper discusses the design of power supply for high-powered sonar systems with discrete methods in which high power supply is only applied when the acoustic waves radiated under water. Charge pump was used to get the appropriate output voltage from lower input voltage. Charge pump utilized a combination of series and parallel connections of capacitors. The working mode of this power supply used the lag time as the calculation of time to charge charge pump capacitors in parallel while the span time was used for the calculation of discharging the charge pump capacitors in series.

  3. Circuit QED and engineering charge-based superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, S M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208284, New Haven, CT 06520-8248 (United States)], E-mail: steven.girvin@yale.edu, E-mail: michel.devoret@yale.edu, E-mail: robert.schoelkopf@yale.edu

    2009-12-15

    The last two decades have seen tremendous advances in our ability to generate and manipulate quantum coherence in mesoscopic superconducting circuits. These advances have opened up the study of quantum optics of microwave photons in superconducting circuits as well as providing important hardware for the manipulation of quantum information. Focusing primarily on charge-based qubits, we provide a brief overview of these developments and discuss the present state of the art. We also survey the remarkable progress that has been made in realizing circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) in which superconducting artificial atoms are strongly coupled to individual microwave photons.

  4. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2015-10-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property--the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of [Formula: see text] as function of control parameters, where [Formula: see text] is the electron charge and f is the frequency of modulation. In recent years, robust and accurate quantized charge pumps have been developed based on semiconductor quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers. These devices allow modulation of charge exchange rates between the dot and the leads over many orders of magnitude and enable trapping of a precise number of electrons far away from equilibrium with the leads. The corresponding non-adiabatic pumping protocols focus on understanding of separate parts of the pumping cycle associated with charge loading, capture and release. In this report we review realizations, models and metrology applications of quantized charge pumps based on tunable-barrier quantum dots.

  5. Spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in crystalline magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Chiara

    In magnetic crystals with an inversion asymmetric unit cell a non-zero global spin-polarization is generated by an electrical current, which acts with a torque on the magnetisation exciting magnetic dynamics. This relativistic non-equilibrium spin phenomenon also has a reciprocal effect in which the excitation of magnons results in the pumping of a charge current. The possibility to manipulate/read magnetism with electrical currents is highly relevant for magnetic memories and other spintronic devices. I will start by reviewing our recent research on spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in crystalline magnets, in particular our very recent measurements of the crystalline SOT at room temperature in half-Heusler NiMnSb thin films. With this experiment we are able to fully characterise magnitude and symmetry of the SOTs. I will then talk about the first demonstration of magnonic charge pumping in crystal magnet GaMnAs. In this effect, which is the reciprocal effect of SOTs, the precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current. Differently from spin pumping, which is commonly used to electrically detect magnetization dynamics, in charge pumping magnons are converted within the ferromagnet into high-frequency currents via the relativistic spin-orbit interaction, without the need of a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle.

  6. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  7. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  8. Simulation of vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrane, Karim

    Vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits (VCHSC) offer two main advantages compared to conventional heat pumps: capacity control by adjustment of the circulating mixture composition and performance improvement by approximating the Lorenz process. The objective of this work is two fold: (1) Development and verification of computer models simulating single and two-stage VCHSC. (2) Investigation of the performance potentials of VCHSC using the models and second law analysis. Steady state model for the single and two-stage VCHSC are developed based on energy and mass balances and heat transfer relationships for components of the cycles. The heat exchangers are described by their UA values. Comparisons between experimental and simulated data are good, validating the models, although pointing out several needed refinements such as the assumptions of negligible pressure drops and heat losses to the surroundings. Performance curves a single-state VCHSC and two of its modified versions are generated and are compared based on the same total UA value based on the same total UA value including all heat exchangers. The parameters studied are the COP, the solution heat exchanger effectiveness, the pressure ratio, the temperature glides in the desorber and absorber, the cooling capacity and the distribution of the UA values. The principle of capacity control is clearly demonstrated as the cooling load is changed by up to a factor of ten by varying the concentration. Improvement in COP by as much as 23 percent is obtained by incorporating a preheater and an additional desorber. By staging the solution circuits in parallel, the effective vapor pressure curve of the refrigerant is manipulated leading to a two-stage cycle capable of very high temperature lifts (over 100 C) with very low pressure ratios (as low as 7). Simulation results show that the absorbent balance in the cycle is more efficiently done by using a bleed line instead of rectifying the refrigerant vapor

  9. Gigahertz quantized charge pumping in graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M R; Chiu, K L; Giblin, S P; Kataoka, M; Fletcher, J D; Chua, C; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Fal'ko, V I; Smith, C G; Janssen, T J B M

    2013-06-01

    Single-electron pumps are set to revolutionize electrical metrology by enabling the ampere to be redefined in terms of the elementary charge of an electron. Pumps based on lithographically fixed tunnel barriers in mesoscopic metallic systems and normal/superconducting hybrid turnstiles can reach very small error rates, but only at megahertz pumping speeds that correspond to small currents of the order of picoamperes. Tunable barrier pumps in semiconductor structures are operated at gigahertz frequencies, but the theoretical treatment of the error rate is more complex and only approximate predictions are available. Here, we present a monolithic, fixed-barrier single-electron pump made entirely from graphene that performs at frequencies up to several gigahertz. Combined with the record-high accuracy of the quantum Hall effect and proximity-induced Josephson junctions, quantized-current generation brings an all-graphene closure of the quantum metrological triangle within reach. Envisaged applications for graphene charge pumps outside quantum metrology include single-photon generation via electron-hole recombination in electrostatically doped bilayer graphene reservoirs, single Dirac fermion emission in relativistic electron quantum optics and read-out of spin-based graphene qubits in quantum information processing.

  10. Design of a charge pump for high voltage driver applications based on 0.35 μm BCD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tiezhu; Zhang, Yuning; Ji, Rendong

    2017-07-01

    Based on the switched capacitor system theory, a new charge pump is designed as the driver of the H-bridge power circuits. The proposed circuit is added with the output feedback control module to realize the steady output, lower the ripple and power noise, and improve the transforming efficiency. Simulation based on 0.35 μm BCD350GE process demonstrates that the circuit has a ripple voltage as low as 200 mV and reaches a high efficiency up to 70% with a load as much as 20 mA when the supply voltage changes from 8 V to 36 V.

  11. A circuit scheme to control current surge for RFID-NVM pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Kang Jinfeng; Wang Yangyuan; Yang Liwu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new circuit scheme to control the current surge in the boosting phase of an radio frequency idenfication-nonvolative memory pump. By introducing a circuit block consisting of a current reference and a current mirror, the new circuit scheme can keep the period-average current of the pump constantly below the desired level, for example, 2.5 μA. Therefore, it can prevent the rectified supply of the RFID tag IC from collapsing in the boosting phase of the pump. The presented scheme could effectively reduce the voltage drop on the rectified supply from more than 50% to even zero, but could cost less area. Moreover, an analytical expression to calculate the boosting time of a pump in the new scheme is developed. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. A novel low ripple charge pump with a 2X/1.5X booster for PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Cong; Song Zhitang; Chen Houpeng; Cai Daolin; Wang Qian; Hong Xiao; Ding Sheng; Li Xi

    2012-01-01

    A low ripple switched capacitor charge pump applicable to phase change memory (PCM) is presented. For high power efficiency, the selected charge pump topology can automatically change the power conversion ratio between 2X/1.5X modes with the input voltage. For a low output ripple, a novel operation mode is used. Compared with the conventional switched capacitor charge pump, the flying capacitor of the proposed charge pump is charged to V o − V in during the charge phase (V o is the prospective output voltage). In the discharge phase, the flying capacitor is placed in series with the V in to transfer energy to the output, so the output voltage is regulated at V o . A simulation was implemented for a DC input range of 1.6–2.1 V in on SMIC standard 40 nm CMOS process, the result shows that the new operation mode could regulate the output of about 2.5 V with a load condition from 0 to 10 mA, and the ripple voltage is lower than 4 mV. The maximum power efficiency reaches 91%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Charge pumping in strongly coupled molecular quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, Patrick; Yap, Han Hoe; Gong, Jiangbin; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between electrons and the vibrational degrees of freedom of a molecular quantum dot can lead to an exponential suppression of the conductance, an effect which is commonly termed Franck-Condon blockade. Here, we investigate this effect in a quantum dot driven by time-periodic gate voltages and tunneling amplitudes using nonequilibrium Green's functions and a Floquet expansion. Building on previous results showing that driving can lift the Franck-Condon blockade, we investigate driving protocols which can be used to pump charge across the quantum dot. In particular, we show that due to the strongly coupled nature of the system, the pump current at resonance is an exponential function of the drive strength.

  14. Charge pumping with finger capacitance for body sensor energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alyssa Y; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2017-07-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous and increasingly integrated with and on the human body; powering such "body network" devices remains an outstanding problem. In this paper, we demonstrate a touch interrogation powered energy harvesting system. This system transforms the kinetic energy of a human finger to electric energy, with each tap producing approximately 1 nJ of energy at a storage capacitor. As is well known for touch display devices, the proximity of a finger can alter the effective value of small capacitances; we demonstrate that these capacitance changes can drive a current which is rectified to charge a capacitor. As a demonstration, an untethered circuit charged this way can deliver enough instantaneous power to light a red LED every ~ 10 seconds. This technology illustrates the ability to communicate with and operate low-power sensors with motions already used for interfacing to devices.

  15. Resistive cooling circuits for charged particle traps using crystal resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, T; Doser, M; Kellerbauer, A; Pribyl, W

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses a novel method to couple a signal from charged particles in a Penning trap to a high Q resonant circuit using a crystal resonator. Traditionally the trap capacity is converted into a resonator by means of an inductance. When normal conducting wires (e.g. copper) are applied to build up a coil, the unloaded Q value is limited to a value in the order of 1000. The tuned circuit’s Q factor is directly linked to the input impedance “seen” by the trapped particles at resonance frequency. This parallel resonance impedance is a measure of the efficiency of resistive cooling and thus it should be optimized. We propose here a commercially available crystal resonator since it exhibits a very high Q value and a parallel resonance impedance of several MOhm. The possibility to tune the parallel resonance frequency of the quartz results in filter behavior that allows covering a broad range of frequencies.

  16. Investigation of Transient Flow in a Centrifugal Charging Pump during Charging Operating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal charging pumps are important components of nuclear power plants and must be operated under multioperating conditions for the requirements of the system. In order to investigate the internal flow mechanism of the centrifugal charging pump during the transient transition process of charging operating from Q = 34 m3/h to Q = 110 m3/h, numerical simulation and experiment are implemented in this study. The relationship between flow rate and time is obtained from the experiment and worked as the boundary condition to accurately accomplish the numerical simulation during the transient process. External and internal characteristics under the variable operating conditions are analyzed through the transient simulation. The results show that the liquid viscosity, large scale vortexes exist in the flow passages in the beginning of the variable operating conditions, which indicates flow separation and the sudden changes in direction of velocity. As the flow rate increases gradually, the flow angles of the fluid in inlet accelerate correspondingly and the flow along the blade is more uniform, which leads to a decrease and movements of the vortexes. The contents of the current work can provide references for the design optimization and fluid control of the pump used in the transient process of variable operating conditions.

  17. Designing an Electro-Hydraulic Control Module for an Open-Circuit Variable Displacement Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    , in the form of an electric control signal, under varying working conditions, when having access to engine speed and actual pump pressure. The paper presents a model of both the pump and the control module, along with design considerations on which linear controllers are developed for a worst point......This paper deals with the problem of designing an electric control module for a Sauer-Danfoss Series 45 H-frame open circuit axial piston pump. The purpose of the electric control module is to replace the existing hydro-mechanical (LS) regulator, and enable the pump to follow a reference pressure...... consideration. Based on the initial topology experimental results are presented and a simulation comparison is made with the original hydro-mechanical controlled pump. Based on these results, improvements for a second prototype are presented along with a simulation result for this....

  18. Charge-pump detector for X-ray correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella A., E-mail: carini@bnl.gov [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rehak, Pavel; Chen Wei [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Peter Siddons, D. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A detector for the X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy (XCS) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Stanford (CA) is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The LCLS is the first operational X-ray free electron laser. It provides extremely bright coherent laser-like X-ray pulses with energy up to 8 keV, shorter than 100 fs and with a repetition rate that will go up to 120 Hz. An ideal detector for XCS experiments should cover a large angular range with high efficiency and provide a proper resolution to resolve the speckle. The requirement for dynamic range is not particularly stringent while a fast readout is needed. In particular, the Charge Pump Detector has to be highly efficient at the energy of 8 keV, provide a dynamic range of 100 photons and a readout noise much better than one photon. The 1024x1024 pixels have to be read within the repetition rate of the laser pulses, that is faster than 8 ms. The pixel size of 56 {mu}mx56 {mu}m is a compromise between charge sharing and small pixel. Working principle and details of the detector will be discussed.

  19. Charge-pump detector for X-ray correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Gabriella A.; Rehak, Pavel; Chen, Wei; Peter Siddons, D.

    2011-09-01

    A detector for the X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy (XCS) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Stanford (CA) is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The LCLS is the first operational X-ray free electron laser. It provides extremely bright coherent laser-like X-ray pulses with energy up to 8 keV, shorter than 100 fs and with a repetition rate that will go up to 120 Hz. An ideal detector for XCS experiments should cover a large angular range with high efficiency and provide a proper resolution to resolve the speckle. The requirement for dynamic range is not particularly stringent while a fast readout is needed. In particular, the Charge Pump Detector has to be highly efficient at the energy of 8 keV, provide a dynamic range of 100 photons and a readout noise much better than one photon. The 1024×1024 pixels have to be read within the repetition rate of the laser pulses, that is faster than 8 ms. The pixel size of 56 μm×56 μm is a compromise between charge sharing and small pixel. Working principle and details of the detector will be discussed.

  20. Charge-Pump Detector for X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, G.A.; Rehak, P.; Chen, W.; Siddons, D.P.

    2011-01-15

    A detector for the X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy (XCS) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Stanford (CA) is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The LCLS is the first operational X-ray free electron laser. It provides extremely bright coherent laser-like X-ray pulses with energy up to 8 keV, shorter than 100 fs and with a repetition rate that will go up to 120 Hz. An ideal detector for XCS experiments should cover a large angular range with high efficiency and provide a proper resolution to resolve the speckle. The requirement for dynamic range is not particularly stringent while a fast readout is needed. In particular, the Charge Pump Detector has to be highly efficient at the energy of 8 keV, provide a dynamic range of 100 photons and a readout noise much better than one photon. The 1024 x 1024 pixels have to be read within the repetition rate of the laser pulses, that is faster than 8 ms. The pixel size of 56 {micro} m x 56 {micro}m is a compromise between charge sharing and small pixel. Working principle and details of the detector will be discussed.

  1. An adiabatic charging reversible circuit with stepwise voltage control method using a microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Nakata

    Full Text Available An adiabatic circuit was designed for dissipationless charging of a capacitor. The duty ratio of the switching transistors is changed stepwise and controlled by a microprocessor. The charging efficiency, that is the ratio between the work done by the power supply and electrostatic energy of the capacitor, is calculated from experimental results. The efficiency is 94% when the number of stepwise voltage is 32, which is consistent with the theoretical value. Keywords: Adiabatic, Reversible circuit, Energy recovery, Stepwise charging

  2. Transients in low pressure pumping circuits: a language oriented for the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardinis, B.; Siccardi, F.

    1977-01-01

    Following a previous work (Vallombrosa 1974) a specialized language was developed for transients in low pressure pumping circuits, when the liquid column separation phenomenon may happen or is to be avoided. The first generation of the programming code is given. Numerical schemes go beyond the usual characteristic integration techniques now available and make it possible to atrack the solution of problems in which on the one hand, the differential equations are nonlinear on account of the variations of the celerity with pressure, and on the other, the pressure of a dispersed gaseous phase in the liquid influences the energetic dissipation mechanisms. The oriented language allows the simulation of the main constituents of the circuits, pumping stations, reservoirs, air tanks, piezometric wells, condensers, variable resistances, conduit junctions, both during normal functioning and in cavitation conditions. Special control instructions on the programming code allow such a simulation language to be easily employed even by people not specifically competent in computer progr

  3. Circuit for Full Charging of Series Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, William E.; Saunders, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced charger has been proposed for a battery that comprises several lithium-ion cells in series. The proposal is directed toward charging the cells in as nearly an optimum manner as possible despite unit-to-unit differences among the nominally identical cells. The particular aspect of the charging problem that motivated the proposal can be summarized as follows: During bulk charging (charging all the cells in series at the same current), the voltages of individual cells increase at different rates. Once one of the cells reaches full charge, bulk charging must be stopped, leaving other cells less than fully charged. To make it possible to bring all cells up to full charge once bulk charging has been completed, the proposed charger would include a number of top-off chargers one for each cell. The top-off chargers would all be powered from the same DC source, but their outputs would be DC-isolated from each other and AC-coupled to their respective cells by means of transformers, as described below. Each top-off charger would include a flyback transformer, an electronic switch, and an output diode. For suppression of undesired electromagnetic emissions, each top-off charger would also include (1) a resistor and capacitor configured to act as a snubber and (2) an inductor and capacitor configured as a filter. The magnetic characteristics of the flyback transformer and the duration of its output pulses determine the energy delivered to the lithium-ion cell. It would be necessary to equip the cell with a precise voltage monitor to determine when the cell reaches full charge. In response to a full-charge reading by this voltage monitor, the electronic switch would be held in the off state. Other cells would continue to be charged similarly by their top-off chargers until their voltage monitors read full charge.

  4. Quantum spin and charge pumping through double quantum dots with ferromagnetic leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hui, E-mail: hpan@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Ziyu; Zhao, Sufen [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Lue, Rong [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-06-06

    The pumping of electrons through double quantum dots (DQDs) attached to ferromagnetic leads have been theoretically investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that an oscillating electric field applied to the quantum dot may give rise to the pumped charge and spin currents. In the case that both leads are ferromagnet, a pure spin current can be generated in the antiparallel magnetization configuration, where no net charge current exists. The possibility of manipulating the pumped spin current is explored by tuning the dot level and the ac field. By making use of various tunings, the magnitude and direction of the pumped spin current can be well controlled. For the case that only one lead is ferromagnetic, both of the charge and spin currents can be pumped and flow in opposite directions on the average. The control of the magnitude and direction of the pumped charge and spin currents is also discussed by means of the magnetic flux threading through the DQD ring. -- Highlights: → We theoretically investigate the pumping of electrons through double quantum dots attached to ferromagnetic leads. → An oscillating electric field applied to the quantum dot may give rise to the pumped charge and spin currents. → When both leads are ferromagnet, a pure spin current can be generated in the antiparallel magnetization configuration. → By making use of various tunings, the magnitude and direction of the pumped spin current can be well controlled. → When only one lead is ferromagnetic, both of the charge and spin currents can be pumped and flow in opposite directions.

  5. Novel CMOS Bulk-driven Charge Pump for Ultra Low Input Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel bulk-driven cross-coupled charge pump designed in standard 90 nm CMOS technology is presented. The proposed charge pump is based on a dynamic threshold voltage inverter and is suitable for integrated ultra-low voltage converters. Due to a latchup risk, bulk-driven charge pumps can safely be used only in low-voltage applications. For the input voltage below 200 mV and output current of 1 uA, the proposed bulk-driven topology can achieve about 10 % higher efficiency than the conventional gate-driven cross-coupled charge pump. Therefore, it can be effectively used in DC-DC converters, which are the basic building blocks of on-chip energy harvesting systems with ultra-low supply voltage.

  6. Further Analysis of Charge/Discharge Capacitance Measuring Circuit Used with Tomography Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui HU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the charge/discharge capacitance measuring circuit has been used for many applications, in particular for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT, its detailed dynamic performance has not been analysed and hence the circuit has not been optimised. This paper presents a further study of the charge/discharge circuit. To investigate the transient processes of the charging and discharging phases and the steady-state output of the current detector, the circuit has been analysed theoretically in the time and frequency domains and by PSpice simulation to confirm the analytical results. It is found that the non-ideal characteristics of the circuit, including the stray capacitance and ON resistance of CMOS switches used to control the charge/discharge processes, dominate the performance of the circuit. The values of the feedback capacitor and resistor in the current detector need to be carefully selected to achieve an optimised sampling rate and accuracy. The offset error of op-amps can be reduced by using differential configuration and the error due to charge injection can be compensated by frequent system calibration.

  7. High-Q Tunable Filters and High Efficiency Charge Pumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The supply voltages of modern baseband digital integrated circuits are well below the required actuation voltages for the MEMS tunable filters. Therefore, a charge...

  8. The Most Energy Efficient Way to Charge the Capacitor in an RC Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dake

    2017-01-01

    The voltage waveform that minimizes the energy loss in the resistance when charging the capacitor in a resistor-capacitor circuit is investigated using the calculus of variation. A linear voltage ramp gives the best efficiency, which means a constant current source should be used for charging. Comparison between constant current source and…

  9. Compound circuit heat recovery unit with bleeding point in the brine circuit for the extraction of heat by the heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juettemann, H.

    1982-09-01

    For the recovery of heat in ventilating installations normally now-a-days a heat recovery unit is applied. For the supply of heat to the building often a heat pump is used. Instead of external air for the heat pump as the source of heat preference is given to the extract air after it has passed through the heat recovery unit, as this air contains a few more degrees Kelvin then the external air. The most primitive method would provide a heat exchanger for heat removal by the heat pump after the exhaust air heat recovery unit. With a compound circuit heat recovery unit this heat exchanger can be omitted by bleeding the brine circuit for the extraction of heat by the heat pump.

  10. Extraction of the characteristics of Si nanocrystals by the charge pumping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, R; Grisolia, J; BenAssayag, G; Schamm-Chardon, S; Castro, C; Pecassou, B; Dimitrakis, P; Normand, P

    2012-03-02

    In this paper, the characteristics of silicon nanocrystals used as charge trapping centers in memory devices are examined using the two-level charge pumping (CP) technique performed as a function of frequency and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). The parameters extracted from the two methods such as the depth location, density and effective diameter of the nanocrystals are in good quantitative agreement. These results validate the charge pumping approach as a non-destructive powerful technique to access most of the properties of nanocrystals embedded in dielectrics and located at injection distances from the substrate surface not limited to the direct tunneling regime.

  11. A main amplifier circuit and data acquisition system for charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Rui; Ge Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    The charged particle detector array has huge amounts of signal and needs high counting rate. To meet the requirements, a main amplifier and analog-to-digital conversion circuit based on high-speed op-amp chips and ADC chip was designed. A 51-MCU was used to control the circuit of ADC and the USB communication chip. The signals were digitized and uploaded by the MCU-ADC-USB circuit. The whole system has a compact hardware structure and a reasonable controlling software, which meet the design requirements. (authors)

  12. An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter with on-chip charge pump auto-tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fangxiong; Ma Heping; Jia Hailong; Shi Yin; Lin Min; Dai, Forster

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 Ω as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 μV rms . The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm 2 and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Defect diagnosis and root cause analysis for thrust roller bearing of centrifugal charging pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yi

    2012-01-01

    The centrifugal charging pump is one of the most important equipment for Nuclear power plant which requires very high reliability, during C9 fuel-cycle, the continuous high level vibration alarm happened on the centrifugal charging pump B, we diagnosed its faults correctly and selected the right operation mode and right time to dismantle it which ensure the safety and economic benefits of Nuclear power plant, and through deeply analysis the root causes of thrust bearing defaults, we can learn much from it especially for the diagnosis and analysis to the bearing faults which is common for rotating equipment. (author)

  14. Selective optical pumping of charged excitons in unintentionally doped InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Matutano, Guillermo; MartInez-Pastor, Juan [Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universitat de Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Alen, Benito [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Seravalli, Lucca; Frigeri, Paola; Franchi, Secondo [Istituto dei Materiali per l' Elettronica e il Magnetismo (CNR), Parco delle Scienze 37/a, I-43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: Guillermo.munoz@uv.es

    2008-04-09

    We have investigated the selective optical pumping of charged excitonic species in a sample containing quantum dots of different sizes and low areal density by photoluminescence and excitation of the photoluminescence microspectroscopy. We study the selective optical excitation of negatively charged excitons as an alternative to commonly used electrical methods. We demonstrate that under resonant excitation in impurity related bands, the selective pumping efficiency can be as high as 85% in small quantum dots having one electron shell and emitting at around 930 nm, and around 65% in big quantum dots having four electron shells and emitting at 1160 nm.

  15. Spectroscopic charge pumping investigation of the amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. T.; Yu, L. C.; Han, J. H.; Kopanski, J. J.; Cheung, K. P.; Zhang, F.; Wang, C.; Campbell, J. P.; Suehle, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    The amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states in submicron sized metal-oxide-silicon-field-effect-transistors is observed using an enhanced spectroscopic charge pumping method. The method's simplicity and high sensitivity makes it a powerful tool for interrogating the true nature of electrically measured interface states in samples which exhibit extremely low defect densities. The spectroscopic results obtained clearly illustrate a signature "double peak" density of states consistent with amphoteric Pb center data obtained from electron spin resonance measurements. Since the method is a hybrid of the commonly used charge pumping methodology, it should find widespread use in electronic device characterization.

