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Sample records for charge movement revealed

  1. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness.

  2. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mori-Sánchez, Paula, E-mail: paula.mori@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  3. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Sánchez, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  4. Individual Movement Strategies Revealed through Novel Clustering of Emergent Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Cvetojevic, Sreten; Robertson, Ellen P.; Reichert, Brian E.; Hochmair, Hartwig H.; Fletcher, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding movement is critical in several disciplines but analysis methods often neglect key information by adopting each location as sampling unit, rather than each individual. We introduce a novel statistical method that, by focusing on individuals, enables better identification of temporal dynamics of connectivity, traits of individuals that explain emergent movement patterns, and sites that play a critical role in connecting subpopulations. We apply this method to two examples that span movement networks that vary considerably in size and questions: movements of an endangered raptor, the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus), and human movement in Florida inferred from Twitter. For snail kites, our method reveals substantial differences in movement strategies for different bird cohorts and temporal changes in connectivity driven by the invasion of an exotic food resource, illustrating the challenge of identifying critical connectivity sites for conservation in the presence of global change. For human movement, our method is able to reliably determine the origin of Florida visitors and identify distinct movement patterns within Florida for visitors from different places, providing near real-time information on the spatial and temporal patterns of tourists. These results emphasize the need to integrate individual variation to generate new insights when modeling movement data.

  5. Eye movement monitoring reveals differential influences of emotion on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Riggs

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via eye movement monitoring and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e. participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion’s differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.

  6. Electrical models of excitation-contraction coupling and charge movement in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, R T; Levis, R A; Eisenberg, R S

    1980-07-01

    The consequences of ionic current flow from the T system to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle are examined. The Appendix analyzes a simple model in which the conductance gx, linking T system and SR, is in series with a parallel resistor and capacitor having fixed values. The conductance gx is supposed to increase rapidly with depolarization and to decrease slowly with repolarization. Nonlinear transient currents computed from this model have some of the properties of gating currents produced by intramembrane charge movement. In particular, the integral of the transient current upon depolarization approximates that upon repolarization. Thus, equality of nonlinear charge movement can occur without intramembrane charge movement. A more complicated model is used in the text to fit the structure of skeletal muscle and other properties of its charge movement. Rectification is introduced into gx and the membrane conductance of the terminal cisternae to give asymmetry in the time-course of the transient currents and saturation in the curve relating charge movement to depolarization, respectively. The more complex model fits experimental data quite well if the longitudinal tubules of the sarcoplasmic reticulum are isolated from the terminal cisternae by a substantial resistance and if calcium release from the terminal cisternae is, for the most part, electrically silent. Specific experimental tests of the model are proposed, and the implications for excitation-contraction coupling are discussed.

  7. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  8. Toner Display Based on Movement of Tribo-electrically Charged Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Kitamura

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of toner display based on an electrical movement of black and white charged particles has been investigated. Two kinds of particles of black and white charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed in two ITO transparent electrodes using an insulating spacer. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The black toner is adhered on the electrode by an electrostatic force across the CTL to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and a white image is formed. The black and white solid images are displayed by the switch of polarity of applied voltage in toner display cell. The polarity of charge and the value of charge to mass ratio of two particles were measured by observation of the particle separation on the surface-type electrodes and using q/m meter, respectively.

  9. Eye movements during listening reveal spontaneous grammatical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eHuette

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking, which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked, which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analogue representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.

  10. Functional imaging reveals movement preparatory activity in the vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A Bekinschtein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vegetative State (VS is characterized by the absence of awareness of self or the environment and preserved autonomic functions. The diagnosis relies critically on the lack of consistent signs of purposeful behavior in response to external stimulation. Yet, given that patients with disorders of consciousness often exhibit fragmented movement patterns, voluntary actions may go unnoticed. Here we designed a simple motor paradigm that could potentially detect residual conscious awareness in VS patients with mild to severe brain damage by examining the neural correlates of motor preparation in response to verbal commands. Twenty-four patients who met the diagnostic criteria for VS were recruited for this study. Eleven of these patients showing preserved auditory evoked potentials underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test for basic speech processing. Five of these patients, who showed word related activity, were included in a second fMRI study aimed at detecting functional changes in premotor cortex elicited by specific verbal instructions to move either their left or their right hand. Despite the lack of overt muscle activity, two patients out of five activated the dorsal premotor cortex contralateral to the instructed hand, consistent with movement preparation. Given that movement preparation in response to a motor command is a sign of purposeful behavior, our results are consistent with residual conscious awareness in these patients. We believe that the identification of positive results with fMRI using this simple task, may complement the clinical assessment by helping attain a more precise diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness.

  11. Eye movements reveal epistemic curiosity in human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Adrien; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    Saccadic (rapid) eye movements are primary means by which humans and non-human primates sample visual information. However, while saccadic decisions are intensively investigated in instrumental contexts where saccades guide subsequent actions, it is largely unknown how they may be influenced by curiosity - the intrinsic desire to learn. While saccades are sensitive to visual novelty and visual surprise, no study has examined their relation to epistemic curiosity - interest in symbolic, semantic information. To investigate this question, we tracked the eye movements of human observers while they read trivia questions and, after a brief delay, were visually given the answer. We show that higher curiosity was associated with earlier anticipatory orienting of gaze toward the answer location without changes in other metrics of saccades or fixations, and that these influences were distinct from those produced by variations in confidence and surprise. Across subjects, the enhancement of anticipatory gaze was correlated with measures of trait curiosity from personality questionnaires. Finally, a machine learning algorithm could predict curiosity in a cross-subject manner, relying primarily on statistical features of the gaze position before the answer onset and independently of covariations in confidence or surprise, suggesting potential practical applications for educational technologies, recommender systems and research in cognitive sciences. With this article, we provide full access to the annotated database allowing readers to reproduce the results. Epistemic curiosity produces specific effects on oculomotor anticipation that can be used to read out curiosity states.

  12. The existence of a hypnotic state revealed by eye movements.

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    Sakari Kallio

    Full Text Available Hypnosis has had a long and controversial history in psychology, psychiatry and neurology, but the basic nature of hypnotic phenomena still remains unclear. Different theoretical approaches disagree as to whether or not hypnosis may involve an altered mental state. So far, a hypnotic state has never been convincingly demonstrated, if the criteria for the state are that it involves some objectively measurable and replicable behavioural or physiological phenomena that cannot be faked or simulated by non-hypnotized control subjects. We present a detailed case study of a highly hypnotizable subject who reliably shows a range of changes in both automatic and volitional eye movements when given a hypnotic induction. These changes correspond well with the phenomenon referred to as the "trance stare" in the hypnosis literature. Our results show that this 'trance stare' is associated with large and objective changes in the optokinetic reflex, the pupillary reflex and programming a saccade to a single target. Control subjects could not imitate these changes voluntarily. For the majority of people, hypnotic induction brings about states resembling normal focused attention or mental imagery. Our data nevertheless highlight that in some cases hypnosis may involve a special state, which qualitatively differs from the normal state of consciousness.

  13. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies revealed by charge-sensitive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, J; Ionescu, R

    2008-12-01

    The expanding field of monoclonal antibody-based pharmaceuticals has triggered increased interest in analytical characterization of these large proteins and in understanding of their heterogeneity and degradation pathways. As a result, a large number of enzymatic modifications as well as chemical and physical degradations have been reported in monoclonal antibodies in recent years. Most heterogeneity is related to changes in the surface charge of the antibody, either directly, as a change in the number of charged residues, or indirectly as a chemical or physical alteration that changes surface-charge distribution. This review presents an overview of the sources of charge-related heterogeneity in monoclonal antibodies and the methods used for their detection. A detailed section is dedicated to deamidation of asparagine and isomerization of aspartic acid residues, two ubiquitous degradation pathways detected in antibodies and other proteins as well. Finally, kinetic modeling of the accumulation of antibody variants is presented as a tool to determine the expected fraction of molecules that have undergone one or more degradation reactions.

  14. Charge movement in grains of quartz studied using exo-electron emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Denby, Phil M.; Murray, A.S.;

    2008-01-01

    A flow-through Geiger-Muller pancake electron detector attachment has been fitted to the Riso TL/OSL reader, enabling optically stimulated electrons (OSE) to be measured simultaneously with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). This detector has been used to provide new insights into charge...... and dependence on stimulation temperature of the OSE and OSL signals. The response to dose of these signals is also investigated, and conclusions drawn on the movement of electrons in this natural phosphor. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Charge-density waves physics revealed by photoconduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V., E-mail: serzz@cplire.ru [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the RAS, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Nasretdinova, V.F.; Minakova, V.E. [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the RAS, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    The results of photoconduction study of the Peierls conductors are reviewed. The studied materials are quasi-one-dimensional conductors with the charge-density wave: K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, both monoclinic and orthorhombic TaS{sub 3} and also a semiconducting phase of NbS{sub 3} (phase I). Experimental methods, relaxation times, effects of illumination on linear and nonlinear charge transport, the electric-field effect on photoconduction and results of the spectral studies are described. We demonstrate, in particular, that a simple model of modulated energy gap slightly smoothed by fluctuations fits the available spectral data fairly well. The level of the fluctuations is surprisingly small and does not exceed a few percent of the optical energy gap value.

  16. Revealing dressed quarks via the proton's charge distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloët, Ian C; Roberts, Craig D; Thomas, Anthony W

    2013-09-01

    The proton is arguably the most fundamental of nature's readily detectable building blocks. It is at the heart of every nucleus and has never been observed to decay. It is nevertheless a composite object, defined by its valence-quark content: u+u+d--i.e., two up (u) quarks and one down (d) quark; and the manner by which they influence, inter alia, the distribution of charge and magnetization within this bound state. Much of novelty has recently been learned about these distributions; and it now appears possible that the proton's momentum-space charge distribution possesses a zero. Experiments in the coming decade should answer critical questions posed by this and related advances; we explain how such new information may assist in charting the origin and impact of key emergent phenomena within the strong interaction. Specifically, we show that the possible existence and location of a zero in the proton's electric form factor are a measure of nonperturbative features of the quark-quark interaction in the standard model, with particular sensitivity to the running of the dressed-quark mass.

  17. Eye Movements Reveal the Influence of Event Structure on Reading Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swets, Benjamin; Kurby, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    When we read narrative texts such as novels and newspaper articles, we segment information presented in such texts into discrete events, with distinct boundaries between those events. But do our eyes reflect this event structure while reading? This study examines whether eye movements during the reading of discourse reveal how readers respond…

  18. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankjaergaard, C.

    2010-02-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from quartz and feldspar are widely used in accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. In order to improve already existing methods or to develop new methods towards extending the current limits of the technique, it is important to understand the charge movement within these materials. Earlier studies have primarily focussed on examination of the trap behaviour; however, this only tells half of the story as OSL is a combination of charge stimulation and recombination. By using time-resolved OSL (TR-OSL), one can directly examine the recombination route(s), and thus obtain insight into the other half of the process involved in luminescence emission. This thesis studies the TR-OSL and optically stimulated phosphorescence signals from quartz and feldspars spanning several orders of magnitude in time (few ns to the seconds time scale) in order to identify various charge transport mechanisms in the different time regimes. The techniques employed are time-resolved OSL, continuous-wave OSL, TL, optically stimulated exo-electron (OSE) emission and time-resolved OSE. These different techniques are used in combination with variable thermal or optical stimulation energy. The thesis first delves into three main methodological developments, namely (i) research and development of the equipment for TR-OSL measurements, (ii) finding the best method for multiple-exponential analysis of a TR-OSL curve, and (iii) optimisation of the pulsing configuration for the best separation of quartz OSL from a mixed quarts-feldspar sample. It then proceeds to study the different charge transport mechanisms subsequent to an optical stimulation pulse in quartz and feldspars. The results obtained for quartz conclude that the main lifetime component in quartz represents an excited state lifetime of the recombination centre, and the more slowly decaying components on the millisecond to seconds time scale arise from charge recycling

  19. The eye of the beholder: Can patterns in eye movement reveal aptitudes for spatial reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A; Fraser, Graham M; Kryklywy, James H; Mitchell, Derek G V; Wilson, Timothy D

    2016-07-08

    Mental rotation ability (MRA) is linked to academic success in the spatially complex Science, Technology, Engineering, Medicine, and Mathematics (STEMM) disciplines, and anatomical sciences. Mental rotation literature suggests that MRA may manifest in the movement of the eyes. Quantification of eye movement data may serve to distinguish MRA across individuals, and serve as a consideration when designing visualizations for instruction. It is hypothesized that high-MRA individuals will demonstrate fewer eye fixations, conduct shorter average fixation durations (AFD), and demonstrate shorter response times, than low-MRA individuals. Additionally, individuals with different levels of MRA will attend to different features of the block-figures presented in the electronic mental rotations test (EMRT). All participants (n = 23) completed the EMRT while metrics of eye movement were collected. The test required participants view pairs of three-dimensional (3D) shapes, and identify if the pair is rotated but identical, or two different structures. Temporal analysis revealed no significant correlations between response time, average fixation durations, or number of fixations and mental rotation ability. Further analysis of within-participant variability yielded a significant correlation for response time variability, but no correlation between AFD variability and variability in the number of fixations. Additional analysis of salience revealed that during problem solving, individuals of differing MRA attended to different features of the block images; suggesting that eye movements directed at salient features may contribute to differences in mental rotations ability, and may ultimately serve to predict success in anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 357-366. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Dissociation between neuronal activity in sensorimotor cortex and hand movement revealed as a function of movement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Dora; Siero, Jeroen C W; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Petridou, Natalia; Ramsey, Nick F

    2012-07-11

    It is often assumed that similar behavior is generated by the same brain activity. However, this does not take into account the brain state or recent behavioral history and movement initiation or continuation may not be similarly generated in the brain. To study whether similar movements are generated by the same brain activity, we measured neuronal population activity during repeated movements. Three human subjects performed a motor repetition task in which they moved their hand at four different rates (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz). From high-resolution electrocorticography arrays implanted on motor and sensory cortex, high-frequency power (65-95 Hz) was extracted as a measure of neuronal population activity. During the two faster movement rates, high-frequency power was significantly suppressed, whereas movement parameters remained highly similar. This suppression was nonlinear: after the initial movement, neuronal population activity was reduced most strongly, and the data fit a model in which a fast decline rapidly converged to saturation. The amplitude of the beta-band suppression did not change with different rates. However, at the faster rates, beta power did not return to baseline between movements but remained suppressed. We take these findings to indicate that the extended beta suppression at the faster rates, which may suggest a release of inhibition in motor cortex, facilitates movement initiation. These results show that the relationship between behavior and neuronal activity is not consistent: recent movement influences the state of motor cortex and facilitates next movements by reducing the required level of neuronal activity.

  1. Potato virus X movement in Nicotiana benthamiana: new details revealed by chimeric coat protein variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Camilla; Lico, Chiara; Maffi, Dario; D'Angeli, Simone; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Faoro, Franco; Baschieri, Selene

    2012-02-01

    Potato virus X coat protein is necessary for both cell-to-cell and phloem transfer, but it has not been clarified definitively whether it is needed in both movement phases solely as a component of the assembled particles or also of differently structured ribonucleoprotein complexes. To clarify this issue, we studied the infection progression of a mutant carrying an N-terminal deletion of the coat protein, which was used to construct chimeric virus particles displaying peptides selectively affecting phloem transfer or cell-to-cell movement. Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with expression vectors encoding the wild-type, mutant and chimeric viral genomes were examined by microscopy techniques. These experiments showed that coat protein-peptide fusions promoting cell-to-cell transfer only were not competent for virion assembly, whereas long-distance movement was possible only for coat proteins compatible with virus particle formation. Moreover, the ability of the assembled PVX to enter and persist into developing xylem elements was revealed here for the first time.

  2. Crystal structures of cyclohexanone monooxygenase reveal complex domain movements and a sliding cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, I Ahmad; Yachnin, Brahm J; Wang, Shaozhao; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Imura, Akihiro; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Lau, Peter C K; Berghuis, Albert M

    2009-07-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) is a flavoprotein that carries out the archetypical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of a variety of cyclic ketones into lactones. Using NADPH and O(2) as cosubstrates, the enzyme inserts one atom of oxygen into the substrate in a complex catalytic mechanism that involves the formation of a flavin-peroxide and Criegee intermediate. We present here the atomic structures of CHMO from an environmental Rhodococcus strain bound with FAD and NADP(+) in two distinct states, to resolutions of 2.3 and 2.2 A. The two conformations reveal domain shifts around multiple linkers and loop movements, involving conserved arginine 329 and tryptophan 492, which effect a translation of the nicotinamide resulting in a sliding cofactor. Consequently, the cofactor is ideally situated and subsequently repositioned during the catalytic cycle to first reduce the flavin and later stabilize formation of the Criegee intermediate. Concurrent movements of a loop adjacent to the active site demonstrate how this protein can effect large changes in the size and shape of the substrate binding pocket to accommodate a diverse range of substrates. Finally, the previously identified BVMO signature sequence is highlighted for its role in coordinating domain movements. Taken together, these structures provide mechanistic insights into CHMO-catalyzed Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.

  3. Electrostatic Point Charge Fitting as an Inverse Problem: Revealing the Underlying Ill-Conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Maxim V; Timerghazin, Qadir K

    2015-01-01

    Atom-centered point charge model of the molecular electrostatics---a major workhorse of the atomistic biomolecular simulations---is usually parameterized by least-squares (LS) fitting of the point charge values to a reference electrostatic potential, a procedure that suffers from numerical instabilities due to the ill-conditioned nature of the LS problem. Here, to reveal the origins of this ill-conditioning, we start with a general treatment of the point charge fitting problem as an inverse problem, and construct an analytically soluble model with the point charges spherically arranged according to Lebedev quadrature naturally suited for the inverse electrostatic problem. This analytical model is contrasted to the atom-centered point-charge model that can be viewed as an irregular quadrature poorly suited for the problem. This analysis shows that the numerical problems of the point charge fitting are due to the decay of the curvatures corresponding to the eigenvectors of LS sum Hessian matrix. In part, this i...

  4. Electrostatic point charge fitting as an inverse problem: Revealing the underlying ill-conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Maxim V.; Talipov, Marat R.; Timerghazin, Qadir K., E-mail: qadir.timerghazin@marquette.edu [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-1881 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Atom-centered point charge (PC) model of the molecular electrostatics—a major workhorse of the atomistic biomolecular simulations—is usually parameterized by least-squares (LS) fitting of the point charge values to a reference electrostatic potential, a procedure that suffers from numerical instabilities due to the ill-conditioned nature of the LS problem. To reveal the origins of this ill-conditioning, we start with a general treatment of the point charge fitting problem as an inverse problem and construct an analytical model with the point charges spherically arranged according to Lebedev quadrature which is naturally suited for the inverse electrostatic problem. This analytical model is contrasted to the atom-centered point-charge model that can be viewed as an irregular quadrature poorly suited for the problem. This analysis shows that the numerical problems of the point charge fitting are due to the decay of the curvatures corresponding to the eigenvectors of LS sum Hessian matrix. In part, this ill-conditioning is intrinsic to the problem and is related to decreasing electrostatic contribution of the higher multipole moments, that are, in the case of Lebedev grid model, directly associated with the Hessian eigenvectors. For the atom-centered model, this association breaks down beyond the first few eigenvectors related to the high-curvature monopole and dipole terms; this leads to even wider spread-out of the Hessian curvature values. Using these insights, it is possible to alleviate the ill-conditioning of the LS point-charge fitting without introducing external restraints and/or constraints. Also, as the analytical Lebedev grid PC model proposed here can reproduce multipole moments up to a given rank, it may provide a promising alternative to including explicit multipole terms in a force field.

  5. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo

    2016-06-21

    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties.

  6. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  7. Laser-driven micro-Coulomb charge movement and energy conversion to relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, J. A.; Palaniyappan, S.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Huang, C.; Gautier, D. C.; Clark, D. D.; Falk, K.; Jung, D.

    2016-09-01

    Development of robust instrumentation has shown evidence for a multi-μC expulsion of relativistic electrons from a sub-μm-thick foil, laser illuminated with 60-70 J on target at 2 × 1020 W/cm2. From previous work and with electron spectroscopy, it is seen that an exponential electron energy distribution is accurate enough to calculate the emitted electron charge and energy content. The 5-10-μC charge for the >100-TW Trident Laser represents the first active measurement of the >50% laser-light-to-electron conversion efficiency. By shorting out the TV/m electric field usually associated with accelerating multi-MeV ions from such targets, one finds that this charge is representative of a multi-MA current of relativistic electrons for diverse applications from electron fast ignition to advanced radiography concepts. Included with the details of the discoveries of this research, shortcomings of the diagnostics and means of improving their fidelity are discussed.

  8. Big data analyses reveal patterns and drivers of the movements of southern elephant seals

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez, Jorge P.

    2017-03-02

    The growing number of large databases of animal tracking provides an opportunity for analyses of movement patterns at the scales of populations and even species. We used analytical approaches, developed to cope with

  9. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Tilsen; Pascal Spincemaille; Bo Xu; Peter Doerschuk; Wen-Ming Luh; Elana Feldman; Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or ...