  16. Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1996-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  17. Switched capacitor charge pump used for low-distortion imaging in atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2015-01-01

    The switched capacitor charge pump (SCCP) is an effective method of linearizing charges on piezoelectric actuators and therefore constitute a significant approach to nano-positioning. In this work, it was for the first time implemented in an atomic force microscope for low-distortion imaging. Experimental results showed that the image quality was improved evidently under the SCCP drive compared with that under traditional linear voltage drive. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pressure Pump Power Control in the Primary Circuit of the Heat Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of speed in hot water systems where highly efficient plate heat exchanger is used. Especially marked the problem which is connected with long transition drive of constant speed exceeding the time of the heat exchanger accumulative tank emptying more than twice. As a regulating element in the heat exchange system there was proposed to use asynchronous electric drive of pressure pump in the primary circuit of the heat exchanger. For correct use of such electric drive we solved the problem of control object mathematical model synthesis, which has non-linear properties, in particular, the transfer coefficient of the circuit can vary in more than 6 times. At the same time there was revealed the dependence of the transfer coefficient on the motor speed, which must be considered in the controller synthesis. In conclusion we suggested the solutions of regulators synthesis tasks with customizable settings for speed and switchable structure between relay λ and PI regulators.

  19. Instantaneous charging & discharging cycle analysis of a novel supercapacitor based energy harvesting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, MD Shahrukh Adnan; Kuni, Sharsad Kara; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Syed, Anas; Hawladar, Masum; Rahman, Md. Moshiur

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an extensive effort has been made to design and develop a prototype in a laboratory setup environment in order to investigate experimentally the response of a novel Supercapacitor based energy harvesting circuit; particularly the phenomena of instantaneous charging and discharging cycle is analysed. To maximize battery lifespan and storage capacity, charging/discharging cycles need to be optimized in such a way, it ultimately enhances the system performances reliably. Keeping this into focus, an Arduino-MOSFET based control system is developed to charge the Supercapacitor from a low wind Vertical Axis Turbine (VAWT) and discharge it through a 6V battery. With a wind speed of 5m/s, the wind turbine requires approximately 8.1 hours to charge the 6V battery through Supercapacitor bank that constitutes 18 cycles in which each cycle consumes 27 minutes. The overall performance of the proposed system was quite convincing in a sense that the efficiency of the developed Energy Harvesting Circuit EHC raises to 19% in comparison to direct charging of the battery from the Vertical wind turbine. At low wind speed, such value of efficiency margin is quite encouraging which essentially validates the system design.

  20. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin [Department of Embedded System Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P.R.China (China); Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO{sub 2}/metal gate stacks. N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N{sub T} for extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps. N{sub T} is the number of traps, and I{sub cp} is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti{sub x}N{sub 1−x} metal gate concentrations. Next, N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different falling times (t{sub falling} {sub time}) and base level times (t{sub base} {sub level}) show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps decrease with an increase in t{sub falling} {sub time}. By fitting discharge formula for different t{sub falling} {sub time}, the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t{sub falling} {sub time}. This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N{sub T} by charge pumping technique at t{sub base} {sub level} reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps.

  1. A dual mode charge pump with adaptive output used in a class G audio power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Feng; Zhenfei, Peng; Shanshan, Yang; Zhiliang, Hong; Yang, Liu

    2011-04-01

    A dual mode charge pump to produce an adaptive power supply for a class G audio power amplifier is presented. According to the amplitude of the input signals, the charge pump has two level output voltage rails available to save power. It operates both in current mode at high output load and in pulse frequency modulation (PFM) at light load to reduce the power dissipation. Also, dynamic adjustment of the power stage transistor size based on load current at the PFM mode is introduced to reduce the output voltage ripple and prevent the switching frequency from audio range. The prototype is implemented in 0.18 μm 3.3 V CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the maximum power efficiency of the charge pump is 79.5% @ 0.5x mode and 83.6% @ 1x mode. The output voltage ripple is less than 15 mV while providing 120 mA of the load current at PFM control and less than 18 mV while providing 300 mA of the load current at current mode control. An analytical model for ripple voltage and efficiency calculation of the proposed PFM control demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured results.

  2. Economic Viability of Pumped-Storage Power Plants Equipped with Ternary Units and Considering Hydraulic Short-Circuit Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazarra, Manuel; Pérez-Díaz, Juan I.; García-González, Javier

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the economic viability of pumped-storage hydropower plants equipped with ternary units and considering hydraulic short-circuit operation. The analysed plant is assumed to participate in the day-ahead energy market and in the secondary regulation service of the Spanish power system. A deterministic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling model is used to estimate the maximum theoretical income of the plant assuming perfect information of the next day prices and the residual demand curves of the secondary regulation reserve market. Results show that the pay-back periods with and without the hydraulic short-circuit operation are significantly lower than their expected lifetime and that the pay-back periods can be reduced with the inclusion of the hydraulic short-circuit operation.

  3. Powering microbial electrolysis cells by capacitor circuits charged using microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2013-05-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was powered by a capacitor based energy storage circuit using energy from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to increase MEC hydrogen production rates compared to that possible by the MFC alone. To prevent voltage reversal, MFCs charged the capacitors in a parallel configuration, and then the capacitors were discharged in series to boost the voltage that was used to power the MECs. The optimal capacitance for charging was found to be ∼0.01 F for each MFC. The use of the capacitor charging system increased energy recoveries from 9 to 13%, and hydrogen production rates increased from 0.31 to 0.72 m3 m-3-day-1, compared to coupled systems without capacitors. The circuit efficiency (the ratio of the energy that was discharged to the MEC to the energy provided to the capacitor from the MFCs) was ∼90%. These results provide an improved method for linking MFCs to MECs for renewable hydrogen gas production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Charge pumping by magnetization dynamics in magnetic and semimagnetic tunnel junctions with interfacial Rashba or bulk extrinsic spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Fabian, Jaroslav; Nagaosa, Naoto; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2012-02-01

    We develop a time-dependent nonequilibrium Green function (NEGF) approach to the problem of spin pumping by precessing magnetization in one of the ferromagnetic layers within F|I|F magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) or F|I|N semi-MTJs in the presence of intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) at the F|I interface or the extrinsic SOC in the bulk of F layers of finite thickness (F, ferromagnet; N, normal metal; I, insulating barrier). To express the time-averaged pumped charge current, or the corresponding dc voltage signal in an open circuit, we construct a novel solution to double-time-Fourier-transformed NEGF equations. The two energy arguments of NEGFs in this representation are connected by the Floquet theorem describing multiphoton emission and absorption processes. Within this fully quantum-mechanical treatment of the conduction electrons, we find that (i) only in the presence of the interfacial Rashba SOC, the nonzero dc pumping voltage Vpump in F|I|N junctions can emerge at the adiabatic level (i.e., proportional to the microwave frequency), which could explain recent experiments on microwave-driven semi-MTJs [T. Moriyama , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.067602 100, 067602 (2008)]; (ii) a unique signature of this charge pumping phenomenon, where the Rashba SOC within the precessing F layer participates in the pumping process, is a Vpump that changes sign as the function of the precession cone angle; (iii) unlike conventional spin pumping in MTJs in the absence of any SOC, where one emitted or absorbed microwave photon is sufficient to match the exact solution in the frame rotating with the magnetization, the presence of the Rashba SOC requires taking into account up to 10 photons in order to reach the asymptotic value of pumped charge current; (iv) the disorder within F|I|F MTJs can enhance Vpump in the quasiballistic transport regime; and (v) the extrinsic SOC in F|I|F MTJs causes spin relaxation and eventually the decay of Vpump

  5. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Luzio, Alessandro; Natali, Dario; Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Noh, Yong-Young; Caironi, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μh = 0.29 cm2/V s and μe = 0.001 cm2/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μe = 0.12 cm2/V s and μh = 8 × 10-4 cm2/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  6. A charge-pump 60kV modulator for the ISOLDE target extraction voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Fowler, A; Gaudillet, H; Gharsa, T; Schipper, J

    2015-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN provides radioactive ion beams to a number of experimental stations. These ions are produced by a metal target, floating at 60 kV, which is impacted by a 1.4 GeV high intensity proton beam. The ions are then accelerated by a grounded extraction electrode to 60 keV, before transport to the experimental area. During proton beam impact extremely high ionisation of the volume around the target gives rise to significant leakage current which results in loss of charge on the effective target capacitance of approximately 6 nF. If short life-time isotopes are to be studied, the 60 kV must be re-established within a maximum of 10 ms. Recharging the target capacitance to 60 kV and to the required stability of better than 10-4 precludes a direct charging system and an alternative method of re-establishing the 60 kV is used. The present system [1], in operation since 1991, employs a resonant circuit which is triggered 35 µs prior to beam impact. This circuit transfers the charge on the effec...

  7. Spatially resolved charge exchange flux calculations on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Tsitrone, E.; Boerner, P.; Reiter, D.; Beaute, A.; Delchambre, E.; Escarguel, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Genesio, P.; Gunn, J.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.

    2009-01-01

    A spatially resolved calculation of the charge exchange particle and energy fluxes on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is presented, as a first step towards a better understanding and modelling of carbon erosion, migration, as well as deuterium codeposition and bulk diffusion of deuterium in Tore Supra. The results are obtained with the EIRENE code run in a 3D geometry. Physical and chemical erosion maps on the TPL are calculated, and the contribution of neutrals to erosion, especially in the self-shadowed area, is calculated.

  8. A 190 mV start-up and 59.2% efficiency CMOS gate boosting voltage doubler charge pump in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Minori; Miyaji, Kousuke

    2018-04-01

    A start-up charge pump circuit for an extremely low input voltage (V IN) is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed circuit uses an inverter level shifter to generate a 2V IN voltage swing to the gate of both main NMOS and PMOS power transistors in a charge pump to reduce the channel resistance. The proposed circuit is fully implemented in a standard 0.18 µm CMOS process, and the measurement result shows that a minimum input voltage of 190 mV is achieved and output power increases by 181% compared with the conventional forward-body-bias scheme at a 300 mV input voltage. The proposed scheme achieves a maximum efficiency of 59.2% when the input voltage is 390 mV and the output current is 320 nA. The proposed circuit is suitable as a start-up circuit in ultralow power energy harvesting power management applications to boost-up from below threshold voltage.

  9. The examination and replacement of electromagnetic pump from FFTF primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, W.F.; Grygiel, M.L.; Lutton, J.M.; McCargar, C.G.; Young, M.W.

    1985-11-01

    On November 16, 1984 a leak was discovered in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Primary Sodium Sampling System electromagnetic pump. The leak was discovered in the course of routine cell entry to investigate the shorted trace heat element. The purpose of this paper is to describe the circumstances surrounding the occurrence of the leak, the processes involved in producing the leak and efforts taken to minimize their effects on future operation of electromagnetic pumps at FFTF. In addition, the replacement of the pump and recovery of the plant also are described. The relative ease of recovery from this incident is indicative of the overall feasibility of the LMR concept

  10. A fast charge-integrating sample-and-hold circuit for fast decision-making with calorimeter arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a fast charge-integrating sample-and-hold circuit, particularly suited to the fast trigger electronics used with large arrays of photomultipliers in total-energy measurements of high-energy particles interactions. During a gate logic pulse, the circuit charges a capacitor with the current fed into the signal input. The output voltage is equal to the voltage developed across the capacitor, which is held until a fast clear discharges the capacitor. The main characteristics of the fast-charge-integrating sample-and-hold circuit are: i) a conversion factor of 1 V/220 pC; ii) a droop rate of 4 mV/μs for a 50 Ω load; and iii) a 1 μs fast-clear time. (orig.)

  11. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  12. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Erba, Giorgio; Natali, Dario [Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Luzio, Alessandro; Caironi, Mario, E-mail: mario.caironi@iit.it, E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu [Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu [Heeger Center for Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Young, E-mail: mario.caironi@iit.it, E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu [Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, 26 Pil-dong, 3-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μ{sub e}) and hole (μ{sub h}) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μ{sub h} = 0.29 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub e} = 0.001 cm{sup 2}/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μ{sub e} = 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub h} = 8 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  13. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  14. Poly-Si TFTs integrated gate driver circuit with charge-sharing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Lei, Jiefeng; Huang, Shengxiang; Liao, Congwei; Deng, Lianwen

    2017-06-01

    A p-type low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistors (LTPS TFTs) integrated gate driver using 2 non-overlapped clocks is proposed. This gate driver features charge-sharing structure to turn off buffer TFT and suppresses voltage feed-through effects. It is analyzed that the conventional gate driver suffers from waveform distortions due to voltage uncertainty of internal nodes for the initial period. The proposed charge-sharing structure also helps to suppress the unexpected pulses during the initialization phases. The proposed gate driver shows a simple circuit, as only 6 TFTs and 1 capacitor are used for single-stage, and the buffer TFT is used for both pulling-down and pulling-up of output electrode. Feasibility of the proposed gate driver is proven through detailed analyses. Investigations show that voltage bootrapping can be maintained once the bootrapping capacitance is larger than 0.8 pF, and pulse of gate driver outputs can be reduced to 5 μs. The proposed gate driver can still function properly with positive {V}{TH} shift within 0.4 V and negative {V}{TH} shift within -1.2 V and it is robust and promising for high-resolution display. Project supported by the Science and Technology Project of Hunan Province, China (No. 2015JC3401)

  15. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  16. GOTHIC Simulation of APR1400 Auxiliary Charging Pump room heat up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Hui-Un; Heo, Sun [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a part of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Design Certification (NRC DC) project, we have been investigating Auxiliary Charging Pump (ACP) room heat up. With reference to the design specification of the ACP room, we determined input information and developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 ACP room. This calculation model is described herein, and representative results from the calculation are presented as well. The results of the present paper are used to determine the integrity of ACP operating in the accident. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for ACP room heat up calculation. Calculation results confirm that door opening is cooling the room properly. It is found that the difference due to the surface option of heat conductors is insignificant. Based on this result, further studies should be performed to confirm integrity of ACP.

  17. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-07-07

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  18. A low jitter supply regulated charge pump PLL with self-calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Li Zhichao; Xiao Jingbo; Chen Jie; Liu Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a ring oscillator based low jitter charge pump PLL with supply regulation and digital calibration. In order to combat power supply noise, a low drop output voltage regulator is implemented. The VCO gain is tunable by using the 4 bit control self-calibration technique. So that the optimal VCO gain is automatically selected and the process/temperature variation is compensated. Fabricated in the 0.13 μm CMOS process, the PLL achieves a frequency range of 100–400 MHz and occupies a 190 × 200 μm 2 area. The measured RMS jitter is 5.36 ps at a 400 MHz operating frequency. (paper)

  19. Improving energy efficiency of cyclone circuits in coal beneficiation plants by pump-storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pump-storage system (PSS) is introduced in a coal washing plant to reduce energy consumption and cost. • Optimal operation of the PSS under TOU tariff is formulated and solved. Life cycle cost analysis of the design is done. • Simulation results show the effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement and load shifting effect of the proposed approach. • An annual 38% reduction of overall cost of the coal washing plant with 2.86 years payback period is achieved. • Capacity improvement of power plants contracted to the coal mine is expected as less electricity is required to get fuel. - Abstract: A pump storage system (PSS) is introduced to the coal preparation dense medium cyclone (DMC) plants to improve their energy efficiency while maintaining the required medium supply. The DMC processes are very energy intensive and inefficient because the medium supply pumps are constantly over-pumping. The PSS presented is to reduce energy consumption and cost by introducing an addition medium circulation loop. The corresponding pump operation optimization problem in the PSS scheme under time-based electricity tariff is formulated and solved, based on which the financial benefits of the design is investigated using life cycle cost analysis. A case study based on the operation status of a South African coal mine is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the energy cost can be reduced by more than 50% in the studied case by introducing a 160 m 3 storage tank. According to life cycle analysis, the PSS Option 1 yields an annual 38% reduction of the overall cost for the beneficiation plant with a payback period of 2.68 years

  20. Does an Open Recirculation Line Affect the Flow Rate and Pressure in a Neonatal Extracorporeal Life Support Circuit With a Centrifugal or Roller Pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shigang; Spencer, Shannon B; Woitas, Karl; Glass, Kristen; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an open or closed recirculation line on flow rate, circuit pressure, and hemodynamic energy transmission in simulated neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems. The two neonatal ECLS circuits consisted of a Maquet HL20 roller pump (RP group) or a RotaFlow centrifugal pump (CP group), Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator, and Biomedicus arterial and venous cannulae (8 Fr and 10 Fr) primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 200 to 600 mL/min (200 mL/min increments) with a closed or open recirculation line at 36°C. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. In the RP group, the preoxygenator flow did not change when the recirculation line was open while the prearterial cannula flow decreased by 15.7-20.0% (P pump, but did not change perfusion flow in the circuit using a centrifugal pump. An additional flow sensor is needed to monitor perfusion flow in patients if any shunts exist in the ECLS circuit. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Technical Study on Improvement of Endurance Capability of Limit Short-circuit Current of Charge Control SMART Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. W.; Du, Z. Z.; Yuan, R. m.; Xiong, D. Z.; Shi, E. W.; Lu, G. N.; Dai, Z. Y.; Chen, X. Q.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Lv, Y. G.

    2017-10-01

    Smart meter represents the development direction of energy-saving smart grid in the future. The load switch, one of the core parts of smart meter, should be of high reliability, safety and endurance capability of limit short-circuit current. For this reason, this paper discusses the quick simulation of relationship between attraction and counterforce of load switch without iteration, establishes dual response surface model of attraction and counterforce and optimizes the design scheme of load switch for charge control smart meter, thus increasing electromagnetic attraction and spring counterforce. In this way, this paper puts forward a method to improve the withstand capacity of limit short-circuit current.

  2. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  3. Symmetry-Breaking Charge Transfer in a Zinc Chlorodipyrrin Acceptor for High Open Circuit Voltage Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Bartynski, Andrew N.

    2015-04-29

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Low open-circuit voltages significantly limit the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Typical strategies to enhance the open-circuit voltage involve tuning the HOMO and LUMO positions of the donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively, to increase the interfacial energy gap or to tailor the donor or acceptor structure at the D/A interface. Here, we present an alternative approach to improve the open-circuit voltage through the use of a zinc chlorodipyrrin, ZCl [bis(dodecachloro-5-mesityldipyrrinato)zinc], as an acceptor, which undergoes symmetry-breaking charge transfer (CT) at the donor/acceptor interface. DBP/ZCl cells exhibit open-circuit voltages of 1.33 V compared to 0.88 V for analogous tetraphenyldibenzoperyflanthrene (DBP)/C60-based devices. Charge transfer state energies measured by Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence show that C60 forms a CT state of 1.45 ± 0.05 eV in a DBP/C60-based organic photovoltaic device, while ZCl as acceptor gives a CT state energy of 1.70 ± 0.05 eV in the corresponding device structure. In the ZCl device this results in an energetic loss between ECT and qVOC of 0.37 eV, substantially less than the 0.6 eV typically observed for organic systems and equal to the recombination losses seen in high-efficiency Si and GaAs devices. The substantial increase in open-circuit voltage and reduction in recombination losses for devices utilizing ZCl demonstrate the great promise of symmetry-breaking charge transfer in organic photovoltaic devices.

  4. Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Michael; Schweizer, Christian; Price, Hannah M; Zilberberg, Oded; Bloch, Immanuel

    2018-01-03

    The discovery of topological states of matter has greatly improved our understanding of phase transitions in physical systems. Instead of being described by local order parameters, topological phases are described by global topological invariants and are therefore robust against perturbations. A prominent example is the two-dimensional (2D) integer quantum Hall effect: it is characterized by the first Chern number, which manifests in the quantized Hall response that is induced by an external electric field. Generalizing the quantum Hall effect to four-dimensional (4D) systems leads to the appearance of an additional quantized Hall response, but one that is nonlinear and described by a 4D topological invariant-the second Chern number. Here we report the observation of a bulk response with intrinsic 4D topology and demonstrate its quantization by measuring the associated second Chern number. By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms in an angled optical superlattice, we realize a dynamical version of the 4D integer quantum Hall effect. Using a small cloud of atoms as a local probe, we fully characterize the nonlinear response of the system via in situ imaging and site-resolved band mapping. Our findings pave the way to experimentally probing higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems, in which additional strongly correlated topological phases, exotic collective excitations and boundary phenomena such as isolated Weyl fermions are predicted.

  5. Investigation on transient flow of a centrifugal charging pump in the process of high pressure safety injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan, E-mail: zhangfan4060@gmail.com; Yuan, Shouqi; Fu, Qiang; Tao, Yi

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The transient flow characteristics of the charging pump with the first stage impeller in the HPSI process have been investigated numerically by CFD. • The hydraulic performance of the charging pump during the HPSI are discussed, andthe absolute errors between the simulated and measured results are analyzed in the paper. • Pressure fluctuation in the impeller and flow pattern in the impeller were studied in the HPSI process. It is influenced little at the beginning of the HPSI process while fluctuates strongly in the end of the HPSI process. - Abstract: In order to investigate the transient flow characteristics of the centrifugal charging pump during the transient transition process of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) from Q = 148 m{sup 3}/h to Q = 160 m{sup 3}/h, numerical simulation and experiment are implemented in this study. The transient flow rate, which is the most important factor, is obtained from the experiment and works as the boundary condition to accurately accomplish the numerical simulation in the transient process. Internal characteristics under the variable operating conditions are analyzed through the transient simulation. The results shows that the absolute error between the simulated and measured heads is less than 2.26% and the absolute error between the simulated and measured efficiency is less than 2.04%. Pressure fluctuation in the impeller is less influenced by variable flow rate in the HPSI process, while flow pattern in the impeller is getting better and better with the flow rate increasing. As flow rate increases, fluid blocks on the tongue of the volute and it strikes in this area at large flow rate. Correspondingly, the pressure fluctuation is intense and vortex occurs gradually during this period, which obviously lowers the efficiency of the pump. The contents of the current work can provide references for the design optimization and fluid control of the pump used in the transient process of variable operating

  6. SHAPIRO EFFECT IN INDUCTIVE QUANTUM CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETENESS EFECTO SHAPIRO EN CIRCUITOS CUÁNTICOS INDUCTIVOS CON CARGA DISCRETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher Chandía Valenzuela

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As it is known, quantum inductive circuits with charge discreteness show Bloch-like oscillations in electrical current under a dc external voltage. In this paper, the effect of a superimposed ac voltage in the circuit is considered. The Shapiro effect is found to be related to the existence of resonance. Surprisingly, in the limit of low frequency (no resonance, the electrical averaged current exists and has always the same sign. Eventually this allows for an experimental method to measure discrete charge effect in quantum mesoscopic circuits.RESUMEN Es sabido que circuitos cuánticos inductivos con carga discreta, cuando se someten a un voltaje continuo externo, presentan oscilaciones de Bloch en la corriente. En este trabajo se considera, además, la superposición de un voltaje alterno en el circuito. El efecto Shapiro, relacionado con la existencia de resonancias, es encontrado de modo explícito. Sorprendentemente, en el límite de bajas frecuencias (sin resonancia la corriente eléctrica promediada existe y tiene siempre el mismo signo. Eventualmente, esto entrega un método experimental para medir los efectos de la discretización de la carga en circuitos cuánticos mesosocópicos.

  7. In Vitro Comparison of Two Neonatal ECMO Circuits Using a Roller or Centrifugal Pump With Three Different In-Line Hemoconcentrators for Maintaining Hemodynamic Energy Delivery to the Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Madison; Moroi, Morgan; Wang, Shigang; Palanzo, David A; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this study was to compare three different hemoconcentrators (Hemocor HPH 400, Mini, and Junior) with two different neonatal ECMO circuits using a roller or a centrifugal pump at different pseudo-patient pressures and flow rates in terms of hemodynamic properties. This evidence-based research is necessary to optimize the ECMO circuitry for neonates. The circuits used a 300-mL soft-shell reservoir as a pseudo-patient approximating the blood volume of a 3 kg neonate, two blood pumps, and a Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator with three different in-line hemoconcentrators (Hemocor HPH 400, Mini, and Junior). One circuit used a Maquet H20 roller pump and another circuit used a Maquet RotaFlow centrifugal pump. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution followed by heparinized packed red blood cells with a hematocrit of 40%. The pseudo-patient's pressure was manually maintained at 40, 60, or 80 mm Hg and the flow rate was maintained at 200, 400, or 600 mL/min with a circuit temperature of 36°C. Pressure and flow data was recorded using a custom-made data acquisition device. Mean pressures, diverted blood flow, pressure drops, and total hemodynamic energy (THE) were calculated for each experimental condition. The roller pump and centrifugal pump performed similarly for all hemodynamic properties with all experimental conditions. The Hemocor HPH Junior hemoconcentrator added the highest resistance to the circuit. The Hemocor HPH Junior provided the highest circuit pressures, lowest diverted blood flow, highest pressure drop across the circuit, and highest THE generated by the pump. The Hemocor HPH 400 added the least resistance to the circuit, providing the lowest circuit pressures, more diverted flow, lowest pressure drop, and the lowest THE generated by the pump. However, the THE delivered to the patient was the same for the three hemoconcentrators. While the three hemoconcentrators performed differently in terms of hemodynamic properties

  8. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  9. Novel electronic ferroelectricity in an organic charge-order insulator investigated with terahertz-pump optical-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Morimoto, T.; Yada, H.; Kinoshita, Y.; Sotome, M.; Kida, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Iwano, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Shimoi, Y.; Suda, M.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Mori, H.; Okamoto, H.