  10. Anticipatory postural adjustments to arm movement reveal complex control of paraspinal muscles in the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda-Joy; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-02-01

    Anatomical and empirical data suggest that deep and superficial muscles may have different functions for thoracic spine control. This study investigated thoracic paraspinal muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments associated with arm movement. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from the right deep (multifidus/rotatores) and superficial (longissimus) muscles at T5, T8, and T11 levels using fine-wire electrodes. Ten healthy participants performed fast unilateral and bilateral flexion and extension arm movements in response to a light. EMG amplitude was measured during 25ms epochs for 150ms before and 400ms after deltoid EMG onset. During arm flexion movements, multifidus and longissimus had two bursts of activity, one burst prior to deltoid and a late burst. With arm extension both muscles were active in a single burst after deltoid onset. There was differential activity with respect to direction of trunk rotation induced by arm movement. Right longissimus was most active with left arm movements and right multifidus was most active with right arm movements. All levels of the thorax responded similarly. We suggest that although thoracic multifidus and longissimus function similarly to control sagittal plane perturbations, these muscles are differentially active with rotational forces on the trunk.

  11. Gating currents from a Kv3 subfamily potassium channel: charge movement and modification by BDS-II toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuren; Robertson, Brian; Fedida, David

    2007-11-01

    Kv3 channels have a major role in determining neuronal excitability, and are characterized by ultra-rapid kinetics of gating and a high activation threshold. However, the gating currents, which occur as a result of positional changes of the charged elements in the channel structure during activation, are not well understood. Here we report a study of gating currents from wild-type Kv3.2b channels, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells to facilitate high time-resolution recording. On-gating currents (I(g,on)) had extremely rapid kinetics such that at +80 mV, the time constant for the decay of I(g,on) was only approximately 0.3 ms. Decay of I(g,on) appeared mono-exponential at all potentials studied, and in support of this, the charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship was fitted with a single Boltzmann function, supporting the idea that only one charge system is required to account for the time course of I(g,on) and the voltage dependence of Q(on). The voltage (V((1/2))) for half movement of gating charge was -8.4 +/- 4.0 mV (n = 6), which closely matches the voltage dependence of activation of Kv3.2b ionic currents reported before. Depolarizations to more positive potentials than 0 mV decreased the amplitude and slowed the decay of the off-gating currents (I(g,off)), suggesting that a rate-limiting step in opening was present in Kv3 channels as in Shaker and other Kv channels. Return of charge was negatively shifted along the potential axis with a V((1/2)) of Q(off) of -80.9 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 3), which allowed approximately 90% charge return upon repolarization to -100 mV. BDS-II toxin apparently reduced I(g,on), and greatly slowed the kinetics of I(g,on), while shifting the Q-V relationship in the depolarizing direction. However, the Q-V relationship remained well fitted by a single Boltzmann function. These data provide the first description of Kv3 gating currents and give further insight into the interaction of BDS toxins and Kv3 channels.

  12. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Tilsen

    Full Text Available Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response. In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  13. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  14. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from quartz and feldspar are widely used in accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. In order to improve already existing methods or to develop new methods towards extending the current limits of the technique, it is important...... the recombination route(s), and thus obtain insight into the other half of the process involved in luminescence emission. This thesis studies the TR-OSL and optically stimulated phosphorescence signals from quartz and feldspars spanning several orders of magnitude in time (few ns to the seconds time scale) in order...... for the best separation of quartz OSL from a mixed quarts-feldspar sample. It then proceeds to study the different charge transport mechanisms subsequent to an optical stimulation pulse in quartz and feldspars. The results obtained for quartz conclude that the main lifetime component in quartz represents...

  15. Charge-dependent conformations and dynamics of pamam dendrimers revealed by neutron scattering and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin

    Neutron scattering and fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) are employed to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with ethylenediamine (EDA) core under various charge conditions. Regarding to the conformational characteristics, we focus on scrutinizing density profile evolution of PAMAM dendrimers as the molecular charge of dendrimer increases from neutral state to highly charged condition. It should be noted that within the context of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), the dendrimers are composed of hydrocarbon component (dry part) and the penetrating water molecules. Though there have been SANS experiments that studied the charge-dependent structural change of PAMAM dendrimers, their results were limited to the collective behavior of the aforementioned two parts. This study is devoted to deepen the understanding towards the structural responsiveness of intra-molecular polymeric and hydration parts separately through advanced contrast variation SANS data analysis scheme available recently and unravel the governing principles through coupling with MD simulations. Two kinds of acids, namely hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, are utilized to tune the pH condition and hence the molecular charge. As far as the dynamical properties, we target at understanding the underlying mechanism that leads to segmental dynamic enhancement observed from quasielstic neutron scattering (QENS) experiment previously. PAMAM dendrimers have a wealth of potential applications, such as drug delivery agency, energy harvesting medium, and light emitting diodes. More importantly, it is regarded as an ideal system to test many theoretical predictions since dendrimers conjugate both colloid-like globular shape and polymer-like flexible chains. This Ph.D. research addresses two main challenges in studying PAMAM dendrimers. Even though neutron scattering is an ideal tool to study this PAMAM dendrimer solution due to its matching temporal and

  16. Long-stay psychiatric patients: a prospective study revealing persistent antipsychotic-induced movement disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Roberto Bakker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of persistent drug-induced movement disorders namely, tardive dyskinesia (TD, parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia in a representative sample of long-stay patients with chronic severe mental illness. METHOD: Naturalistic study of 209, mainly white, antipsychotic-treated patients, mostly diagnosed with psychotic disorder. Of this group, the same rater examined 194 patients at least two times over a 4-year period, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 years, with validated scales for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dystonia. RESULTS: The frequencies of persistent movement disorders in the sample were 28.4% for TD, 56.2% for parkinsonism, 4.6% for akathisia and 5.7% for tardive dystonia. Two-thirds of the participants displayed at least one type of persistent movement disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent movement disorder continues to be the norm for long-stay patients with chronic mental illness and long-term antipsychotic treatment. Measures are required to remedy this situation.

  17. Neuter is not Common in Dutch : Eye Movements Reveal Asymmetrical Gender Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerts, Hanneke; Wieling, Martijn; Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    Native speakers of languages with transparent gender systems can use gender cues to anticipate upcoming words. To examine whether this also holds true for a non-transparent two-way gender system, i.e. Dutch, eye movements were monitored as participants followed spoken instructions to click on one of

  18. Charge transport in CdTe solar cells revealed by conductive tomographic atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Justin; Kutes, Yasemin; Moore, Andrew; Zhang, Lihua; Stach, Eric A.; Huey, Bryan D.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of microstructural defects on the device properties in CdTe remains largely unknown. This is partly because characterization techniques have been unable to image electrical pathways throughout three-dimensional grains and grain boundaries with nanoscale resolution. Here, we employ a conductive and tomographic variation of atomic force microscopy to study charge transport at the nanoscale in a functioning thin-film solar cell with 12.3% efficiency. Images of electric current collected through the device thickness reveal spatially dependent short-circuit and open-circuit performance, and confirm that grain boundaries are preferential pathways for electron transport. Results on samples with and without cadmium chloride treatment reveal little difference in grain structure at the microscale, with samples without treatment showing almost no photocurrent either at planar defects or at grain boundaries. Our results supports an energetically orthogonal transport system of grain boundaries and interconnected planar defects as contributing to optimal solar cell performance, contrary to the conventional wisdom of the deleterious role of planar defects on polycrystalline thin-film solar cells.

  19. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssedre, G.; Vu, T. T. N.; Laurent, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30-60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10-14-10-13 m2 V-1 s-1 for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  20. Autonomy and Non-autonomy of Angiogenic Cell Movements Revealed by Experiment-Driven Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Sugihara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a multicellular phenomenon driven by morphogenetic cell movements. We recently reported morphogenetic vascular endothelial cell (EC behaviors to be dynamic and complex. However, the principal mechanisms orchestrating individual EC movements in angiogenic morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we present an experiment-driven mathematical model that enables us to systematically dissect cellular mechanisms in branch elongation. We found that cell-autonomous and coordinated actions governed these multicellular behaviors, and a cell-autonomous process sufficiently illustrated essential features of the morphogenetic EC dynamics at both the single-cell and cell-population levels. Through refining our model and experimental verification, we further identified a coordinated mode of tip EC behaviors regulated via a spatial relationship between tip and follower ECs, which facilitates the forward motility of tip ECs. These findings provide insights that enhance our mechanistic understanding of not only angiogenic morphogenesis, but also other types of multicellular phenomenon.

  1. Seasonal movements, aggregations and diving behavior of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus revealed with archival tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walli

    Full Text Available Electronic tags were used to examine the seasonal movements, aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Implantable archival tags (n = 561 were deployed in bluefin tuna from 1996 to 2005 and 106 tags were recovered. Movement paths of the fish were reconstructed using light level and sea-surface-temperature-based geolocation estimates. To quantify habitat utilization we employed a weighted kernel estimation technique that removed the biases of deployment location and track length. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167+/-33 days were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. Within each region, bluefin tuna experienced distinct temperature regimes and displayed different diving behaviors. The mean diving depths within the high-use areas were significantly shallower and the dive frequency and the variance in internal temperature significantly higher than during transit movements between the high-use areas. Residence time in the more northern latitude high-use areas was significantly correlated with levels of primary productivity. The regions of aggregation are associated with areas of abundant prey and potentially represent critical foraging habitats that have seasonally abundant prey. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with the depth of the thermocline, and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. In this study, with numerous multi-year tracks, there appear to be repeatable patterns of clear aggregation areas that potentially are changing with environmental conditions. The high concentrations of bluefin tuna in predictable locations indicate that Atlantic bluefin tuna are vulnerable to concentrated fishing efforts in the regions of foraging aggregations.

  2. Movement reveals scale dependence in habitat selection of a large ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Joseph M; Anderson, Charles R; Hooten, Mevin B; Wittemyer, George

    2016-12-01

    Ecological processes operate across temporal and spatial scales. Anthropogenic disturbances impact these processes, but examinations of scale dependence in impacts are infrequent. Such examinations can provide important insight to wildlife-human interactions and guide management efforts to reduce impacts. We assessed spatiotemporal scale dependence in habitat selection of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Piceance Basin of Colorado, USA, an area of ongoing natural gas development. We employed a newly developed animal movement method to assess habitat selection across scales defined using animal-centric spatiotemporal definitions ranging from the local (defined from five hour movements) to the broad (defined from weekly movements). We extended our analysis to examine variation in scale dependence between night and day and assess functional responses in habitat selection patterns relative to the density of anthropogenic features. Mule deer displayed scale invariance in the direction of their response to energy development features, avoiding well pads and the areas closest to roads at all scales, though with increasing strength of avoidance at coarser scales. Deer displayed scale-dependent responses to most other habitat features, including land cover type and habitat edges. Selection differed between night and day at the finest scales, but homogenized as scale increased. Deer displayed functional responses to development, with deer inhabiting the least developed ranges more strongly avoiding development relative to those with more development in their ranges. Energy development was a primary driver of habitat selection patterns in mule deer, structuring their behaviors across all scales examined. Stronger avoidance at coarser scales suggests that deer behaviorally mediated their interaction with development, but only to a degree. At higher development densities than seen in this area, such mediation may not be possible and thus maintenance of sufficient habitat

  3. Landscape movements of migratory birds and bats reveal an expanded scale of stopover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Taylor

    Full Text Available Many species of birds and bats undertake seasonal migrations between breeding and over-wintering sites. En-route, migrants alternate periods of flight with time spent at stopover--the time and space where individuals rest and refuel for subsequent flights. We assessed the spatial scale of movements made by migrants during stopover by using an array of automated telemetry receivers with multiple antennae to track the daily location of individuals over a geographic area ~20 × 40 km. We tracked the movements of 322 individuals of seven migratory vertebrate species (5 passerines, 1 owl and 1 bat during spring and fall migratory stopover on and adjacent to a large lake peninsula. Our results show that many individuals leaving their capture site relocate within the same landscape at some point during stopover, moving as much as 30 km distant from their site of initial capture. We show that many apparent nocturnal departures from stopover sites are not a resumption of migration in the strictest sense, but are instead relocations that represent continued stopover at a broader spatial scale.

  4. Energy analysis reveals the negative effect of delays in passive movement mirror therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orand, Abbas; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Yutaka; Tanino, Genichi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Wavelet transform energy analyses of the mean and standard error of the electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) of eight subjects were investigated in passive movement mirror therapies with no delay (in-phase) and with delay (out-of-phase) situations in two frequency bands of 7.81-15.62 and 15.62-31.25 Hz. It was found that the energy levels of EEG at electrode C4 in the in-phase situation were lower than those in out-of-phase situations, while the energy levels of flexor and extensor forearm muscle groups were larger. With two exceptions, this pattern could be seen in all other subjects. The difference between the in-phase (D0) and out-of-phase situations (D025 and D05) for the frequency range of 15.62-31.25 Hz was found to be significant at a significance level of 0.05 (paired t-test analysis). The respective elevation and decline of EEG and EGM with regard to the increase of the delay may indicate the necessity for synchronization of passive movement and mirror therapy.

  5. Preparatory EMG activity reveals a rapid adaptation pattern in humans performing landing movements in blindfolded condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    The main questions addressed in this work were whether and how adaptation to suppression of visual information occurs in a free-fall paradigm, and the extent to which vision availability influences the control of landing movements. The prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude of four lower-limb muscles was investigated. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights in two experimental conditions: with and without vision. Experimental design precluded participants from estimating the height of the drop. Since cues provided by proprioceptive and vestibular information acquired during the first trials were processed, the nervous system rapidly adapted to the lack of visual information, and hence produced a motor output (i.e., prelanding EMG modulation) similar to that observed when performing the activity with vision available.

  6. Comparative sequence analysis of the Ghd7 orthologous regions revealed movement of Ghd7 in the grass genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    Full Text Available Ghd7 is an important rice gene that has a major effect on several agronomic traits, including yield. To reveal the origin of Ghd7 and sequence evolution of this locus, we performed a comparative sequence analysis of the Ghd7 orthologous regions from ten diploid Oryza species, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum and maize. Sequence analysis demonstrated high gene collinearity across the genus Oryza and a disruption of collinearity among non-Oryza species. In particular, Ghd7 was not present in orthologous positions except in Oryza species. The Ghd7 regions were found to have low gene densities and high contents of repetitive elements, and that the sizes of orthologous regions varied tremendously. The large transposable element contents resulted in a high frequency of pseudogenization and gene movement events surrounding the Ghd7 loci. Annotation information and cytological experiments have indicated that Ghd7 is a heterochromatic gene. Ghd7 orthologs were identified in B. distachyon, sorghum and maize by phylogenetic analysis; however, the positions of orthologous genes differed dramatically as a consequence of gene movements in grasses. Rather, we identified sequence remnants of gene movement of Ghd7 mediated by illegitimate recombination in the B. distachyon genome.

  7. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssedre, G., E-mail: gilbert.teyssedre@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Laurent, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Vu, T. T. N. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Electric Power University, 235 Hoang Quoc Viet, 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-12-21

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30–60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10{sup −14}–10{sup −13} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  8. Blinded By Magic: Eye-Movements Reveal the Misdirection of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Barnhart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn & Tatler, 2005 have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer’s gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand, is taking place. Even if the critical action takes place in full view, people typically fail to see it due to inattentional blindness. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. Appropriately deployed attention would allow participants to detect the secret event that underlies the illusion (a moving coin, as it happens in full view and is visible for approximately 550 ms. Nevertheless, we observed high rates of inattentional blindness. Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin. The results also showed that when participants watched several practice videos without any moving coin, they became far more likely to detect the coin in the critical trial. Taken together, the findings are consistent with perceptual load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994.

  9. Blinded by magic: eye-movements reveal the misdirection of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn and Tatler, 2005) have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer's gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand, is taking place. Even if the critical action takes place in full view, people typically fail to see it due to inattentional blindness (IB). In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. Appropriately deployed attention would allow participants to detect the "secret" event that underlies the illusion (a moving coin), as it happens in full view and is visible for approximately 550 ms. Nevertheless, we observed high rates of IB. Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin. The results also showed that when participants watched several "practice" videos without any moving coin, they became far more likely to detect the coin in the critical trial. Taken together, the findings are consistent with perceptual load theory (Lavie and Tsal, 1994).

  10. Sucrose- and H-dependent charge movements associated with the gating of sucrose transporter ZmSUT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carpaneto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to man the majority of higher plants use sucrose as mobile carbohydrate. Accordingly proton-driven sucrose transporters are crucial for cell-to-cell and long-distance distribution within the plant body. Generally very negative plant membrane potentials and the ability to accumulate sucrose quantities of more than 1 M document that plants must have evolved transporters with unique structural and functional features. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To unravel the functional properties of one specific high capacity plasma membrane sucrose transporter in detail, we expressed the sucrose/H(+ co-transporter from maize ZmSUT1 in Xenopus oocytes. Application of sucrose in an acidic pH environment elicited inward proton currents. Interestingly the sucrose-dependent H(+ transport was associated with a decrease in membrane capacitance (C(m. In addition to sucrose C(m was modulated by the membrane potential and external protons. In order to explore the molecular mechanism underlying these C(m changes, presteady-state currents (I(pre of ZmSUT1 transport were analyzed. Decay of I(pre could be best fitted by double exponentials. When plotted against the voltage the charge Q, associated to I(pre, was dependent on sucrose and protons. The mathematical derivative of the charge Q versus voltage was well in line with the observed C(m changes. Based on these parameters a turnover rate of 500 molecules sucrose/s was calculated. In contrast to gating currents of voltage dependent-potassium channels the analysis of ZmSUT1-derived presteady-state currents in the absence of sucrose (I =  Q/τ was sufficient to predict ZmSUT1 transport-associated currents. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together our results indicate that in the absence of sucrose, 'trapped' protons move back and forth between an outer and an inner site within the transmembrane domains of ZmSUT1. This movement of protons in the electric field of the membrane gives rise to the presteady

  11. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  12. Visual discrimination of delayed self-generated movement reveals the temporal limit of proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Mark; O'Driscoll, Kelly; Moore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the intermodal integration of visual-proprioceptive feedback via a novel visual discrimination task of delayed self-generated movement. Participants performed a goal-oriented task in which visual feedback was available only via delayed videos displayed on two monitors-each with different delay durations. During task performance, delay duration was varied for one of the videos in the pair relative to a standard delay, which was held constant. Participants were required to identify and use the video with the lesser delay to perform the task. Visual discrimination of the lesser-delayed video was examined under four conditions in which the standard delay was increased for each condition. A temporal limit for proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration of 3-5s was revealed by subjects' inability to reliably discriminate video pairs.

  13. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals spin charge separation in metallic MoSe2 grain boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yujing; Diaz, Horacio Coy; Avila, José; Chen, Chaoyu; Kalappattil, Vijaysankar; Das, Raja; Phan, Manh-Huong; Čadež, Tilen; Carmelo, José M. P.; Asensio, Maria C.; Batzill, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    Material line defects are one-dimensional structures but the search and proof of electron behaviour consistent with the reduced dimension of such defects has been so far unsuccessful. Here we show using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy that twin-grain boundaries in the layered semiconductor MoSe2 exhibit parabolic metallic bands. The one-dimensional nature is evident from a charge density wave transition, whose periodicity is given by kF/π, consistent with scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle resolved photoemission measurements. Most importantly, we provide evidence for spin- and charge-separation, the hallmark of one-dimensional quantum liquids. Our studies show that the spectral line splits into distinctive spinon and holon excitations whose dispersions exactly follow the energy-momentum dependence calculated by a Hubbard model with suitable finite-range interactions. Our results also imply that quantum wires and junctions can be isolated in line defects of other transition metal dichalcogenides, which may enable quantum transport measurements and devices.

  14. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  15. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies-one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  16. An expressive bodily movement repertoire for marimba performance, revealed through observers’ Laban effort-shape analyses, and allied musical features: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musicians’ expressive bodily movements can influence observers’ perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers’ music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies – one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers’ perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players’ bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the

  17. Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as Revealed by Satellite Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Michael C.; Virginia Andrews-Goff; Jenner, K. Curt S.; Micheline-Nicole Jenner; Laverick, Sarah M.; Branch, Trevor A; Nicholas J. Gales

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales wer...

  18. Intracortical Microstimulation Maps of Motor, Somatosensory, and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri) Reveal Complex Movement Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Cooke, Dylan F; Krubitzer, Leah

    2016-01-11

    Long-train intracortical microstimulation (LT-ICMS) is a popular method for studying the organization of motor and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in mammals. In primates, LT-ICMS evokes both multijoint and multiple-body-part movements in primary motor, premotor, and PPC. In rodents, LT-ICMS evokes complex movements of a single limb in motor cortex. Unfortunately, very little is known about motor/PPC organization in other mammals. Tree shrews are closely related to both primates and rodents and could provide insights into the evolution of complex movement domains in primates. The present study investigated the extent of cortex in which movements could be evoked with ICMS and the characteristics of movements elicited using both short train (ST) and LT-ICMS in tree shrews. We demonstrate that LT-ICMS and ST-ICMS maps are similar, with the movements elicited with ST-ICMS being truncated versions of those elicited with LT-ICMS. In addition, LT-ICMS-evoked complex movements within motor cortex similar to those in rodents. More complex movements involving multiple body parts such as the hand and mouth were also elicited in motor cortex and PPC, as in primates. Our results suggest that complex movement networks present in PPC and motor cortex were present in mammals prior to the emergence of primates.

  19. Charge order and low frequency spin dynamics in lanthanum cuprates revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, H.J.; Vyalikh, A.; Vavilova, J.; Buchner, B. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, Dresden (Germany); Curro, N.J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Young, B.L. [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Gu, G.D.; Hucker, M. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Vavilova, J. [Kazan Zavoiskiy Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    We report detailed {sup 17}O, {sup 139}La, and {sup 63,65}Cu Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) measurements in a stripe ordered La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4} single crystal and in oriented powder samples of La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. We observe a partial wipe out of the {sup 17}O NMR intensity and a simultaneous drop of the {sup 17}O electric field gradient (EFG) at low temperatures where the spin stripe order sets in. In contrast, the {sup 63,65}Cu intensity is completely wiped out at the same temperature. The drop of the {sup 17}O quadrupole frequency is compatible with a charge stripe order. The {sup 17}O spin lattice relaxation rate shows a peak similar to that of the {sup 139}La, which is of magnetic origin. This peak is doping dependent and is maximal at x {approx} 1/8. (authors)

  20. Charged single alpha-helices in proteomes revealed by a consensus prediction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspári, Zoltán; Süveges, Dániel; Perczel, András; Nyitray, László; Tóth, Gábor

    2012-04-01

    Charged single α-helices (CSAHs) constitute a recently recognized protein structural motif. Its presence and role is characterized in only a few proteins. To explore its general features, a comprehensive study is necessary. We have set up a consensus prediction method available as a web service (at http://csahserver.chem.elte.hu) and downloadable scripts capable of predicting CSAHs from protein sequences. Using our method, we have performed a comprehensive search on the UniProt database. We found that the motif is very rare but seems abundant in proteins involved in symbiosis and RNA binding/processing. Although there are related proteins with CSAH segments, the motif shows no deep conservation in protein families. We conclude that CSAH-containing proteins, although rare, are involved in many key biological processes. Their conservation pattern and prevalence in symbiosis-associated proteins suggest that they might be subjects of relatively rapid molecular evolution and thus can contribute to the emergence of novel functions.

  1. River gradient anomalies reveal recent tectonic movements when assuming an exponential gradient decrease along a river course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibret, Gorazd; Žibret, Lea

    2017-03-01

    High resolution digital models, combined with GIS or other terrain modelling software, allow many new possibilities in geoscience. In this paper we develop, describe and test a novel method, the GLA method, to detect active tectonic uplift or subsidence along river courses. It is a modification of Hack's SL-index method in order to overcome the disadvantages of the latter. The core assumption of the GLA method is that over geological time river profiles quickly adjust to follow an exponential decrease in elevation along the river course. Any large deviation can be attributed to active tectonic movement, or to disturbances in erosion/sedimentation processes caused by an anthropogenic structure (e.g. artificial dam). During the testing phase, the locations of identified deviations were compared to the locations of faults, identified on a 1:100,000 geological map. Results show that higher magnitude deviations are found within a maximum radius of 200 m from the fault, and the majority of detected deviations within a maximum radius of 600 m from faults or thrusts. However, these results are not the best that could be obtained because the geological map that was used (and the only one available for the area) is not of the appropriate scale, and was therefore not precise enough. Comparison of deviation magnitudes against PSInSAR measurements of vertical displacements in the vicinity revealed that in spite of the very few suitable points available, a good correlation between both independent methods was obtained (R2 = 0.68 for the E research area and R2 = 0.69 for the W research area). The GLA method was applied to the three test sites where previous studies have shown active tectonic movements. It shows that deviations occur at the intersections between active faults and river courses, as well as also correctly detected active uplift, attributed to the increased sedimentation rate above an artificial hydropower dam, and an increased erosion rate below. The method gives

  2. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection technique, an approach...

  3. Chemical Vapour Deposition Diamond - Charge Carrier Movement at Low Temperatures and Use in Time-Critical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Hendrik; Pernegger, Heinz

    Diamond, a wide band gap semiconductor with exceptional electrical properties, has found its way in diverse fields of application reaching from the usage as a sensor material for beam loss monitors at particle accelerator facilities, to laser windows, to UV light sensors in space applications, e.g. for space weather forecasting. Though often used at room temperature, little is known about the charge transport in diamond towards liquid helium temperatures. In this work the method of the transient current technique is employed at temperatures between room temperature and 2 K. The temperature and electric field strength dependence of the pulse shape, the charge carrier transit time, the drift velocity, the saturation velocity, and the low-field mobility is measured in detector-grade scCVD diamond. Furthermore, the usability of diamond in time-critical applications is tested, and the main results are presented.

  4. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin – poor tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athale Chaitanya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. Results We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 μm – wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Conclusions Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M

  5. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Double

    Full Text Available In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day. Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km. Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  6. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  7. Revealing the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite solar cell materials using time resolved THz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, C S; Sundström, V

    2016-03-28

    Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite has been probed using time resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS). Current literature on its early time characteristics is unanimous: sub-ps charge carrier generation, highly mobile charges and very slow recombination rationalizing the exceptionally high power conversion efficiency for a solution processed solar cell material. Electron injection from MAPbI3 to nanoparticles (NP) of TiO2 is found to be sub-ps while Al2O3 NPs do not alter charge dynamics. Charge transfer to organic electrodes, Spiro-OMeTAD and PCBM, is sub-ps and few hundreds of ps respectively, which is influenced by the alignment of energy bands. It is surmised that minimizing defects/trap states is key in optimizing charge carrier extraction from these materials.

  8. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. within and between Apartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cooper

    Full Text Available Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar, adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  9. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  10. Looking, seeing and believing in autism: Eye movements reveal how subtle cognitive processing differences impact in the social domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Valerie; Castelhano, Monica S; Howard, Philippa L; Latif, Nida; Rayner, Keith

    2016-08-01

    Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) viewed scenes with people in them, while having their eye movements recorded. The task was to indicate, using a button press, whether the pictures were normal, or in some way weird or odd. Oddities in the pictures were categorized as violations of either perceptual or social norms. Compared to a Typically Developed (TD) control group, the ASD participants were equally able to categorize the scenes as odd or normal, but they took longer to respond. The eye movement patterns showed that the ASD group made more fixations and revisits to the target areas in the odd scenes compared with the TD group. Additionally, when the ASD group first fixated the target areas in the scenes, they failed to initially detect the social oddities. These two findings have clear implications for processing difficulties in ASD for the social domain, where it is important to detect social cues on-line, and where there is little opportunity to go back and recheck possible cues in fast dynamic interactions. Autism Res 2016, 9: 879-887. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Retraction: Open and closed conformations reveal induced fit movements in butyrate kinase 2 activation. J. Diao, Y. D. Ma, and M. S. Hasson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The following article from Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, "Open and closed conformations reveal induced fit movements in butyrate kinase 2 activation," by Jiasheng Diao, Yunglin D. Ma, and Miriam S. Hasson, published online on 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, and Wiley Periodicals. The retraction has been agreed because it was established by internal investigation performed by Purdue University that the authors of this article are not the owners of the data and have no right to publication.

  12. Large mass movements, probably earthquake triggered, in Lake Geneva off the city of Lausanne revealed by seismic and sediment coring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Demand, Jehanne; Marillier, François; Yrro, Blé; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic studies in the central part of Lake Geneva have revealed the presence a series of Holocene sedimentary layers with either well-organized reflections or with chaotic or transparent seismic character. While the former correspond to lacustrine sediments deposited as hemipelagic or turbidite layers, the latter are interpreted to be related to mass movements. One of these events has recently been identified in the lake off the city of Lausanne. The total volume of the mass flow deposits, the surface of the associated turbidite and the length of its failure scar show that it was a major slide event. To study this lacustrine slide, two types of seismic data were acquired. The first one was a multichannel system with a 15 inch3 water gun with a central frequency of 800 Hz and the second one was a 3.5 kHz single channel pinger. The data sets provide complementary data, because of their differing vertical resolution, respectively 0.5 m and 0.15 m. Some data were acquired with both systems along the same profiles for direct comparison. A depth-age relationship derived from a sediment core located above the main mass deposit yields an age for the mass movement deposit between 3488 and 3820 cal BP (2 sigma uncertainty). The failure scar that lies close to the lake north shore appears to be continuous over a distance of more than 7 km. However, the presence of two separated mass flow deposits associated with this scar suggests that there were in fact two simultaneous slides and not only one. This, together with the observation of another simultaneous mass movement on the lake south shore of the lake, suggests that the mass movements were triggered by an earthquake. The mass movements off the city of Lausanne are located over a major fault zone affecting the Mesozoic substratum under the Quaternary sediments. The fault zone which is related to the formation of the Alps is not known to be seismically active at present. However, conspicuous features within the

  13. Fluorescence-tracking of activation gating in human ERG channels reveals rapid S4 movement and slow pore opening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Es-Salah-Lamoureux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: hERG channels are physiologically important ion channels which mediate cardiac repolarization as a result of their unusual gating properties. These are very slow activation compared with other mammalian voltage-gated potassium channels, and extremely rapid inactivation. The mechanism of slow activation is not well understood and is investigated here using fluorescence as a direct measure of S4 movement and pore opening. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMRM fluorescence at E519 has been used to track S4 voltage sensor movement, and channel opening and closing in hERG channels. Endogenous cysteines (C445 and C449 in the S1-S2 linker bound TMRM, which caused a 10 mV hyperpolarization of the V((1/2 of activation to -27.5+/-2.0 mV, and showed voltage-dependent fluorescence signals. Substitution of S1-S2 linker cysteines with valines allowed unobstructed recording of S3-S4 linker E519C and L520C emission signals. Depolarization of E519C channels caused rapid initial fluorescence quenching, fit with a double Boltzmann relationship, F-V(ON, with V((1/2 (,1 = -37.8+/-1.7 mV, and V((1/2 (,2 = 43.5+/-7.9 mV. The first phase, V((1/2 (,1, was approximately 20 mV negative to the conductance-voltage relationship measured from ionic tail currents (G-V((1/2 = -18.3+/-1.2 mV, and relatively unchanged in a non-inactivating E519C:S620T mutant (V((1/2 = -34.4+/-1.5 mV, suggesting the fast initial fluorescence quenching tracked S4 voltage sensor movement. The second phase of rapid quenching was absent in the S620T mutant. The E519C fluorescence upon repolarization (V((1/2 = -20.6+/-1.2, k = 11.4 mV and L520C quenching during depolarization (V((1/2 = -26.8+/-1.0, k = 13.3 mV matched the respective voltage dependencies of hERG ionic tails, and deactivation time constants from -40 to -110 mV, suggesting they detected pore-S4 rearrangements related to ionic current flow during pore opening and closing. CONCLUSION: THE DATA INDICATE: 1

  14. Dielectric charging by AFM in tip-to-sample space mode: overview and challenges in revealing the appropriate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makasheva, K; Villeneuve-Faure, C; Laurent, C; Despax, B; Boudou, L; Teyssedre, G

    2015-07-24

    The study of charge distribution on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics is of great scientific interest because of the information gained on the storage and transport properties of the medium. Nevertheless, the processes at the nanoscale level remain out of the scope of the commonly used diagnostic methods. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is currently applied for both injection and imaging of charges on dielectric thin films at the nanoscale level to answer the increasing demand for characterization of miniaturized components used in microelectronics, telecommunications, electrophotography, electrets, etc. However, the mechanisms for dielectric charging by AFM are not well documented, and an analysis of the literature shows that inappropriate mechanisms are sometimes presented. It is shown here that corona discharge, frequently pointed out as a likely mechanism for dielectric charging by AFM in tip-to-sample space mode, cannot develop in such small distances. Furthermore, a review of different mechanisms surmised to be at the origin of dielectric charging at the nanoscale level is offered. Field electron emission enhanced by thermionic emission is identified as a likely mechanism for dielectric charging at the nanoscale level. Experimental validation of this mechanism is obtained for typical electric field strengths in AFM.

  15. What Do the California Standards Test Results Reveal about the Movement toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian-Hua; Heckman, Paul E.; Abedi, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    In California, an increasing number of 8th graders have taken algebra courses since 2003. This study examines students' California Standards Test (CST) results in grades 7 through 11, aiming to reveal who took the CST for Algebra I in 8th grade and whether the increase has led to a rise in students' taking higher-level mathematics CSTs and an…

  16. Femtosecond Hydrogen Bond Dynamics of Bulk-like and Bound Water at Positively and Negatively Charged Lipid Interfaces Revealed by 2D HD-VSFG Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Chandra; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-08-26

    Interfacial water in the vicinity of lipids plays an important role in many biological processes, such as drug delivery, ion transportation, and lipid fusion. Hence, molecular-level elucidation of the properties of water at lipid interfaces is of the utmost importance. We report the two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) study of the OH stretch of HOD at charged lipid interfaces, which shows that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water differ drastically, depending on the lipids. The data indicate that the spectral diffusion of the OH stretch at a positively charged lipid interface is dominated by the ultrafast (dynamics, while the dynamics at a negatively charged lipid interface exhibit sub-picosecond dynamics almost exclusively, implying that fast hydrogen bond fluctuation is prohibited. These results reveal that the ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at the positively charged lipid-water interface are attributable to the bulk-like property of interfacial water, whereas the slow dynamics at the negatively charged lipid interface are due to bound water, which is hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic head group.

  17. Live-Cell Imaging of Dual-Labeled Golgi Stacks in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Reveals Similar Behaviors for Different Cisternae during Movement and Brefeldin A Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie L. Madison; Andreas Nebenführ

    2011-01-01

    In plant cells,the Golgi apparatus consists of numerous stacks that,in turn,are composed of several flattened cisternae with a clear cis-to-trans polarity.During normal functioning within living cells,this unusual organelle displays a wide range of dynamic behaviors such as whole stack motility,constant membrane flux through the cisternae,and Golgi enzyme recycling through the ER.In order to further investigate various aspects of Golgi stack dynamics and integrity,we co-expressed pairs of established Golgi markers in tobacco BY-2 cells to distinguish sub-compartments of the Golgi during monensin treatments,movement,and brefeldin A (BFA)-induced disassembly.A combination of cis and trans markers revealed that Golgi stacks remain intact as they move through the cytoplasm.The Golgi stack orientation during these movements showed a slight preference for the cis side moving ahead,but trans cisternae were also found at the leading edge.During BFA treatments,the different sub-compartments of about half of the observed stacks fused with the ER sequentially; however,no consistent order could be detected.In contrast,the ionophore monensin resulted in swelling of trans cisternae while medial and particularly cis cisternae were mostly unaffected.Our results thus demonstrate a remarkable equivalence of the different cisternae with respect to movement and BFA-induced fusion with the ER.In addition,we propose that a combination of dual-label fluorescence microscopy and drug treatments can provide a simple alternative approach to the determination of protein localization to specific Golgi sub-compartments.

  18. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  19. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morroll Shaun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins. HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as

  20. Computer modeling reveals that modifications of the histone tail charges define salt-dependent interaction of the nucleosome core particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Korolev, Nikolay; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2009-03-18

    Coarse-grained Langevin molecular dynamics computer simulations were conducted for systems that mimic solutions of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The NCP was modeled as a negatively charged spherical particle representing the complex of DNA and the globular part of the histones combined with attached strings of connected charged beads modeling the histone tails. The size, charge, and distribution of the tails relative to the core were built to match real NCPs. Three models of NCPs were constructed to represent different extents of covalent modification on the histone tails: (nonmodified) recombinant (rNCP), acetylated (aNCP), and acetylated and phosphorylated (paNCP). The simulation cell contained 10 NCPs in a dielectric continuum with explicit mobile counterions and added salt. The NCP-NCP interaction is decisively dependent on the modification state of the histone tails and on salt conditions. Increasing the monovalent salt concentration (KCl) from salt-free to physiological concentration leads to NCP aggregation in solution for rNCP, whereas NCP associates are observed only occasionally in the system of aNCPs. In the presence of divalent salt (Mg(2+)), rNCPs form dense stable aggregates, whereas aNCPs form aggregates less frequently. Aggregates are formed via histone-tail bridging and accumulation of counterions in the regions of NCP-NCP contacts. The paNCPs do not show NCP-NCP interaction upon addition of KCl or in the presence of Mg(2+). Simulations for systems with a gradual substitution of K(+) for Mg(2+), to mimic the Mg(2+) titration of an NCP solution, were performed. The rNCP system showed stronger aggregation that occurred at lower concentrations of added Mg(2+), compared to the aNCP system. Additional molecular dynamics simulations performed with a single NCP in the simulation cell showed that detachment of the tails from the NCP core was modest under a wide range of salt concentrations. This implies that salt-induced tail dissociation of the

  1. Ultrafast broadband laser spectroscopy reveals energy and charge transfer in novel donor-acceptor triads for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, T; Ramirez, G Hernandez; Leonard, J; Mery, S; Haacke, S, E-mail: stefan.haacke@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, Strasbourg University - CNRS UMR 7504, F-67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-02-01

    Triggered by the quest for new organic materials and micro-structures for photovoltaic applications, a novel class of donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) triads extended with siloxane chains has been synthesized in our labs. Because of the siloxane chains, the molecules self-organize into a smectic liquid crystal phase, resulting in a stacking of the DAD cores.We report here a preliminary study of the ultrafast dynamics of energy and charge transfer studied by femtosecond broadband transient absorption experiments on isolated triads in chloroform.

  2. Ultrafast charge separation dynamics in opaque, operational dye-sensitized solar cells revealed by femtosecond diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Elham; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.

    2016-04-01

    Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells are based on highly diffusive mesoscopic layers that render these devices opaque and unsuitable for ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy measurements in transmission mode. We developed a novel sub-200 femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy scheme combined with potentiostatic control to study various solar cells in fully operational condition. We studied performance optimized devices based on liquid redox electrolytes and opaque TiO2 films, as well as other morphologies, such as TiO2 fibers and nanotubes. Charge injection from the Z907 dye in all TiO2 morphologies was observed to take place in the sub-200 fs time scale. The kinetics of electron-hole back recombination has features in the picosecond to nanosecond time scale. This observation is significantly different from what was reported in the literature where the electron-hole back recombination for transparent films of small particles is generally accepted to occur on a longer time scale of microseconds. The kinetics of the ultrafast electron injection remained unchanged for voltages between +500 mV and -690 mV, where the injection yield eventually drops steeply. The primary charge separation in Y123 organic dye based devices was clearly slower occurring in two picoseconds and no kinetic component on the shorter femtosecond time scale was recorded.

  3. Vertical Movements and Patterns in Diving Behavior of Whale Sharks as Revealed by Pop-Up Satellite Tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyminski, John P; de la Parra-Venegas, Rafael; González Cano, Jaime; Hueter, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a wide-ranging, filter-feeding species typically observed at or near the surface. This shark's sub-surface habits and behaviors have only begun to be revealed in recent years through the use of archival and satellite tagging technology. We attached pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags to 35 whale sharks in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula from 2003-2012 and three tags to whale sharks in the northeastern Gulf off Florida in 2010, to examine these sharks' long-term movement patterns and gain insight into the underlying factors influencing their vertical habitat selection. Archived data were received from 31 tags deployed on sharks of both sexes with total lengths of 5.5-9 m. Nine of these tags were physically recovered facilitating a detailed long-term view into the sharks' vertical movements. Whale sharks feeding inshore on fish eggs off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula demonstrated reverse diel vertical migration, with extended periods of surface swimming beginning at sunrise followed by an abrupt change in the mid-afternoon to regular vertical oscillations, a pattern that continued overnight. When in oceanic waters, sharks spent about 95% of their time within epipelagic depths (500 m) that largely occurred during daytime or twilight hours (max. depth recorded 1,928 m), had V-shaped depth-time profiles, and comprised more rapid descents (0.68 m sec-1) than ascents (0.50 m sec-1). Nearly half of these extreme dives had descent profiles with brief but conspicuous changes in vertical direction at a mean depth of 475 m. We hypothesize these stutter steps represent foraging events within the deep scattering layer, however, the extreme dives may have additional functions. Overall, our results demonstrate complex and dynamic patterns of habitat utilization for R. typus that appear to be in response to changing biotic and abiotic conditions influencing the distribution and abundance of their prey.

  4. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  5. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures.