    2016-01-01

    In electronic-type ferroelectrics, where dipole moments produced by the variations of electron configurations are aligned, the polarization is expected to be rapidly controlled by electric fields. Such a feature can be used for high-speed electric-switching and memory devices. Electronic-type ferroelectrics include charge degrees of freedom, so that they are sometimes conductive, complicating dielectric measurements. This makes difficult the exploration of electronic-type ferroelectrics and the understanding of their ferroelectric nature. Here, we show unambiguous evidence for electronic ferroelectricity in the charge-order (CO) phase of a prototypical ET-based molecular compound, α-(ET)2I3 (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), using a terahertz pulse as an external electric field. Terahertz-pump second-harmonic-generation(SHG)-probe and optical-reflectivity-probe spectroscopy reveal that the ferroelectric polarization originates from intermolecular charge transfers and is inclined 27° from the horizontal CO stripe. These features are qualitatively reproduced by the density-functional-theory calculation. After sub-picosecond polarization modulation by terahertz fields, prominent oscillations appear in the reflectivity but not in the SHG-probe results, suggesting that the CO is coupled with molecular displacements, while the ferroelectricity is electronic in nature. The results presented here demonstrate that terahertz-pump optical-probe spectroscopy is a powerful tool not only for rapidly controlling polarizations, but also for clarifying the mechanisms of ferroelectricity. PMID:26864779

  10. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  11. Distribution of the energy levels of individual interface traps and a fundamental refinement in charge pumping theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Lenahan, Patrick M.

    2017-03-01

    We carried out a unique and systematic characterization of single amphoteric Si/SiO2 interface traps using the charge pumping (CP) method. As a result, we obtained the distribution of the energy levels of these traps for the first time. The distribution is reasonably similar to that of the P b0 density of states reported previously. By considering the essential nature of these traps (i.e., those with two energy levels), factors depending on the energy levels, and the Coulomb interactions between traps, we fundamentally corrected the conventional CP theory.

  12. [The role of carriers of intracellular fixed charges in the regulation of the resting potential of cells with ion pumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R

    1976-01-01

    The living cell is considered as a nonideal phase, surrounded by an anion-permeable membrane in a stationary state. Ionic pumps maintain a nonequilibrium state for Na+ and K+. When assuming the water inside and outside the cell to be in thermodynamic equilibrium and the cell without wall not to resist the hydrostatic pressure difference, it is possible to calculate a membrane potential which strongly depends on the concentration of charged nonpenetrating molecules inside the cell. Living cells with a high resting potential should therefore contain a high inner charge density (nerve cells) or must be resistant to an inner hydrostatic pressure (plant cells). Cells in isotonic solutions with low ionic strength are not able to attain a stationary state. The regulations derived here are applied to the concrete conditions of human red cells.

  13. A new equivalent circuit model for porous carbon electrodes in charge transfer reaction of iodide/triiodide redox couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Woosung; Kim, Jung-Min; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this research, a new equivalent circuit for porous carbon electrodes is proposed. In order to analyze the validity of the new model, electrochemical impedance spectra of carbon black (CB) electrodes in a symmetric cell configuration are examined by varying the CB particle size and the electrode thickness. This model decouples and identifies the following elements: (i) the electron transport resistance and trap capacitance in the CB layer, (ii) the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance, and (iii) the Nernst diffusion impedance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The fit quality is quantified by the chi-square test, and the fit data show consistency with the measured conductivity, surface area, and thickness of the CB electrode.

  14. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loenhout, Gerard van; Nilsson, Peter; Jehander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  15. A 1-GHz charge pump PLL frequency synthesizer for IEEE 1394b PHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, J.; Liu, H.; Li, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation of multi-rate SerDes transceiver for IEEE 1394b applications. Simple and effective pre-emphasis and equalizer circuits are used at transmitter and receiver, respectively. A phase interpolator based clock and data recovery circuit with optimized linearity...... is also described. With an on-chip fully integrated phase locked loop, the transceiver works at data rates of 100Mb/s, 400Mb/s and 800Mb/s, supporting three different operating modes of S100b, S400b and S800b for IEEE 1394b. The chip has been fabricated using 0.13μm technology. The die area of transceiver...... is 2.9*1.6 mm including bonding pads and the total power dissipation is 284 mW with 1.2V and 3.3V supply voltages. © 2012 IEEE....

  16. The charge state distribution of a carbon beam measured at the Lund pelletron accelerator with the newly installed terminal pumping system in use

    CERN Document Server

    Kiisk, M; Faarinen, M P; Hellborg, R; Haakansson, K; Persson, P; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2002-01-01

    Charge state distributions for sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C ions have been measured at the Lund Pelletron tandem accelerator for the N sub 2 gas stripper with a newly installed terminal pumping system in use. A comparison of the results obtained for the ion energies between 1.5 and 2.8 MeV with the foil stripper and the gas stripper without terminal pumping demonstrates the great improvement of the stripping process achieved with the new terminal pumping.

  17. Pumping charge with ac magnetic fluxes and the dynamical breakdown of Onsager symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovico, María Florencia; Arrachea, Liliana

    2013-03-01

    We study the transport properties of setups with one and two mesoscopic rings threaded by ac magnetic fluxes of the form Φ(t)=Φdc+Φaccos(Ω0t+δ) and connected to two different particle reservoirs. We analyze the conditions to generate a pumped dc current in the adiabatic regime. We also study the symmetry properties of the induced dc current as a function of the static component of the flux Φdc with and without a dc bias voltage applied at the reservoirs. We analyze, in particular, the validity of the Onsager-Casimir relations for different configurations of the setups.

  18. Cutting of CO2 primary circuit pipes of G 2/G 3 using explosive charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbard, G.; Le Goaller, C.; Ravera, J.P.; Bonnier, Y.; Guilbert, J.P.; Puntous, R.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to cut large diameter contaminated pipes from the CO 2 cooling system of the gas-cooled reactors by means of explosive charges and to use the resulting shock wave to remove part of the contamination fixed inside the pipe. Two types of tests have been conducted using different explosives in different forms (the decontamination and the cutting tests) and are described. After testing the cutting modules and decontamination fuses, the effects of the detonations on the environment have been measured and were greater than expected. A metal containment device was therefore designed to absorb part of the energy dissipated by the shock wave and retain the debris from the explosions. A description of the tests conducted for this purpose is given. (O.L.). 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Pressure fluctuation analysis for charging pump of chemical and volume control system of nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipment Failure Root Cause Analysis (ERCA methodology is employed in this paper to investigate the root cause for charging pump’s pressure fluctuation of chemical and volume control system (RCV in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant. RCA project task group has been set up at the beginning of the analysis process. The possible failure modes are listed according to the characteristics of charging pump’s actual pressure fluctuation and maintenance experience during the analysis process. And the failure modes are analysed in proper sequence by the evidence-collecting. It suggests that the gradually untightened and loosed shaft nut in service should be the root cause. And corresponding corrective actions are put forward in details.

  20. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.

  1. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  2. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  3. Field-induced Gap and Quantized Charge Pumping in Nano-helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    We propose several novel physical phenomena based on nano-scale helical wires. Applying a static electric field transverse to the helical wire induces a metal to insulator transition, with the band gap determined by the applied voltage. Similar idea can be applied to 'geometrically' constructing one-dimensional systems with arbitrary external potential. With a quadrupolar electrode configuration, the electric field could rotate in the transverse plane, leading to a quantized dc charge current proportional to the frequency of the rotation. Such a device could be used as a new standard for the high precession measurement of the electric current. The inverse effect implies that passing an electric current through a helical wire in the presence of a transverse static electric field can lead to a mechanical rotation of the helix. This effect can be used to construct nano-scale electro-mechanical motors. Finally, our methodology also enables new ways of controlling and measuring the electronic properties of helical biological molecules such as the DNA.

  4. Note: A 102 dB dynamic-range charge-sampling readout for ionizing particle/radiation detectors based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullia, A.; Zocca, F.; Capra, S.

    2018-02-01

    An original technique for the measurement of charge signals from ionizing particle/radiation detectors has been implemented in an application-specific integrated circuit form. The device performs linear measurements of the charge both within and beyond its output voltage swing. The device features an unprecedented spectroscopic dynamic range of 102 dB and is suitable for high-resolution ion and X-γ ray spectroscopy. We believe that this approach may change a widespread paradigm according to which no high-resolution spectroscopy is possible when working close to or beyond the limit of the preamplifier's output voltage swing.

  5. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using the open-circuit voltage at various ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yinjiao; He, Wei; Pecht, Michael; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An offline OCV–SOC–temperature table was established to infer battery SOC. • A temperature-based model was developed to estimate SOC at different temperatures. • The algorithm for SOC estimation was verified by dynamic current load. • The robustness of the approach was validated by different initial SOC values. - Abstract: Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the accuracy of battery SOC estimation, which is critical for remaining driving range prediction of electric vehicles (EVs) and optimal charge/discharge control of batteries. A widely used method to estimate SOC is based on an online inference of open-circuit voltage (OCV). However, the fact that the OCV–SOC is dependent on ambient temperature can result in errors in battery SOC estimation. To address this problem, this paper presents an SOC estimation approach based on a temperature-based model incorporated with an OCV–SOC–temperature table. The unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) was applied to tune the model parameters at each sampling step to cope with various uncertainties arising from the operation environment, cell-to-cell variation, and modeling inaccuracy. Two dynamic tests, the dynamic stress test (DST) and the federal urban driving schedule (FUDS), were used to test batteries at different temperatures. Then, DST was used to identify the model parameters while FUDS was used to validate the performance of the SOC estimation. The estimation was made covering the major working range from 25% to 85% SOC. The results indicated that our method can provide accurate SOC estimation with smaller root mean squared errors than the method that does not take into account ambient temperature. Thus, our approach is effective and accurate when battery operates at different ambient temperatures. Since the developed method takes into account the temperature factor as well as the complexity of the model, it could be effectively applied in battery management systems for

  6. Spin to Charge Conversion at Room Temperature by Spin Pumping into a New Type of Topological Insulator: α-Sn Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sánchez, J-C; Oyarzún, S; Fu, Y; Marty, A; Vergnaud, C; Gambarelli, S; Vila, L; Jamet, M; Ohtsubo, Y; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Le Fèvre, P; Bertran, F; Reyren, N; George, J-M; Fert, A

    2016-03-04

    We present results on spin to charge current conversion in experiments of resonant spin pumping into the Dirac cone with helical spin polarization of the elemental topological insulator (TI) α-Sn. By angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), we first check that the Dirac cone (DC) at the α-Sn (0 0 1) surface subsists after covering Sn with Ag. Then we show that resonant spin pumping at room temperature from Fe through Ag into α-Sn layers induces a lateral charge current that can be ascribed to the inverse Edelstein effect by the DC states. Our observation of an inverse Edelstein effect length much longer than those generally found for Rashba interfaces demonstrates the potential of TIs for the conversion between spin and charge in spintronic devices. By comparing our results with data on the relaxation time of TI free surface states from time-resolved ARPES, we can anticipate the ultimate potential of the TI for spin to charge conversion and the conditions to reach it.

  7. The research and test of the cavitation performance of first stage impeller of centrifugal charging pump in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Rongsheng; Fu, Qiang [National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: beijitadeyouxiang@163.com [National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); He, Bo [Power China SPEM Limited Company, Shanghai 201316 (China); Wang, Xiuli [National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-04-15

    The safety production is the most important index for nuclear power development, and the CVCS (chemical and volume control system) occupies an important place in safety control system. The CCP (centrifugal charging pump) is an important component of CVCS system and its particularity decides the high requirements on the cavitation performance, so the research on CCP cavitation has great significance. Using the 3D Pro/E software, the paper makes models of the flow passage components of first stage prototype of CCP in nuclear power stations, and completes the cavitation steady-state computation in the case that the high flow rate of first stage prototype reaches Q = 160 m{sup 3}/h using the numerical computation software ANSYS CFX. The cavitation is divided into the following five stages according to its development process: inception operating condition, development operating condition, critical operating condition, serious operating condition and fracture operating condition. The research analyze the flow field, static pressure fields and bubble distribution conditions in the impeller in different cavitation states, and selects the middle flow line, the front shroud flow line and the back shroud flow line from the same blade for the comparative analysis; to verify the reliability of computation, the researcher made a first stage cavitation prototype to verify its hydraulic performance and cavitation performance. After the comparative analysis on the flow field, pressure and bubble distribution conditions of CCP first stage impeller in different cavitation states, the research draws the following conclusions: (1) as the inlet pressure decreases, the cavitation degree increases, the bubble distribution area extends from impeller inlet to impeller outlet and shows different laws in different cavitation states; (2) the generation of cavitation is affected by the pressure changes in impeller passages, and when the inlet pressure decreases, the static pressure in impeller

  8. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  9. Multi-resonance frequency spin dependent charge pumping and spin dependent recombination - applied to the 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M. A.; Lenahan, P. M.; Lelis, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a new electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) approach involving spin dependent charge pumping (SDCP) and spin dependent recombination (SDR) at high (K band, about 16 GHz) and ultra-low (360 and 85 MHz) magnetic resonance frequencies to investigate the dielectric/semiconductor interface in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). A comparison of SDCP and SDR allows for a comparison of deep level defects and defects with energy levels throughout most of the bandgap. Additionally, a comparison of high frequency and ultra-low frequency measurements allows for (1) the partial separation of spin-orbit coupling and hyperfine effects on magnetic resonance spectra, (2) the observation of otherwise forbidden half-field effects, which make EDMR, at least, in principle, quantitative, and (3) the observation of Breit-Rabi shifts in superhyperfine measurements. (Observation of the Breit-Rabi shift helps in both the assignment and the measurement of superhyperfine parameters.) We find that, as earlier work also indicates, the SiC silicon vacancy is the dominating defect in n-MOSFETs with as-grown oxides and that post-oxidation NO anneals significantly reduce their population. In addition, we provide strong evidence that NO anneals result in the presence of nitrogen very close to a large fraction of the silicon vacancies. The results indicate that the presence of nearby nitrogen significantly shifts the silicon vacancy energy levels. Our results also show that the introduction of nitrogen introduces a disorder at the interface. This nitrogen induced disorder may provide at least a partial explanation for the relatively modest improvement in mobility after the NO anneals. Finally, we compare the charge pumping and SDCP response as a function of gate amplitude and charge pumping frequency.

  10. Online model-based estimation of state-of-charge and open-circuit voltage of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongwen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Yongli; Guo, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a lithium-ion battery, based on an online identification of its open-circuit voltage (OCV), according to the battery’s intrinsic relationship between the SOC and the OCV for application in electric vehicles. Firstly an equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is employed modeling the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery, the corresponding equations are built to describe its electric behavior and a recursive function is deduced for the online identification of the OCV, which is implemented by a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with an optimal forgetting factor. The models with different RC networks are evaluated based on the terminal voltage comparisons between the model-based simulation and the experiment. Then the OCV-SOC lookup table is built based on the experimental data performed by a linear interpolation of the battery voltages at the same SOC during two consecutive discharge and charge cycles. Finally a verifying experiment is carried out based on nine Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedules. It indicates that the proposed method can ensure an acceptable accuracy of SOC estimation for online application with a maximum error being less than 5.0%. -- Highlights: ► An equivalent circuit model with n RC networks is built for lithium-ion batteries. ► A recursive function is deduced for the online estimation of the model parameters like OCV and R O . ► The relationship between SOC and OCV is built with a linear interpolation method by experiments. ► The experiments show the online model-based SOC estimation is reasonable with enough accuracy.

  11. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  12. EFFECT OF LUBRICANT CONTAMINATION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF HEAT PUMPS CHARGED WITH R-407C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development of new data that can be used to determine the effect of mineral oil contamination on the reliability of a heat pump system operating with a new hydrofluorocarbon mixture and polyol ester lubricant, to assess any performance degradation ...

  13. Time-dependent Landauer-Büttiker approach to charge pumping in ac-driven graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Michael; Tuovinen, Riku

    2017-11-01

    We apply the recently developed partition-free time-dependent Landauer-Büttiker (TD-LB) formalism to the study of periodically driven transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). When an ac driving is applied, this formalism can be used to prove generic conditions for the existence of a nonzero dc component of the net current (pump current) through the molecular device. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in the driving field is investigated and found to be insufficient for a nonzero pump current. We then derive explicit formulas for the current response to a particular biharmonic bias. We calculate the pump current through different GNR configurations and find that the sign and existence of a nonzero pump current can be tuned by simple alterations to the static parameters of the TD bias. Furthermore, we investigate transient currents in different GNR configurations. We find a selection rule of even and odd harmonic response signals depending on a broken dynamical inversion symmetry in the bias.

  14. Narrow optical linewidths and spin pumping on charge-tunable close-to-surface self-assembled quantum dots in an ultrathin diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbl, Matthias C.; Söllner, Immo; Javadi, Alisa; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Schott, Rüdiger; Midolo, Leonardo; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Stobbe, Søren; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Ludwig, Arne; Warburton, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate full charge control, narrow optical linewidths, and optical spin pumping on single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a 162.5 -nm -thin diode structure. The quantum dots are just 88 nm from the top GaAs surface. We design and realize a p -i -n -i -n diode that allows single-electron charging of the quantum dots at close-to-zero applied bias. In operation, the current flow through the device is extremely small resulting in low noise. In resonance fluorescence, we measure optical linewidths below 2 μ eV , just a factor of 2 above the transform limit. Clear optical spin pumping is observed in a magnetic field of 0.5 T in the Faraday geometry. We present this design as ideal for securing the advantages of self-assembled quantum dots—highly coherent single-photon generation, ultrafast optical spin manipulation—in the thin diodes required in quantum nanophotonics and nanophononics applications.

  15. Variations in battery life of a heart-lung machine using different pump speeds, pressure loads, boot material, centrifugal pump head, multiple pump usage, and battery age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Cornelius

    2012-02-03

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has previously been reported to occur in 1 of every 1500 cases. Most heart-lung machine pump consoles are equipped with built-in battery back-up units. Battery run times of these devices are variable and have not been reported. Different conditions of use can extend battery life in the event of electrical failure. This study was designed to examine the run time of a fully charged battery under various conditions of pump speed, pressure loads, pump boot material, multiple pump usage, and battery life. Battery life using a centrifugal pump also was examined. The results of this study show that battery life is affected by pump speed, circuit pressure, boot stiffness, and the number of pumps in service. Centrifugal pumps also show a reduced drain on battery when compared with roller pumps. These elements affect the longevity and performance of the battery. This information could be of value to the individual during power failure as these are variables that can affect the battery life during such a challenging scenario.

  16. Online Estimation of Model Parameters and State of Charge of LiFePO4 Batteries Using a Novel Open-Circuit Voltage at Various Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an online estimation of the model parameters and state of charge (SOC of lithium iron phosphate batteries in electric vehicles. A widely used SOC estimator is based on the dynamic battery model with predeterminate parameters. However, model parameter variances that follow with their varied operation temperatures can result in errors in estimating battery SOC. To address this problem, a battery online parameter estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using an adaptive joint extended Kalman filter algorithm. Simulations based on actual data are established to verify accuracy and stability in the regression of model parameters. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed estimator exhibits good reliability and adaptability under different loading profiles with various temperatures. In addition, open-circuit voltage (OCV is used to estimate SOC in the proposed algorithm. However, the OCV based on the proposed online identification includes a part of concentration polarization and hysteresis, which is defined as parametric identification-based OCV (OCVPI. Considering the temperature factor, a novel OCV–SOC relationship map is established by using OCVPI under various temperatures. Finally, a validating experiment is conducted based on the consecutive loading profiles. Results indicate that our method is effective and adaptable when a battery operates at different ambient temperatures.

  17. On traveling-wave field-effect flow control for simultaneous induced-charge electroosmotic pumping and mixing in microfluidics: physical perspectives and theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyu; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Li, Yanbo; Wu, Qisheng

    2018-05-01

    Since its first proposition at the end of the last century (Schasfoort et al 1999 Science 286 942-5), field-effect flow control at micrometer dimensions has attracted tremendous attention from the microfluidic community. Most previous research on this subject has mainly focused on enhancing the electroosmotic pump flow rate by introducing an additional in-phase counterionic charge across the diffusing screening cloud with external gate electrodes of static DC voltages. However, there is a flaw, namely that AC fields, which suppress undesirable electrochemical reactions, result in zero time-averaged flow. Starting from this point, we present herein a brand new approach to traveling-wave field-effect electroosmosis control from a theoretical point of view, in the context of a smart manipulation tool for the stratified liquid content of miniaturization systems. In the configuration of a traveling-wave flow field-effect transistor (TW-FFET), the field-induced out-of-phase Debye screening charge within the thin double layer originates from the forward propagation of a traveling potential wave along a discrete arrangement of external gating electrode arrays, which interacts actively with the horizontal standing-wave electric field imposed across the source-drain terminal. Since the voltage waves and induced free charge are all sinusoidal functions of the observation time, the net ICEO flow component can survive in a broad frequency range. Due to the action of the background AC electric field on the inhomogeneous counterionic charge induced at the solution/sidewall interface, asymmetric ICEO vortex patterns appear above the traveling-wave gate arrays, giving rise to simultaneous induced-charge electroosmotic pumping and mixing of fluidic samples. A mathematical model is then developed to numerically investigate the feasibility of TW-FFETs in electrokinetic microflow manipulation. A prototyping paradigm of fully electrokinetics-driven microfabricated fluidic networks in a

  18. Nanoampere charge pump by single-electron ratchet using silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Akira; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    Nanoampere single-electron pumping is presented at 20K using a single-electron ratchet comprising silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The ratchet features an asymmetric potential with a pocket that captures single electrons from the source and ejects them to the drain. Directional single-electron transfer is achieved by applying one ac signal with the frequency up to 2.3GHz. We find anomalous shapes of current steps which can be ascribed to nonadiabatic electron capture.

  19. Charge Accumulation in LDPE and XLPE Conditioned at 80oC under Reduced Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Robert J.; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1997-01-01

    were then cooled to room temperature over a period of at least 6hr, still under rotary pump pressure and in short circuit, while others were cooled to room temperature in less than 1.5hr in the laboratory air. DC fields of 18kV/mm were then applied at room temperature, and space charge accumulation...

  20. Transformation of vibration signals in rotary blood pumps: the diagnostic potential of pump failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Although non-destructive and continuous monitoring is indispensable for long-term circulatory support with rotary blood pumps, a practical monitoring system has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of detecting pump failure caused by thrombus formation through the monitoring of vibration signals. The data acquisition equipment included vibration pickups, a charge amplifier, vibration analysis systems, and exclusive hardware. A pivot-bearing centrifugal pump with a mock circuit was investigated for vibration analysis. To simulate the four common areas of thrombus formation, we used a piece of silicon attached to each of the following four locations: the total area of the bottom of the impeller, an eccentric shape on the bottom of the impeller, a circular shape around the shaft top, and an eccentric shape on the top of the impeller. Vibration signals were picked up, and the power spectrum density analysis was performed at pump rotational speeds of 2100, 2400, and 3000 rpm. In this study, pump failure could be detected, and the types of imitation thrombi could be determined. We conclude that vibration detection with a computerized analysis system is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool for long-term circulatory support with rotary blood pumps.

  1. Method for optimising the energy of pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The method involves determining whether pumps (pu1, pu5) are directly assigned to loads (v1, v3) as pilot pumps (pu2, pu3) and hydraulically connected upstream of the pilot pumps. The upstream pumps are controlled with variable speed for energy optimization. Energy optimization circuits are selected

  2. Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic Solar Cells: The Impacts of Donor Semicrystallinity and Coexistence of Multiple Interfacial Charge-Transfer Bands

    KAUST Repository

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier

    2017-01-16

    In organic solar cells (OSCs), the energy of the charge-transfer (CT) complexes at the donor-acceptor interface, E , determines the maximum open-circuit voltage (V ). The coexistence of phases with different degrees of order in the donor or the acceptor, as in blends of semi-crystalline donors and fullerenes in bulk heterojunction layers, influences the distribution of CT states and the V enormously. Yet, the question of how structural heterogeneities alter CT states and the V is seldom addressed systematically. In this work, we combine experimental measurements of vacuum-deposited rubrene/C bilayer OSCs, with varying microstructure and texture, with density functional theory calculations to determine how relative molecular orientations and extents of structural order influence E and V . We find that varying the microstructure of rubrene gives rise to CT bands with varying energies. The CT band that originates from crystalline rubrene lies up to ≈0.4 eV lower in energy compared to the one that arises from amorphous rubrene. These low-lying CT states contribute strongly to V losses and result mainly from hole delocalization in aggregated rubrene. This work points to the importance of realizing interfacial structural control that prevents the formation of low E configurations and maximizes V .

  3. A Novel Observer for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation in Electric Vehicles Based on a Second-Order Equivalent Circuit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation can prolong lithium-ion battery life and improve its performance in practice. This paper proposes a new method for SOC estimation. The second-order resistor-capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model (ECM is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of lithium-ion battery on deriving state space equations. A novel method for SOC estimation is then presented. This method does not require any matrix calculation, so the computation cost can be very low, making it more suitable for hardware implementation. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS, The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, and the West Virginia Suburban Driving Schedule (WVUSUB experiments are carried to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the SOC estimation error can converge to 3% error boundary within 30 seconds when the initial SOC estimation error is 20%, and the proposed method can maintain an estimation error less than 3% with 1% voltage noise and 5% current noise. Further, the proposed method has excellent robustness against parameter disturbance. Also, it has higher estimation accuracy than the extended Kalman filter (EKF, but with decreased hardware requirements and faster convergence rate.