  6. Charge compensation in extremely large magnetoresistance materials LaSb and LaBi revealed by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-Jie; Yang, Huan-Cheng; Zhang, Bing-Jing; Liu, Kai; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    By the first-principles electronic structure calculations, we have systematically studied the electronic structures of recently discovered extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR) materials LaSb and LaBi. We find that both LaSb and LaBi are semimetals with the electron and hole carriers in balance. The calculated carrier densities on the order of 1020cm-3 are in good agreement with the experimental values, implying long mean-free time of carriers at low temperatures and thus high carrier mobilities. With a semiclassical two-band model, the charge compensation and high carrier mobilities naturally explain: (i) the XMR observed in LaSb and LaBi, (ii) the nonsaturating quadratic dependence of XMR on an external magnetic field, and (iii) the resistivity plateau in the turn-on temperature behavior at very low temperatures. The explanation of these features without resorting to the topological effect indicates that they should be the common characteristics of all electron-hole compensated semimetals.

  7. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder

    2001-12-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.

  8. Vertical Movements and Patterns in Diving Behavior of Whale Sharks as Revealed by Pop-Up Satellite Tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Tyminski

    Full Text Available The whale shark (Rhincodon typus is a wide-ranging, filter-feeding species typically observed at or near the surface. This shark's sub-surface habits and behaviors have only begun to be revealed in recent years through the use of archival and satellite tagging technology. We attached pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags to 35 whale sharks in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula from 2003-2012 and three tags to whale sharks in the northeastern Gulf off Florida in 2010, to examine these sharks' long-term movement patterns and gain insight into the underlying factors influencing their vertical habitat selection. Archived data were received from 31 tags deployed on sharks of both sexes with total lengths of 5.5-9 m. Nine of these tags were physically recovered facilitating a detailed long-term view into the sharks' vertical movements. Whale sharks feeding inshore on fish eggs off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula demonstrated reverse diel vertical migration, with extended periods of surface swimming beginning at sunrise followed by an abrupt change in the mid-afternoon to regular vertical oscillations, a pattern that continued overnight. When in oceanic waters, sharks spent about 95% of their time within epipelagic depths (500 m that largely occurred during daytime or twilight hours (max. depth recorded 1,928 m, had V-shaped depth-time profiles, and comprised more rapid descents (0.68 m sec-1 than ascents (0.50 m sec-1. Nearly half of these extreme dives had descent profiles with brief but conspicuous changes in vertical direction at a mean depth of 475 m. We hypothesize these stutter steps represent foraging events within the deep scattering layer, however, the extreme dives may have additional functions. Overall, our results demonstrate complex and dynamic patterns of habitat utilization for R. typus that appear to be in response to changing biotic and abiotic conditions influencing the distribution and abundance of their

  9. MIRROR MOVEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA. Momen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movement is an interesting but often overlooked neurological soft sign;these movements are described as simultaneous contralateral, involuntary, identical movements that accompany voluntary movements. This neurologic problem is very rarely seen in children; in familial cases there is a positive history of these movements in parents, diminishing with time. Here, we have presented the case of an 11-year old girl with mirror movements in her upper limbs which interfered with her hand writing. Her neurological examination revealed normal results. In this report, we have tried to explain some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms related to these abnormal movements.Keywords:Mirror Movements, Children, Soft neurologic sign

  10. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry of charge-reduced protein complexes reveals general trends in the collisional ejection of compact subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Russell E; Ruotolo, Brandon T

    2015-10-21

    Multiprotein complexes have been shown to play critical roles across a wide range of cellular functions, but most probes of protein quaternary structure are limited in their ability to analyze complex mixtures and polydisperse structures using small amounts of total protein. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry offers a solution to many of these challenges, but relies upon gas-phase measurements of intact multiprotein complexes, subcomplexes, and subunits that correlate well with solution structures. The greatest bottleneck in such workflows is the generation of representative subcomplexes and subunits. Collisional activation of complexes can act to produce product ions reflective of protein complex composition, but such product ions are typically challenging to interpret in terms of their relationship to solution structure due to their typically string-like conformations following activation and subsequent dissociation. Here, we used ion-ion chemistry to perform a broad survey of the gas-phase dissociation of charge-reduced protein complex ions, revealing general trends associated with the collisional ejection of compact, rather than unfolded, protein subunits. Furthermore, we also discover peptide and co-factor dissociation channels that dominate the product ion populations generated for such charge reduced complexes. We assess both sets of observations and discuss general principles that can be extended to the analysis of protein complex ions having unknown structures.

  11. Non-invasive, whole-plant imaging of chloroplast movement and chlorophyll fluorescence reveals photosynthetic phenotypes independent of chloroplast photorelocation defects in chloroplast division mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Siddhartha; Cruz, Jeffrey A; Jiao, Yuhua; Chen, Jin; Kramer, David M; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2015-10-01

    Leaf chloroplast movement is thought to optimize light capture and to minimize photodamage. To better understand the impact of chloroplast movement on photosynthesis, we developed a technique based on the imaging of reflectance from leaf surfaces that enables continuous, high-sensitivity, non-invasive measurements of chloroplast movement in multiple intact plants under white actinic light. We validated the method by measuring photorelocation responses in Arabidopsis chloroplast division mutants with drastically enlarged chloroplasts, and in phototropin mutants with impaired photorelocation but normal chloroplast morphology, under different light regimes. Additionally, we expanded our platform to permit simultaneous image-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast movement. We show that chloroplast division mutants with enlarged, less-mobile chloroplasts exhibit greater photosystem II photodamage than is observed in the wild type, particularly under fluctuating high levels of light. Comparison between division mutants and the severe photorelocation mutant phot1-5 phot2-1 showed that these effects are not entirely attributable to diminished photorelocation responses, as previously hypothesized, implying that altered chloroplast morphology affects other photosynthetic processes. Our dual-imaging platform also allowed us to develop a straightforward approach to correct non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) calculations for interference from chloroplast movement. This correction method should be generally useful when fluorescence and reflectance are measured in the same experiments. The corrected data indicate that the energy-dependent (qE) and photoinhibitory (qI) components of NPQ contribute differentially to the NPQ phenotypes of the chloroplast division and photorelocation mutants. This imaging technology thus provides a platform for analyzing the contributions of chloroplast movement, chloroplast morphology and other phenotypic attributes to the

  12. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...... affect the movements. Furthermore, I discuss differences in movement organization, and visual information from striking movements....

  13. ENDOR Spectroscopy Reveals A Light Induced Movement of the H-Bond from Ser-L223 Upon Forming the Semiquinone (QB−•) in Reaction Centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, M. L.; Flores, M.; Isaacson, R.; Chang, C.; Abresch, E. C.; Okamura, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Proton ENDOR spectroscopy was used to monitor local conformational changes in bacterial reaction centers (RC) associated with the electron transfer reaction DQB → D+•QB−• using mutant RCs capable of photo-reducing QB at cryogenic temperatures. The charge separated state D+•QB−• was studied in mutant RCs formed by either (i) illuminating at low temperature (77K) a sample frozen in the dark (ground state protein conformation) or (ii) illuminating at room temperature prior to and during the freezing (charge separated state protein conformation). The charge recombination rates from the two states differed greatly (>106 fold) as shown previously, indicating a structural change (Paddock et al (2006) Biochemistry 45, 14032 - 14042). ENDOR spectra of QB−• from both samples (35 GHz, 77K) showed three nearly identical sets of hyperfine couplings due to exchangeable protons that were similar to those for QB−• in native RCs indicating that in all RCs, QB−• was located at the proximal position near the metal site. In contrast, one set of H-bond couplings was observed only in the sample frozen under illumination in which the protein can relax prior to freezing. This H-bond was assigned to an interaction between the Ser-L223 hydroxyl and QB−• based on its absence in Ser L223 → Ala mutant RCs. The Ser-L223 hydroxyl H-bond was also observed in the native RCs frozen under illumination. Thus, part of the protein relaxation in response to light induced charge separation involves the formation of an H-bond between the OH group of Ser-L223 and the anionic semiquinone QB−•. This proton movement serves to stabilize the charge separated state and facilitate proton transfer to reduced QB. PMID:17590017

  14. Coexistence of multiple charge-density waves and superconductivity in SrPt2As2 revealed by 75As-NMR /NQR and 195Pt-NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Tani, Yoshihiko; Mabuchi, Tomosuke; Kudo, Kazutaka; Nishikubo, Yoshihiro; Mitsuoka, Daisuke; Nohara, Minoru; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between charge-density wave (CDW) orders and superconductivity in arsenide superconductor SrPt2As2 with Tc=5.2 K which crystallizes in the CaBe2Ge2 -type structure was studied by 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements up to 520 K, and 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and 195Pt-NMR measurements down to 1.5 K. At high temperature, 75As-NMR spectrum and nuclear-spin-relaxation rate (1 /T1) have revealed two distinct CDW orders, one realized in the As-Pt-As layer below TCDWAs (1 )=410 K and the other in the Pt-As-Pt layer below TCDWAs (2 )=255 K . The 1 /T1 measured by 75As-NQR shows a clear Hebel-Slichter peak just below Tc and decreases exponentially well below Tc. Concomitantly, 195Pt Knight shift decreases below Tc. Our results indicate that superconductivity in SrPt2As2 is in the spin-singlet state with an s -wave gap and is robust under the two distinct CDW orders in different layers.

  15. STOP-EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FROM INTRACRANIAL ELECTRODES REVEAL A KEY ROLE OF PREMOTOR AND MOTOR CORTICES IN STOPPING ONGOING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eMattia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e. premotor (PMA and primary motor (M1 cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA and Brodmann's area (BA 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times. These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network.

  16. Non-invasive genetic sampling of Southern Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus) reveals limited movement across California State Route 67 in San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelberg, Anna; Vandergast, Amy

    2016-01-01

    —The Southern Mule Deer is a mobile but non-migratory large mammal found throughout southern California and is a covered species in the San Diego Multi-Species Conservation Plan. We assessed deer movement and population connectivity across California State Route 67 and two smaller roads in eastern San Diego County using non-invasive genetic sampling. We collected deer scat pellets between April and November 2015, and genotyped pellets at 15 microsatellites and a sex determination marker. We successfully genotyped 71 unique individuals from throughout the study area and detected nine recapture events. Recaptures were generally found close to original capture locations (within 1.5 km). We did not detect recaptures across roads; however, pedigree analysis detected 21 first order relative pairs, of which approximately 20% were found across State Route 67. Exact tests comparing allele frequencies between groups of individuals in pre-defined geographic clusters detected significant genetic differentiation across State Route 67. In contrast, the assignment-based algorithm of STRUCTURE supported a single genetic cluster across the study area. Our data suggest that State Route 67 may reduce, but does not preclude, movement and gene flow of Southern Mule Deer.

  17. News and Views: CSR: the devil will be in the detail; MPs invite researchers to show off success; Earthquake movies reveal ground movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The UK Government's Comprehensive Spending Review set out a distinctly tighter budget all round in October, but science funding as a whole was not as badly cut as some had feared. What this means for astronomy, planetary science and geophysics remains to be seen, as individual research council allocations have yet to be agreed. Early-career researchers with results to shout about have the opportunity to display and discuss their work at the House of Commons next year, as part of the SET for Britain event on 14 March. Seismology took a great step forward when international cooperation at the time of International Geophysical Year 1957/8 meant that earth movements resulting from quakes could be compared worldwide.

  18. Phylogeographic Reconstructions of a Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Reveals Transboundary Animal Movements from Eastern Continental Africa to the Union of the Comoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, M; Pascalis, H; Abdouroihamane, S; Roger, M; Abdourahime, F; Cardinale, E; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2016-04-01

    Major explosive outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arthropod borne zoonotic disease, occur in humans and animals with significant mortality and economic impact across continental Africa and the Indian Ocean region (Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago). Recently, sporadic human cases have been reported in Mayotte and Grande Comore, two islands belonging to the Comoros archipelago. To identify the hypothetical source of virus introduction in an inter-epidemic or a post-epidemic period, a longitudinal survey of livestock was set up in Comorian ruminant populations, known to be susceptible hosts. The phylogeographic genomic analysis has shown that RVF virus (RVFV) detected in a zebu collected in Anjouan in August 2011 seems to be related to the last known epidemic of RVF which occurred in East Africa and Madagascar (2007-2009). This result highlights the fact that RVFV is maintained within local livestock populations and transboundary animal movements from eastern continental Africa to Indian Ocean islands likely result in RVFV crossover.

  19. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  20. `In crystallo' substrate binding triggers major domain movements and reveals magnesium as a co-activator of Trypanosoma brucei pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenhe; Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-09-01

    The active site of pyruvate kinase (PYK) is located between the AC core of the enzyme and a mobile lid corresponding to domain B. Many PYK structures have already been determined, but the first `effector-only' structure and the first with PEP (the true natural substrate) are now reported for the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei. PEP soaked into crystals of the enzyme with bound allosteric activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) and Mg(2+) triggers a substantial 23° rotation of the B domain `in crystallo', resulting in a partially closed active site. The interplay of side chains with Mg(2+) and PEP may explain the mechanism of the domain movement. Furthermore, it is apparent that when F26BP is present but PEP is absent Mg(2+) occupies a position that is distinct from the two canonical Mg(2+)-binding sites at the active site. This third site is adjacent to the active site and involves the same amino-acid side chains as in canonical site 1 but in altered orientations. Site 3 acts to sequester Mg(2+) in a `priming' position such that the enzyme is maintained in its R-state conformation. In this way, Mg(2+) cooperates with F26BP to ensure that the enzyme is in a conformation that has a high affinity for the substrate.

  1. Stable oxygen isotope analysis reveal vegetation influence on soil water movement and ecosystem water fluxes in a semi-arid oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Dubbert, Maren; Werner, Christiane; Cuntz, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistically disentangling the role and function of vegetation within the hydrological cycle is one of the key questions in the interdisciplinary field of ecohydrology. The presence of vegetation can have various impacts on soil water relations: transpiration of active vegetation causes great water losses, rainfall is intercepted, soil evaporation can be reduced and infiltration, hydraulic redistribution and translatory flow might be altered. In drylands, covering around 40% of the global land surface, the carbon cycle is closely coupled to water availability due to (seasonal) droughts. Specifically savannah type ecosystems, which cover large areas worldwide, are, due to their bi-layered structure, very suitable to study the effects of distinct vegetation types on the ecosystem water cycle. Oxygen isotope signatures (δ18O) have been used to partition ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET ) because of the distinct isotopic compositions of water transpired by leaves relative to soil evaporated vapor. Recent developments in laser spectroscopy enable measurements of δ18O in the vapor phase with high temporal resolution in the field and bear a novel opportunity to trace water movement within the ecosystem. In the present study, the effects of distinct vegetation layers (i.e. trees and herbaceous vegetation) on soil water infiltration and redistribution as well as ecosystem water fluxes in a Mediterranean cork-oak woodland are disentangled. An irrigation experiment was carried out using δ18O labeled water to quantify the distinct effects of trees and herbaceous vegetation on 1) infiltration and redistribution of water in the soil profile and 2) to disentangle the effects of tree cover on the contribution of unproductive soil evaporation and understory transpiration to total ET . First results proof that stable δ18O isotopes measured onsite with laser spectroscopy is a valuable tool to trace water movement in the soil showing a much higher sensitivity than common TDR

  2. Over Expression of a tRNALeu Isoacceptor Changes Charging Pattern of Leucine tRNAs and Reveals New Codon Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.; Bouakaz, E.

    2005-01-01

    During mRNA translation, synonymous codons for one amino acid are often read by different isoaccepting tRNAs. The theory of selective tRNA charging predicts greatly varying percentages of aminoacylation among isoacceptors in cells starved for their common amino acid. It also predicts major change...

  3. Crystal structures of yeast beta-alanine synthase complexes reveal the mode of substrate binding and large scale domain closure movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Stina; Andersen, Birgit; Piskur, Jure; Dobritzsch, Doreen

    2007-12-07

    Beta-alanine synthase is the final enzyme of the reductive pyrimidine catabolic pathway, which is responsible for the breakdown of uracil and thymine in higher organisms. The fold of the homodimeric enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri identifies it as a member of the AcyI/M20 family of metallopeptidases. Its subunit consists of a catalytic domain harboring a di-zinc center and a smaller dimerization domain. The present site-directed mutagenesis studies identify Glu(159) and Arg(322) as crucial for catalysis and His(262) and His(397) as functionally important but not essential. We determined the crystal structures of wild-type beta-alanine synthase in complex with the reaction product beta-alanine, and of the mutant E159A with the substrate N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, revealing the closed state of a dimeric AcyI/M20 metallopeptidase-like enzyme. Subunit closure is achieved by a approximately 30 degrees rigid body domain rotation, which completes the active site by integration of substrate binding residues that belong to the dimerization domain of the same or the partner subunit. Substrate binding is achieved via a salt bridge, a number of hydrogen bonds, and coordination to one of the zinc ions of the di-metal center.

  4. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...... levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  5. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forgan, E.M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A.T.;

    2015-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6...... with broken symmetry observed in scanning tunnelling microscopy and soft X-ray measurements........54 at its superconducting transition temperature ∼60 K. We find that the CDWs in this material break the mirror symmetry of the CuO2 bilayers. The ionic displacements in the CDWs have two components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the CuO2 planes, and are out of phase with each other. The planar...

  6. Kinetic interaction analysis of human interleukin 5 receptor alpha mutants reveals a unique binding topology and charge distribution for cytokine recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Tetsuya; Pasut, Gianfranco; Scibek, Jeffery; Chaiken, Irwin

    2004-03-05

    Human interleukin 5 receptor alpha (IL5Ralpha) comprises three fibronectin type III domains (D1, D2, and D3) in the extracellular region. Previous results have indicated that residues in the D1D2 domains are crucial for high affinity interaction with human interleukin 5 (IL5). Yet, it is the D2D3 domains that have sequence homology with the classic cytokine recognition motif that is generally assumed to be the minimum cytokine-recognizing unit. In the present study, we used kinetic interaction analysis of alanine-scanning mutational variants of IL5Ralpha to define the residues involved in IL5 recognition. Soluble forms of IL5Ralpha variants were expressed in S2 cells, selectively captured via their C-terminal V5 tag by anti-V5 tag antibody immobilized onto the sensor chip and examined for IL5 interaction by using a sandwich surface plasmon resonance biosensor method. Marked effects on the interaction kinetics were observed not only in D1 (Asp(55), Asp(56), and Glu(58)) and D2 (Lys(186) and Arg(188)) domains, but also in the D3 (Arg(297)) domain. Modeling of the tertiary structure of IL5Ralpha indicated that these binding residues fell into two clusters. The first cluster consists of D1 domain residues that form a negatively charged patch, whereas the second cluster consists of residues that form a positively charged patch at the interface of D2 and D3 domains. These results suggest that the IL5 x IL5Ralpha system adopts a unique binding topology, in which the cytokine is recognized by a D2D3 tandem domain combined with a D1 domain, to form an extended cytokine recognition interface.

  7. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  8. Chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  9. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, E. M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.; Briffa, A. K. R.; Chang, J.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S. D.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.; Hardy, W. N.; Christensen, N. B.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Hücker, M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6.54 at its superconducting transition temperature ~60 K. We find that the CDWs in this material break the mirror symmetry of the CuO2 bilayers. The ionic displacements in the CDWs have two components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the CuO2 planes, and are out of phase with each other. The planar oxygen atoms have the largest displacements, perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. Our results allow many electronic properties of the underdoped cuprates to be understood. For instance, the CDWs will lead to local variations in the electronic structure, giving an explicit explanation of density-wave states with broken symmetry observed in scanning tunnelling microscopy and soft X-ray measurements.

  10. Charge fluctuations and nodeless superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional Ta4Pd3Te16 revealed by 125Te-NMR and 181Ta-NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Jiao, W. H.; Cao, G. H.; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2016-11-01

    We report 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance and 181Ta nuclear quadrupole resonance studies on single-crystal Ta4Pd3Te16 , which has a quasi-one-dimensional structure and superconducts below Tc=4.3 K. 181Ta with spin I =7 /2 is sensitive to quadrupole interactions, while 125Te with spin I =1 /2 can only relax by magnetic interactions. By comparing the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1 /T1 ) of 181Ta and 125Te, we found that electric-field-gradient (EFG) fluctuations develop below 80 K. The EFG fluctuations are enhanced with decreasing temperature due to the fluctuations of a charge density wave that sets in at TCDW=20 K, below which the spectra are broadened and 1 /T1T drops sharply. In the superconducting state, 1 /T1 shows a Hebel-Slichter coherence peak just below Tc for 125Te, indicating that Ta4Pd3Te16 is a full-gap superconductor without nodes in the gap function. The coherence peak is absent in the 1 /T1 of 181Ta due to the strong EFG fluctuations.

  11. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, E M; Blackburn, E; Holmes, A T; Briffa, A K R; Chang, J; Bouchenoire, L; Brown, S D; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D; Hardy, W N; Christensen, N B; Zimmermann, M V; Hücker, M; Hayden, S M

    2015-12-09

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6.54 at its superconducting transition temperature ∼ 60 K. We find that the CDWs in this material break the mirror symmetry of the CuO2 bilayers. The ionic displacements in the CDWs have two components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the CuO2 planes, and are out of phase with each other. The planar oxygen atoms have the largest displacements, perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. Our results allow many electronic properties of the underdoped cuprates to be understood. For instance, the CDWs will lead to local variations in the electronic structure, giving an explicit explanation of density-wave states with broken symmetry observed in scanning tunnelling microscopy and soft X-ray measurements.

  12. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  13. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong

    1988-08-15

    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  14. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  15. Mutational analysis of the complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21)-C3d interaction reveals a putative charged SCR1 binding site for C3d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Guthridge, Joel M; Asokan, Rengasamy; Szakonyi, Gerda; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Holers, V Michael

    2005-02-25

    We have characterized the interaction between the first two short consensus repeats (SCR1-2) of complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) and C3d in solution, by utilising the available crystal structures of free and C3d-bound forms of CR2 to create a series of informative mutations targeting specific areas of the CR2-C3d complex. Wild-type and mutant forms of CR2 were expressed on the surface of K562 erythroleukemia cells and their binding ability assessed using C3dg-biotin tetramers complexed to fluorochrome conjugated streptavidin and measured by flow cytometry. Mutations directed at the SCR2-C3d interface (R83A, R83E, G84Y) were found to strongly disrupt C3dg binding, supporting the conclusion that the SCR2 interface reflected in the crystal structure is correct. Previous epitope and peptide mapping studies have also indicated that the PILN11GR13IS sequence of the first inter-cysteine region of SCR1 is essential for the binding of iC3b. Mutations targeting residues within or in close spatial proximity to this area (N11A, N11E, R13A, R13E, Y16A, S32A, S32E), and a number of other positively charged residues located primarily on a contiguous face of SCR1 (R28A, R28E, R36A, R36E, K41A, K41E, K50A, K50E, K57A, K57E, K67A, K67E), have allowed us to reassess those regions on SCR1 that are essential for CR2-C3d binding. The nature of this interaction and the possibility of a direct SCR1-C3d association are discussed extensively. Finally, a D52N mutant was constructed introducing an N-glycosylation sequence at an area central to the CR2 dimer interface. This mutation was designed to disrupt the CR2-C3d interaction, either directly through steric inhibition, or indirectly through disruption of a physiological dimer. However, no difference in C3dg binding relative to wild-type CR2 could be observed for this mutant, suggesting that the dimer may only be found in the crystal form of CR2.

  16. Spherical Accretion of Matter by Charged Black Holes on f(T) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Manuel E

    2016-01-01

    We studied the spherical accretion of matter by charged black holes on $f(T)$ Gravity. Considering the accretion model of a isentropic perfect fluid we obtain the general form of the Hamiltonian and the dynamic system for the fluid. We have analysed the movements of an isothermal fluid model with $p=\\omega e$ and where $p$ is the pressure and $e$ the total energy density. The analysis of the cases shows the possibility of spherical accretion of fluid by black holes, revealing new phenomena as cyclical movement inside the event horizon.

  17. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  18. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  19. Brainstem hypoplasia presenting with mirror movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ekmekçi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 20 years old female patient, who had operated from congenital syndactyly on her left hand at five age, admitted to neurology policlinic with involuntary movement on her hands. We saw mirror movement (MM when she writing, catching with her left hand. This movement is had low amplitude in the right hand than left. Cervical MRG revealed no abnormality. Brain MRG revealed right middle, inferior cerebellary peduncle, olive and pyramid hypoplasia. Mirror movement shows homolog muscle activity which simulating contralateral movement, during a spesific task. This movement is seen usually upper extremity especially in the hand. Corticospinal tract dysfunction is often considered in the pathogenesis. MM may present as part of cervico medullary junction abnormality, cerebral palsy, cerebrovasculary disease, Parkinson disease. We wanted to discuss the patogenesis of MM in our patient with syndactyly and MRG abnormality.

  20. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  1. Movement disorders and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  2. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  3. Biomechanics of foetal movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Nowlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  4. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  5. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  9. Linking Literacy and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  10. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  11. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  12. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  13. Human movement is both diffusive and directed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Padgham

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.

  14. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Alexander De Havas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies.

  15. Discrete electrostatic charge transfer by the electrophoresis of a charged droplet in a dielectric liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Do Jin; Ahn, Myung Mo; Yoo, Byeong Sun; Moon, Dustin; Lee, Dong Woog; Kang, In Seok

    2012-08-14

    We have experimentally investigated the electrostatic charging of a water droplet on an electrified electrode surface to explain the detailed inductive charging processes and use them for the detection of droplet position in a lab-on-a-chip system. The periodic bouncing motion of a droplet between two planar electrodes has been examined by using a high-resolution electrometer and an image analysis method. We have found that this charging process consists of three steps. The first step is inductive charge accumulation on the opposite electrode by the charge of a droplet. This induction process occurs while the droplet approaches the electrode, and it produces an induction current signal at the electrometer. The second step is the discharging of the droplet by the accumulated induced charge at the moment of contact. For this second step, there is no charge-transfer detection at the electrometer. The third step is the charging of the neutralized droplet to a certain charged state while the droplet is in contact with the electrode. The charge transfer of the third step is detected as the pulse-type signal of an electrometer. The second and third steps occur simultaneously and rapidly. We have found that the induction current by the movement of a charged droplet can be accurately used to measure the charge of the droplet and can also be used to monitor the position of a droplet under actuation. The implications of the current findings for understanding and measuring the charging process are discussed.

  16. Physics Models of Pronuclear Movements in Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on published experimental data, Newton's laws, and Coulomb's law, we investigate natural and normal pronuclear movements in wild types of eggs and develop physics models to fit the experimental data quantitatively. The difference between our modeling calculated results and the experimental data is less than 20%. Our models explain why and how pronuclei move in even or in variant velocities. We hypothesize: During the migration, positively charged asters (or self assembled microtubules drive two negatively charged sperm and egg pronuclei to move towards each other. The driving force comes from a spontaneous and strong Electromagnetic Field (EMF. Hamilton's principle determines the path of these movements. A natural and normal EMF inside or around the pronuclei can be alternated environmentally. An abnormal EMF could induce aberrant embryos that cause life disease. We believe our models are helpful to further understand the mechanism of fertilization and have potential clinical value to prevent aberrant embryos that induce human life disease.

  17. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  18. Investigations on Several Mechanical Problems in Windblown Sand Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    It is very necessary for the investigation on mechanism of windblown sand movement to understand and find out effective measures of preventing and reducing danger of windblown sands, which also deals with some general characters and hot spots in the scientific forelands, such as multi-scale problems, interactions among multi-physical-fields, randomness and nonlinearity as well as complex systems. In recent years, a series of experiments in wind tunnels and theoretical modeling as well as computer simulation have been undertaken in the research group of environmental mechanics on windblown sand movement in Lanzhou University with the point of mechanical and geography intersecting view. Some original and essential progress has been achieved, which includes that the main regularities of charges on sand particles and the electric field in windblown sand flux and the effect of the electric field on the flux and the microwave propagation are revealed, and the evolution process of windblown sand flux under the mutual couple interactions among several physical fields are predicted as well as the main features of Aeolian sand ripples are simulated.

  19. Complete Charging for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊康旗; 徐春辉; 王卫东

    2014-01-01

    Under an in-phase assumption, the complete charging for an energy harvesting system is studied, which consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor, a switch, a controller and a rechargeable battery. For the transient charging, the results indicate that the voltage across the filter capacitor increases as the charging proceeds, which is consistent with that reported in the literature. However, a new finding shows that the charging rate and energy harvesting efficiency decrease over time after their respective peak values are acquired. For the steady-state charging, the results reveal that the energy harvesting efficiency can be adjusted by altering the critical charging voltage that controls the transition of the system. The optimal energy harvesting efficiency is limited by the optimal efficiency of the transient charging. Finally, the relationship between the critical charging voltage and the equivalent resistance of the controller and rechargeable battery is established explicitly.

  20. Backward Charge Transfer in Conjugated Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Meng-Xing; LI Guang-Qi; Thomas F. George; SUN Xin

    2005-01-01

    It has been known that the static polarizability of a polymer chain with a biexciton is negative. In order to understand this peculiar fact, this paper studies the dynamical process of the charge transfer in the polymer chain induced by an external electric field E during forming the biexciton. The time dependence of the charge distribution in the chain reveals that the charge transfer is backward: the positive charge shifts in the opposite direction of the external electric field. Such a backward charge transfer (BCT) produces an opposite dipole, which makes the polarization negative. The effect of electron interaction on the BCT is illustrated.

  1. Comparative study of GeO2/Ge and SiO2/Si structures on anomalous charging of oxide films upon water adsorption revealed by ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Daichi; Oka, Hiroshi; Hosoi, Takuji; Kawai, Kentaro; Morita, Mizuho; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Liu, Zhi; Watanabe, Heiji; Arima, Kenta

    2016-09-01

    The energy difference between the oxide and bulk peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra was investigated for both GeO2/Ge and SiO2/Si structures with thickness-controlled water films. This was achieved by obtaining XPS spectra at various values of relative humidity (RH) of up to ˜15%. The increase in the energy shift is more significant for thermal GeO2 on Ge than for thermal SiO2 on Si above ˜10-4% RH, which is due to the larger amount of water molecules that infiltrate into the GeO2 film to form hydroxyls. Analyzing the origins of this energy shift, we propose that the positive charging of a partially hydroxylated GeO2 film, which is unrelated to X-ray irradiation, causes the larger energy shift for GeO2/Ge than for SiO2/Si. A possible microscopic mechanism of this intrinsic positive charging is the emission of electrons from adsorbed water species in the suboxide layer of the GeO2 film to the Ge bulk, leaving immobile cations or positively charged states in the oxide. This may be related to the reported negative shift of flat band voltages in metal-oxide-semiconductor diodes with an air-exposed GeO2 layer.

  2. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  3. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a n

  4. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  5. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  6. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  7. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  8. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B; Frair, Jacqueline L; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour - giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) - to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex. Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  9. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  10. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  11. Social movements in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore M; Fee, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Most public health practitioners know that public health has relied on biomedical advances and administrative improvements, but it is less commonly understood that social movements in health have also been sources of motivation for population health advances. This review considers the impacts of social movements focused on urban conditions and health, on the health of children, and on behavioral and substance-related determinants of health and illustrates how these movements have significantly influenced public health activities and programs. We hope this review will motivate public health workers to make common cause with social activists and to encourage social activists to ally with public health professionals.

  12. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... such as the circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  13. Late-Time Evolution of Charged Gravitational Collapse and Decay of Charged Scalar Hair, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, S; Hod, Shahar; Piran, Tsvi

    1998-01-01

    We study analytically the initial value problem for a charged massless scalar-field on a Reissner-Nordström spacetime. Using the technique of spectral decomposition we extend recent results on this problem. Following the no-hair theorem we reveal the dynamical physical mechanism by which the charged hair is radiated away. We show that the charged perturbations decay according to an inverse power-law behaviour at future timelike infinity and along future null infinity. Along the future outer horizon we find an oscillatory inverse power-law relaxation of the charged fields. We find that a charged black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than a neutral one, due to the existence of charged perturbations. Our results are also important to the study of mass-inflation and the stability of Cauchy horizons during a dynamical gravitational collapse of charged matter in which a charged black-hole is formed.

  14. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  15. Analysis of the N-terminal positively charged residues of the simian immunodeficiency virus Vif reveals a critical amino acid required for the antagonism of rhesus APOBEC3D, G, and H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kimberly; Katuwal, Miki; Wang, Yaqiong; Li, Cicy; Stephens, Edward B

    2014-01-20

    Previous studies have shown that apolipoprotein B mRNA editing, enzyme catalytic, polypeptide G (APOBEC3G; hA3G) and F (APOBEC3F; hA3F) proteins interact with a nonlinear binding site located at the N-terminal region of the HIV-1 Vif protein. We have analyzed the role of 12 positively charged amino acids of the N-terminal region of the SIV Vif. Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) were constructed that expressed each of these amino acid substitutions. These viruses were examined for replication in the presence of rhesus macaque APOBEC3 proteins (rhA3A-rhA3H), incorporation of the different A3 proteins into virions, and replication in rhesus macaque PBMC. Similar to other studies, we found that K27 was essential for rhA3G activity and rhA3F but was not important for restriction of SHIVΔvif by rhA3A, rhA3D or rhA3H. Our results identified the arginine at position 14 of the SIV Vif as a critical residue for virus restriction by rhA3D, rhA3G and rhA3H.

  16. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  17. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garza, Jesus G; Hernandez, Zachery R; Nepaul, Sargoon; Bradley, Karen K; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to characterize human movement through electroencephalography (EEG) have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) dancers. Each dancer performed whole body movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities ("Neutral"), non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities ("Think"), and enacted expressive movements ("Do"). The expressive movement qualities that were used in the "Think" and "Do" actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Effort qualities as defined by LMA-a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2-4 Hz) EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis (LFDA) for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort quality (giving a total of 17 classes). Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort quality Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of neuroprosthetics to restore

  18. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery Ryan Hernandez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts to characterize human movement through EEG have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA dancers. Each dancer performed whole body functional movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities ('Neutral', non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities ('Think’, and enacted expressive movements ('Do'. The expressive movement qualities that were used in the 'Think' and 'Do' actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Efforts as defined by LMA - a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2 – 4 Hz EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher’s discriminant analysis (LFDA for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort (giving a total of 17 classes. Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of neuroprosthetics to restore movements.

  19. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garza, Jesus G.; Hernandez, Zachery R.; Nepaul, Sargoon; Bradley, Karen K.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to characterize human movement through electroencephalography (EEG) have revealed neural activities unique to limb control that can be used to infer movement kinematics, it is still unknown the extent to which EEG can be used to discern the expressive qualities that influence such movements. In this study we used EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and movement of five skilled and certified Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) dancers. Each dancer performed whole body movements of three Action types: movements devoid of expressive qualities (“Neutral”), non-expressive movements while thinking about specific expressive qualities (“Think”), and enacted expressive movements (“Do”). The expressive movement qualities that were used in the “Think” and “Do” actions consisted of a sequence of eight Laban Effort qualities as defined by LMA—a notation system and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. We used delta band (0.2–4 Hz) EEG as input to a machine learning algorithm that computed locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis (LFDA) for dimensionality reduction followed by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to decode the type of Action. We also trained our LFDA-GMM models to classify all the possible combinations of Action Type and Laban Effort quality (giving a total of 17 classes). Classification accuracy rates were 59.4 ± 0.6% for Action Type and 88.2 ± 0.7% for Laban Effort quality Type. Ancillary analyses of the potential relations between the EEG and movement kinematics of the dancer's body, indicated that motion-related artifacts did not significantly influence our classification results. In summary, this research demonstrates that EEG has valuable information about the expressive qualities of movement. These results may have applications for advancing the understanding of the neural basis of expressive movements and for the development of

  20. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  1. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  2. Collective cell movement promotes synchronization of coupled genetic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriu, Koichiro; Morelli, Luis G

    2014-07-15

    Collective cell movement is a crucial component of embryonic development. Intercellular interactions regulate collective cell movement by allowing cells to transfer information. A key question is how collective cell movement itself influences information flow produced in tissues by intercellular interactions. Here, we study the effect of collective cell movement on the synchronization of locally coupled genetic oscillators. This study is motivated by the segmentation clock in zebrafish somitogenesis, where short-range correlated movement of cells has been observed. We describe the segmentation clock tissue by a Voronoi diagram, cell movement by the force balance of self-propelled and repulsive forces between cells, the dynamics of the direction of self-propelled motion, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators by locally coupled phase oscillators. We find that movement with a correlation length of about 2 ∼ 3 cell diameters is optimal for the synchronization of coupled oscillators. Quantification of cell mixing reveals that this short-range correlation of cell movement allows cells to exchange neighbors most efficiently. Moreover, short-range correlated movement strongly destabilizes nonuniform spatial phase patterns, further promoting global synchronization. Our theoretical results suggest that collective cell movement may enhance the synchronization of the segmentation clock in zebrafish somitogenesis. More generally, collective cell movement may promote information flow in tissues by enhancing cell mixing and destabilizing spurious patterns.

  3. Legacy of the Environmental Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to select an important contemporary social movement (the environmental movement) and to assess some of the important impacts it has had on the larger society. This review of the environmental movement indicates it may be following a path similiar to the life-cycle of previous movements. (Author/BT)

  4. Eye movements reveal fast, voice-specific priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papesh, Megan H; Goldinger, Stephen D; Hout, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    In spoken word perception, voice specificity effects are well-documented: When people hear repeated words in some task, performance is generally better when repeated items are presented in their originally heard voices, relative to changed voices. A key theoretical question about voice specificity effects concerns their time-course: Some studies suggest that episodic traces exert their influence late in lexical processing (the time-course hypothesis; McLennan & Luce, 2005), whereas others suggest that episodic traces influence immediate, online processing. We report 2 eye-tracking studies investigating the time-course of voice-specific priming within and across cognitive tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed modified lexical decision or semantic classification to words spoken by 4 speakers. The tasks required participants to click a red "x" or a blue "+" located randomly within separate visual half-fields, necessitating trial-by-trial visual search with consistent half-field response mapping. After a break, participants completed a second block with new and repeated items, half spoken in changed voices. Voice effects were robust very early, appearing in saccade initiation times. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern while changing tasks across blocks, ruling out a response priming account. In the General Discussion, we address the time-course hypothesis, focusing on the challenge it presents for empirical disconfirmation, and highlighting the broad importance of indexical effects, beyond studies of priming.

  5. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  6. Breakdown of 1D water wires inside Charged Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Using Molecular Dynamics approach we investigated the structure, dynamics of water confined inside pristine and charged 6,6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This study reports the breakdown of 1D water wires and the emergence of triangular faced water on incorporating charges in 6,6 CNTs. Incorporation of charges results in high potential barriers to the flipping of water molecules due to the formation of a large number of hydrogen bonds. The PMF analyses show the presence of ~2 kcal/mol barrier for the movement of water inside pristine CNT and almost negligible barrier in charged CNTs.

  7. Proteomic Characterization of Stomatal Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sixue Chen

    2012-01-01

    Stomata on leaf epidermis formed by pairs of guard cells control CO2 intake and water transpiration,and respond to different environmental conditions.Stress induced stomatal closure is mediated via an intricate hormone network in guard cells.Here we report absicic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) responsive proteins and redox sensitive proteins.Both ABA and MeJA cause stomatal movement and H2O2 production.Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach,we have identified many ABA and/or MeJA responsive proteins in B.napus guard cells.Most of the genes encoding these proteins contain hormone responsive elements in the promoters,indicating that they are potentially regulated at the transcriptional level.The protein level changes were validated using Western blot analysis.We have also identified redox responsive proteins in the above signaling processes.The identification of the hormone responsive proteins and redox state changes has revealed interesting molecular mechanisms underlying guard cell functions in stomatal movement.The knowledge has great potential to be applied to crop engineering for enhanced yield and stress tolerance.

  8. Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1976-01-01

    If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to

  9. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  10. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  11. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  12. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  13. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  14. The Hopi Traditionalist Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, Richard O.

    1994-01-01

    Traces development of Hopi Traditionalism since 1906 as a social movement within the context of Hopi culture and sociopolitical history. Discusses the role of ideology in mediating political and economic conditions of history and collective cultural consciousness. Offers conclusions about the political role of indigenous culture and culturally…

  15. The Mastery of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  16. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  17. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    -slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  18. Topological Charges, Prequarks and Presymmetry: a Topological Approach to Quark Fractional Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Matute, E A

    2004-01-01

    A topological approach to quark fractional charges, based on charge constraints unexplained by the Standard Model of particle physics, is discussed. Charge fractionalization is related to a tunneling process occurring in time between pure gauge field configurations at the far past and future associated with integer-charged bare quarks, named prequarks. This transition conforms to a topologically nontrivial configuration of the weak gauge fields in Euclidean space-time. In this context, an electroweak $Z_{2}$ symmetry between bare quarks and leptons, named presymmetry, is revealed. It is shown that an effective topological charge equal to the ratio between baryon number and the number of fermion generations may be associated with baryonic matter. The observed conservation of baryon number is then connected with the conservation of this charge on quarks. Similar results are obtained for leptons in the dual scenario with local quark charges.

  19. Entropy of Movement Outcome in Space-Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Chiung; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M

    2015-07-01

    Information entropy of the joint spatial and temporal (space-time) probability of discrete movement outcome was investigated in two experiments as a function of different movement strategies (space-time, space, and time instructional emphases), task goals (point-aiming and target-aiming) and movement speed-accuracy constraints. The variance of the movement spatial and temporal errors was reduced by instructional emphasis on the respective spatial or temporal dimension, but increased on the other dimension. The space-time entropy was lower in targetaiming task than the point aiming task but did not differ between instructional emphases. However, the joint probabilistic measure of spatial and temporal entropy showed that spatial error is traded for timing error in tasks with space-time criteria and that the pattern of movement error depends on the dimension of the measurement process. The unified entropy measure of movement outcome in space-time reveals a new relation for the speed-accuracy.