  4. Energy-saving technical solutions for local and central microclimate systems using heat pumps as local aggregates united into one water circuit

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Averyanova

    2011-01-01

    One of the priorities of energy savings is to implement energy saving measures in the work of heating systems, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems based on heat pumps (HP). The dissertation considers using of a multizone central air-conditioning system with chilled beams for increase of power efficiency of a building was offered. In a transition period (the spring, autumn) in a building are observed both surplus of heat in one premises, and shortage of heat in others. At the exp...

  5. Um circuito simples com bomba única para circulação extracorpórea com oxigenação autógena A simple circuit with only centrifugal pump for extracorporeal circulation with autogenous oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes MARQUES

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi testado em 30 cães um circuito capaz de promover circulação extracorpórea (CEC com oxigenação autógena (OA do sangue, usando apenas uma bomba centrífuga. Esta montagem dispensou bombeamento para o lado direito: o gradiente de pressão bastante para vencer a resistência arterial pulmonar foi vencido aumentando-se a pressão nas artérias pulmonares pela expansão da volemia e diminuindo-se a pressão do átrio esquerdo pela drenagem dessa câmara mediante um sifão. O coração foi mantido em ritmo de fibrilação ventricular durante o período de perfusão e ao seu término, o ritmo próprio foi recuperado mediante cardioversão elétrica. RESULTADOS: Este circuito permitiu a manutenção de parâmetros hemodinâmicos e gases sangüíneos adequados durante a perfusão. O campo operatório e a mobilidade do coração foram similares aos proporcionados pela CEC convencional. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o uso de bomba centrífuga única simplifica a OA, podendo tornar-se uma escolha prática nos procedimentos de revascularização do miocárdio.It was tested in 30 dogs a circuit capable to allow extracorporeal circulation (ECC with autogenous oxygenation (AO of the blood employing an only centrifugal pump. With this assembly is unnecessary a pump to the right side: the gradient of transpulmonary pressure was obtained by increasing the pulmonary artery pressure by volemic expansion and decreasing the left atrial pressure by draining this camera by means of a siphon. The heart was electrically fibrillated in the beginning of the bypass and defibrillated in the end. This circuit allowed the maintenance of normal hemodynamic parameters and normal blood gases level during ECC. The operative field and the mobility of the heart were similar to those provided by conventional CEC. We concluded that the use of an only centrifugal pump simplifies ECC with AO, turning it a practical choice for the procedures of myocardial

  6. Electrostatic Energy Harvesting Circuit with DC-DC Convertor for Vibration Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Lefeuvre, E.; Mathias, H.; Costa, F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an interface circuit with power control features for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting. A DC-DC convertor is used to control the output voltage of a diode-based charge pump circuit. Therefore, the maximum and minimum voltage across the variable capacitor of the energy harvester may be adjusted to track the maximum power point of the system. The power conversion function of the DC-DC convertor depends on the switches configuration. An example of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for different conversion function is presented in this paper. Simulation results show that at least 10 μW is generated.

  7. Heat pumps: impact of the partial load operation on the efficiency; Pompes a chaleur: impact du fonctionnement a charge partielle sur le rendement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, J. [Climastar, 35 - Vitre (France)

    2002-10-01

    On site measurements have permitted to demonstrate the energy loss generated by the rise of rate of heat pumps. The aim of this article is to propose a method for the calculation of the effective power a heat pump with respect to the duration of the operation cycle. The effective power varies with the thermal inertia of the heat emitter, with the regulation, with the size of the pump and with its load ratio. (J.S.)

  8. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  9. High-precision high-sensitivity clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lichong; Yan Na; Min Hao; Ren Wenliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated carrier clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application. The architecture is based on a sampling-detection module and a charge pump phase locked loop. Compared with clock recovery in conventional 13.56 MHz transponders, this circuit can recover a high-precision consecutive carrier clock from the on/off keying (OOK) signal sent by interrogators. Fabricated by a SMIC 0.18-μm EEPROM CMOS process, this chip works from a single power supply as low as 1.5 V Measurement results show that this circuit provides 0.34% frequency deviation and 8 mV sensitivity. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE CMOS VOLTAGE DOUBLERS USING CHARGE REUSE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMIL H. HUSSEIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltage doubler (VD structure plays an important role in charge pump (CP circuits. It provides a voltages that is higher than the voltage of the power supply or a voltage of reverse polarity. In many applications such as the power IC and switched-capacitor transformers. This paper presents the design and analysis for VD using charge reuse technique CMOS 0.35µm tech. with high performance. Bootstrapped and charge reuse techniques is used to improve performance of integrated VD. Charge reusing method is based on equalizing the voltages of the pumping capacitances in each stage of CP. As a consequence, it reduces the load independent losses, improve the efficiency. Simulation using Orcad is applied for various VD structures shows improvement in charge reuse technique compared with existing counterpart. The results obtained show that the VD can be used in a wide band frequencies (0-100 MHz or greater. The charge reuse VD circuit provided a good efficiency about (87.6% and (83.5% for one stage and two stage respectively at pump capacitance of 57pf, load current of 1mA, frequency of 10 MHz and supply voltage is 3.5 V compared with one stage and two stage of a latched VD are (85.4% and (80% respectively.

  11. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  12. Insulin Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Pumps Insulin pumps are small computerized devices that deliver insulin in ... tissue and is taped in place. The insulin pump is not an artificial pancreas (because you still ...

  13. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  14. The Influence of Pre-Conditioning on Space Charge Formation in LDPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Robert J.; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present space charge accumulation data for planar low density polyethylene samples subjected to 20 kV/mm dc fields at room temperature. The data were obtained using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) technique. Some of the samples were conditioned by holding them at 40oC in ......C in short-circuit at rotary pump pressure for 48 hr prior to measurement. Such conditioning had no consistent effect on the space charge. The extent of charge injection/extraction at the semicon electrodes appeared to vary considerably between samples....

  15. Pharmacokinetics and "RC" Circuit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Mieke; Janssen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses include a chapter on "RC" circuits in which the differential equations for the charging and discharging of a capacitor are derived. A number of papers in this journal describe lab experiments dealing with the measurement of different parameters in such "RC" circuits. In this contribution, we…

  16. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....

  17. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  18. Solid State Circuits for Cryogenic Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrac, D.; Spencer, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tests confirm operation of five commercial semiconductor devices at cryogenic temperatures. The five devices - one tunnel diode, one field-effect transistor, and three CMOS integrated circuits - all perform well in circuits immersed in liquid-helium bath. For some tests, bath temperature was reduced to 1,25K by pumping.

  19. Compact electron accelerator for pumping gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.V.; Bradley, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the design and application of a simple e-beam generator for the repetitive pulse pumping of gas lasers. The circuit uses a low inductance Marx and series tuned pulse forming elements

  20. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  1. Pump system characterization and reliability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Pump characterization studies were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review and analyze six years (1990-1995) of data from pump systems at domestic nuclear plants. The studies considered not only pumps and pump motors but also pump-related circuit breakers and turbine drives (i.e., the pump system). One significant finding was that the number of 'significant' failures of the pump circuit breaker exceeds the number of significant failures of the pump itself. The study also shows how regulatory code testing was designed for the pump only and therefore did not lead to the discovery of other significant pump system failures. Potential diagnostic technologies, both experimental and mature, suitable for on-line and off-line pump testing were identified. The study does not select or recommend technologies but proposes diagnostic technologies and monitoring techniques that should be further evaluated/developed for making meaningful and critically-needed improvements in the reliability of the pump system. (author)

  2. High speed auto-charging system for condenser bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yasunori; Bito, Fumio; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Sometani, Taro

    1987-01-01

    A current-control type high-speed charging system, which is intended for auto-charging of the condenser bank, is developed. Moreover, the system can also serve to compensate the current leakage from the condenser bank so that the charged voltage can be kept constant. The system consists of a sequence circuit, a charging current control circuit (or auto-charging circuit) and a charging circuit. The auto-charging circuit is characterized by the use of a triac to control the current. The current, controlled by the circuit, is supplied to the condenser bank through a step-up transformer and voltage doubler rectifier circuit. It is demonstrated that the use of the high-speed auto-charging circuit can largely decrease the required charging time, compared to constant voltage charging. In addition, the compensation function is shown to serve effectively for maintaining a constant voltage after the completion of charging. The required charging time is decreases as the charging current increases. The maximum charging current is decided by the rating of the traic and the current rating of the rectifier diode in the secondary circuit. Major components of these circuits have decreased impedances to minimize the effect of noise, so that the possibility of an accident can be eliminated. Other various improvements are made in the grounding circuit and the charging protection circuit in order to ensure safety. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  4. The Influence of Pre-conditioning on the Space Charge Formation in LDPE and XLPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim T.; Fleming, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    obtained by utilizing two different test methods. These were the laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) method and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method. The thickness of the test samples was 1.80mm. Calibration of the measuring systems was performed at field strengths below that required for charge......Planar LDPE and XLPE samples were conditioned by holding in short circuit for 48 hrs. at 40oC under rotary pump pressure, and space charge accumulation in these samples under DC fields of 20 kV/mm was then compared with the corresponding accumulation in unconditioned samples.The test results were...

  5. Near resonant charge transfer in Na(4D)+K+ → Na++K*: Optical pumping of the Na(4D) state and energy dependence of rank 4 alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.E.B.; Huelser, H.; Witte, R.; Hertel, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Rank 4 alignment has been observed in a quasi one electron system. Relative charge transfer cross sections of the Na 4dσ, 4dπ and 4dδ sublevels for the K + +Na(4D)→K * +Na + system have been measured. A strong energy dependence is observed. The results at energies less than 1 keV may be attributed to rotational coupling of the Na 4dπ state to the K 4fδ state. The Na atom is excited in a two-step process, the first step being excitation to the 3 2 P 3/2 level with a two-mode laser to pump from both hyperfine levels of the ground state simultaneously. This two-mode laser is described in detail. The optical pumping problem is solved using rate equations. The general formula for describing the scattering intensity for cylindrical symmetry, in terms of multipole moments, for atoms excited by two linearly polarised lasers is derived and used to evaluate the experimental results. (orig.)

  6. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  7. Optical Dynamic Analysis of Thrombus Inside a Centrifugal Blood Pump During Extracorporeal Mechanical Circulatory Support in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Sakota, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Endo, Shu; Tahara, Tomoki; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Oi, Keiji; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Arai, Hirokuni

    2017-10-01

    Complications due to pump thrombus remain the weak point of mechanical circulatory support (MCS), such as the use of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, leading to poor outcomes. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an effective imaging method using a hyperspectral (HS) camera, which comprises a spectrophotometer and a charge-coupled device camera to discriminate thrombus from whole blood. Animal experiments were conducted to analyze dynamic imaging of thrombus inside a prototype of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump using an HSI system. Six pigs were divided into a venous circulation group (n = 3) and an arterial circulation group (n = 3). Inflow and outflow cannulae were inserted into the jugular veins in the venous circulation group. The latter simulated an LVAD application. To create thrombogenic conditions, pump flow was maintained at 1 L/min without anticoagulation. An image of the bottom surface of the pump was captured by the HS camera every 4 nm over the wavelength range of 608-752 nm. Real-time dynamic images of the inside of the pump were displayed on the monitor. Appearance of an area displaying thrombus was detected within 24 h after the start of the circulation in every experiment. This imaging system also succeeded in determining the origins of pump thrombus: from inside the pump in two cases, and from outside in four cases. Two main possible sources of pump thrombus originating outside the pump were identified on autopsy: wedge thrombus around the inflow cannula; and string-like thrombus at the junction between the pump inlet and circuit tube. The results of this study from close observation of the changing appearance of pump thrombus may contribute to improvements in the safety of extracorporeal MCS. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family...... of membrane proteins: P-type ATPase pumps. This article takes the reader on a tour from Aarhus to Copenhagen, from bacteria to plants and humans, and from ions over protein structures to diseases caused by malfunctioning pump proteins. The magazine Nature once titled work published from PUMPKIN ‘Pumping ions...

  9. Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

  10. Efficient Planar Structured Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage and Suppressed Charge Recombination Based on a Slow Grown Perovskite Layer from Lead Acetate Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Zhibin; Bai, Yiming; Liu, Lin; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhou, Erjun; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-12-06

    For planar structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PerSCs) with the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the device is limited to be about 1.0 V, resulting in inferior performance in comparison with TiO 2 -based planar counterparts. Therefore, increasing V oc of the PEDOT:PSS-based planar device is an important way to enhance the efficiency of the PerSCs. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach for perovskite film formation and the film is formed by slow growth from lead acetate precursor via a one-step spin-coating process without the thermal annealing (TA) process. Because the perovskite layer grows slowly and naturally, high-quality perovskite film can be achieved with larger crystalline particles, less defects, and smoother surface morphology. Ultraviolet absorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy (photoluminescence), and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy are used to clarify the crystallinity, morphology, and internal defects of perovskite thin films. The power conversion efficiency of p-i-n PerSCs based on slow-grown film (16.33%) shows greatly enhanced performance compared to that of the control device based on traditional thermally annealed perovskite film (14.33%). Furthermore, the V oc of the slow-growing device reaches 1.12 V, which is 0.1 V higher than that of the TA device. These findings indicate that slow growth of the perovskite layer from lead acetate precursor is a promising approach to achieve high-quality perovskite film for high-performance PerSCs.

  11. [Temporary use of centrifugal pump for pump thrombosis in patients with paracorporeal ventricular assist device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Yamauchi, Haruo; Itoda, Yoshifumi; Hoshino, Yasuhiro; Kashiwa, Koichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Kurosawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Mai; Koga, Sayaka; Ono, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    Nipro paracorporeal ventricular assist device( VAD) is often associated with pump thrombosis which causes severe complications such as brain infarction, often requiring pump change. However, Nipro VAD pump is an expensive device and it is difficult to change pumps frequently at a short interval. We have temporarily used Rotaflow centrifugal pump for recurrent pump thrombosis in patients with Nipro VADs. From January 2012 through December 2013, 19 patients underwent Nipro VADs implantation at our institution, and 9 of them underwent pump change from Nipro pumps to Rotaflow centrifugal pumps. A total of 25 Rotaflow centrifugal pumps were used in these 9 patients, with the total circulatory support duration of 526 days. The median support period was 15 days (range;2-128 days). There were 2 cerebrovascular accidents and 1 Rotaflow pump circuit thrombosis during this period. Change from Rotaflow to Nipro VAD pump resulted in decrease in hematocrit by about 3 point. There was no difference in liver or renal function between before and after the pump change. Our results suggest that temporary use of Rotaflow centrifugal pump for recurrent pump thrombosis in patients with Nipro VADs may be a promising alternative.

  12. On the possibility of gamma-laser pumping occurring at a charged particle counter motion and in density-modulated electron beams by a high frequency intensive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksyuta, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    The given report deals with the problem of motion and radiation of relativistic electron in a field of opposite plane density-modulated relativistic electron beam. Physical essence of high-frequency intensive radiation origin could be explained, first by the additional Lorentz reduction of the electron beam modulation period (modulation period Λ in a laboratory co-ordinate system reduces by a factor γ as compared with the modulation period in a beam co-ordinate system) and, secondly, a simultaneous γ-fold increase of transverse components of relativistic electrons of the beam electric and magnetic fields. Such a moving modulated electron beam can be regarded as a dynamic micro-ondulator. Unlike static micro-ondulators we can observe here one more positive moment along with a small period Λ = Λ'/γ, i.e. the electric and magnetic fields in a transverse direction are changed according to the law of exp(-2πx/Λ'). It means that charged particle interaction with a dynamic micro-ondulator will be effective in a wide range of transverse distances, i.e., to get an intensive short wave radiation one can use charged particle beams with rather large apertures which leads to an additional radiation intensity increase. A discussion is given showing that the proposed dynamic modulator possesses some essential merits. A detailed calculation is presented. (author)

  13. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    vessels. Heretofore, electrically actuated hydraulic pumps have been used for this purpose. By eliminating the demand for electrical energy for pumping, the use of the thermally actuated hydraulic pumps could prolong the intervals between battery charges, thus making it possible to greatly increase the durations of undersea exploratory missions.

  14. Compact, electromagnetic multiple-stream multiple-stream pump for liquid metals - Design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pump provides independent liquid-metal streams at a uniform flow rate. The toroidal magnet structure can accomodate any reasonable number of pump circuits. The power requirement is suited to the output voltage of the basic thermionic diode output.

  15. Effects of the charge-transfer reorganization energy on the open-circuit voltage in small-molecular bilayer organic photovoltaic devices: comparison of the influence of deposition rates of the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Chien; Su, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2016-05-14

    The theoretical maximum of open-circuit voltage (VOC) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has yet to be determined, and its origin remains debated. Here, we demonstrate that VOC of small-molecule OPV devices can be improved by controlling the deposition rate of a donor without changing the interfacial energy gap at the donor/acceptor interface. The measurement of external quantum efficiency and electroluminescence spectra facilitates the observation of the existence of charge transfer (CT) states. A simplified approach by reusing the reciprocity relationship for obtaining the properties of the CT states is proposed without introducing complex techniques. We compare experimental and fitting results and propose that reorganization energy is the primary factor in determining VOC instead of either the CT energy or electronic coupling term in bilayer OPV devices. Atomic force microscopy images indicate a weak molecular aggregation when a higher deposition rate is used. The results of temperature-dependent measurements suggest the importance of molecular stacking for the CT properties.

  16. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  17. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage...

  18. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  19. Flaw preparations for HSST program vessel fracture mechanics testing: mechanical-cyclic pumping and electron-beam weld-hydrogen-charge cracking schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, P.P.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of the document is to present schemes for flaw preparations in heavy section steel. The ability of investigators to grow representative sharp cracks of known size, location, and orientation is basic to representative field testing to determine data for potential flaw propagation, fracture behavior, and margin against fracture for high-pressure-, high-temperature-service steel vessels subjected to increasing pressurization and/or thermal shock. Gaging for analytical stress and strain procedures and ultrasonic and acoustic emission instrumentation can then be applied to monitor the vessel during testing and to study crack growth. This report presents flaw preparations for HSST fracture mechanics testing. Cracks were grown by two techniques: (1) a mechanical method wherein a premachined notch was sharpened by pressurization and (2) a method combining electron-beam welds and hydrogen charging to crack the chill zone of a rapidly placed autogenous weld. The mechanical method produces a naturally occurring growth shape controlled primarily by the shape of the machined notch; the welding-electrochemical method produces flaws of uniform depth from the surface of a wall or machined notch. Theories, details, discussions, and procedures are covered for both of the flaw-growing schemes

  20. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  1. Development of model pump for establishing hydraulic design of primary sodium pumps in PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, R.J.; Sahasrabudhe, H.G.; Rao, A.S.L.K.; Balchander, K.; Kale, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam indicated requirement of indigenous development of primary sodium pump, handling liquid sodium as coolant in Fast Breeder Reactor. The primary sodium pump concept selected in its preliminary design is a vertical, single stage, with single suction impeller, suction facing downwards. The pump is having diffuser, discharge casing and discharge collector. The 1/3 rd size model pump is developed to establish the hydraulic performance of the prototype primary sodium pump. The main objectives were to verify the hydraulic design to operate on low net positive suction head available (NPSHA), no evidence of visible cavitation at available NPSHA, the pump should be designed with a diffuser etc. The model pump PSP 250/40 was designed and successfully developed by Research and Development Division of M/s Kirloskar Brothers Ltd., Kirloskarvadi. The performance testing using model pump was successfully carried out on a closed circuit test rig. The performance of a model pump at three different speeds 1900 rpm, 1456 rpm and 975 rpm was established. The values of hydraulic axial thrust with and without balancing holes on impeller at 1900 rpm was measured. Visual cavitation study at 1900 rpm was carried out to establish the NPSH at bubble free operation of the pump. The tested performance of the model pump is converted to the full scale prototype pump. The predicted performance of prototype pump at 700 rpm was found to be meeting fully with the expected duties. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. 46 CFR 109.329 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 109.329 Section 109.329 Shipping COAST GUARD... of Safety Equipment § 109.329 Fire pumps. The master or person in charge shall insure that at least one of the fire pumps required in § 108.415 is ready for use on the fire main system at all times. ...

  3. Dual Regenerative Cooling Circuits for Liquid Rocket Engines (POSTPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naraghi, N. H; Dunn, S; Coats, D

    2006-01-01

    .... Two engines, the SSME and a RP1-LOX engine, are retrofitted with dual-circuits. It is shown that the maximum wall temperatures for both engines are substantially reduced while also lowering coolant pumping power...

  4. Hydrostatic radial bearing of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrostatic radial pump is described characterized by the fact that part of the medium off-taken from delivery is used as a lubricating medium. Two additional bodies are placed alongside a hydrostatic bearing with coils in between them and the pump shaft; the coils have an opposite pitch. The feed channel for the hydrostatic bearing pocket is linked to delivery. The coil outlets are connected to the pump suction unit. Two rotating coils placed alongside the hydrostatic bearing will considerably simplify the communication channel design and reduce the dependence on the pump shaft deflections. The addition of another rotating coil in the close vicinity of the pump shaft or directly on the shaft further increases the efficiency. The bearing can be used in designing vertical circulating pumps for the cooling circuits of nuclear reactors. (J.B.)

  5. TIMING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd, J.W.

    1959-07-14

    An electronic circuit is described for precisely controlling the power delivered to a load from an a-c source, and is particularly useful as a welder timer. The power is delivered in uniform pulses, produced by a thyratron, the number of pulses being controlled by a one-shot multivibrator. The starting pulse is synchronized with the a-c line frequency so that each multivlbrator cycle begins at about the same point in the a-c cycle.

  6. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  7. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  8. Control circuits for the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, S.; Shiino, K.; Yoshioka, M.; Norimura, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following control circuits for the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron, Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, have been designed and constructed. 1. Variable delay circuits for the timing pulse of the synchrotron. 2. An alarm circuit for sputter ion pumps. 3. A sample and hold circuit for digital display and computer control of the beam intensity. This report describes detailes of the circuits and their specificatons. (author)

  9. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  10. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  11. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  12. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  13. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  14. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  15. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  16. A single center's conversion from roller pump to centrifugal pump technology in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Brandon C; Schiavo, Kellie; Rosenthal, Tami; Connelly, James T; Melchior, Richard W

    2016-06-05

    Recent advances in blood pump technology have led to an increased use of centrifugal pumps for prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization confirms that many institutions have converted to centrifugal pumps after prior experience with roller pump technology. Centrifugal pump technology is more compact and may generate less heat and hemolysis than a conventional roller pump. Based on the potential advantages of centrifugal pumps, a decision was made institution-wide to convert to centrifugal pump technology in pediatric implementation of ECMO. Based on limited prior experience with centrifugal pumps, a multidisciplinary approach was used to implement this new technology. The new centrifugal pump (Sorin Revolution, Arvada, CO) was intended for ECMO support in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU), the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The perfusion team used their knowledge and expertise with centrifugal pumps to create the necessary teaching tools and interactive training sessions for the technical specialists who consisted primarily of registered nurses and respiratory therapists. The first phase consisted of educating all personnel involved in the care of the ECMO patient, followed by patient implementation in the CICU, followed by the PICU and NICU. The institution-wide conversion took several months to complete and was well received among all disciplines in the CICU and PICU. The NICU personnel did use the centrifugal pump circuit, but decided to revert back to using the roller pump technology. A systematic transition from roller pump to centrifugal pump technology with a multidisciplinary team can ensure a safe and successful implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  18. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  19. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  20. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  1. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  2. Construction and testing of a double acting bellows liquid helium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A.; Green, M.A.; Ross, R.R.; Van Slyke, H.

    1980-05-01

    The double acting reciprocating bellows liquid helium pump built and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. The pump is capable of delivering 50 gs -1 of liquid helium to supply the two-phase cooling sytem for a large superconducting magnet. The pump is driven by a torque motor at room temperature; the reciprocating motion is transmitted to the pump through a shaft which operates between room temperature and 4 0 K. The design details of this liquid helium pump are presented. The helium pump has operated in a helium bath and in pumped forced flow helium circuits. The results of these experimental tests are presented in this report

  3. The Efficiency of the Pumping of the Lasers Based on Self-Terminating Atomic Transitions Operating in the Energy Input Cut-Off Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdin Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the electro-physical processes in the discharge circuit of the lasers based on the self-terminating transitions of metal atoms (LSTM and the electrodes placed in the cold buffer zones of the gas discharge tube (GDT is occurred. That design of the GDT can provide the efficient lasing at the reduction of the current flowing through the switch to zero after the charging of the capacitive components of the circuit from the storage capacitor. Under the circumstances the pumping of the active medium is determined by the energy input from the peaking capacitor and, consequently, the efficiency of the pumping can be increased by an order of magnitude, if (using a managed switch the energy input into the active medium from the storage capacitor is “cut-off” after charging the capacitive components of the circuit. It was shown that the efficiency values of ∼ 9-11 % and of ∼ 5-6 % for the copper and gold vapor, lasers could be achieved.

  4. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Dopping on Charge Trapping in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The charge storage properties of corona charged pure and TiO2 doped polystyrene (PS) films have been studied. Thermally stimulated charge decay and open circuit thermally stimulated charges were measured. A half-value charge decay temperature T1/2 ∼ 140oC is optimum at 3 wt % TiO2 doping. This implies that ...

  5. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  6. Design, in-sodium testing and performance evaluation of annular linear induction pump for a sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashine, B.K.; Rao, B.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Derivation of applicable design equations. • Design of an annular induction pump based on these equations. • Testing of the designed pump in a sodium test facility. • Performance evaluation of the designed pump. - Abstract: Annular linear induction pumps (ALIPs) are used for pumping electrically conducting liquid metals. These pumps find wide application in fast reactors since the coolant in fast reactors is liquid sodium which a good conductor of electricity. The design of these pumps is usually done using equivalent circuit approach in combination with numerical simulation models. The equivalent circuit of ALIP is similar to that of an induction motor. This paper presents the derivation of equivalent circuit parameters using first principle approach. Sodium testing of designed ALIP using the equivalent circuit approach is also described and experimental results of the testing are presented. Comparison between experimental and analytical calculations has also been carried out. Some of the reasons for variation have also been listed in this paper

  7. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  8. A novel interface circuit for triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wuqi; Ma, Jiahao; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-10-01

    For most triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), the electric output should be a short AC pulse, which has the common characteristic of high voltage but low current. Thus it is necessary to convert the AC to DC and store the electric energy before driving conventional electronics. The traditional AC voltage regulator circuit which commonly consists of transformer, rectifier bridge, filter capacitor, and voltage regulator diode is not suitable for the TENG because the transformer’s consumption of power is appreciable if the TENG output is small. This article describes an innovative design of an interface circuit for a triboelectric nanogenerator that is transformerless and easily integrated. The circuit consists of large-capacity electrolytic capacitors that can realize to intermittently charge lithium-ion batteries and the control section contains the charging chip, the rectifying circuit, a comparator chip and switch chip. More important, the whole interface circuit is completely self-powered and self-controlled. Meanwhile, the chip is widely used in the circuit, so it is convenient to integrate into PCB. In short, this work presents a novel interface circuit for TENGs and makes progress to the practical application and industrialization of nanogenerators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61434001) and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  9. Comparison of rechargeable versus battery-operated insulin pumps: temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchetin, Paul; McCann, Thomas W; Ojha, Navdeep; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Levy, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    The role of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pumps) has become increasingly important in diabetes management, and many different types of these systems are currently available. This exploratory study focused on the reported heating issues that lithium-ion battery-powered pumps may have during charging compared with battery-operated pumps. It was found that pump temperature increased by 6.4°C during a long charging cycle of a lithiumion battery-operated pump under ambient temperatures. In an environmental-chamber kept at 35°C, the pump temperature increased by 4.4°C, which indicates that the pump temperature was above that of the recommended safety limit for insulin storage of 37°C. When designing new pumps, and when using currently available rechargeable pumps in warmer climates, the implications of these temperature increases should be taken into consideration. Future studies should also further examine insulin quality after charging.

  10. Quantum Pumping in Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejinder; Arrachea, Liliana; Sandler, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    The interest in the development of devices at the nanoscale has intensified the search for mechanisms that provide control of transport properties while reducing effects of heat dissipation and contact resistance. Charge pumping, in which dc currents are generated in open-quantum systems by applying local de-phased time-dependent potentials, may achieve these goals. We analyze the properties of non-equilibrium zero-bias currents through nano-ribbons using a tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Keldysh formalism beyond the adiabatic and perturbative regimes. Using a numerical implementation with two local single-harmonic time-dependent potentials, we first contrast results for 1d and 2d metallic systems (square lattice). Next, we focus on quasi-1d systems and graphene ribbons, and discuss the role of reservoirs. We analyze the dependence of the dc pumped current as a function of different parameters such as chemical potential, pumping amplitude, and frequency. We observe a considerable increase of pumped current with the dimensionality of the system. Furthermore, we show that lattice mismatch with reservoirs favors the pumping mechanism for graphene ribbons.

  11. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  12. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  13. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  14. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  15. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  16. Helium pumping with liquid ring vacuum pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, C.; Gravil, B.; Sauvigne, G.; Verdier, J.

    1983-09-01

    At first the main principles for operation and building of liquid ring pumps are remembered and an experiment is described which allowed to assess the performance data of such pumps when used to pump helium gas with oil. Although they have been designed to pump air with water the adaptation for helium is rather simple, the input power is slightly higher in the same flow and pressure conditions, but the limit of the succion pressure is lowered [fr

  17. Optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and future prospects for the optically pumped polarized H - ion source are discussed. At the present time H - ion currents of 60 μA and with a polarization of 65% have been produced. The ion current and polarization can be increased significantly if the optically pumped Na charge exchange target density and polarization can be increased. Studies of wall surfaces that permit many bounces before depolarizing the Na electron spin and studies of radiation trapping in optically pumped Na indicate that the Na target density and polarization can be increased substantially. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  19. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  20. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  1. CMOS circuits for electromagnetic vibration transducers interfaces for ultra-low voltage energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Maurath, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Chip-integrated power management solutions are a must for ultra-low power systems. This enables not only the optimization of innovative sensor applications. It is also essential for integration and miniaturization of energy harvesting supply strategies of portable and autonomous monitoring systems. The book particularly addresses interfaces for energy harvesting, which are the key element to connect micro transducers to energy storage elements. Main features of the book are: - A comprehensive technology and application review, basics on transducer mechanics, fundamental circuit and control design, prototyping and testing, up to sensor system supply and applications. - Novel interfacing concepts - including active rectifiers, MPPT methods for efficient tracking of DC as well as AC sources, and a fully-integrated charge pump for efficient maximum AC power tracking at sub-100µW ultra-low power levels. The chips achieve one of widest presented operational voltage range in standard CMOS technology: 0.44V to over...

  2. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  3. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  4. Ultrafast Charge Photogeneration in MEH-PPV Charge-Transfer Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E; Schoenlein, RW

    2009-01-01

    Visible-pump - IR-probe spectroscopy is used to study the ultrafast charge dynamics in MEH-PPV based charge-transfer complexes and donor-acceptor blends. Transient anisotropy of the polymer polaron band provides invaluable insights into excitation localisation and charge-transfer pathways.

  5. Secondary coolant circuit for a liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, A.; Figuet, J.; Guidez, J.; Lions, N.

    1984-01-01

    The invention can be applied for electric power generation with a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium. Each loop of the main circuit comprises a steam generator, a pump, and at least one heat exchanger disposed in the reactor vessel. A downstream buffer tank is disposed in the tube which is between the steam generator and the pump; the upper buffer tank can be disposed either in to the steam generator or out of this one. The invention allows to suppress the surge tank and the pump can be set in low place without needing a high argon-pressure for the circuit and without putting the storage tank in the secondary loop. It involves a diminution of dimensions and of the installation cost, and an improvement for the safety of heat exchangers in case of water/sodium reaction in the steam generator and, of the reliability for the pump operation [fr

  6. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  7. Electronic Control Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Je Hwong; Cha, In Su

    2001-08-01

    This book consists of nine chapters, which are basis of thyristor about its use and classify, structure of thyristor like outside, inside, manufacturing and structure of thyristor sorts of thyristor family and sub thyristor, how to use thyristor such as standard chart, choice of thyristor and way of on and off, electric heat control circuit like control temperature of heating apparatus and cooker, lighting control circuit for light bulb, neon lamp, traffic signal, lamp regulator and strobe, motor control circuit including an inverter circuit transistor and speed control of direct motor by transistor, electric power source circuit and a spark-plug, applied circuit for protection of fire.

  8. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  9. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  10. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  11. Smart Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, Joshua; Chung, Ching-Yen; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-02-19

    WINSmartEV™ is a smart electric vehicle charging system that has been built and is currently in operation. It is a software and network based EV charging system designed and built around the ideas of intelligent charge scheduling, multiplexing (connecting multiple vehicles to each circuit) and flexibility. This paper gives an overview of this smart charging system with an eye toward its unique features and capabilities.

  12. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    the inlet water temperature for the Dh preheating gas cooler unit. The lower the inlet temperature, the higher the Cop. The CO{sub 2} system will therefore achieve the highest COP at low city water temperatures, and when there is negligible mixing and minimum conductive heat transfer between the hot and cold water in the DHW tank during the tapping and charging periods. (5) The COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is generally more sensitive to variations in the compressor efficiency than that of conventional brine/water-to-water heat pump systems. It is therefore of particular importance to apply a high-efficiency compressor. (6) At each operating mode and temperature programme, there will be an optimum gas cooler (high-side) pressure that leads to a maximum COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. However, at moderate DHW temperatures, the heat pump can be operated at constant high-side pressure in all heating modes with only a minor reduction in the COP. This is favourable, since it simplifies the operation of the system and reduces the first cost. (7) During operation in the combined heating mode, the COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump may be higher than in the DHW heating mode due to similar temperature approaches at the cold outlet of the gas coolers and lower optimum high-side pressure. The higher the DHW temperature, the larger the COP difference for the operating modes. (8) The integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system will be more complex than the state-of-the art residential heat pump systems due to the requirement for a tripartite gas cooler, extra valves and tubing for by-pass of fluids, an inverter controlled pump in the DHW circuit as well as an especially designed DHW storage tank. The application of optimum high-side pressure control will further increase the technical and operational complexity of the system. (9) Conductive heat transfer between the DHW and the cold city water in the storage tank during the tapping and charging periods

  13. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  14. The Impact of Roller Pump vs. Centrifugal Pump on Homologous Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datt, Bharat; Nguyen, Moui B; Plancher, Gary; Ruzmetov, Mark; O'Brien, Michael; Kube, Alicia; Munro, Hamish M; Pourmoghadam, Kamal K; DeCampli, William M

    2017-03-01

    Centrifugal pumps are considered to be less destructive to blood elements (1) when compared to roller pumps. However, their large prime volumes render them unsuitable as arterial pumps in heart lung machine (HLM) circuitry for children. In November of 2014, the circuit at Arnold Palmer Hospital, a Biomedicus BP-50 with kinetic assist venous drainage (KAVD) and 1/4″ tubing was converted to a roller pump in the arterial position with gravity drainage. Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) was mounted on the HLM as a backup, but not used. Tubing was changed to 3/16″ in the arterial line in patients centrifugal pumps and KAVD (Centrifugal Group, n = 40) to those placed on CPB with roller pumps and gravity drainage (Roller Group, n = 100). Patients requiring extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/cardio-pulmonary support (CPS) or undergoing a hybrid procedure were excluded. Re-operation or circulatory arrest patients were not excluded. Prime volumes decreased by 57% from 456 ± 34 mL in the Centrifugal Group to 197 ± 34 mL in the Roller Group ( p Centrifugal Group to 231 mL in the Roller Group ( p centrifugal configuration and 0% in the roller pump cohort. We demonstrated that the transition to roller pumps in the arterial position of the HLM considerably reduced our priming volume and formed a basis for a comprehensive blood conservation program. By maintaining higher HCTs on CPB, we were able to reduce intraoperative homologous blood transfusions.

  15. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  16. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  17. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  18. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  19. Design and experimental characterization of an EM pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    1999-01-01

    Generally, an EM (electromagnetic) pump is been employed to circulate electrically conducting liquids by using the Lorentz force. Especially, at the liquid metal reactor (LMR), which uses liquid sodium with high electrical conductivity as a coolant, an EM pump is needed due to its advantages over a mechanical pump, such as no rotating parts, no noise, and simplicity. In this research, an EM pump of a pilot annular linear induction type with a flow rate of 200 l/min was designed by using the electrical equivalent-circuit method. The pump was designed and manufactured by considering material and environmental (high temperature and liquid sodium) requirements. The pump performance was experimentally characterized based on input currents, voltage, power, and frequency. Also, the theoretical prediction was compared with the experimental result

  20. Topological pumping in class-D superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibertini, Marco; Fazio, Rosario; Polini, Marco; Taddei, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We study adiabatic pumping at a normal metal/class-D superconductor hybrid interface when superconductivity is induced through the proximity effect in a spin-orbit coupled nanowire in the presence of a tilted Zeeman field. When the induced order parameter in the nanowire is nonuniform, the phase diagram has isolated trivial regions surrounded by topological ones. We show that in this case the pumped charge is quantized in units of the elementary charge e and has a topological nature.

  1. Classical circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the basic principles of circuits, this book derives their analytic properties in both the time and frequency domains. It develops an algorithmic method to design common and uncommon types of circuits, such as prototype filters, lumped delay lines, constant phase difference circuits, and delay equalizers.

  2. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  3. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  4. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  5. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...... pump as mentioned above, thereby acting to generate a fluid flow through the tube upon repeated deformation of the tube between the two valve members. The pump element may comprise a connecting part for coupling to another tube and may comprise a sealing part establishing a fluid tight connection...

  6. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Wolf, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux φ in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry arguments, but was clearly experimentally demonstrated just last year. We present the properties of a single memristor, memristors in series and parallel, as well as ideal memristor-capacitor (MC), memristor-inductor (ML) and memristor-capacitor-inductor (MCL) circuits. We find that the memristor has hysteretic current-voltage characteristics. We show that the ideal MC (ML) circuit undergoes non-exponential charge (current) decay with two time scales and that by switching the polarity of the capacitor, an ideal MCL circuit can be tuned from overdamped to underdamped. We present simple models which show that these unusual properties are closely related to the memristor's internal dynamics. This tutorial complements the pedagogy of ideal circuit elements (R, C and L) and the properties of their circuits, and is aimed at undergraduate physics and electrical engineering students

  7. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Wolf, Stephen J [Department of Physics, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: yojoglek@iupui.edu

    2009-07-15

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux {phi} in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry arguments, but was clearly experimentally demonstrated just last year. We present the properties of a single memristor, memristors in series and parallel, as well as ideal memristor-capacitor (MC), memristor-inductor (ML) and memristor-capacitor-inductor (MCL) circuits. We find that the memristor has hysteretic current-voltage characteristics. We show that the ideal MC (ML) circuit undergoes non-exponential charge (current) decay with two time scales and that by switching the polarity of the capacitor, an ideal MCL circuit can be tuned from overdamped to underdamped. We present simple models which show that these unusual properties are closely related to the memristor's internal dynamics. This tutorial complements the pedagogy of ideal circuit elements (R, C and L) and the properties of their circuits, and is aimed at undergraduate physics and electrical engineering students.

  8. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  9. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  11. Designing your boron-charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1979-01-01

    High-pressure positive-displacement pumps used in the boron-charging setups of pressurized-water (PWR) nuclear plants because of their inherently high efficiencies over a wide range of pressures and speeds are described. Hydrogen-saturated water containing 4-12% boric acid is fed to the pump from a volume-control tank under a gas blanket. Complicated piping and the pulsation difficulties associated with reciprocating pumps make hydrogen-saturated boron-charging systems a challenge to the designer. The article describes the unusual hydraulics of the systems to help assure a trouble-free design

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  13. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  14. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we look at the methods employed to solve this differential equa- tion for different forms of the input voltage applied. 1. The RC Circuit and its Differential Equation. For the circuit shown in Figure 1, the differential equation for. Keywords. Fourier transforms, contour integration, circuit theory. charge q on the capacitor is given ...

  15. A chaotic circuit based on Hewlett-Packard memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Valentina Gambuzza, Lucia

    2012-06-01

    Memristors are gaining increasing attention as next generation electronic devices. They are also becoming commonly used as fundamental blocks for building chaotic circuits, although often arbitrary (typically piece-wise linear or cubic) flux-charge characteristics are assumed. In this paper, a chaotic circuit based on the mathematical realistic model of the HP memristor is introduced. The circuit makes use of two HP memristors in antiparallel. Numerical results showing some of the chaotic attractors generated by this circuit and the behavior with respect to changes in its component values are described.

  16. Connecting Time and Frequency in the RC Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Charging and discharging processes of a capacitor through a resistor, as well as the concept of impedance in alternating current circuits, are topics covered in introductory physics courses. The experimental study of the charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is a well-established lab exercise that is used to introduce concepts…

  17. Integrated equipment for increasing and maintaining coolant pressure in primary circuit of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1986-01-01

    An open heat pump circuit is claimed connected to the primary circuit. The pump circuit consists of a steam pressurizer with a built-in steam distributor, a compressor, an expander, a reducing valve, an auxiliary pump, and of water and steam pipes. The operation is described and a block diagram is shown of integrated equipment for increasing and maintaining pressure in the nuclear power plant primary circuit. The appropriate entropy diagram is also shown. The advantage of the open pump circuit consists in reducing the electric power input and electric power consumption for the steam pressurizers, removing entropy loss in heat transfer with high temperature gradient, in the possibility of inserting, between the expander and the auxiliary pump, a primary circuit coolant treatment station, in simplified design and manufacture of the high-pressure steam pressurizer vessel, reducing the weight of the steam pressurizer by changing its shape from cylindrical to spherical, increasing the rate of pressure growth in the primary circuit. (E.S.)

  18. Tests of cooling water pumps at Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, J.

    1986-01-01

    Tests were performed to examine the operating conditions of the 1600 BQDV cooling pumps of the main coolant circuit of unit 1 of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. For the pumps, the performance was tested in the permissible operating range, points were measured below this range and the guaranteed operating point was verified. Pump efficiency was calculated from the measured values. The discussion of the measurement of parameters has not yet been finished because the obtained values of the amount delivered and thus of the pump efficiency were not up to expectation in all detail. It was also found that for obtaining the guaranteed flow the pump impeller had to be opened to 5deg -5.5deg instead of the declared 3deg. Also tested were pump transients, including the start of the pump, its stop, the operation and failure of one of the two pumps. In these tests, pressures were also measured at the inlet and the outlet of the inner part of the TG 11 turbine condenser. It was shown that the time course and the pressure course of the processes were acceptable. In addition to these tests, pressure losses in the condenser and the cooling water flow through the feed pump electromotor cooler wre tested for the case of a failure of one of the two pumps. (E.S.)

  19. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  20. In vivo evaluation of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass-Spiral Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leme, Juliana; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron; Zavaglia, Cecília

    2013-11-01

    The Spiral Pump (SP), a centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been developed at the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology/Adib Jatene Foundation laboratories, with support from Sintegra Company (Pompeia, Brazil). The SP is a disposable pump with an internal rotor-a conically shaped fuse with double entrance threads. This rotor is supported by two ball bearings, attached to a stainless steel shaft fixed to the housing base. Worm gears provide axial motion to the blood column, and the rotational motion of the conically shaped impeller generates a centrifugal pumping effect, improving pump efficiency without increasing hemolysis. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the SP's hydrodynamic performance, and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate hemodynamic impact during usual CPB. A commercially available centrifugal blood pump was used as reference. In vivo experiments were conducted in six male pigs weighing between 60 and 90 kg, placed on CPB for 6 h each. Blood samples were collected just before CPB (T0) and after every hour of CPB (T1-T6) for hemolysis determination and laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical). Values of blood pressure, mean flow, pump rotational speed, and corporeal temperature were recorded. Also, ergonomic conditions were recorded: presence of noise, difficulty in removing air bubbles, trouble in installing the pump in the drive module (console), and difficulties in mounting the CPB circuit. Comparing the laboratory and hemolysis results for the SP with those of the reference pump, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two devices. In addition, reports made by medical staff and perfusionists described a close similarity between the two devices. During in vivo experiments, the SP maintained blood flow and pressure at physiological levels, consistent with those applied in cardiac surgery with CPB, without presenting any malfunction. Also, the SP needed lower rotational

  1. Insulin pump (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  2. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  3. A mathematical model of the hydraulic system of the universal hosed concrete pump

    OpenAIRE

    Chayka, Denys; Emeljanova, Inga; Andrenko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a scheme of a new-design universal pistonless concrete pump with a hydraulic drive and provides a basic diagram of its hydraulic system. To maximize energy efficiency, the designed hydraulic circuit is implemented through the following hydraulic devices: high-torque hydraulic motors, a gear pump, a hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic spreaders, a filter, a safety valve, anticavitation and check valves, a flow controller, and pipelines. The key element in the hydraulic circuit of ...

  4. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  5. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  6. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...... proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK (a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires....

  7. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  8. Stable adiabatic circuit using advanced series capacitors and time variation of energy dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Shunji; Mutoh, Shin'ichiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Miyama, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the stability of an adiabatic stepwise-charging circuit with advanced series capacitors, which is effective for the reduction of the applied voltage to each capacitor. SPICE simulation shows that this circuit is stable even if the initial voltages are lower than zero. For the analytical discussion, we derive a matrix that connects charge and voltage in the circuit and show that the matrix is a positive-definite symmetric one. Therefore, the step voltage is generated spontaneously. ...

  9. An investigation of algebraic quantum dynamics for mesoscopic coupled electric circuits with mutual inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlavani, H.; Kolur, E. Rahmanpour

    2016-01-01

    Based on the electrical charge discreteness, the Hamiltonian operator for the mutual inductance coupled quantum mesoscopic LC circuits has been found. The persistent current on two driven coupled mesoscopic electric pure L circuits (two quantum loops) has been obtained by using algebraic quantum dynamic approach. The influence of the mutual inductance on energy spectrum and quantum fluctuations of the charge and current for two coupled quantum electric mesoscopic LC circuits have been investigated.

  10. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  11. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  12. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  13. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  14. Deionization and desalination using electrostatic ion pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Schaldach, Charlene M.; O& #x27; Brien, Kevin C.; Cussler, Edward

    2013-06-11

    The present invention provides a new method and apparatus/system for purifying ionic solutions, such as, for example, desalinating water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally, and is synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction (because they are held in the electrical double layer), and released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way the ions, such as salt, are "ratcheted" across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The process itself is very simple and involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

  15. Deionization and desalination using electrostatic ion pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L [Livermore, CA; Aines, Roger D [Livermore, CA; Haslam, Jeffery J [Livermore, CA; Schaldach, Charlene M [Pleasanton, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA; Cussler, Edward [Edina, MN

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a new method and apparatus/system for purifying ionic solutions, such as, for example, desalinating water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally, and is synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction (because they are held in the electrical double layer), and released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way the ions, such as salt, are "ratcheted" across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The process itself is very simple and involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

  16. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  17. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  18. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  19. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  20. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  1. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  2. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  3. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  4. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  5. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  6. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  7. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Seok Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless battery charging system can implement easily most other charging profiles. In this paper, the proposed wireless battery charging system is implemented and the feasibility is verified experimentally according to constant-current constant-voltage charging profile or multi-step current charging profile.

  8. Multi-Temperature Heat Pump with Cascade Compressor Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is a multifunctional heat pump with several evaporators and condensers designed for simultaneous provision of technological processes with heat and cold. The aim of the work is the development and study of the scheme for this type of heat pumps, which ensures minimum irreversibility in the "compressor-gas coolers" chain, without the use of adjustable ejectors installed after evaporators and used as flow mixers. The obtained technical solution ensures the stabilization of the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP and prescribed thermal regimes of heat exchangers at a variable flow rate of the refrigerant. The novelty of the elaboration is inclusion a compressor of the first stage with a serially connected intermediate heat exchanger and a control valve that are located before the compressor inlet of the second stage of the heat pump, which allows to establish a rational pressure after the first stage of the compressors. A scheme is proposed for regulating the temperature at the inlet of the first stage compressors by regulating the flow through the primary circuits of the recuperative heat exchangers. The first stage compressor control system allows providing the required modes of operation of the heat pump. It is established, because of the exergetic analysis of the sections of the hydraulic circuit of heat pump located between the evaporators and gas coolers that the reduction of irreversible losses in the heat pump is ensured due to the optimal choice of the superheat value of the gas after the evaporators.

  9. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  10. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  11. Liquid metal flow control by DC electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo Madeira; Braz Filho, Francisco Antonio; Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2006-01-01

    The cooling system of high-density thermal power requires fluids of high thermal conductivity, such as liquid metals. Electromagnetic pumps can be used to liquid metal fluid flow control in cooling circuits. The operation of electromagnetic pumps used to flow control is based on Lorentz force. This force can be achieved by magnetic field and electric current interaction, controlled by external independent power supplies. This work presents the electromagnetic pump operational principles, the IEAv development scheme and the BEMC-1 simulation code. The theoretical results of BEMC-1 simulation are compared to electromagnetic pump operation experimental data, validating the BEMC-1 code. This code is used to evaluate the DC electromagnetic pump performance applied to Mercury flow control and others liquid metal such as Sodium, Lead and Bismuth, used in nuclear fast reactors. (author)

  12. An investigational study of minimum rotational pump speed to avoid retrograde flow in three centrifugal blood pumps in a pediatric extracorporeal life support model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph B; Guan, Yulong; McCoach, Robert; Kunselman, Allen R; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif

    2011-05-01

    During extracorporeal life support with centrifugal blood pumps, retrograde pump flow may occur when the pump revolutions decrease below a critical value determined by the circuit resistance and the characteristics of the pump. We created a laboratory model to evaluate the occurrence of retrograde flow in each of three centrifugal blood pumps: the Rotaflow, the CentriMag, and the Bio-Medicus BP-50. At simulated patient pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, each pump was evaluated at speeds from 1000 to 2200 rpm and flow rates were measured. Retrograde flow occurred at low revolution speeds in all three centrifugal pumps. The Bio-Medicus pump was the least likely to demonstrate retrograde flow at low speeds, followed by the Rotaflow pump. The CentriMag pump showed the earliest transition to retrograde flow, as well as the highest degree of retrograde flow. At every pump speed evaluated, the Bio-Medicus pump delivered the highest antegrade flow and the CentriMag pump delivered the least.