  20. The Sadr II Movement: An Organizational Fight for Legitimacy within the Iraqi Shi’a Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fight for credibility and stature.[15] Quintan Wiktorowicz describes this phenomenon in Islamic movements as: A movement group…asserts its authority...34. There is no charge, and your address will be used for no other purpose. References 1. Wiktorowicz, Quintan , Islamic Activism: A Social Movement...Muqtada al-Sadr’s age is estimated between twenty-five and thirty. 13. Cole, Op. Cit. 14. Ibid. 15. Wiktorowicz, Quintan , "Framing Jihad

  1. Movement-related potentials accompanying unilateral and bilateral finger movements with different inertial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lang, W; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1990-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of inertial loading on movement-related potentials (MRPs) recorded from the scalps of normal subjects while performing finger movements. Two experiments were performed. Experiment 1. MRPs preceding and accompanying the execution of voluntary, unilateral finger movements were investigated in 8 subjects under the 3 experimental conditions of: no inertial load, small inertial load (250 g), and large inertial load (400 g). A significant effect of the inertial load on Bereitschaftspotential (BP) amplitude was observed for the 100 msec period preceding movement onset (BP -100 to 0) at precentral electrode sites and following movement onset (N0 to 100) at both precentral and parietal electrode sites. Pairwise comparisons revealed that significant effects were due to differences between the loading and non-loading conditions and not for different amounts of loading. No significant differences were observed for BP onset or early BP amplitudes, indicating that scalp negativity immediately prior to, and during, movement onset is primarily influenced by conditions of inertial loading. Experiment 2. This experiment examined the effect of inertial loading on MRPs for bilateral, simultaneous voluntary finger movements in 10 subjects under conditions of: no inertial load, inertial load applied separately to the left and right fingers, and with identical inertial loads applied to both fingers. No significant effect of inertial load on MRP amplitude was observed. These results are contrasted with those of experiment 1 which show significant effects of inertial loading for unilateral movements and are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that bilateral movement organization involves 'higher' aspects of motor control than those reflecting adjustment to conditions of inertial loading.

  2. Charged Residues at the First Transmembrane Region Contribute to the Voltage Dependence of the Slow Gate of Connexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Bernardo I; García, Isaac E; Pupo, Amaury; Retamal, Mauricio A; Martínez, Agustín D; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2016-07-22

    Connexins (Cxs) are a family of membrane-spanning proteins that form gap junction channels and hemichannels. Connexin-based channels exhibit two distinct voltage-dependent gating mechanisms termed slow and fast gating. Residues located at the C terminus of the first transmembrane segment (TM-1) are important structural components of the slow gate. Here, we determined the role of the charged residues at the end of TM-1 in voltage sensing in Cx26, Cx46, and Cx50. Conductance/voltage curves obtained from tail currents together with kinetics analysis reveal that the fast and slow gates of Cx26 involves the movement of two and four charges across the electric field, respectively. Primary sequence alignment of different Cxs shows the presence of well conserved glutamate residues in the C terminus of TM-1; only Cx26 contains a lysine in that position (lysine 41). Neutralization of lysine 41 in Cx26 increases the voltage dependence of the slow gate. Swapping of lysine 41 with glutamate 42 maintains the voltage dependence. In Cx46, neutralization of negative charges or addition of a positive charge in the Cx26 equivalent region reduced the slow gate voltage dependence. In Cx50, the addition of a glutamate in the same region decreased the voltage dependence, and the neutralization of a negative charge increased it. These results indicate that the charges at the end of TM-1 are part of the slow gate voltage sensor in Cxs. The fact that Cx42, which has no charge in this region, still presents voltage-dependent slow gating suggests that charges still unidentified also contribute to the slow gate voltage sensitivity.

  3. Automatic Chloroplast Movement Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Zeidler, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at the upper and lower sides or along the side walls of the cell respectively. This movement, regulated by the phototropin blue light photoreceptors phot1 and phot2, results in a decreased or increased transmission of light through the leaf. This way the plant is able to optimize harvesting of the incoming light or avoid damage caused by excess light. Here we describe a method that indirectly measures the movement of chloroplasts by taking advantage of the resulting change in leaf transmittance. By using a microplate reader, quantitative measurements of chloroplast accumulation or avoidance can be monitored over time, for multiple samples with relatively little hands-on time.

  4. [Ergonomic movement in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W

    2014-02-01

    'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.

  5. Studying frozen movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spyros Papapetros, On the Animation of the Inorganic: Art, Architecture, and the Extension of Life: Spyros Papapetros examines ideas about simulated movement and inorganic life during and after the turn of the twentieth century. Exploring works of a selection of important art historians as well as artists and architects of the period, the author maintains that the ability to identify with material objects was repressed by modernist culture, and yet found expression stylistically through depictions of inorganic forms. That expression is shown to have continuity with older medieval and renaissance depictions. The book is organized by a narrative that evokes the modes of inquiry documented and critiqued by the content of the book, employing movement as a narrative device, a metaphor, while serving as a subject of inquiry.

  6. Screening of heterogeneous surfaces: charge renormalization of Janus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, N; Carvajal Gallardo, E; Zheng, S; Eggen, E; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2010-03-17

    Nonlinear ionic screening theory for heterogeneously charged spheres is developed in terms of a mode decomposition of the surface charge. A far-field analysis of the resulting electrostatic potential leads to a natural generalization of charge renormalization from purely monopolar to dipolar, quadrupolar, etc, including 'mode couplings'. Our novel scheme is generally applicable to large classes of surface heterogeneities, and is explicitly applied here to Janus spheres with differently charged upper and lower hemispheres, revealing strong renormalization effects for all multipoles.

  7. Confronting Islamic Jihadist Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal Upal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in order to win the long-term fight against Islamic Jihadist movements, we must confront their ideological foundations and provide the majority of Muslims with an alternative narrative that satisfies their social identity needs for a positive esteem.  By analysing social identity dynamics of Western-Muslim interactions, this paper presents some novel ideas that can lead to the creation of such a narrative.

  8. Human Purposive Movement Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    movement patterns; for example, horses , deer, and javelina exhibit grazing behaviors that are similar to, but not quite the same as, cattle. Individual...conveyance would be modeled. This might be as simple as a person riding a horse , mule, camel, or burro, or as complex as a multiwheeled truck, train...or tracked vehicle. The assumption presented is that each system of conveyance reflects the will of its operator/ rider , whether that system is a

  9. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  10. Cannabis in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, K R; Kolbe, H; Schneider, U; Emrich, H M

    1999-10-01

    Central cannabinoid receptors are densely located in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticulata), suggesting their involvement in the regulation of motor activity. Furthermore, there is evidence that endogenous cannabinoid transmission plays a role in the manipulation of other transmitter systems within the basal ganglia by increasing GABAergic transmission, inhibiting glutamate release and affecting dopaminergic uptake. Most hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders are caused by a dysfunction of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. It has been suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid tone participates in the control of movements and, therefore, the central cannabinoid system might play a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. During the last years in humans a limited number of clinical trials demonstrated that cannabinoids might be useful in the treatment of movement disorders. Despite the lack of controlled studies there is evidence that cannabinoids are of therapeutic value in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome, the reduction of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson s disease and some forms of tremor and dystonia. It can be speculated that cannabinoid antagonists might be useful in the treatment of chorea in Huntington s disease and hypokinetic parkinsonian syndromes.

  11. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  12. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  13. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  14. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  15. Alien hand syndrome: neural correlates of movements without conscious will.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schaefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alien hand syndrome is a striking phenomenon characterized by purposeful and autonomous movements that are not voluntarily initiated. This study aimed to examine neural correlates of this rare neurological disorder in a patient with corticobasal degeneration and alien hand syndrome of the left hand. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain responses associated with unwanted movements in a case study. Results revealed that alien hand movements involved a network of brain activations including the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, precuneus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Conscious and voluntary movements of the alien hand elicited a similar network of brain responses but lacked an activation of the inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that alien and unwanted movements may engage similar brain networks than voluntary movements, but also imply different functional contributions of prefrontal areas. Since the inferior frontal gyrus was uniquely activated during alien movements, the results provide further support for a specific role of this brain region in inhibitory control over involuntary motor responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss the outcome of this study as providing evidence for a distributed neural network associated with unwanted movements in alien hand syndrome, including brain regions known to be related to movement execution and planning as well as areas that have been linked to inhibition control (inferior frontal gyrus and experience of agency (precuneus.

  16. The perception of natural and modulated movement sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Christian; Pizzera, Alexandra; Hohmann, Tanja; Schubotz, Ricarda Ines; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The motor system is engaged when we perceive movement in the environment, even when we have no sensorimotor experience of that movement. It has been suggested that this ability relies on internal models that comprise specific exteroceptive representations, such as audition and vision. It has been shown that, for human movements, the quality of perception depends on the closeness between the perceived movement and the perceiver's own capability of reproducing it. Thus, if we are able to reproduce a movement, we also have the interoceptive motor memories that enable us to run internal models and perceive the same movements more accurately when merely observed. In a behavioral study we investigated if participants would be able to distinguish between self-produced and other-produced movement sounds from a previously recorded hurdling performance. We also analyzed if participants' discriminative ability would vary as a function of specific sound features, examining rhythmic step structure and amplitude range. The results reveal that participants were able to distinguish between their own and others' movement sounds. However, changing either rhythmic step structure or amplitude range of the sounds did not influence this self-other discrimination. We suggest that identification of one's own movement sounds is holistically achieved as an auditory gestalt.

  17. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;

    2014-01-01

    Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...

  18. Energy and Movement

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  19. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduc....... The current focus on the head and lack of attention to the body unifies society to focus on cognitive learning. This has implications for the values created by this system. Learning Lab Denmark aims to examine new ways of reintroducing the body into learning....

  20. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  1. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... to and reactions from the circulation of people, objects and ideas to the transmission of the spiral and the ‚trade’ in crafting expertise, this volume takes a fresh look at old questions. Each article within this monograph represents a different approach to mobility framed within a highly mobile and dynamic...

  2. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...... graphic material in urban and museum space alike. To clarify the curatorial approach the analysis draws on a theoretical scheme of ecological semiotics, the concept of counterability and contextualising displays, which I name poster milieux: the 1931 case demonstrates how contemporary commercial art...

  3. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  4. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  5. Movement disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders.

  6. Hand movement effects on word learning and retrieval in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciantar, Jessica; Finch, Emma; Copland, David A

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of performing an intentional non-meaningful hand movement on subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval in healthy adults. Twenty-five right-handed healthy individuals were required to learn the names (2-syllable legal nonwords) for a series of unfamiliar objects. Participants also completed a familiar picture naming task to investigate the effects of the intentional non-meaningful movement on lexical retrieval. Results revealed that performing this hand movement immediately before linguistic tasks interfered with both new word learning and familiar picture naming when compared with no movement. These results extend previous findings of dual task interference effects in healthy individuals, suggesting that complex, non-meaningful, hand movements can also interfere with subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval.

  7. Hand movement effects on word learning and retrieval in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ciantar

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of performing an intentional non-meaningful hand movement on subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval in healthy adults. Twenty-five right-handed healthy individuals were required to learn the names (2-syllable legal nonwords for a series of unfamiliar objects. Participants also completed a familiar picture naming task to investigate the effects of the intentional non-meaningful movement on lexical retrieval. Results revealed that performing this hand movement immediately before linguistic tasks interfered with both new word learning and familiar picture naming when compared with no movement. These results extend previous findings of dual task interference effects in healthy individuals, suggesting that complex, non-meaningful, hand movements can also interfere with subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval.

  8. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions congenital mirror movement disorder congenital mirror movement disorder Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements of ...

  10. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  11. Parasomnias and movement disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Elana R; Shatkin, Jess P

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parasomnias and movement disorders arise from a variety of etiologic factors. For some children, psychopathology plays a causal role in sleep disorders; in other cases, recurrent parasomnia episodes induce psychopathology. Current research reveals complex interconnections between sleep and mental health. As such, it is important that clinicians consider the impact psychiatric disorders have on childhood parasomnias. This article describes common parasomnias and movement disorders in children and adolescents, with emphasis on psychologic and behavioral comorbidities.

  12. Hand Movement Effects on Word Learning and Retrieval in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Ciantar; Emma Finch; David A. Copland

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of performing an intentional non-meaningful hand movement on subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval in healthy adults. Twenty-five right-handed healthy individuals were required to learn the names (2-syllable legal nonwords) for a series of unfamiliar objects. Participants also completed a familiar picture naming task to investigate the effects of the intentional non-meaningful movement on lexical retrieval. Results revealed that performing this...

  13. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror mov...

  14. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...... research from the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) which has recently focused upon the investigation of materially active systems ranging from textile logics at architectural scale to bending active structures in both natural and synthetic fibre-based composites....... These investigations have necessitated the development of synergetic relations between new conceptualisations, new methods of designing, new representational tools, and new material systems. This essay examines these issues through two inter-related research projects developed at CITA as part of a broader inquiry...

  15. Charge Transport in LDPE Nanocomposites Part II—Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh T. Hoang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A bipolar charge transport model is employed to investigate the remarkable reduction in dc conductivity of low-density polyethylene (LDPE based material filled with uncoated nanofillers (reported in the first part of this work. The effect of temperature on charge transport is considered and the model outcomes are compared with measured conduction currents. The simulations reveal that the contribution of charge carrier recombination to the total transport process becomes more significant at elevated temperatures. Among the effects caused by the presence of nanoparticles, a reduced charge injection at electrodes has been found as the most essential one. Possible mechanisms for charge injection at different temperatures are therefore discussed.

  16. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  17. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  18. Purposeful Goal-Directed Movements Give Rise to Higher Tactile Discrimination Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Juravle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is inhibited during goal-directed reaching movements (sensory suppression. Here, participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements (where contact with the table surface was maintained. We measured tactile discrimination thresholds for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest. Moreover, we measured discrimination performance (in a same vs. different task for the materials covering the table surface, during the execution of the different movements. The threshold and discrimination tasks could be performed either singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions (ie, no movement required, but with tactile stimulation. Thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than thresholds measured during both active movements and passive touches. This provides a clear indication of sensory suppression during movement execution. Moreover, the discrimination data revealed main effects of task (single vs. dual, movement execution type (passive vs. active, and movement type (reach vs. exploration: Discrimination performance was significantly higher under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements. Therefore, active movement of the hand with the purpose of gaining tactual information about the surface of the table gives rise to enhanced performance, thus suggesting that we feel more when we need to; It would appear that tactual information is prioritized when relevant for the movement being executed.

  19. PIP2 controls voltage-sensor movement and pore opening of Kv channels through the S4-S5 linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Adney, Scott K; Tang, Qiong-Yao; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Cui, Meng; Logothetis, Diomedes E

    2012-09-04

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels couple the movement of a voltage sensor to the channel gate(s) via a helical intracellular region, the S4-S5 linker. A number of studies link voltage sensitivity to interactions of S4 charges with membrane phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the bilayer. Although the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) in the inner membrane leaflet has emerged as a universal activator of ion channels, no such role has been established for mammalian Kv channels. Here we show that PIP(2) depletion induced two kinetically distinct effects on Kv channels: an increase in voltage sensitivity and a concomitant decrease in current amplitude. These effects are reversible, exhibiting distinct molecular determinants and sensitivities to PIP(2). Gating current measurements revealed that PIP(2) constrains the movement of the sensor through interactions with the S4-S5 linker. Thus, PIP(2) controls both the movement of the voltage sensor and the stability of the open pore through interactions with the linker that connects them.

  20. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  1. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  2. Physiology of psychogenic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary.

  3. Integrating Body Movement into Attractiveness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eFink

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  4. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  5. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  6. Theosophically Inspired Movements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored.......The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored....

  7. Movement disorders in spinocerebellar ataxias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, J. van; Giunti, P.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) can present with a large variety of noncerebellar symptoms, including movement disorders. In fact, movement disorders are frequent in many of the various SCA subtypes, and they can be the presenting, dominant, or even isolated disease feature. When c

  8. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  9. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Adriaan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  10. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...

  11. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fix...

  12. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  13. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, M. R.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring is required to fully define periodicity and patterns in animal movement. This is particularly relevant for defining what factors are driving the presence, location, and movements of individuals. The long-term movement and space use patterns of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, were examined on a whole of reef scale in the southern Great Barrier Reef to define whether movement and activity space varied through time. Twenty-nine C. amblyrhynchos were tracked for over 2 years to define movement patterns. All individuals showed high residency within the study site, but also had high roaming indices. This indicated that individuals remained in the region and used all of the monitored habitat (i.e., the entire reef perimeter). Use of space was consistent through time with high reuse of areas most of the year. Therefore, individuals maintained discrete home ranges, but undertook broader movements around the reef at times. Mature males showed greatest variation in movement with larger activity spaces and movement into new regions during the mating season (August-September). Depth use patterns also differed, suggesting behaviour or resource requirements varied between sexes. Examination of the long-term, reef-scale movements of C. amblyrhynchos has revealed that reproductive activity may play a key role in space use and activity patterns. It was unclear whether mating behaviour or an increased need for food to sustain reproductive activity and development played a greater role in these patterns. Reef shark movement patterns are becoming more clearly defined, but research is still required to fully understand the biological drivers for the observed patterns.

  14. Recognizing and predicting movement effects: identifying critical movement features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Williams, A Mark

    2010-01-01

    It is not clear whether the critical features used to discriminate movements are identical to those involved in predicting the same movement's effects and consequently, whether the mechanisms underlying recognition and anticipation differ. We examined whether people rely on different kinematic information when required to recognize differences in the movement pattern in comparison to when they have to anticipate the outcome of these same movements. Naïve participants were presented with paired presentations of point-light animated tennis shots that ended at racket-ball contact. We instructed them either to judge whether the movements observed were the same or different or to predict shot direction (left vs. right). In addition, we locally manipulated the kinematics of point-light figures in an effort to identify the critical features used when making recognition and anticipation judgments. It appears that observers rely on different sources of information when required to recognize movement differences compared to when they need to anticipate the outcome of the same observed movements. Findings are discussed with reference to recent ideas focusing on the role of perceptual and motor resonance in perceptual judgments.

  15. An improved charge pump with suppressed charge sharing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Bai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential charge pump with reduced charge sharing effect is presented. The current-steering topology is adopted for fast switching. A replica charge pump is added to provide a current path for the complementary branch of the master charge pump in the current switching. Through the replica charge pump, the voltage at the complementary node of the master charge pump keeps stable during switching, and the dynamic charge sharing effect is avoided. Apply the charge pump to a 4.8 GHz band integer-N PLL, the measured reference spur is -49.7dBc with a 4-MHz reference frequency.

  16. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  17. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  18. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  19. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  20. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  1. Charge-sensitive amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Startsev V. I.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider design and circuit design techniques of reduction of the influence of the pyroelectric effect on operation of the charge sensitive amplifiers. The presented experimental results confirm the validity of the measures taken to reduce the impact of pyroelectric currents. Pyroelectric currents are caused by the influence of the temperature gradient on the piezoelectric sensor and on the output voltage of charge sensitive amplifiers.

  2. Control of convergent yolk syncytial layer nuclear movement in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lara; Stühmer, Jan; Bois, Justin S; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Lecaudey, Virginie; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-04-01

    Nuclear movements play an essential role in metazoan development. Although the intracellular transport mechanisms underlying nuclear movements have been studied in detail, relatively little is known about signals from surrounding cells and tissues controlling these movements. Here, we show that, in gastrulating zebrafish embryos, convergence movements of nuclei within the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) are guided by mesoderm and endoderm progenitors migrating along the surface of the yolk towards the dorsal side of the developing gastrula. Progenitor cells direct the convergence movements of internal yolk syncytial nuclei (iYSN) by modulating cortical flow within the YSL in which the iYSN are entrained. The effect of mesoderm and endoderm progenitors on the convergence movement of iYSN depends on the expression of E-cadherin, indicating that adhesive contact between the cells and the YSL is required for the mesendoderm-modulated YSL cortical flow mediating nuclear convergence. In summary, our data reveal a crucial function for cortical flow in the coordination of syncytial nuclear movements with surrounding cells and tissues during zebrafish gastrulation.

  3. Foot loading characteristics during three fencing-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Caroline; Martinelli, Nicolo; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Plantar pressure characteristics during fencing movements may provide more specific information about the influence of foot loading on overload injury patterns. Twenty-nine experienced fencers participated in the study. Three fencing-specific movements (lunge, advance, retreat) and normal running were performed with three different shoe models: Ballestra (Nike, USA), Adistar Fencing Lo (Adidas, Germany), and the fencers' own shoes. The Pedar system (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressures at 50 Hz. Peak pressures, force-time integrals and contact times for five foot regions were compared between four athletic tasks in the lunge leg and supporting leg. Plantar pressure analysis revealed characteristic pressure distribution patterns for the fencing movements. For the lunge leg, during the lunge and advance movements the heel is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. For the supporting leg, during the lunge and advance movements the forefoot is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. Fencing-specific movements load the plantar surface in a distinct way compared with running. An effective cushioning in the heel and hallux region would help to minimize foot loading during fencing-specific movements.