  13. Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (UPHS). Program report, April 1-September 30, 1979. ANL Activity No. 49964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Tam, S.W.; Clinch, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Storage activities for the second half of FY 1979 are described. Activities include program management and support, subcontract work, and systems studies. Information is given on the preliminary design, hydraulic performance, and cost of high-head, 350-MW capacity, single- and two-stage reversible, Francis-type pump turbines. Similar information is also presented on 350- and 500-MW capacity, multistage, unregulated, reversible, pump turbines. An assessment of the application potential of controlled-flow rate pumps and pump turbines is included. The effects of the charge/discharge ratio of a pumped stoage plant is also discussed.

  14. A Global Circuit Diagram to Contrast the Behavior of the DC and AC Global Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.; Boldi, R. A.; Markson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth-ionosphere cavity is home to both the classical DC and the AC (Schumann resonances) global circuits. The predominant source for the AC global circuit is lightning, but the sources for the DC global circuit source remains controversial. Separate measurements over many years have shown that the amplitude variation of global lightning and the AC global circuit is about twice that of the DC global circuit on both the diurnal and annual time scales. A global diagram is used to shed further light on this result and to explore the co-variation of the two global circuits. Actual measurements of the ionospheric potential (Vi) are plotted against the simultaneous global lightning flash rate F. The latter estimates are drawn from a global climatology of LIS/OTD satellite observations (Cecil et al., 2014) giving flash rate as a function of both Day of Year and UT time, and are used as best guesses for F at the time of the Vi observations. A least-squares linear fit through the data points on this diagram show a zero-flash-rate intercept for Vi that is more than half of the mean Vi ( 250 kV). This result suggests that electrified shower clouds (without lightning), possibly supplemented by convective transport of positive space charge in the marine boundary layer, are playing a greater role in driving the DC global circuit than previously suspected.

  15. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  16. Single-phase pump model for analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.

    1978-05-01

    A single-phase pump model for transient and steady-state analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems is presented. Fundamental equations of the model are angular momentum balance to determine transient impeller speed and mass balance (including thermal expansion effects) to determine the level of sodium in the pump tank. Pump characteristics are modeled by homologous head and torque relations. All regions of pump operation are represented with reverse rotation allowed. The model also includes option for enthalpy rise calculations and pony motor operation. During steady state, the pump operating speed is determined by matching required head with total load in the circuit. Calculated transient results are presented for pump coastdown and double-ended pipe break accidents. The report examines the influence of frictional torque and specific speed on predicted response for the pump coastdown to natural circulation transient. The results for a double-ended pipe break accident indicate the necessity of including all regions of operation for pump characteristics

  17. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  18. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  19. 'Closed Circuit' Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantages of using rebreathing circuits in anaes- thesia are discussed and the principles for their correct employment are outlined. Practical methods are described. By using closed circuit equipment in the manner described, the initial cost of the apparatus could be recouped within one year, because of the saving in ...

  20. Offset cancelling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a

  1. Simulation Analysis and Experiment of Variable-Displacement Asymmetric Axial Piston Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Youshan Gao; Jie Cheng; Jiahai Huang; Long Quan

    2017-01-01

    The variable displacement pump control system has greater energy-saving advantages and application prospects than the valve control system. However, the variable displacement pump control of differential cylinder is not concurrent with the existing technologies. The asymmetric pump-controlled cylinder is, therefore, used to balance the unequal volume flow through a single rod cylinder in closed-circuit system. This is considered to be an effective method. Nevertheless, the asymmetric axial pi...

  2. Design of Smart Charging Infrastructure Hardware and Firmware Design of the Various Current Multiplexing Charging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-07

    Currently, when Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charging, they only have the option to charge at a selected current or not charge. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. There is a need for technology that controls the current being disbursed to these electric vehicles. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control. The smart charging infrastructure includes the server and the smart charging station. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV management system

  3. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  4. Evaluation of HL-20 roller pump and Rotaflow centrifugal pump on perfusion quality and gaseous microemboli delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Stella; Qiu, Feng; Su, Xiaowei; Rider, Alan; Kunselman, Allen R; Guan, Yulong; Undar, Akif

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the HL-20 roller pump (Jostra USA, Austin, TX, USA) and Rotaflow centrifugal pump (Jostra USA) on hemodynamic energy production and gaseous microemboli (GME) delivery in a simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit under nonpulsatile perfusion. This study employed a simulated model of the pediatric CPB including a Jostra HL-20 heart-lung machine (or a Rotaflow centrifugal pump), a Capiox BabyRX05 oxygenator (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), a Capiox pediatric arterial filter (Terumo Corporation), and ¼-inch tubing. The total volume of the experimental system was 700mL (500mL for the circuit and 200mL for the pseudo neonatal patient). The hematocrit was maintained at 30% using human blood. At the beginning of each trial, a 5mL bolus of air was injected into the venous line. Both GME data and pressure values were recorded at postpump and postoxygenator sites. All the experiments were conducted under nonpulsatile perfusion at three flow rates (500, 750, and 1000mL/min) and three blood temperatures (35, 30, and 25°C). As n=6 for each setup, a total of 108 trials were done. The total number of GME increased as temperature decreased from 35°C to 25°C in the trials using the HL-20 roller pump while the opposite effect occurred when using the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. At a given temperature, total GME counts increased with increasing flow rates for both pumps. Results indicated the Rotaflow centrifugal pump delivered significantly fewer microemboli compared to the HL-20 roller pump, especially under high flow rates. Less than 10% of total microemboli were larger than 40µm in size and the majority of GME were in the 0-20µm class in all trials. Postpump total hemodynamic energy (THE) increased with increasing flow rates and decreasing temperatures in both circuits using these two pumps. The HL-20 roller pump delivered more THE than the Rotaflow centrifugal pump at all tested flow rates and temperature conditions

  5. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  6. Wellpoint pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilfillan, W.C.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes a wellpoint pumping system. It comprises: a frame, a positive displacement rotary pump capable of pumping air, water or a mixture thereof mounted upon the frame, the pump having two rotors with intermeshing lobes mounted for counter rotation upon substantially horizontal and parallel shafts. The pump having an inlet port located blow the rotors opening downwardly and an outlet port located above the rotors opening upwardly, a motor for driving the rotors mounted upon the frame, means for coupling the motor to at least one of the rotor shafts to drive at least one of the rotor shafts, means forming a closed air-tight inlet reservoir in the frame below the pump, an outlet reservoir mounted on the frame at a level above the inlet reservoir, an outlet reservoir mounted on the frame at a level above the inlet reservoir, an exhaust conduit for the outlet reservoir, conduit means; water recirculation means; and an adjustable recirculation control valve.

  7. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  8. Sensor readout detector circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  9. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  10. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  11. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  12. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  13. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  14. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  15. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  16. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  17. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  18. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  19. Strongly correlated dynamics in multichannel quantum {RC} circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt Prasenjit; Schmidt Thomas L.; Mora Christophe; Le Hur Karyn

    2013-01-01

    We examine dissipation effects in a multichannel quantum RC circuit, comprising a cavity or single-electron box capacitively coupled to a gate and connected to a reservoir lead via several conducting channels. Depending on the engineering details of the quantum RC circuit, the number of channels contributing to transport vary, as do the form of the interchannel couplings. For low-frequency AC transport, the charge-relaxation resistance ($R_{q}$) is a nontrivial function of the parameters of t...

  20. Resilience of the quantum Rabi model in circuit QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manucharyan, Vladimir E; Baksic, Alexandre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    In circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED), an artificial ‘circuit atom’ can couple to a quantized microwave radiation much stronger than its real atomic counterpart. The celebrated quantum Rabi model describes the simplest interaction of a two-level system with a single-mode boson field. When the coupling is large enough, the bare multilevel structure of a realistic circuit atom cannot be ignored even if the circuit is strongly anharmonic. We explored this situation theoretically for flux (fluxonium) and charge (Cooper pair box) type multi-level circuits tuned to their respective flux/charge degeneracy points. We identified which spectral features of the quantum Rabi model survive and which are renormalized for large coupling. Despite significant renormalization of the low-energy spectrum in the fluxonium case, the key quantum Rabi feature—nearly-degenerate vacuum consisting of an atomic state entangled with a multi-photon field—appears in both types of circuits when the coupling is sufficiently large. Like in the quantum Rabi model, for very large couplings the entanglement spectrum is dominated by only two, nearly equal eigenvalues, in spite of the fact that a large number of bare atomic states are actually involved in the atom-resonator ground state. We interpret the emergence of the two-fold degeneracy of the vacuum of both circuits as an environmental suppression of flux/charge tunneling due to their dressing by virtual low-/high-impedance photons in the resonator. For flux tunneling, the dressing is nothing else than the shunting of a Josephson atom with a large capacitance of the resonator. Suppression of charge tunneling is a manifestation of the dynamical Coulomb blockade of transport in tunnel junctions connected to resistive leads. (paper)

  1. Reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.; Richter, G.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement is proposed concerning the easier disengagement of the coupling at the reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor transporting a pressurized coolant. According to the invention the disengaging coupling consists of two parts separated by screws. At least one of the screws contains a propellent charge ananged within a bore and provided with a speed-dependent ignition device in such a way that by separation of the screws at overspeeds the coupling is disengaged. The sub-claims are concerned with the kind of ignition ot the propellent charge. (UWI) [de

  2. Reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.; Richter, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with disengaging the coupling of a reactor coolant pump of a nuclear reactor feeding pressurized coolant. The disengaging coupling has two parts joined by bolts, at least one of them containing a driving agent within a bore. This is provided with a speed-depending ignition device in such manner that, if the critical speed is reached, the driving charge is ignited and the coupling is disengaged by destroying the bolts. (UWI) [de

  3. The operating reliability of the reactor coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grancy, W.

    1996-01-01

    There is a strong tendency among operating companies and manufacturers of nuclear power stations to further increase safety and operating availability of the plant and of its components. This applies also and particularly to reactor coolant pumps for the primary circuit of nuclear power stations of the type PWR. For 3 decades, ANDRITZ has developed and built such pumps and has attached great importance to the design of the complete pump rotor and of its essential surrounding elements, such as bearing and shaft seal. Apart from questions connected with design functioning of the pump there is one question of top priority: the operating reliability of the reactor coolant pump. The pump rotor (together with the rotor of the drive motor) is the only component within the primary system that permanently rotates at high speed during operation of the reactor plant. Many questions concerning design and configuration of such components cannot be answered purely theoretically, or they can only be answered partly. Therefore comprehensive development work and testing was necessary to increase the operating reliability of the pump rotor itself and of its surrounding elements. This contribution describes the current status of development and, as a focal point, discusses shaft sealing solutions elaborated so far. In this connection also a sealing system will be presented which aims for the first time at using a two-stage mechanical seal in reactor coolant pumps

  4. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  5. Power supply conditioning circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, Lori E. (Inventor); Loveland, Rohan C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A conditioning circuit is provided with a constant current diode in series with a zener diode, the former having a high dynamic impedance and the latter a low dynamic impedance. The constant current diode can receive an input voltage with PARD. In conjunction with the zener diode fixed to a ground, a voltage divider is provided which can give an output voltage whose PARD was significantly reduced. The conditioning circuit is effective down to dc.

  6. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  7. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  8. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  9. Slurry pump compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    The SRTC/Materials Technology Section (MTS) performed an evaluation of the compatibility of four slurry pump materials of construction in high level waste supernate environments. These tests were performed because of recent binding of the pump shafts after exposure to supernate in Tank 8F

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  13. Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Model: A Sample Teaching of Series and Parallel Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Hava; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Based on students' alternative conceptions of the topics "electric circuits", "electric charge flows within an electric circuit", "how the brightness of bulbs and the resistance changes in series and parallel circuits", the current study aims to present a combination of different conceptual change methods within a four-step constructivist teaching…

  14. Stepwise oscillatory circuits of a DNA molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kunming

    2009-08-01

    A DNA molecule is characterized by a stepwise oscillatory circuit where every base pair is a capacitor, every phosphate bridge is an inductance, and every deoxyribose is a charge router. The circuitry accounts for DNA conductivity through both short and long distances in good agreement with experimental evidence that has led to the identification of the so-called super-exchange and multiple-step hopping mechanisms. However, in contrast to the haphazard hopping and super-exchanging events, the circuitry is a well-defined charge transport mechanism reflecting the great reliability of the genetic substance in delivering electrons. Stepwise oscillatory charge transport through a nucleotide sequence that directly modulates the oscillation frequency may have significant biological implications.

  15. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  16. Diagnosis of Electric Submersible Centrifugal Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, M. S.; Poddubniy, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of system operational diagnostics of electrical submersible pumps (ESP). At the initial stage of studies have explored current methods of the diagnosis of ESP, examined the existing problems of their diagnosis. Resulting identified a number of main standard ESP faults, mechanical faults such as bearing wear, protective sleeves of the shaft and the hubs of guide vanes, misalignment and imbalance of the shafts, which causes the breakdown of the stator bottom or top bases. All this leads to electromagnetic faults: rotor eccentricity, weakening the pressing of steel packs, wire breakage or a short circuit in the stator winding, etc., leading to changes in the consumption current.

  17. Magnetically coupled resonance wireless charging technology principles and transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Wan, Jian; Ma, Yinping

    2017-05-01

    With the tenure of Electric-Vehicle rising around the world, the charging methods have been paid more and more attention, the current charging mode mainly has the charging posts and battery swapping station. The construction of the charging pile or battery swapping station not only require lots of manpower, material costs but the bare conductor is also easy to generate electric spark hidden safety problems, still occupies large space. Compared with the wired charging, wireless charging mode is flexible, unlimited space and location factors and charging for vehicle safety and quickly. It complements the traditional charging methods in adaptability and the independent charge deficiencies. So the researching the wireless charging system have an important practical significance and application value. In this paper, wireless charging system designed is divided into three parts: the primary side, secondary side and resonant coupling. The main function of the primary side is to generate high-frequency alternating current, so selecting CLASS-E amplifier inverter structure through the research on full bridge, half-bridge and power amplification circuit. Addition, the wireless charging system is susceptible to outside interference, frequency drift phenomenon. Combined with the wireless energy transmission characteristics, resonant parts adopt resonant coupling energy transmission scheme and the Series-Series coupling compensation structure. For the electric vehicle charging power and voltage requirements, the main circuit is a full bridge inverter and Boost circuit used as the secondary side.

  18. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  19. Capabilities and Testing of the Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is currently undergoing testing in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). Sodium potassium (NaK), which was used in the SNAP-10A fission reactor, was selected as the primary coolant. Basic circuit components include: simulated reactor core, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, liquid metal flowmeter, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, test section, and instrumentation. Operation of the circuit is based around a 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full core), designed to operate at 33 kWt. NaK flow rates of greater than 1 kg/sec may be achieved, depending upon the power applied to the EM pump. The heat exchanger provides for the removal of thermal energy from the circuit, simulating the presence of an energy conversion system. The presence of the test section increases the versatility of the circuit. A second liquid metal pump, an energy conversion system, and highly instrumented thermal simulators are all being considered for inclusion within the test section. This paper summarizes the capabilities and ongoing testing of the Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC).

  20. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  1. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  2. NRC Information No. 87-41: Failures of certain Brown Boveri Electric circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On April 20, 1987, Duquesne Light Company, the Beaver Valley Unit 2 licensee, notified the NRC of the failure of a BBE Type 5HK Class IE 4-KV circuit breaker. When the circuit breaker was racked onto the bus and 125-V DC control power was applied to the breaker's control circuit, the closing spring charged and the circuit breaker immediately closed and opened several times before the control power could be turned off. The licensee determined by field testing that the closing coil was not being energized. Another problem with BBE circuit breakers occurred at River Bend and was reported March 6, 1987. On February 6, 1987, with the unit at full power, the Division I diesel generator 4.16-KV output circuit breaker (Gould-Brown Boveri Type 5HK) failed to close during a weekly surveillance test. The licensee's inspection of the output circuit breaker revealed that a mounting bolt had fallen out of the closing spring charging motor, rendering the motor inoperable. Further investigation revealed several other circuit breakers that contained loose or missing charging motor mounting bolts. The licensee also stated that the River Bend circuit breaker preventive maintenance program, which the licensee believes to be in accordance with the vendor's recommendations, did not detect this problem. The licensee believes the root cause of the problem to be insufficient torquing of the charging motor mounting bolts by the vendor

  3. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  4. A 16 channel VLSI chip, containing charge amplifier and analog to digital converter, for readout of highly granular particle detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlag, C; Carlen, L; El Chenawi, K; Garpman, S; Gustafsson, HA; Gustafsson, S; Heine, N; Kampert, KH; Louw, S; Lohner, H; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, [No Value; Reygers, K; Stenlund, E; Svensson, T; Sundblad, R; Soderstrom, K; Osterman, L

    1998-01-01

    An integrated circuit for readout of particle detectors, producing a charge signal has been developed. The circuit contains 16 channels of charge integration, sample and hold amplifier, followed by an analog multiplexer. The charge content of each channel is digitized, one by one, by a 6 bit

  5. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  6. Quantum state transfer between hybrid qubits in a circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose a theoretical scheme to transfer quantum states between superconducting charge qubits and semiconductor spin qubits in a circuit QED device. Under dispersive conditions, resonator-assisted state transfer between qubits can be performed controllably only by addressing the flux bias applied to the charge qubits. The low infidelity and existing advantages show that the proposal may provide an effective route toward scalable quantum-information transfer with solid-state hybrid qubits.

  7. A finite element calculation of flux pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    A flux pump is not only a fascinating example of the power of Faraday’s concept of flux lines, but also an attractive way of powering superconducting magnets without large electronic power supplies. However it is not possible to do this in HTS by driving a part of the superconductor normal, it must be done by exceeding the local critical density. The picture of a magnet pulling flux lines through the material is attractive, but as there is no direct contact between flux lines in the magnet and vortices, unless the gap between them is comparable to the coherence length, the process must be explicable in terms of classical electromagnetism and a nonlinear V-I characteristic. In this paper a simple 2D model of a flux pump is used to determine the pumping behaviour from first principles and the geometry. It is analysed with finite element software using the A formulation and FlexPDE. A thin magnet is passed across one or more superconductors connected to a load, which is a large rectangular loop. This means that the self and mutual inductances can be calculated explicitly. A wide strip, a narrow strip and two conductors are considered. Also an analytic circuit model is analysed. In all cases the critical state model is used, so the flux flow resistivity and dynamic resistivity are not directly involved, although an effective resistivity appears when J c is exceeded. In most of the cases considered here is a large gap between the theory and the experiments. In particular the maximum flux transferred to the load area is always less than the flux of the magnet. Also once the threshold needed for pumping is exceeded the flux in the load saturates within a few cycles. However the analytic circuit model allows a simple modification to allow for the large reduction in I c when the magnet is over a conductor. This not only changes the direction of the pumped flux but leads to much more effective pumping.

  8. PI controller scheme for charge balance in implantable electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this communication, simulation studies on the effectiveness of using Proportional Integral (P-I) control schemes for managing charge balance in electrical stimulation are presented. The adaptation of the P-I control scheme to implant circuits leads to two possible circuit realizations in the analog domain. The governing ...

  9. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  10. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  11. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  12. Offset cancelling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a bipolar cell-based semicustom array. Measurements have shown that a -3-dB bandwidth below 5 Hz can be realized with a capacitor value of 50 pF. The resulting offset voltage at the audio-amplifier outpu...

  13. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  14. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  15. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  16. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  17. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  18. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  19. Custom VLSI circuits for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This article provides a brief guide to integrated circuits, including their design, fabrication, testing, radiation hardness, and packaging. It was requested by the Panel on Instrumentation, Innovation, and Development of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, as one of a series of articles on instrumentation for future experiments. Their original request emphasized a description of available custom circuits and a set of recommendations for future developments. That has been done, but while traps that stop charge in solid-state devices are well known, those that stop physicists trying to develop the devices are not. Several years spent dodging the former and developing the latter made clear the need for a beginner`s guide through the maze, and that is the main purpose of this text.

  20. Custom VLSI circuits for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.

    1998-06-01

    This article provides a brief guide to integrated circuits, including their design, fabrication, testing, radiation hardness, and packaging. It was requested by the Panel on Instrumentation, Innovation, and Development of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, as one of a series of articles on instrumentation for future experiments. Their original request emphasized a description of available custom circuits and a set of recommendations for future developments. That has been done, but while traps that stop charge in solid-state devices are well known, those that stop physicists trying to develop the devices are not. Several years spent dodging the former and developing the latter made clear the need for a beginner's guide through the maze, and that is the main purpose of this text

  1. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    to their constantly changing environments and at the same time maintain optimal metabolic conditions, the expression, activity and interplay of the pumps generating these H+ gradients have to be tightly regulated. In this review, we will highlight results on the regulation, localization and physiological roles...... of these H+- pumps, namely the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, the vacuolar H+-ATPase and the vacuolar H+-PPase. 2007 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  3. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of ...

  4. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge,. Ethiopia. 1. INTRODUCTION. Energy demand .... Control/safety system. Mechanical control (by hand) .... important when irrigation is an issue. Daily water flow capacity is probably the best overall performance indicator of a wind pump.

  5. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. The theoretical model estimated the average ...

  6. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  7. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  8. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  9. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  10. Closed Circuit Videoinstallationen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    be seen with only insignificant qualification as a specific characteristic of the medium. The closed-circuit video installations based on it represent the attest field of experiment for the assumptions on art and the theory and history of the medium that it might lead one make. In recent years...

  11. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  12. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  13. Modeling of charge switching in ferroelectric capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shunming; Kalkur, Thottam S

    2004-07-01

    To simulate charge switching in ferroelectric capacitors, a pair of exponential growth and decay currents is mapped to the process of polarization reversal. This is based on the fact that these exponential currents [i.e., i = I(m) e(t/tau) (t or = 0)], are completely specified by two constants I(m) and tau and each accommodates an integral charge Q = I(m) x tau. Equating this charge to the remanent spontaneous polarization allows for the modeling of switching current. For practical circuit simulations for charge switching, this modeling of switching current is simplified to an exponential decay current whose integral charge is set equal to the total reversed spontaneous polarization. This is because an exponential decay current can be conveniently implemented by charging a series resistor and capacitor (RC) circuit with a pulse-voltage source. The voltage transitions of the pulse source are associated with the polarization reversal and can be controlled with a noninverting Schmitt trigger that toggles at the positive and negative coercive voltages of a ferroelectric capacitor. The final circuit model incorporates such electrical and geometrical parameters as capacitance, remanent spontaneous polarization, coercive field, electrode area, and film thickness of a ferroelectric, thin-film capacitor.

  14. The Smallest Transistor-Based Nonautonomous Chaotic Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, Arunas

    2005-01-01

    A nonautonomous chaotic circuit based on one transistor, two capacitors, and two resistors is described. The mechanism behind the chaotic performance is based on “disturbance of integration.” The forward part and the reverse part of the bipolar transistor are “fighting” about the charging...

  15. Selective Coherent Excitation of Charged Density Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A.A.; Sagar, D.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Marel, D. van der

    2003-01-01

    Real time femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study collective and single particle excitations in the charge density wave state of the quasi-1D metal, blue bronze. Along with the previously observed collective amplitudon excitation, the spectra show several additional coherent features.

  16. Summary of thermal, shot and flicker noise in detectors and readout circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Seller, P

    1999-01-01

    The techniques for calculating noise in electronic circuits are well known (P. Seller, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 408 (1998) 603). These have been used here to tabulate the output noise variance and the Equivalent input Noise Charge (ENC) for time-invariant filter circuits often used for reading out detector systems. This is followed by some comparisons of the performance of different filters.

  17. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-20

    Digital CMOS Circuits* *This work was sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense...control. The ultimate sensitivity limitation of a CCD is set by the readout noise of the output amplifier that senses the charge packets and...all‐ digital CMOS readout circuits. The term "photon counting" is used broadly here to mean digital recording of a photon arrival within the

  18. A low-power bidirectional telemetry device with a near-field charging feature for a cardiac microstimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuenn-Yuh Lee; Chih-Jen Cheng; Ming-Chun Liang

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, wireless telemetry using the near-field coupling technique with round-wire coils for an implanted cardiac microstimulator is presented. The proposed system possesses an external powering amplifier and an internal bidirectional microstimulator. The energy of the microstimulator is provided by a rectifier that can efficiently charge a rechargeable device. A fully integrated regulator and a charge pump circuit are included to generate a stable, low-voltage, and high-potential supply voltage, respectively. A miniature digital processor includes a phase-shift-keying (PSK) demodulator to decode the transmission data and a self-protective system controller to operate the entire system. To acquire the cardiac signal, a low-voltage and low-power monitoring analog front end (MAFE) performs immediate threshold detection and data conversion. In addition, the pacing circuit, which consists of a pulse generator (PG) and its digital-to-analog (D/A) controller, is responsible for stimulating heart tissue. The chip was fabricated by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) with 0.35-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology to perform the monitoring and pacing functions with inductively powered communication. Using a model with lead and heart tissue on measurement, a -5-V pulse at a stimulating frequency of 60 beats per minute (bpm) is delivered while only consuming 31.5 μW of power.