  4. Social network models predict movement and connectivity in ecological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Robert J.; Acevedo, M.A.; Reichert, Brian E.; Pias, Kyle E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Network analysis is on the rise across scientific disciplines because of its ability to reveal complex, and often emergent, patterns and dynamics. Nonetheless, a growing concern in network analysis is the use of limited data for constructing networks. This concern is strikingly relevant to ecology and conservation biology, where network analysis is used to infer connectivity across landscapes. In this context, movement among patches is the crucial parameter for interpreting connectivity but because of the difficulty of collecting reliable movement data, most network analysis proceeds with only indirect information on movement across landscapes rather than using observed movement to construct networks. Statistical models developed for social networks provide promising alternatives for landscape network construction because they can leverage limited movement information to predict linkages. Using two mark-recapture datasets on individual movement and connectivity across landscapes, we test whether commonly used network constructions for interpreting connectivity can predict actual linkages and network structure, and we contrast these approaches to social network models. We find that currently applied network constructions for assessing connectivity consistently, and substantially, overpredict actual connectivity, resulting in considerable overestimation of metapopulation lifetime. Furthermore, social network models provide accurate predictions of network structure, and can do so with remarkably limited data on movement. Social network models offer a flexible and powerful way for not only understanding the factors influencing connectivity but also for providing more reliable estimates of connectivity and metapopulation persistence in the face of limited data.

  5. Persistence in eye movement during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Tatiana A.; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Campos, Daniel; Herrmann, Hans J.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-02-01

    As any cognitive task, visual search involves a number of underlying processes that cannot be directly observed and measured. In this way, the movement of the eyes certainly represents the most explicit and closest connection we can get to the inner mechanisms governing this cognitive activity. Here we show that the process of eye movement during visual search, consisting of sequences of fixations intercalated by saccades, exhibits distinctive persistent behaviors. Initially, by focusing on saccadic directions and intersaccadic angles, we disclose that the probability distributions of these measures show a clear preference of participants towards a reading-like mechanism (geometrical persistence), whose features and potential advantages for searching/foraging are discussed. We then perform a Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) over the time series of jump magnitudes in the eye trajectory and find that it exhibits a typical multifractal behavior arising from the sequential combination of saccades and fixations. By inspecting the time series composed of only fixational movements, our results reveal instead a monofractal behavior with a Hurst exponent , which indicates the presence of long-range power-law positive correlations (statistical persistence). We expect that our methodological approach can be adopted as a way to understand persistence and strategy-planning during visual search.

  6. Fetal jaw movement affects condylar cartilage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H; Hatta, T; Udagawa, J; Zhang, L; Yoshimura, Y; Otani, H

    2005-05-01

    Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular condyle. Condylar cartilage was reduced in size, and the bone-cartilage margin was ill-defined in the sutured group at E18.5. Volume, total number of cells, and number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the mesenchymal zone were lower in the sutured group than in the non-sutured group at E16.5 and E18.5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were larger, whereas fewer apoptotic chondrocytes and osteoclasts were observed in the hypertrophic zone in the sutured group at E18.5. Analysis of our data revealed that restricted fetal TMJ movement influences the process of endochondral bone formation of condylar cartilage.

  7. Eventful places in the 2011 movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    Inspired by the Occupy movement, the Egyptian revolutionaries and other of the 2011 social movements, this paper investigates the relationship between social movement and place. Drawing on first-hand accounts from these movements, I argue that the relationship between movement and place is dialec...

  8. Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sachchida

    2010-05-01

    Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere Marykutty Michael1, Sachchida Nand Tripathi1,2,3, Pratima Arya1 1Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 2Oak Ridge Associated Universities 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Observations by two instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft, Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and CAssini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS), revealed the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile species with masses of several thousand atomic mass units at altitudes of 950 - 1400 km in the atmosphere of Titan (Waite et al., 2007; Crary et al., 2009). Though these particles were believed to be molecules, they are most likely aerosols formed by the clumping of smaller molecules (Waite et al., 2009). These particles were estimated to have a density of 10-3 kg m-3 and a size of up to 256 nm. The existence of very heavy ions has also been observed by the CAPS components with a mass by charge ratio of up to 10000 (Coates et al., 2007, 2009; Sittler et al., 2009). The goal of this paper is to find out whether the so called heavy ions (or charged particles) are generated by the charge transfer of ions and electrons to the particles. The charging of these particles has been studied by using the charge balance equations that include positive ions, negative ions, electrons, neutral and charged particles. Information on the most abundant ion clusters are obtained from Vuitton et al., (2009) and Wilson and Atreya, (2004). Mass by charge ratio thus calculated will be compared with those observed by Coates et al. (2007). References: Coates AJ, et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L22103, 2007. Coates AJ, et al., Heavy negative ions in titan's ionosphere: altitude and latitude dependence. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009, 2009. Crary F.J., et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in titan's ionosphere: Combined cassini caps and inms observations. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.006, 2009

  9. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions.

  10. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eBengoetxea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane. We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal

  11. Data logger device applicability for wheelchair tennis court movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindall, Paul; Lenton, John; Cooper, Rory; Tolfrey, Keith; Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of movement logging devices is required to ensure suitability for the determination of court-movement variables during competitive sports performance and allow for practical recommendations to be made. Hence, the purpose was to examine wheelchair tennis speed profiles to assess data logger device applicability for court-movement quantification, with match play stratified by rank (HIGH, LOW), sex (male, female) and format (singles, doubles). Thirty-one wheelchair tennis players were monitored during competitive match play. Mixed sampling was employed (male = 23, female = 8). Friedman's test with Wilcoxon signed-rank post hoc testing revealed a higher percentage of time below 2.5 m · s(-1) [tennis match play are consistent with data logger accuracy. Hence, data logging is appropriate for court-movement quantification.

  12. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  13. Movement disorders emergencies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders (MD encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia, acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus, hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management.

  14. Movement disorders in systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Djamshidian-Tehrani, Atbin

    2015-02-01

    Movement disorders, classically involving dysfunction of the basal ganglia commonly occur in neurodegenerative and structural brain disorders. At times, however, movement disorders can be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease. In this article we discuss the most common movement disorders which may present in infectious, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, metabolic and endocrine diseases. Management often has to be multidisciplinary involving primary care physicians, neurologists, allied health professionals including nurses, occupational therapists and less frequently neurosurgeons. Recognizing and treating the underlying systemic disease is important in order to improve the neurological symptoms.

  15. Cerebral potentials preceding unilateral and simultaneous bilateral finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Keller, E; Deecke, L; Kornhuber, H H

    1979-08-01

    Cerebral potentials preceding voluntary bilateral simultaneous finger movements were investigated in 19 right-handed young adult subjects, and were compared with unilateral right-sided finger m n the same experiment. With bilateral movements, the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) was not symmetrical or larger over the dominant hemisphere, but surprisingly, it was larger over the minor hemisphere. The BP averaged -3.66 microV (S.D. 1.96) over the left precentral region and -4.82 microV (S.D. 3.73) over the right precentral region in this condition. The difference was significant at 2P less than 0.01. This difference was pronounced in precentral leads but very small and almost missing in parietal leads. The pre-motion positivity (PMP) was well developed and even larger with bilateral than with unilateral (right-sides) movements. At the vertex it averaged +1.33 microV (S.D.4.16) with bilateral movements and only +0.15 microV (S.D. 1.42) with right-sided unilateral movements (2P less than 0.05). With bilateral movements the PMP could be observed in any record, but with unilateral movements it was missing at the left precentral lead, in accordance with previous publications (Deecke et al. 1969, 1976). The motor potential (MP), measured in a bipolar record from left and right precentral leads, was larger with unilateral (-1.25 microV, S.D. 1.33) than with bilateral movements (-0.36 microV, S.D. 0.92). Onset time differences of the BP preceding unilateral and bilateral movements were very small. However, there was a tendency towards earlier onset with unilateral than with bilateral movements (1031 msec, S.D. 358, as compared with 951 msec, S.D. 305). The averaged EMG revealed differences in movement onset. Muscular contraction tended to be earlier in the right than in the left m. flexor indicis in our right-handed subjects, on the average by 16 msec (S.D. 15). With unilateral right-sided movements, the left m. flexor indicis was not silent but showed an abortive mirror activity

  16. Special Education as a Social Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M. Stephen; Smith, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Social movements are defined, the extent to which special education fits common definitions of social movements is assessed, and the life cycle of social movements is examined with particular focus on implications for special education. (Author)

  17. Emergence and Development of Bulgaria's Environmental Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Uday; Snavely, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's environmental movement played a role in ending communist rule, but environmental issues were not completely resolved. Social movements may never achieve their objectives in totality but instead enter a new cycle of the movement. (SK)

  18. Laban Movement Analysis in Dance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Toby

    1984-01-01

    Laban Movement Analysis is a system that helps dancers recognize and define the variety of elements that make up the movement event. This is not a method of teaching a movement style, but provides a means for creative expression. (DF)

  19. Decreased fetal movements at home were recorded by a newly developed fetal movement recorder in a case of a non-reassuring fetal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Eiji; Kamata, Hideo; Seto, Michiharu

    2014-10-01

    A fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM) recorder was developed for home monitoring of fetal movements. We provided a 32-year-old pregnant woman with the FMAM recorder to home monitor fetal movements, thereby self-recording decreased fetal movements at 30 weeks' gestation. On routine checkup, a non-stress test revealed scant fetal heart rate accelerations. At 31 weeks' gestation, the woman underwent an emergent caesarean delivery because of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern, and delivered a female neonate weighing 1312 g, whose umbilical cord was slightly narrowed at the umbilicus. Our experience with the present case suggests the usefulness of the FMAM recorder.

  20. Trajectory Indexing Using Movement Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfoser, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, the ability to index efficiently the movements of mobile objects becomes important. Objects are typically seen as moving in two-dimensional (x,y) space, which means that their movements across time may be embedded in the three-dimensional (x,y,t) space...... is to reduce movements to occur in one spatial dimension. As a consequence, the movement occurs in two-dimensional (x,t) space. The advantages of considering such lower-dimensional trajectories are that the overall size of the data is reduced and that lower-dimensional data is to be indexed. Since off......-the-shelf database management systems typically do not offer higher-dimensional indexing, this reduction in dimensionality allows us to use existing DBMSes to store and index trajectories. Moreover, we argue that, given the right circumstances, indexing these dimensionality-reduced trajectories can be more efficient...

  1. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  2. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement...... has also been shaped and energised by institutional arrangements. In particular, it argues that there are significant numbers of independent or ‘detached’ conservatives and that the institutional architecture draws them towards political engagement but at the same time imposes constraints....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  3. Social movements: A poststructuralist reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to rethink social movements from a poststructuralist position, going beyond Synthesis Theory. For the last twenty years the synthesis of the theories of Resource Mobilization, Political Opportunity and Cognitive Framing has been taken to be the last word in the sociology of social movements. Nevertheless, far from being any sort of advance, Synthesis Theory has merely perpetuated previous theories, without, in my opinion,managing to reconceptualize the constitution of power, or the force and embodiment of movement. The lack of theoretical attention to the definition of movement is a curious absence which needs to be redressed . My aim is approach it not from the notion of "subject" or any other type of "institution", but rather in terms of the contingencies of everyday life.   

  4. Invarient patterns in articulatory movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Patrizia

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the reported study is to discover an effective method of characterizing movement patterns of the crucial articulator as the function of an abstract syllable magnitude and the adjacent boundary, and at the same time to investigate effects of prosodic control on utterance organization. In particular, the speed of movement when a flesh point on the tongue blade or the lower lip crosses a selected position relative to the occlusion plane is examined. The time of such crossing provides an effective measure of syllable timing and syllable duration according to previous work. In the present work, using a very limited vocabulary with only a few consonants and one vowel as the key speech materials, effects of contrastive emphasis on demisyllabic movement patterns were studied. The theoretical framework for this analysis is the C/D model of speech production in relation to the concept of an invariant part of selected articulatory movements. The results show evidence in favor of the existence of ``iceberg'' patterns, but a linear dependence of slope on the total excursion of the demisyllabic movement, instead of the approximate constancy of the threshold crossing speed as suggested in the original proposal of the iceberg, has been found. Accordingly, a revision of the original concept of iceberg, seems necessary. This refinement is consistent with the C/D model assumption on ``prominence control'' that the syllable magnitude determines the movement amplitude, accompanying directly related syllable duration change. In this assumption, the movement of a consonantal component should also be proportional to syllable magnitude. The results suggests, however, systematic outliers deviating from the linear dependence of movement speed on excursion. This deviation may be caused by the effect of the immediately following boundary, often referred to as phrase-final elongation. Thesis advisor: Osamu Fujimura Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from

  5. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing ...

  6. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  7. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  8. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  9. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Dixit, Puneet Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Babita

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand. PMID:26019431

  10. Holographic charge density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2013-01-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with non-zero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  11. Holographic charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  12. Charges for linearized gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aksteiner, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes, i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity, which may be seen to correspond to the Poincare Lie-algebra. The 2-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a 2-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.

  13. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, John F.; Weihs, Brandon J.; Schettler, Megan Jensen

    Mass movements of nearly all types occur in Afghanistan but in the high relief, rugged Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, mass-movement threats to lives and property necessitated study to elucidate problems to development. Twenty-two different mass movements in bedrock in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan were studied for this paper, including large rock falls and rock slides, along with massive slope-failure complexes with many types and rates of movement. Where higher altitudes prevail in the region, ice-cemented and ice-cored rock glaciers are also common and overlie some of the other mass movements. Inasmuch as seismic energy sources in the Eastern Hindu Kush are maximal in southern Badakhshan, and relief, slope angles and precipitation all increase from west to east as well, the causes of the pervasive mass movement are plentiful enough, although direct cause and slope-failure effect are not known. Some weak sedimentary lithologies downfaulted into, or draped across crystalline rocks, also failed. Some intermixed tills also occur but are not easily differentiated, even with analysis on the ground. Using high resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation models, we assessed geomorphologic parameters to characterize spatial-organization structures related to zones of erosion, deposition and further hazard potential. Analyses indicate that many of the massive slope failures can be characterized and differentiated into various process domains and chronologic-development zones with their different impacts upon the landscape. Mass movements in Afghanistan can exhibit unique topographic signatures that can be used to better assess hazards in other mountain areas, especially where landslide-dam breakout floods threaten. Development of roads, bridges, buildings, and irrigation networks should be done with care in these regions of Afghanistan.

  14. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  15. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  16. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  17. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  18. Recognizing induced emotions of happiness and sadness from dance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30 watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement.

  19. Kinematic Analyses of Speech, Orofacial Nonspeech, and Finger Movements in Stuttering and Nonstuttering Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Ludo; Caruso, Anthony J.; Gracco, Vincent L.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuromotor differences between adults who stutter (n=10) and gender- and age-matched non-stuttering adults (n=10) are not limited to the movements involved in speech production. Results revealed significant differences between groups on measures of lip and jaw closing (but not opening) movements during speech and in…

  20. Research on Ground Movement Laws for Strip Mining Under Thick Alluvium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志祥; 邓喀中; 杨军

    2002-01-01

    With the discrete element method, the simulation and analysis of a series of numerical models were made. This research revealed ground movement laws for strip mining under thick alluvium and gave calculation formulae for the maximum ground subsidence and horizontal movement as a function of basement rock thickness and mining width, thus providing sound evidence for future strip mining under thick alluvium.

  1. Movement characteristics of upper extremity prostheses during basic goal-directed tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: After an upper limb amputation a prosthesis is often used to restore the functionality. However, the frequency of prostheses use is generally low. Movement kinematics of prostheses use might suggest origins of this low use. The aim of this study was to reveal movement patterns of prosthe

  2. Imaging Charged Dust in Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory experiments with dust grains are described in this talk, which will include numerous images and videos from the experiments. In all the experiments, grains are immersed in plasma, and they are electrically charged. In the first experiment, grains are synthesized under conditions that simulate the outflow of carbon stars. These grains are grown in the gas phase with a carbon vapor. They grow by homogeneous nucleation, accretion, and coagulation. After growth, they are collected and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. These images reveal the grain morphology. In the second experiment, the structure and dynamics of the liquid or solid-phase centers of a star is simulated in the laboratory using charged grains (precision micron-size spheres) as proxies for protons. These grains are imaged by video microscopy, revealing how they self-organize, arranging themselves spatially in a crystalline-like lattice due to mutual Coulomb repulsion. Video microscopy allows tracking the motion of the microspheres and calculating their velocities. This measurement allows the experimenter to detect waves corresponding to random thermal motion, and from the properties of these waves one can measure the grain's charge. In the third experiment, sound waves in a cloud of charged dust are observed using high-speed video cameras. The compression and rarefaction of the dust-grain number density are easily observed in the video. Work supported by NSF and NASA.

  3. Charged Water Droplets can Melt Metallic Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Eric; Rosenberg, Ethan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    A water drop, when immersed in an insulating fluid, acquires charge when it contacts an energized electrode. Provided the electric field is strong enough, the drop will move away to the opposite electrode, acquire the opposite charge, and repeat the process, effectively 'bouncing' back and forth between the electrodes. A key implicit assumption, dating back to Maxwell, has been that the electrode remains unaltered by the charging process. Here we demonstrate that the electrode is physically deformed during each charge transfer event with an individual water droplet or other conducting object. We used optical, electron, and atomic force microscopy to characterize a variety of different metallic electrodes before and after drops were electrically bounced on them. Although the electrodes appear unchanged to the naked eye, the microscopy reveals that each charge transfer event yielded a crater approximately 1 micron wide and 50 nm deep, with the exact dimensions proportional to the applied field strength. We present evidence that the craters are formed by localized melting of the electrodes via Joule heating in the metal and concurrent dielectric breakdown of the surrounding fluid, suggesting that the electrode locally achieves temperatures exceeding 3400°C. Present address: Dept. Materials Sci. Engineering, MIT.

  4. Detrended-Fluctuation Analysis of Nematode Movement in Heterogeneous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, S. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    We consider multifractal analysis in time scale to analyse the effect of structural heterogeneity on the movement of the slug-parasitic nematode, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. The study involves image recording and analysis of nematode movement on a homogeneous layer of technical agar compared to movement of nematodes in a structurally heterogeneous environment that was created by adding sand particles to the plates of agar. The temporal scaling properties of the recorded trails were studied using a detrended fluctuation based method to capture the complex dynamic of movement data by comparing the multiscaling characteristics of nematode step lengths as affected by the different environments. A systematic analysis of the exponent of the structure function and the generalized Hurst exponent revealed that, while in homogeneous environment the movement was characterized by a long-range correlation with a Hurst exponent H(q) close to 1, varying little with respect to the order q of the fluctuation function, the impact of sand particle was to reduce the degree of persistence in the movement, the step lenghts being characterized by a smaller Hurst exponent, yet more variable. The results suggest that the presence of structural heterogeneity introduces a new bias into the movement, which plays an important role in complex environments where the nematode movement may be obstructed by soil particles. References Tarquis, A.M., Morato, M. C., Castellanos M.T., Perdigones A. 2009. Comparison of Structure Function and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Wind Time Series, Riv. Nuevo Cimento, in press. Gao, J., Cao, Y., Tung, W.-W., Hu J., 2007. Multiscale Analysis of Complex Times Series. Eds. John Wiley & Sons.

  5. Optimization of BEV Charging Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    This paper presents different approaches to optimize fast charging and workplace charging strategy of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers. For the fast charging analysis, a rule-based model was built to simulate BEV charging behavior. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to explore to the potential range of congestion at fast charging stations which could be more than four hours at the most crowded stations. Genetic algorithm was performed to explore the theoretical minimum waiting time at fast charging stations, and it can decrease the waiting time at the most crowded stations to be shorter than one hour. A deterministic approach was proposed as a feasible suggestion that people should consider to take fast charging when the state of charge is approaching 40 miles. This suggestion is hoped to help to minimize potential congestion at fast charging stations. For the workplace charging analysis, scenario analysis was performed to simulate temporal distribution of charging demand under different workplace charging strategies. It was found that if BEV drivers charge as much as possible and as late as possible at workplace, it could increase the utility of solar-generated electricity while relieve grid stress of extra intensive electricity demand at night caused by charging electric vehicles at home.

  6. Brain Representation of Active and Passive Hand Movements in Healthy Aged People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Weisen; WU Yi; WU Junfa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the neural network of active and passive hand movements.Method:Seven healthy aged people were checked,and acquired fimctional magnetic resonance imaging data on a 1.5T scanner.Active movement consisted of repetitive grasping and loosening of hand; passive movement involved the same movement performed by examiner.Both types of hand movements were assessed separately.These data were analysed by Statistical Parametric Mapping Microsoft.Result:The main activated brain areas were the contralateral supplemental motor area,primary motor area,primary sensory area and the ipsilateral cerebellum when subjects gripped right hands actively and passively.The supplemental area was less active in passive hand movement than active hand movement.The activated brain areas were mainly within Brodmann area 4 during active hand movement; in the contrast,the voxels triggered by passive movement were mainly within Brodmann areas 3,1,2 areas.Conclusion:The results suggest that the neural networks of passive and active tasks spared some common areas,and the passive movement could be as effective as active movement to facilitate the recovery of limbs motor function in patients with brain damage.