  19. Preliminary validation of a new magnetic wireless blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    In general, a blood pump must be small, have a simple configuration, and have sufficient hydrodynamic performance. Herein, we introduce new mechanisms for a wireless blood pump that is small and simple and provides wireless and battery-free operation. To achieve wireless and battery-free operation, we implement magnetic torque and force control methods that use two external drivers: an external coil and a permanent magnet with a DC-motor, respectively. Power harvesting can be used to drive an electronic circuit for wireless monitoring (the observation of the pump conditions and temperature) without the use of an internal battery. The power harvesting will be used as a power source to drive other electronic devices, such as various biosensors with their driving circuits. To have both a compact size and sufficient pumping capability, the fully magnetic impeller has five stages and each stage includes four backward-curved blades. The pump has total and inner volumes of 20 and 9.8 cc, respectively, and weighs 52 g. The pump produces a flow rate of approximately 8 L/min at 80 mm Hg and the power generator produces 0.3 W of electrical power at 120 Ω. The pump also produces a minimum flow rate of 1.5 L/min and a pressure of 30 mm Hg for circulation at a maximum distance of 7.5 cm. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  20. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-05

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  1. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  2. Device physics considerations for SOI domino circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Niraj; Mitra, Souvick; Salman, Akram; Ioannou, Dimitris E.

    2003-02-01

    A feasibility study of domino circuits using partially depleted SOI technology is conducted by focusing on the OR structure, known to be particularly sensitive to current leakage. By contrast to previous belief, the simulation results indicated that for the 0.145 μm technology node, the circuit could be destabilized by the floating body effects enhanced (channel) off current rather than parasitic BJT current. It was observed that current spiking also played a major role in discharging the pre-charge node during operation. It was found that this overall leakage (discharging) limited the number of input transistors on the OR circuit. It was therefore deemed necessary to make the level-restoring transistor stronger and/or limit the number of inputs to keep the circuit robust during operation. Keeping the body grounded was found to be an alternative solution to both of these leakage problems.

  3. Charging a Capacitor with a Photovoltaic Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba

    2017-01-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric…

  4. Charging capacitors of multilevel inverter from dc intermediate circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bejvl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 159-170 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electric drive * multilevel inverter * modulation and demodulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Practical Quantum Realization of the Ampere from the Elementary Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brun-Picard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One major change of the future revision of the International System of Units is a new definition of the ampere based on the elementary charge e. Replacing the former definition based on Ampère’s force law will allow one to fully benefit from quantum physics to realize the ampere. However, a quantum realization of the ampere from e, accurate to within 10^{-8} in relative value and fulfilling traceability needs, is still missing despite the many efforts made for the development of single-electron tunneling devices. Starting again with Ohm’s law, applied here in a quantum circuit combining the quantum Hall resistance and Josephson voltage standards with a superconducting cryogenic amplifier, we report on a practical and universal programmable quantum current generator. We demonstrate that currents generated in the milliampere range are accurately quantized in terms of ef_{J} (f_{J} is the Josephson frequency with measurement uncertainty of 10^{-8}. This new quantum current source, which is able to deliver such accurate currents down to the microampere range, can greatly improve the current measurement traceability, as demonstrated with the calibrations of digital ammeters. In addition, it opens the way to further developments in metrology and in fundamental physics, such as a quantum multimeter or new accurate comparisons to single-electron pumps.

  6. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  7. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  8. Fault diagnosis of digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarmolik, Viacheslav N.

    Techniques for digital-circuit fault detection and analysis are examined analytically. Chapters are devoted to basic diagnostic testing problems, test generation, details of testable digital circuit design, circuits testable by compressed estimation of their responses, random and pseudorandom testing, the application of pseudorandom sequences to VLSI testing, signature analysis, signature generation techniques for binary sequences, and the analysis of multioutput digital circuits. Extensive graphs and diagrams are provided.

  9. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  10. A method for emergency flooding of the gland in the main circulating pump of pressurized water reactors and the connection therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the emergency flooding of the main circulating pumps of a pressurized water reactor such that in pressure drop in the flooded gland owing to pump suction, the pump head is connected by the pressure difference action to the flooding gland pipe, this via the heat sink and the filter of the emergency flooding circuit connected to the pump head. The emergency flooding circuit consisting of a pressure reducing valve, a check valve and a stop valve is connected to the pump head, behind the heat sink and the filter. The pressure reducing valve separates two pressure spaces. The former is connected to the pump head via the check valve and to the flooding pipe via the stop valve and the check valve. The latter is connected to the suction pump. (B.S.)

  11. An optically pumped polarized lithium ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, E.G.; Mendez, A.J.; Schmidt, B.G.; Kemper, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    A laser-optically-pumped polarized lithium ion source is being developed to provide beams of nuclear polarized 6,7 Li - for injection into the FSU tandem Van de Graaff-linac. Electro-optically modulated, circularly polarized light optically pumps a lithium atomic beam into a single magnetic substate, M 1 =1, M J =1/2. No inhomogeneous magnetic field (sextupole or quadrupole) is needed. Adiabatic rf transitions enable the polarization to be changed by transferring the population into different magnetic substates. Using a second electro-optic to modulate a second beam from the same laser, and Zeeman tuning, the polarization of the atomic beam is obtained by laser induced fluorescence. The polarized atomic beam is ionized to Li + and then charge exchanged to Li - . (orig.)

  12. Modeling of stored charge in metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film capacitors based on charging current measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Bowen; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, De; Lin, Fuchang; Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Yaohong

    2013-10-01

    Metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) capacitors are widely used in pulsed power systems. When the capacitor is used as the energy storage equipment under high electric field, more charges should be provided to maintain the voltage of the capacitor. This should be ascribed to the completion of the slow polarization which may take several hours or even longer. This paper focuses on the stored charge in metallized BOPP film capacitors. The modeling of the stored charge by the equivalent conversion of circuits is conducted to analyse the slow polarization in the BOPP film. The 3-RC network is proposed to represent the time-dependent charge stored in the capacitor. A charging current measurement system is established to investigate the charge storage property of the capacitor. The measurement system can measure the long time charging current with a sampling rate of 300 Hz. The total charge calculated by the charging current indicates that the stored charge in the capacitor under the electric field of 400 V/μm is 13.5% larger than the product of the voltage and the capacitance measured by the AC bridge. The nonlinear effect of the electric field on the slow polarization charge is also demonstrated. And the simulation of charge storage based on the 3-RC network can match well with the trend of the stored charge increasing with the time.

  13. Neutron event counting circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B.J.; Maitis, W.

    1986-01-01

    A circuit is described for counting particles emitted by a particle-emitting material. The circuit consists of: means responsive to emitted particles for generating sensed particle pulses; first counting means for counting the sensed particle pulses; means responsive to the sensed particle pulses for generating window pulses, the window pulse generating means being further operative to generate window pulse of predetermined maximum time duration in response to each sensed particle pulse which occurs during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; means for generating a second pulse in response to each sensed particle pulse occurring during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; and second counting means for counting the second pulses

  14. Experimental Observation of a Generalized Thouless Pump with a Single Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Zhou, Longwen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Cheng, Chunyang; Geng, Jianpei; Rong, Xing; Shi, Fazhan; Gong, Jiangbin; Du, Jiangfeng

    2018-03-01

    Adiabatic cyclic modulation of a one-dimensional periodic potential will result in quantized charge transport, which is termed the Thouless pump. In contrast to the original Thouless pump restricted by the topology of the energy band, here we experimentally observe a generalized Thouless pump that can be extensively and continuously controlled. The extraordinary features of the new pump originate from interband coherence in nonequilibrium initial states, and this fact indicates that a quantum superposition of different eigenstates individually undergoing quantum adiabatic following can also be an important ingredient unavailable in classical physics. The quantum simulation of this generalized Thouless pump in a two-band insulator is achieved by applying delicate control fields to a single spin in diamond. The experimental results demonstrate all principal characteristics of the generalized Thouless pump. Because the pumping in our system is most pronounced around a band-touching point, this work also suggests an alternative means to detect quantum or topological phase transitions.

  15. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  16. Cartography of serotonergic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-08-06

    Serotonin is an essential neuromodulator, but the precise circuit connectivity that regulates serotonergic neurons has not been well defined. Using rabies virus tracing strategies Weissbourd et al. (2014) and Pollak Dorocic et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Ogawa et al. (2014) in Cell Reports provide a comprehensive map of the inputs to serotonergic neurons, highlighting the complexity and diversity of potential upstream cellular regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  18. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  19. PI controller scheme for charge balance in implantable electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical stimulation has been used in a wide variety of medical implant applications. In all of these applications, due to safety concerns, maintaining charge balance becomes a critically important issue that needs to be addressed at the design stage. It is important that charge balancing schemes be robust to circuit ...

  20. Transient charging and discharging current study in pure PVF and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. PVF; PVDF; polyblend; fluoropolymers; transient current. 1. Introduction. If we take a polymer and apply a step field to it, the field interacts with the bound and free charges causing current flow in the external circuit. Generally, this current, known as absorption or charging current, depends on the time elapsed.

  1. The charge transport in an electrostatic belt generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Strasters, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    The fluctuations in the charge transport system of an EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator have been investigated by means of a frequency spectrum analyser. Frequency spectra of the terminal ripple, the short-circuit current and the voltage at the belt charge screen have been measured. Also the

  2. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  3. Do sealless pumps belong in hydrocarbon processing services?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shawn L. [Sundyne Corporation, Arvada, CO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sealless pump technology seems unimaginable in the hot, dirty and high-pressure world of hydrocarbon processing. Furthermore the high flow rates typical of the industry seem incompatible with sealless pumps. Seals and their environmental controls used in conventional technologies are not immune from these factors making sealless worth another look. In October 2000 the Sealless Centrifugal Pump Specification API 685 was published. This specification lends sealless pumps credibility and emphasizes the proper application of the technology. In many process units seal leaks can be extremely dangerous and costly. The heavy hydrocarbons can auto-ignite and light hydrocarbons will tend to find a source of ignition. The ever-increasing requirements for clean fuels are driving many of the current refinery upgrades. Best Also available control technology requirements and additional focus on Environmental Health and Safety increase the attractiveness of sealless technology to mitigate the hazards associated with seal leaks. Sealless has a place in hydrocarbon processing to eliminate seals, provide mechanical simplification, and ensure personnel/environmental protection. The proper application involves evaluating canned motor/magnetic drive technology, API 685 Guidelines, and vapor pressure versus pump circuit pressure analysis. There are four (4) specific processes where sealless pumps should be targeted: Alkylation, Sulfur Recovery/Hydrotreating, Naphtha Reforming Production, and Neutralization. (author)

  4. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    Domestic heat pumps for shallow geothermal heating of family houses are popular and the range and supply of standard solutions is large. However, in applications for large capacities and temperatures, like district heating in the mega Watt range, standard solutions for high temperatures are scarce...... and usually not suitable off-the-shelf, which demands customized industrial heat pumps to be designed to fit the specific application. At the Brædstrup CHP plant in Denmark, a pilot project deployed in 2012, is being tested involving a seasonal thermal energy storage system in underground boreholes, charged...... by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  5. The persistent current and energy spectrum on a driven mesoscopic LC-circuit with Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavanias, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit including a Josephson junction with charge discreteness is studied. By considering coupling energy of the mesoscopic capacitor in Josephson junction device, a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness is introduced. We first calculate the persistent current on a quantum driven ring including Josephson junction. Then we obtain the persistent current and energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electrical circuit which includes capacitor, inductor, time-dependent external source and Josephson junction.

  6. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  7. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  8. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  9. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  10. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  11. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  12. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  13. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  14. PUMP ARRANGEMENT COMPRISING A SAFETY VALVE ARRANGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Martin; Wackerle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a microfluidic pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which is configured to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, wherein the pump inlet (22) and an inlet (46) of the pump arrangement are fluidically connected. The pump arrangement further comprises a safety valve arrangement having first safety valve (40), the first safety valve (40) being arranged between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comp...

  15. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, M.; Kruckow, J.

    2009-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...

  16. A hemodynamic evaluation of the Levitronix Pedivas centrifugal pump and Jostra Hl-20 roller pump under pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion in an infant CPB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Noel; Rider, Alan R; Kunselman, Allen R; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Wang, Shigang; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    The hemodynamic comparison of the Jostra HL-20 and the Levitronix PediVAS blood pumps is the focus this study, where pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy values are analyzed in the confines of a pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.The pseudo pediatric patient was perfused with flow rates between 500 and 900 ml/min (100 ml/min increments) under pulsatile and nonpulsatile mode. The Levitronix continuous flow pump utilized a customized controller to engage in pulsatile perfusion with equivalent pulse settings to the Jostra HL-20 roller pump. Hemodynamic measurements and waveforms were recorded at the precannula location, while the mean arterial pressure was maintained at 40 mm Hg for each test. Glycerin water was used as the blood analog circuit perfusate. At each flow rate 24 trials were conducted yielding a total of 120 experiments (n=60 pulsatile and n=60 nonpulsatile).Under nonpulsatile perfusion the Jostra roller pump produced small values for surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) due to its inherent pulsatility, while the Levitronix produced values of essentially zero for SHE. When switching to pulsatile perfusion, the SHE levels for both the Jostra and Levitronix pump made considerable increases. In comparing the two pumps under pulsatile perfusion, the Levitronix PediVAS produced significantly more surplus and total hemodynamic energy than did the Jostra roller pump each pump flow rate.The study suggests that the Levitronix PediVAS centrifugal pump has the capability of achieving quality pulsatile waveforms and delivering more SHE to the pseudo patient than the Jostra HL-20 roller pump. Further studies are warranted to investigate the Levitronix under bovine blood studies and with various pulsatile settings.

  17. Optimum design of a photovoltaic powered pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis, W.R.; Nour, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV)-powered pumping systems are relatively simple and reliable. Hence, they are applied worldwide. Two conventional techniques are currently in use: The first is the 'directly-coupled' system where a PV array is directly coupled to a d.c. motor-pump group; the second is the 'battery-buffered' sytem where a battery is connected across the array to feed the d.c. motor that drives the pump. Recently, a third system has been proposed, namely, the 'switched-mode' PV-powered pumping system. This system couples the pump to the PV array directly when the storage battery is fully charged. The objective is the maximum utilization of available solar radiation to minimize the cost per pumped cubic meter from a given water depth. For a given location, four main parameters affect the design of this system: (i) d.c. motor-pump group parameters; (ii) PV array size; (iii) battery storage size, and (iv) water storage tank size. It is found that some of the factors are more effective in reducing the cost than others. The PV array size is the predominant factor, while the battery storage and water-tank sizes have relatively less effect. A detailed economic analysis is given. (orig.)

  18. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  19. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.

    2012-11-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ~ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  20. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... be recorded using, for example, a digital oscilloscope. The amplitude decay of the periodic voltage or current accurately reflects the power loss in the system. It consists of two components-an ohmic purely exponential one (from leads, contacts, etc.), and a nonexponential component originating from...

  1. Pump monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes how to set up a periodic vibration monitoring program implemented with electronic data loggers. Acquired data will be analyzed and evaluated to determine pump condition. Periodic measuring frequency, reporting procedures, and conditions of mechanical components are discussed in detail based on the actual case study

  2. Heat pumps for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Research activities, both in the laboratory and in the field, confirm that heat pumps can improve energy efficiency and productivity for a multitude of process types. By using heat pumps, process industries can save significant amounts of energy and money and successfully control emissions. Those industries with special needs, such as recovering solvents, can meet them more energy efficiently and cost effectively with heat pumps. Through the years, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) has helped industry solve its energy problems by joining in cooperative agreements with companies willing to do the research. The companies involved in these agreements share the costs of the research and benefit directly from the technology developed. OIT then has information from demonstration projects that it can pass on to others within industry. All the projects described in this brochure were joint ventures between DOE and industry participants. OIT will assist in accelerating the use of heat pumps in the industrial marketplace by continuing to work with industry on research and demonstration projects and to transfer research results and project performance information to the rest of industry. Successfully transferring this technology could conserve as much as 1.5 quads of energy annually at a savings of more than $4 billion at today's prices.

  3. Optimizing Performance of SABC Comminution Circuit of the Wushan Porphyry Copper Mine—A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the Phase I SABC milling circuit of the Wushan porphyry copper mine. Improvements to the existing circuit were targeted without any significant alterations to existing equipment or the SABC circuit. JKSimMet simulations were used to test various operating and design conditions to improve the comminution process. Modifications to the SABC comminution circuit included an increase in the SAG mill ball charge from 8% to 10% v/v; an increase in the mill ball charge from 23% v/v to 27% v/v; an increase in the maximum operating power draw in the ball mill to 5800 kW; the replacement of the HP Series pebble crusher with a TC84 crusher; and the addition of a pebble bin. Following these improvements, an increase in circuit throughput, a reduction in energy consumption, and an increase in profitability were obtained.

  4. Battery open-circuit voltage estimation by a method of statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snihir, Iryna; Rey, William; Verbitskiy, Evgeny; Belfadhel-Ayeb, Afifa; Notten, Peter H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The basic task of a battery management system (BMS) is the optimal utilization of the stored energy and minimization of degradation effects. It is critical for a BMS that the state-of-charge (SoC) be accurately determined. Open-circuit voltage (OCV) is directly related to the state-of-charge of the

  5. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  6. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, B; Gudmundsson, J S

    2010-01-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  7. Magnonic charge pumping via spin-orbit coupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciccarelli, C.; Hals, K.M.D.; Irvine, A.; Novák, Vít; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Kurebayashi, H.; Brataas, A.; Ferguson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), 50-54 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin-orbit torque * GaMnAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 35.267, year: 2015

  8. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  9. Validation of designing tools as part of nuclear pump development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, T.; Sehr, F.; Spenner, P.; Fritz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear pumps are characterized by high safety standards, operational reliability as well as long life cycles. For the design process it is of common use to have a down scaled model pump to qualify operating data and simulate exceptional operating conditions. In case of modifications of the pump design compared to existing reactor coolant pumps a model pump is required to develop methods and tools to design the full scale pump. In the presented case it has a geometry scale of 1:2 regarding the full scale pump size. The experimental data of the model pump is basis for validation of methods and tools which are applied in the designing process of the full scale pump. In this paper the selection of qualified tools and the validation process is demonstrated exemplarily on a cooling circuit. The aim is to predict the resulting flow rate. Tools are chosen for different components depending on the benefit to effort ratio. For elementary flow phenomena such as fluid flow in straight pipes or gaps analytic or empirical laws can be used. For more complex flow situations numerical methods are utilized. Main focus is set on the validation process of the applied numerical flow simulation. In this case not only integral data should be compared, it is also necessary to validate local flow structure of numerical flow simulation to avoid systematic errors in CFD Model generation. Due to complex design internal flow measurements are not possible. On that reason simple comparisons of similar flow test cases are used. Results of this study show, that the flow simulation data closely match measured integral pump and test case data. With this validation it is now possible to qualify CFD simulations as a design tool for the full scale pump in similar cooling circuit. (authors)

  10. Charging effects in the inductively shunted Josephson junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jens; Manucharyan, V; Devoret, M H; Glazman, L I

    2009-11-20

    The choice of impedance used to shunt a Josephson junction determines if the charge transferred through the circuit is quantized: a capacitive shunt renders the charge discrete, whereas an inductive shunt gives continuous charge. This discrepancy leads to a paradox in the limit of large inductances L. We show that while the energy spectra of the capacitively and inductively shunted junction are vastly different, their high-frequency responses become identical for large L. Inductive shunting thus opens the possibility to observe charging effects unimpeded by charge noise.

  11. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  12. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  13. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  14. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  15. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  16. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  17. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  18. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  19. Cavitation wear of pump impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a common phenomenon in pump systems, negatively influencing their operating parameters and components such as impellers and, thus, causing considerable financial losses. This paper explains the problem of cavitation and cavitation erosion. The causes of cavitation in pump systems are analyzed. A selection of centrifugal pump impellers damaged by cavitation erosion are presented and examined. The authors also discuss ways of preventing cavitation and cavitation erosion in pump systems. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  20. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Quantum pump in a system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yun-Chang; Deng, Wei-Yin; Deng, Wen-Ji; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the adiabatic quantum pump phenomena in a semiconductor with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit couplings (SOCs). Although it is driven by applying spin-independent potentials, the system can pump out spin-dependent currents, i.e., generate nonzero charge and spin currents at the same time. The SOC can modulate both the magnitude and the direction of currents, exhibiting an oscillating behavior. Moreover, it is shown that the spin current has different sensitivities to two types of the SOC. These results provide an alternative method to adjust pumped current and might be helpful for designing spin pumping devices.

  2. Theory of degenerate three-wave mixing using circuit QED in solid-state circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Huo, Wen Yi; Ai, Qing; Long, Gui Lu

    2011-11-01

    We study the theory of degenerate three-wave mixing and the generation of squeezed microwaves using circuit quantum electrodynamics in solid state circuits. The Hamiltonian for degenerate three-wave mixing, which seemed to be given phenomenologically in quantum optics, is derived by quantum mechanical calculations. The nonlinear medium needed in three-wave mixing is composed of a series of superconducting charge qubits which are located inside two superconducting transmission-line resonators. Here, the multiqubit ensemble is present to enhance the effective coupling constant between the two modes in the transmission-line resonators. In the squeezing process, the qubits are kept in their ground states so that their decoherence does not corrupt the squeezing. The main obstacle preventing a large squeezing efficiency is the decay rate of the transmission-line resonator.

  3. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  4. Computation of the locus crossing point location of MC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hai-Jun; Li Zhi-Wei; Bu Kai; Sun Zhao-Lin; Nie Hong-Shan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the crossing point property of the i–v hysteresis curve in a memristor–capacitor (MC) circuit is analyzed. First, the ideal passive memristor on the crossing point property of i–v hysteresis curve is studied. Based on the analysis, the analytical derivation with respect to the crossing point location of MC circuit is given. Then the example of MC with linear memristance-versus-charge state map is demonstrated to discuss the drift property of cross-point location, caused by the frequency and capacitance value. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Toward complementary ionic circuits: the npn ion bipolar junction transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Berggren, Magnus

    2011-07-06

    Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications.

  6. Heat pumps are a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  7. Centrifugal pumps and hemolysis in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients: An analysis of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ciaran; Monteagudo, Julie; Schad, Christine; Cheung, Eva; Middlesworth, William

    2017-06-01

    It is currently unclear whether centrifugal pumps cause more hemolysis than roller pumps in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuits. The aim of this study was to help answer that question in pediatric patients. A limited deidentified data set was extracted from the international multicenter Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry comprising all reported ECMO runs for patients 18years or younger between 2010 and 2015. Logistic regression was used to evaluate a possible association between hemolysis and pump type, controlling for patient demographics, circuit factors, and complications. 14,776 ECMO runs for 14,026 patients had pump type recorded. Centrifugal pumps were employed in 60.4% of ECMO circuits. Hemolysis was a reported complication for 1272 (14%) centrifugal pump runs and for 291 (5%) roller pump runs. 1755 (20%) centrifugal pump runs reported kidney injury as compared to 797 (14%) roller pump runs. In the full logistic regression, the odds of hemolysis were significantly greater for runs using centrifugal pumps (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.9-3.8, ppumps was associated with increased rates of hemolysis, hyperbilirubinemia, and kidney injury. Retrospective cohort study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  9. Modeling technique of capacitive discharge pumping of metal vapor lasers for electrode capacitance optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, G S; Vuchkov, N K; Sukhanov, V B; Shiyanov, D V

    2012-05-01

    To estimate optimum gas discharge tube (GDT) electrode capacitance of metal vapor lasers (MVLs) pumped by a longitudinal capacitive discharge, we offer to use series connection of capacitors to the electrodes of a conventionally pumped GDT with inner electrodes. It has been demonstrated that the maximum output power in CuBr lasers is obtained when the capacitances of high-voltage and ground electrodes are equal. When using a model circuit an average output power reaches 12 W that suggests the possibility of generating high average output power (>10 W) in MVLs pumped using a capacitive discharge.

  10. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  11. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-07-01

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H 2 , D 2 and He) and for N 2 , in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m 3 /s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m 3 /s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m 3 /s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D 2 and N 2 were 1200 and 1300 m 3 /h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  13. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  14. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  15. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit controller...

  16. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  17. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

    2013-09-30

    Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards

  18. Simulation of capacitor charging power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, S. R.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    By neglecting losses and other nonidealities, the authors were able to derive a simple single-loop equivalent circuit for each mode of operation of the series resonant converter. From these equivalent circuits, a good approximation of the current and voltages within the converter was obtained, despite the simplified approach taken. It is pointed out that designers of capacitor charging power supplies can utilize this approach in deciding what type of control strategy is needed to obtain a desired characteristic. Once the basic topology of the power supply has been determined, a detailed simulation could be implemented using one of the general-purpose software packages available.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  20. Cryo-mechanical vacuum pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.; Perin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This patent describes a classical turbomolecular or viscous driving rotating pump, modified for high rate of gas flow. A cryogenic cooling system allows the densification of gases to increase the extraction performances of the pump. Special bearings and motors, compatible with these low temperatures, are required. This pump is devoted to the extraction of light gases (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium) produced by thermonuclear fusion reactors. Two other different realizations of this invention, involving a screw pump and a composite pump, are described. (J.S.). 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  2. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  3. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  4. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  5. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a...

  6. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine installations having fuel pumps to supply fuel to the engine, at least one pump for each engine must be directly...

  7. First experience gained with heat-pump utilization in animal-husbandry plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmritz, W.; Schaeffel, W.

    1982-10-01

    For cleaning and desinfection of all milk-conducting plant parts, the LPG Tierproduktion at the town of Berlstedt (capacity of 2000 animal stands) needs a daily amount of c. 60 cbm of heated water. Recently 50% of this useful-water requirement has been covered by four small-size heat pumps WW 12 of a water/water configuration. In the heating house, two heat pumps have been installed on top of each other in each case. The circuit plan of the heat-pump facility is demonstrated. The facility operates at open and closed loop, contains two-step rotary pumps and heats useful water to 50-60/sup 0/C. Two heat pumps are operated via shift water throughout the year, the remaining two use brook water in summer and well water in winter as their heat source. 40 t of fuel oil were saved in 1981.

  8. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank is c...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  9. Centrifugal pump performance during low-flow extracorporeal CO2 removal; safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, A P; Martens, E G H J; Ganushchak, Y M; Weerwind, P W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hydrodynamic performance and gaseous microemboli (GME) activity of two centrifugal pumps for possible use in low-flow extracorporeal CO2 removal. The performance of a Rotassist 2.8 and a Rotaflow 32 centrifugal pump (Maquet Cardiopulmonary AG, Hirrlingen, Germany) was evaluated in a water-glycerine mixture-filled in vitro circuit that enabled measurement of pressures and GME at the pump inlet and pump outlet. Pressure-flow curves were acquired in a 1,000 to 5,000 rpm range while increasing drainage resistance in one series and outlet resistance in another. Respective minimum pump inlet and maximum pump outlet pressures were -539 mmHg and 754 mmHg for the Rotassist 2.8 and -606 mmHg and 806 mmHg for the Rotaflow 32. Maximum standard deviations on pump pressures and flow amounted to 3.0 mmHg and 0.03 L/min, respectively, regardless of pump type and drainage or outlet resistance. The GME at the pump outlet were detectable at pump inlet pressures below -156 mmHg at 0.2 L/min and 2,500 rpm for the Rotassist 2.8 and below -224 mmHg at 0.9 L/min and 3,000 rpm for the Rotaflow 32. Both the Rotassist 2.8 and Rotaflow 32 centrifugal pumps show a comparably high hydrodynamic stability, but potential GME formation with decreasing pump inlet pressures should be taken into account to ensure safe centrifugal pump-based low-flow extracorporeal CO2 removal. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  11. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  12. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  13. Heavy water pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.; Nikolic, M.

    1963-12-01

    Continuous increase of radiation intensity was observed on all the elements in the heavy water system during first three years of RA reactor operation. The analysis of heavy water has shown the existence of radioactive cobalt. It was found that cobalt comes from stellite, cobalt based alloy which was used for coating of the heavy water pump discs in order to increase resistance to wearing. Cobalt was removed from the surfaces due to friction, and transferred by heavy water into the reactor where it has been irradiated for 29 876 MWh up to 8-15 Ci/g. Radioactive cobalt contaminated all the surfaces of aluminium and stainless steel parts. This report includes detailed description of heavy water pumps repair, exchange of stellite coated parts, decontamination of the heavy water system, distillation of heavy water [sr

  14. Thermo-electric pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.-L.; Veyret, J.-F.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a thermo-pump for electrically conductive liquid fluids, e.g. for a liquid metal such as sodium. This pump is characterized in that the piping for the circulation of the conductive liquid is constituted by a plurality of conduits defined by two co-axial cylinders and two walls parallel to their axis. Each conduit limited outside by a magnet, inside by a mild-iron tube, and laterally by two materials forming a thermocouple. The electric current generated by that thermo-couple and the magnetic flux generated by the magnets both loop the loop through an outer cylindrical nickel shell. This can be applied to sodium circulation loops for testing nuclear fuel elements [fr

  15. Quantum Effect in a Diode Included Nonlinear Inductance-Capacitance Mesoscopic Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhanyuan; Zhang Xiaohong; Ma Jinying

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscopic nonlinear inductance-capacitance circuit is a typical anharmonic oscillator, due to diodes included in the circuit. In this paper, using the advanced quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits, which based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete value, the diode included mesoscopic circuit is firstly studied. Schroedinger equation of the system is a four-order difference equation in p-circumflex representation. Using the extended perturbative method, the detail energy spectrum and wave functions are obtained and verified, as an application of the results, the current quantum fluctuation in the ground state is calculated. Diode is a basis component in a circuit, its quantization would popularize the quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits. The methods to solve the high order difference equation are helpful to the application of mesoscopic quantum theory.

  16. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  17. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  18. Mechanical design and modeling of a single-piston pump for the novel power take-off system of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Anagnostopoulos, John S.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-pump, multi-piston power take-off wave energy converter ((MPPTO)-P-2 WEC) has been proposed for use with a novel renewable energy harvester termed the Ocean Grazer. The (MPPTO)-P-2 WEC utilizes wave motion to pump via buoys connected to pistons working fluid within a closed circuit and store

  19. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  20. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  1. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  2. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  3. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  4. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  5. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  6. Design of remote laser-induced fluorescence system's acquisition circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Lou, Yue; Wang, Ran; Yan, Debao; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence system(LIfS) has been found its significant application in identifying one kind of substance from another by its properties even it's thimbleful, and becomes useful in plenty of fields. Many superior works have reported LIfS' theoretical analysis , designs and uses. However, the usual LIPS is always constructed in labs to detect matter quite closely, for the system using low-power laser as excitation source and charge coupled device (CCD) as detector. Promoting the detectivity of LIfS is of much concern to spread its application. Here, we take a high-energy narrow-pulse laser instead of commonly used continuous wave laser to operate sample, thus we can get strong fluorescent. Besides, photomultiplier (PMT) with high sensitivity is adopted in our system to detect extremely weak fluorescence after a long flight time from the sample to the detector. Another advantage in our system, as the fluorescence collected into spectroscopy, multiple wavelengths of light can be converted to the corresponding electrical signals with the linear array multichannel PMT. Therefore, at the cost of high-powered incentive and high-sensitive detector, a remote LIFS is get. In order to run this system, it is of importance to turn light signal to digital signal which can be processed by computer. The pulse width of fluorescence is deeply associated with excitation laser, at the nanosecond(ns) level, which has a high demand for acquisition circuit. We design an acquisition circuit including, I/V conversion circuit, amplifying circuit and peak-holding circuit. The simulation of circuit shows that peak-holding circuit can be one effective approach to reducing difficulty of acquisition circuit.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMOELECTRIC HEAT PUMP OF SPIRAL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The necessity to intensify the process of heat transfer in the heat pump is justified. The possibility of heat pumps using for liquid cooling in the engine pipe is shown. The new heat pump design of spiral type with LED ring semiconductor structures, powered by magnetic induction is proposed. The efficiency of LED ring semiconductor structures that operate at low temperatures due to the difference in the levels of energy charges in p- and n-regions isrevealed.The mathematical model for the electrical and thermal parameters calculating of energy-efficient thermoelectric heat pump of the spiral type is developed. The diagram of coolant temperature dependence at the outlet of energy-efficient thermoelectric heat pump of spiral type on the supply current is built. The efficiency of spiral type thermoelectric heat pump application for cooling of the internal combustion engine is proven. 

  8. VLSI circuits implementing computational models of neocortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Jayawan H B; Dudek, Piotr

    2012-09-15

    This paper overviews the design and implementation of three neuromorphic integrated circuits developed for the COLAMN ("Novel Computing Architecture for Cognitive Systems based on the Laminar Microcircuitry of the Neocortex") project. The circuits are implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and include spiking and bursting neuron models, and synapses with short-term (facilitating/depressing) and long-term (STDP and dopamine-modulated STDP) dynamics. They enable execution of complex nonlinear models in accelerated-time, as compared with biology, and with low power consumption. The neural dynamics are implemented using analogue circuit techniques, with digital asynchronous event-based input and output. The circuits provide configurable hardware blocks that can be used to simulate a variety of neural networks. The paper presents experimental results obtained from the fabricated devices, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the analogue circuit approach to computational neural modelling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Design of a lithium-ion battery recharging circuit used in wireless electrical stimulation apparatus for urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yuan; Hu, Chao; Yao, Yong; Wang, Hai-bin

    2008-09-01

    We introduce in this paper a novel design of the lithium-ion battery automatically-charging circuit used in portable wireless electronic stimulation therapeutic apparatus for urinary incontinence, including its working principles, structure and characteristic.

  10. Evaluation of circuit models for an IPMC (ionic polymer-metal composite) sensor using a parameter estimate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kiwon; Lee, Hyungki

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated a sensor system to effectively detect the bending angles applied on an ionic polymer metal composite sensor. Firstly, the amount of net charge produced by the motion of cations was correlated to the bending angle based on the geometric relationship between a flat and a bent IPMC, and the relationship was represented by linear and nonlinear polynomial equations. Secondly, several existing and modified R and C circuit models with a linear charge model were evaluated using the experimental data. Thirdly, the nonlinear charge model was applied to a selected circuit model, and the effectivenesses of the linear and the nonlinear charge models were compared. Finally, the sensor output signal was fed into the inverse model of the identified circuit model to reproduce the bending angles. This paper presents a simple data processing procedure using the inverse transfer function of a selected circuit model that successfully monitored various bending motions of an IPMC sensor.

  11. Development of circuit model for arcing on solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Bhoomi K; Deshpande, S P; Mukherjee, S; Gupta, S B; Ranjan, M; Rane, R; Vaghela, N; Acharya, V; Sudhakar, M; Sankaran, M; Suresh, E P

    2010-01-01

    The increased requirements of payload capacity of the satellites have resulted in much higher power requirements of the satellites. In order to minimize the energy loss during power transmission due to cable loss, use of high voltage solar panels becomes necessary. When a satellite encounters space plasma it floats negatively with respect to the surrounding space plasma environment. At high voltage, charging and discharging on solar panels causes the power system breakdown. Once a solar panel surface is charged and potential difference between surface insulator and conductor exceeds certain value, electrostatic discharge (ESD) may occur. This ESD may trigger a secondary arc that can destroy the solar panel circuit. ESD is also called as primary or minor arc and secondary is called major arc. The energy of minor arc is supplied by the charge stored in the coverglass of solar array and is a pulse of typically several 100 ns to several 100 μs duration. The damage caused by minor arc is less compared to major arcs, but it is observed that the minor arc is cause of major arc. Therefore it is important to develop an understanding of minor arc and mitigation techniques. In this paper we present a linear circuit analysis for minor arcs on solar panels. To study arcing event, a ground experimental facility to simulate space plasma environment has been developed at Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies (Institute for Plasma Research) in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization's ISRO Satellite Technology Centre (ISAC). A linear circuit model has been developed to explain the experimental results by representing the coverglass, solar cell interconnect and wiring by an LCR circuit and the primary arc by an equivalent LR circuit. The aim of the circuit analysis is to predict the arc current which flows through the arc plasma. It is established from the model that the current depends on various parameters like potential difference between insulator

  12. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  13. Study of recursive model for pole-zero cancellation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Zhou Wei; Hong Xu; Hu Yunchuan; Wan Xinfeng; Du Xin; Wang Renbo

    2014-01-01

    The output of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a negative exponential signal with long decay time which will result in undershoot after C-R differentiator. Pole-zero cancellation (PZC) circuit is often applied to eliminate undershoot in many radiation detectors. However, it is difficult to use a zero created by PZC circuit to cancel a pole in CSA output signal accurately because of the influences of electronic components inherent error and environmental factors. A novel recursive model for PZC circuit is presented based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) in this paper. The model is established by numerical differentiation algorithm between the input and the output signal. Some simulation experiments for a negative exponential signal are carried out using Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program and a real x-ray signal is also tested. Simulated results show that the recursive model can reduce the time constant of input signal and eliminate undershoot. (authors)

  14. Role of system characteristics in evolution of pump hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, Mohinder; Misri, Vijay; Sharma, A.K.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    Primary heat transport (PHT) main circuit provides the means for transferring the heat produced in the fuel by circulating heavy water in the main circuit loop by primary coolant pumps (PCPs). The procurement specification of PCPs for 500 MWe pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) was prepared based upon the first order hydraulic analysis of the primary heat transport system and accordingly duty point was fixed. With this specification the manufacturer carried out model testing to arrive at optimum size of the impeller followed by determination of pump characteristics curves using full scale impeller during type testing. The duty point thus obtained was higher than specified necessitating the trimming of impeller. However, in order to make use of available higher duty point from system considerations, the duty point was redefined for production of subsequent pumps within specified tolerances governed by manufacturing limitations. PHT main system sizing (piping and feeders) was carried out based upon pump (delivering maximum flow) characteristics curve. Pressure profiles of PHT system at various operating modes were drawn and corresponding power drawn by motor was calculated. The interfacing of reactor coolant main system with hydraulic characteristics of PCP plays a significant role in establishing the requisite capability and capacity of PHT system in performing its intended functions. Therefore the paper traces the evolution of design parameters for PCP and subsequent generation of pressure profiles commensurate with the changes made in power profile including their impact on feeder sizing. The paper also highlights the scope of interaction between process designer and pump manufacturer in formulating a mutually acceptable and efficient hydraulic performance for PCP. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...

  16. Data assimilation with Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a certain set of parameters. It has been extensively stud- ied in many different contexts, including experimental and numerical studies of synchronization of coupled. Chua circuits [20–25]. The schematic circuit is shown in figure 1. It consists of an inductor L with an internal resistance r, two capacitors C1 and C2, a nonlinear ...

  17. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interfac...

  18. PUMPED LASER SYSTEM USING FEEDBACK TO PUMP MEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A laser system according to the invention comprises pump generating means (xO2, xO3) for generating at least a first and a second, preferably focused, pump beam, and lasing means (xO6, xO7) for emitting radiation by being appropriately pumped. The lasing means (xO6, xO7) is disposed in a first...... resonator so as to receive the first pump beam in order to generate a first beam (x21) having a first frequency, and the lasing means (xO6, xO7) is disposed in a second resonator so as to receive the second pump beam in order to generate a second beam (x22) having a second frequency. At least one Q......) is fed back to a regulation system (x14), said regulation system (x14) controlling said pump generating means (xO2, xO3)....

  19. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications

  20. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  1. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li; Weiming Zhang; Ming Jiang; Zhengyang Li

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  2. Problems of energy efficiency of pumps and pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Kostyuk, A.; Sokolov, S.

    2017-08-01

    The total energy consumption of various types of pumps is significant and the energy saving potential in this area is also huge. The transition from consideration of the characteristics of a separate pump to the features of its operation with a drive, taking into account the operation in different modes in conditions of a specific hydraulic network, allows obtaining a much greater potential for reducing energy consumption, significantly increasing the efficiency and reliability of pumping equipment.

  3. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  4. Heat pump augmentation of nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    A system is described for increasing the temperature of a working fluid heated by a nuclear reactor. The system consists of: a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor having a core and a primary cooling loop through which a coolant is circulated so as to undergo an increase in temperature, a closed secondary loop having a working fluid therein, the cooling and secondary loops having cooperative association with an intermediate heat exchanger adapted to effect transfer of heat from the coolant to the working fluid as the working fluid passes through the intermediate heat exchanger, a heat pump connected in the secondary loop and including a turbine and a compressor through which the working fluid passes so that the working fluid undergoes an increase in temperature as it passes through the compressor, a process loop including a process chamber adapted to receive a process fluid therein, the process chamber being connected in circuit with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the compressor and transfer heat from the working fluid to the process fluid, a heat exchanger for heating the working fluid connected to the process loop for receiving heat therefrom and for transferring heat to the secondary loop prior to the working fluid passing through the compressor, the secondary loop being operative to pass the working fluid from the process chamber to the turbine so as to effect driving relation thereof, a steam generator operatively associated with the secondary loop so as to receive the working fluid from the turbine, and a steam loop having a feedwater supply and connected in circuit with the steam generator so that feedwater passing through the steam loop is heated by the steam generator, the steam loop being connected in circuit with the process chamber and adapted to pass steam to the process chamber with the process fluid

  5. The Pressure and Magnetic Flux Density Analysis of Helical-Type DC Electromagnetic Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Hyeong; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2016-01-01

    The developed pressure was made by only electromagnetic force eliminating probability of impurities contact, therefore the high reactivity materials such as alkali were best match to electromagnetic pump. The heavy ion accelerator facility by Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea is trying to construct accelerator using liquid lithium for high efficiency of acceleration by decreasing charge state. The helical-type DC electromagnetic pump was employed to make a charge stripper that decrease charge state of heavy ion. The specification of electromagnetic pump was developed pressure of 15 bar with flowrate of 6 cc/s in the condition of 200℃. The pressure of DC electromagnetic pump was analyzed in the aspects of current and number of duct turns. The developed pressure was almost proportional to input current because relatively low flowrate made negligible of the electromotive force and hydraulic pressure drop. The pressure and magnetic flux density of helical-type DC electromagnetic pump were analyzed. The pressure was proportion to input current and number of duct turns, and magnetic flux density was higher when ferromagnet was applied at electromagnetic pump. It seems that number of duct turns could be increase and ferromagnet could be applied in order to increase pressure of DC electromagnetic pump with constant input current

  6. AC signal characterization for optimization of a CMOS single-electron pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Roy; Perron, Justin K.; Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Zimmerman, Neil M.

    2018-02-01

    Pumping single electrons at a set rate is being widely pursued as an electrical current standard. Semiconductor charge pumps have been pursued in a variety of modes, including single gate ratchet, a variety of 2-gate ratchet pumps, and 2-gate turnstiles. Whether pumping with one or two AC signals, lower error rates can result from better knowledge of the properties of the AC signal at the device. In this work, we operated a CMOS single-electron pump with a 2-gate ratchet style measurement and used the results to characterize and optimize our two AC signals. Fitting this data at various frequencies revealed both a difference in signal path length and attenuation between our two AC lines. Using this data, we corrected for the difference in signal path length and attenuation by applying an offset in both the phase and the amplitude at the signal generator. Operating the device as a turnstile while using the optimized parameters determined from the 2-gate ratchet measurement led to much flatter, more robust charge pumping plateaus. This method was useful in tuning our device up for optimal charge pumping, and may prove useful to the semiconductor quantum dot community to determine signal attenuation and path differences at the device.

  7. Capacitive Coupling in Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Benesova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm for calculation of capacitances and charges on conductors in systems with earth wires and in double-circuit overhead lines with respect to phase arrangement. A balanced voltage system is considered. A suitable transposition of individual conductors enables to reduce the electric and magnetic fields in vicinity of overhead lines and to limit the inductive and capacitive linkage. The procedure is illustrated on examples the results of which lead to particular recommendations for designers.

  8. Permanent group of experts for nuclear pressure equipment (GPESPN) - Session of the 14 September 2011: Examination of design options for nuclear pressure equipment of the primary circuit and main secondary circuits of the ATMEA 1 reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the elements stated by ATMEA regarding the design options of nuclear pressure equipment of the primary and secondary circuits of the ATMEA 1 reactor project. Several design aspects are addressed: the steam generator, the vessel and its inner parts, the cluster control mechanisms, the primary motor-pump groups, the primary and main secondary pipes, the pressurizer, the protection of the primary and main secondary circuits against overpressures. Related ASN documents are provided

  9. Effect of pumping head on solar water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K.O.; Alamri, S.N.; Joraid, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumping head affect the performances of PV water pumping systems. • The best system efficiency has been obtained for a deep head. • System efficiency increases with decreasing pumping head during low solar radiation. • System efficiency increases with increasing solar radiation. • Increasing PV array size increases flow rate and system efficiency. - Abstract: The photovoltaic water pumping systems (PVWPS) is considered as one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of pumping head on PVWPS using the optimum PV array configuration, adequate to supply a DC Helical pump with an optimum energy amount, under the outdoor conditions of Madinah site. Four different pumping head have been tested (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m). The tests have been carried for a different heads, under sunny daylight hours, in a real well at a farm in Madinah site. The best system efficiency has been obtained for the head of 80 m which is recommended for SQF submersible pump for a deep head. Also, the flow rate Q depends basically on two factors: the pumping head H and the global solar irradiation Hg. The model developed should be able to predict the flow rate Q for any head chosen with a best accuracy

  10. Detection and quantification of inverse spin Hall effect from spin pumping in permalloy/normal metal bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin pumping is a mechanism that generates spin currents from ferromagnetic resonance over macroscopic interfacial areas, thereby enabling sensitive detection of the inverse spin Hall effect that transforms spin into charge currents in nonmagnetic conductors. Here we study the spin-pumping-induced

  11. A safe procedure for connecting a continuous renal replacement therapy device into an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Natsumi; Matsumura, Yosuke; Abe, Ryuzo; Hattori, Noriyuki; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Oda, Shigeto

    2017-06-01

    Patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) often require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The intra-circuit pressure of adult ECMO usually deviates from the physiological range. We investigated the use of CRRT connected to an ECMO circuit with physiological intra-circuit pressures (0-150 mmHg, defined as the "safety range") using an in vitro experiment involving a water-filled ECMO circuit. The intra-circuit pressure pre-pump, post-pump, and post-oxygenator were measured while varying the height of the pump or ECMO flow. The bypass conduit pressure and distance from the post-oxygenator port were measured to find the "safety point", where the bypass pressure remained within the safety range. Both drainage and return limbs of the CRRT machine were connected to the safety point and the inlet and outlet pressures of the hemofilter were recorded while varying the ECMO and CRRT flow. The pre-pump pressure only remained within the safety range for heights >75 cm (ECMO flow = 4 L/min) or ECMO flow machine safely under physiological pressures in adult patients receiving ECMO.

  12. Benchmark analysis of three main circulation pump sequential trip event at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.; Urbonas, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is a twin-unit with two RBMK-1500 reactors. The primary circuit consists of two symmetrical loops. Eight Main Circulation Pumps (MCPs) at the Ignalina NPP are employed for the coolant water forced circulation through the reactor core. The MCPs are joined in groups of four pumps for each loop (three for normal operation and one on standby). This paper presents the benchmark analysis of three main circulation pump sequential trip event at RBMK-1500 using RELAP5 code. During this event all three MCPs in one circulation loop at Unit 2 Ignalina NPP were tripped one after another, because of inadvertent activation of the fire protection system. The comparison of calculated and measured parameters led us to establish realistic thermal hydraulic characteristics of different main circulation circuit components and to verify the model of drum separators pressure and water level controllers.(author)

  13. Design of A Charge sensitive preamplifier based on DMOS FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanni; Su Hong; Wembe Tafo Evariste

    2010-01-01

    A charge sensitive preamplifier composed of DMOS for silicon, TSi (Li), CdZnTe and CsI detectors etc was proposed in the paper. It used a circuit structure different from traditional one with resistance and capacitance feedback. It was composed of DMOS only so that it can be developed further easily to make Application Specific Integrated Circuit. We also find it has a rise time less than 15ns and good stability from the result of simulation with Multisim. (authors)

  14. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Applications on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetimakman, Ayse Filiz; Tanyildiz, Murat; Kesici, Selman; Kockuzu, Esra; Bayrakci, Benan

    2017-06-01

    Continuous venovenous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration is used frequently in pediatric patients, but experience of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) application on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is still limited. Among several methods used for applying CRRT on ECMO patients, we aim to share our experience on inclusion of a CRRT device in the ECMO circuit which we believe is easier and safer to apply. The data were collected on demographics, outcomes, and details of the treatment of ECMO patients who had CRRT. During the study period of 3 years, venous cannula of ECMO circuit before pump was used for CRRT access for both the filter inlet and outlet of CRRT machine to minimize the thromboembolic complications. The common indication for CRRT was fluid overload. CRRT was used in 3.68% of a total number of patients admitted and 43% of patients on ECMO. The patients have undergone renal replacement therapy for periods of time ranging between 24 h and 25 days (260 h mean). The survival rate of this group of patients with multiorgan failure was 33%. Renal recovery occurred in all of the survivors. Complications such as electrolyte imbalance, hypothermia, and bradykinin syndrome were easily managed. Adding a CRRT device on ECMO circuit is a safe and effective technique. The major advantages of this technique are easy to access, applying CRRT without extra anticoagulation process, preventing potential hemodynamic disturbances, and increased clearance of solutes and fluid overload using larger hemofilter.

  15. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  16. Coal-fired water pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, J.E.; Kawa, W.; Lewis, P.S.; Hiteshue, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    The technical feasibility of using energy from explosive ignitions of coal dust to pump water was demonstrated in an exploratory investigation. Ignition of small amounts of pulverized coal that were dispersed in air over columns of water pumped 5.3 gallons of water per cycle when operated against a head of 30.75 feet. Water displacement was accomplished by either manual or automatic operation through a single cycle and by automatic operation through a continuous series of cycles of 1-minute duration. Operating through single cycles, slurries containing up to 3 pounds of coal and 4.6 gallons of water were also pumped. Possible uses of an efficient coal-fired pump would include pumping water for irrigation purposes, removing water from mines, transporting coal from mines in the form of a slurry, and pumping water to elevated reservoirs at electric power-plants so that it could be used to generate electricity during peak periods of demand.

  17. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust......, but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  18. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  20. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...... years for 283 residential heat pumps installed and operating in Denmark. The results are used to assess the flexibility of domestic heat pumps and their ability to follow production....