  7. A Theatre Movement Bibliography, 1978 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lynne

    Reference materials that deal with various aspects of theater movement are grouped in this partially annotated bibliography under the following headings: anatomy, kinesiology, and physiology; combat and martial arts; integrated approaches to movement; mime; miscellaneous acting and movement approaches; movement notations systems; movement…

  8. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  9. Sustainability of natural movement activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Metzgar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a focus on reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings as a means of increasing their sustainability. As part of this trend, various health clubs and fitness centers have been designed to lower consumption of resources such as electricity and water. However, energy consumption is just one part of sustainability, with human health and economic health also paramount. When all components of sustainability are analyzed, other forms of physical activity may possess higher levels of sustainability than traditional gym exercise. Natural movement activity consists of outdoor activity that replicates movements performed by ancient humans during the Paleolithic era. A full analysis of sustainability shows that natural movement activity consumes fewer resources and provides unique psychological and physical benefits compared with traditional indoor exercise.

  10. Movement in aesthetic form creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the good practice based experiences found when movement is used to strengthen form creation and to create flow in the process of artistic education. Faced with the design engineering students’ problems with creating forms with aesthetic statements, the experiences with movement...... inspired the thesis that the design engineers’ training in aesthetic form creation can be improved by integrating the movement potential into their education. The paper documents the on-going work on developing a model for embodied creation of form called ‘Somatechne model’. The study also identifies...... a lens to assess the students’ development of mind-body skills, known as ‘The Three Soma’. The Somatechne model also helps to identify the activity that gives the students the opportunity to develop their sensibility and thus aesthetic attention....

  11. Movement Perception and Movement Production in Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kelly J.; Shiffrar, Maggie; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether motor difficulties documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are related to compromised visual abilities, this study examined perception and movement in response to dynamic visual environments. Fourteen males with AS and 16 controls aged 7-23 completed measures of motor skills, postural response to optic flow, and visual…

  12. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  13. Rhythm as an affordance for the entrainment of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Fred

    2009-01-01

    A general account of rhythm in human behaviour is provided, according to which rhythm inheres in the affordance that a signal provides for the entrainment of movement on the part of a perceiver. This generic account is supported by an explication of the central concepts of affordance and entrainment. When viewed in this light, rhythm appears as the correct explanandum to account for coordinated behaviour in a wide variety of situations, including such core senses as dance and the production of music. Speech may appear to be only marginally rhythmical under such an account, but several experimental studies reveal that speech, too, has the potential to entrain movement.

  14. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.

    1973-01-01

    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  15. Comments on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Charged lepton flavor violation has been of interest since the muon (and subsequently, the tau lepton) was identified as a heavy version of the electron. CLFV continues to be pursued vigorously with the hope that its observation would reveal new information relating to the generation puzzle or about physics beyond the Standard Model. Theories abound which incorporate hypothetical CLFV at potentially observable levels although the mass scales and couplings are unknown, and innovative experiments continue to push the boundaries of sensitivity.

  16. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  17. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  18. Electrically charged curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation was generated through the curvaton mechanism from a scalar field with an electric charge, or precisely the Standard Model U(1) weak hypercharge. This links the dynamics of the very early universe concretely to the Standard Model of particle physics, and because the coupling strength is known, it reduces the number of free parameters in the curvaton model. We show that the model is compatible with CMB observations for Hubble rate $H_* > 10^8 GeV$ and curvaton mass $m > 10^{-2}H_*$. Charge fluctuations generated during inflation are screened by electron-positron pairs, and therefore do not violate observational constraints. The interaction with the gauge field leads to interesting dynamics after inflation, including resonant preheating, with potentially highly non-trivial observational consequences, which should be studied more carefully using numerical field theory simulations.

  19. Existence of magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, David

    1990-10-01

    A status report is presented on the existence of quarks carrying the Dirac unit of magnetic charge g = (137/2) e. The Paschen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed. From the dyonium model, Akers predicted the existence of a new η meson at 1814 MeV with I G(JPC) = 0+(0-+). Experimental evidence now confirms the existence of the meson resonance.

  20. Extremally charged line

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzner, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a static, cylindrically symmetric Majumdar-Papapetrou-type solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations. We locate its singularities, establish its algebraic type, find its asymptotic properties and weak-field limit, study the structure of electrogeodesics, and determine the mass and charge of its sources. We provide an interpretation of the spacetime and discuss the parameter appearing in the metric.

  1. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  2. Naturalistic arm movements during obstacle avoidance in 3D and the identification of movement primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Britta; Lipinski, John; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-10-01

    By studying human movement in the laboratory, a number of regularities and invariants such as planarity and the principle of isochrony have been discovered. The theoretical idea has gained traction that movement may be generated from a limited set of movement primitives that would encode these invariants. In this study, we ask if invariants and movement primitives capture naturalistic human movement. Participants moved objects to target locations while avoiding obstacles using unconstrained arm movements in three dimensions. Two experiments manipulated the spatial layout of targets, obstacles, and the locations in the transport movement where an obstacle was encountered. We found that all movement trajectories were planar, with the inclination of the movement plane reflecting the obstacle constraint. The timing of the movement was consistent with both global isochrony (same movement time for variable path lengths) and local isochrony (same movement time for two components of the obstacle avoidance movement). The identified movement primitives of transport (movement from start to target position) and lift (movement perpendicular to transport within the movement plane) varied independently with obstacle conditions. Their scaling accounted for the observed double peak structure of movement speed. Overall, the observed naturalistic movement was astoundingly regular. Its decomposition into primitives suggests simple mechanisms for movement generation.

  3. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  4. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  5. Constraint-induced movement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Banzi, Rita;

    2014-01-01

    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  6. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...

  7. Fetal onset of general movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luechinger, Annemarie B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van Kan, Colette M.; de Vries, JIP

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) is a tool to evaluate the integrity of the young nervous system. The aim of this investigation was to study the emergence of GMs. Fetal onset of GMs was studied sonographically in 18 fetuses during the first trimester of uncomplicated in vi

  8. Poems from the Occupy Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Annas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the Occupy Movement, poetry has occupied a major supporting role.  Both the New York and Boston encampments immediately set up a library tent, and poetry readings were a regular part of the camp’s activities.

  9. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  10. Intrinsic slow charge response in the perovskite solar cells: Electron and ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Huiyin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo, E-mail: qbmeng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-10-19

    The intrinsic charge response and hysteresis characteristic in the perovskite solar cell has been investigated by an electrically modulated transient photocurrent technology. An ultraslow charge response process in the timescale of seconds is observed, which can be well explained by the ion migration in the perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film driven by multiple electric fields derived from the heterojunction depletion charge, the external modulation, and the accumulated ion charge. Furthermore, theoretical calculation of charge transport reveals that the hysteresis behavior is also significantly influenced by the interfacial charge extraction velocity and the carrier transport properties inside the cell.

  11. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  12. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  13. Notch Charge-Coupled Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, James

    1992-01-01

    Notch charge-coupled devices are imaging arrays of photodetectors designed to exhibit high charge-transfer efficiencies necessary for operation in ultra-large array, and less vulnerable to degradation by energetic protons, neutrons, and electrons. Main channel of horizontal register includes deep narrow inner channel (notch). Small packets of charge remain confined to notch. Larger packets spill into rest of channel; transferred in usual way. Degradation of charge-transfer efficiency by energetic particles reduced.

  14. Signature movements lead to efficient search for threatening actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A van Boxtel

    Full Text Available The ability to find and evade fighting persons in a crowd is potentially life-saving. To investigate how the visual system processes threatening actions, we employed a visual search paradigm with threatening boxer targets among emotionally-neutral walker distractors, and vice versa. We found that a boxer popped out for both intact and scrambled actions, whereas walkers did not. A reverse correlation analysis revealed that observers' responses clustered around the time of the "punch", a signature movement of boxing actions, but not around specific movements of the walker. These findings support the existence of a detector for signature movements in action perception. This detector helps in rapidly detecting aggressive behavior in a crowd, potentially through an expedited (subcortical threat-detection mechanism.

  15. Permutation Entropy Applied to Movement Behaviors of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuedan; Chon, Tae-Soo; Baek, Hunki; Do, Younghae; Choi, Jin Hee; Chung, Yun Doo

    Movement of different strains in Drosophila melanogaster was continuously observed by using computer interfacing techniques and was analyzed by permutation entropy (PE) after exposure to toxic chemicals, toluene (0.1 mg/m3) and formaldehyde (0.01 mg/m3). The PE values based on one-dimensional time series position (vertical) data were variable according to internal constraint (i.e. strains) and accordingly increased in response to external constraint (i.e. chemicals) by reflecting diversity in movement patterns from both normal and intoxicated states. Cross-correlation function revealed temporal associations between the PE values and between the component movement patterns in different chemicals and strains through the period of intoxication. The entropy based on the order of position data could be a useful means for complexity measure in behavioral changes and for monitoring the impact of stressors in environment.

  16. Environmental awareness, the Transition Movement, and place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frederik Nørgaard; Hunka, Agnieszka; Mälgand, Miina

    2014-01-01

    inhabitants and named the Self Sufficient Village (SSV). Employing the theories of constructed landscapes and place attachment, we studied how the Transition Movement ideology shaped the constructed landscape of the village and influenced the inhabitants’ attachment. The research team, following the grounded...... theory approach, conducted a field study staying in SSV. We collected data with focus groups, individual interviews and participatory observations, taking part in daily life of the community. The analysis revealed three, intertwined themes which altogether create the constructed landscape of SSV....... They were named Community, Ideology, and Individual impact, respectively. Our findings showed that the community and strong social ties were predominant factors in shaping place attachment. Transition ideology and environmental awareness, although less pronounced, still turned out to be vital...

  17. Current crustal movement in Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2003-01-01

    The quantification of tectonic deformation in the Eastern and Central Asia is of great significance for the study on global plate motion and lithospheric dynamics. In the past four years, the velocity field of horizontal crustal movement for the Chinese mainland has been established for the first time thanks to the intensified GPS measurements and its improved accuracy. The velocity field derived from GPS measurements delineates the patterns of tectonic deformation in the Chinese mainland in the unprecedented detail, and thus reveals the new features of the ongoing tectonic process resulted from the collision of Indian plate to Eurasian plate. Meanwhile, the surface offset induced by two strong earthquakes occurred in Chinese mainland was sampled precisely using InSAR technique.

  18. Predictions of nuclear charge radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, M.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear charge radius is a fundamental property of an atomic nucleus. In this article we study the predictive power of empirical relations for experimental nuclear charge radii of neighboring nuclei and predict the unknown charge radii of 1085 nuclei based on the experimental CR2013 database within an uncertainty of 0.03 fm.

  19. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-15

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  20. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  1. Human cortical control of hand movements: parietofrontal networks for reaching, grasping, and pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimon, Flavia

    2010-08-01

    In primates, control of the limb depends on many cortical areas. Whereas specialized parietofrontal circuits have been proposed for different movements in macaques, functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed widespread, overlapping activations for hand and eye movements and for movements such as reaching and grasping. This review examines the involvement of frontal and parietal areas in hand and arm movements in humans as revealed with functional neuroimaging. The degree of functional specialization, possible homologies with macaque cortical regions, and differences between frontal and posterior parietal areas are discussed, as well as a possible organization of hand movements with respect to different spatial reference frames. The available evidence supports a cortical organization along gradients of sensory (visual to somatosensory) and effector (eye to hand) preferences.

  2. Water and Ion Permeation through Electrically Charged Nanopore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Li; ZUO Guang-Hong; GONG Xiao-Jing; LU Hang-Jun; WANG Chun-Lei; WU Ke-Fei; WAN Rong-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ The behaviour of water and small solutes in confined geometries is important to a variety of chemical and nanofluidic applications. Here we investigate the permeation and distribution of water and ions in electrically charged carbon cylindrical nanopore during the osmotic process using molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulations, charges are distributed uniformly on the pores with diameter of 0.9 nm. For nanopores with no charge or a low charge, ions are difficult to enter. With the increasing of charge densities on the pores, ions will appear inside the nanopores because of the large electronic forces between the ions and the charged pores. Different ion entries induce varying effects on osmotic water flow. Our simulations reveal that the osmotic water can flow through the negatively charged pore occupied by K+ ions, while water flux through the positively charged pores will be disrupted by Cl- ions inside the pores. This may be explained by the different radial distributions of K+ions and Cl- ions inside the charged nanopores.

  3. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial sur-face potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crys-tallinity.

  4. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial surface potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crystallinity.

  5. MOVEMENT ANALYSIS OF TURKISH FOLK DANCE TYPE: “BAR”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal OTKEN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The movement analysis in “Bar”, Which is a type of Turkish Folk Dances, the main subject of this article. Three regions Erzurum, Bayburt and Erzincan are chosen to determine the basic movements that are most used in “Bar”. The basic movements are determined by examining 7 or 8 dances for 3 regions, namely 23 dances in sum. The similar and different characteristics of the sort are revealed by examining the arm positions and basic figures in body parts, which are used in these dances. In the study, first of all, video records that were recorded in the interviews with the regional folk dance trainers, various folk dance shows and folk dance competitions, are transformed into digital environment by Asus Live Video to have bmp and jpeg formats for examining the body movements with the aim of determining them. As a result of this work, the photos are taken and examined in digital environment. By analyzing these determined basic movements that are used in “Bar” dances in the respect of anatomy also, the anatomy terms, which are used by the medicine, anatomy and kinetics scholars in the whole world internationally are employed for the explanations of the movements due to the lack of the written terminology of Turkish folk dances. In the conclusion part, the necessity of movement analysis and its advantages provided for education and training of folk dance are mentioned. Also this article is the first study which puts movement analysis about “Bar” into practice in Turkish folk dances. This article was prepared at Istanbul Technical University Institute of Social Sciences, supported by Istanbul Technical University Scientific Research Projects Unit; "Determination of the Basic Movements Used in Folk Dances and Their Anatomical Analysis" is derived from the thesis Proficiency. The project examined five different types of folk dances. But from within the only “Bar” dances on the subject by examining the forms of movement, some stickers

  6. Movement planning of video and of manual aiming movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Patrick; Proteau, Luc

    2005-01-01

    We studied aiming performance of adults for video- and manual aiming tasks when they had visual information about the location of the starting base or when they had not. In video-aiming, foveating the starting base and then the target prior to movement initiation (Foveation) resulted in less aiming bias and variability than when the starting base was not visible (PNV), or visible without the participants foveating it prior to movement initiation (PSV). In manual aiming, Foveation and PSV procedures resulted in identical results but reduced aiming bias and variability in comparison to the PNV procedures. The results indicate that participants had difficulty in transforming the locations of the starting base and of the target when seen on a vertical screen into an appropriate movement trajectory. Successive foveation of the starting base and of the target facilitated this transformation, resulting in direction variability being reduced by more than half in comparison to the PNV and PSV conditions. This suggests that in video-aiming the efference copy of the saccade can be used by the CNS to approximate the hand trajectory in the workspace and/or in joint coordinates (Jouffrais and Boussaoud, 1999). Hand trajectory could be readily available in manual aiming if the target location can be recoded directly in hand-coordinates as recently suggested by Buneo et al. (2002).

  7. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  8. Moving to music: Effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Schaefer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate and pallidum, the motor nuclei of the thalamus and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  9. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  10. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  11. Antiproton charge radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, P.; Cooke, D.; Heiss, M. W.

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming operation of the extra low energy antiprotons ring at CERN, the upgrade of the antiproton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of 1 08 e+ /s will open the possibility for new experiments with antihydrogen (H ¯). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of H ¯. For four months of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of C P T and the first determination of the antiproton charge radius at the level of 10%.

  12. [The People's Health Movement: health for all now].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Breilh, Jaime; Peralta, Arturo Quizhpe

    2005-07-01

    We are moving away from the year 2000, and the goal of "health for all" remains distant. Economic globalization, which many consider to be one of the most serious threats to health, moves ahead, along with globalization of international health policies. A small number of powerful actors are in charge of setting the agenda, and they relegate to an inferior position the World Health Organization, which has moved away from the goal of "health for all." All of this has helped to promote a neoliberal mentality in the field of health. The People's Health Movement was created with the objective of reestablishing the right to comprehensive health and to development with equity as principal priorities of health policies at the local, national, and international levels. The People's Health Movement uses as a strategy the People's Charter for Health, which was approved at the first People's Health Assembly, which was held in Bangladesh in 2000. The Charter expresses collective concerns and the belief in a better and healthier world as a meeting point in order to promote a world health movement and a call for radical action. In July 2005 the People's Health Movement will hold the People's Health Assembly 2, in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador. The slogan of that meeting will be "The voices of the earth are calling!--let's build a healthy world." Among the topics that will be examined at the meeting are: health as a fundamental human right; militarization and occupation; environmental degradation; emerging and reemerging pandemics; equity, poverty, and health; the importance of cultural diversity; social and political violence; health in the hands of the people; health at work; traditional medicine and bioenergetic medicine; gender; and health sector reform. The objective of the People's Health Movement is to help to reach the Millennium Development Goals and to smooth the path toward attaining health for all, in Latin America and the Caribbean as well as in the rest of the world.

  13. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  14. Analysis of cardiomyocyte movement in the developing murine heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hisayuki [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yuasa, Shinsuke, E-mail: yuasa@a8.keio.jp [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tabata, Hidenori [Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tohyama, Shugo; Seki, Tomohisa; Egashira, Toru; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Kusumoto, Dai; Kunitomi, Akira; Takei, Makoto; Kashimura, Shin; Yozu, Gakuto; Shimojima, Masaya; Motoda, Chikaaki; Muraoka, Naoto [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Kazunori [Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi [Life Function and Dynamics, ERATO, JST, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukuda, Keiichi [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-09-04

    The precise assemblage of several types of cardiac precursors controls heart organogenesis. The cardiac precursors show dynamic movement during early development and then form the complicated heart structure. However, cardiomyocyte movements inside the newly organized mammalian heart remain unclear. We previously established the method of ex vivo time-lapse imaging of the murine heart to study cardiomyocyte behavior by using the Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) system, which can effectively label individual G1, S/G2/M, and G1/S-transition phase nuclei in living cardiomyocytes as red, green, and yellow, respectively. Global analysis of gene expression in Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes confirmed that cell cycle regulatory genes expressed in G1/S, S, G2/M, and M phase transitions were upregulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis revealed that many genes related to the cell cycle were significantly upregulated in the Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes, while only a small number of genes related to cell motility were upregulated. Time-lapse imaging showed that murine proliferating cardiomyocytes did not exhibit dynamic movement inside the heart, but stayed on site after entering the cell cycle. - Highlights: • We directly visualized cardiomyocyte movement inside the developing murine heart. • Cell cycle related genes were upregulated in the proliferating cardiomyocytes. • Time-lapse imaging revealed that proliferating murine cardiomyocytes stayed in place. • Murine ventricular cardiomyocytes proliferate on site during development.

  15. From sound to shape: auditory perception of drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Velay, Jean-Luc; Ystad, Sølvi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the human ability to perceive biological movements through friction sounds produced by drawings and, furthermore, the ability to recover drawn shapes from the friction sounds generated. In a first experiment, friction sounds, real-time synthesized and modulated by the velocity profile of the drawing gesture, revealed that subjects associated a biological movement to those sounds whose timbre variations were generated by velocity profiles following the 1/3 power law. This finding demonstrates that sounds can adequately inform about human movements if their acoustic characteristics are in accordance with the kinematic rule governing actual movements. Further investigations of our ability to recognize drawn shapes were carried out in 2 association tasks in which both recorded and synthesized sounds had to be associated to both distinct and similar visual shapes. Results revealed that, for both synthesized and recorded sounds, subjects made correct associations for distinct shapes, although some confusion was observed for similar shapes. The comparisons made between recorded and synthesized sounds lead to conclude that the timbre variations induced by the velocity profile enabled the shape recognition. The results are discussed in the context of the ecological and ideomotor frameworks.

  16. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  17. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  18. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  19. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  20. Dance movement therapy for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Meekums, B; Karkou, V; Nelson, EA

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a debilitating condition affecting more than 350 million people worldwide (WHO 2012) with a limited number of evidence-based treatments. Drug treatments may be inappropriate due to side effects and cost, and not everyone can use talking therapies.There is a need for evidence-based treatments that can be applied across cultures and with people who find it difficult to verbally articulate thoughts and feelings. Dance movement therapy (DMT) is used with people from a ra...

  1. Social Movements, Protest, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of Latin American social groups to mobilize has excited the imagination of students of the region since the birth of Latin American studies itself. Alongside the cultural turn, many social movement organizations continue to engage directly with politics. Aspirational goals notwithstanding, in order to improve conditions they devote much of their energy to influencing policy. Although scholars have begun to address the policy impact of Latin American social movements, we have limited systematized understanding of the conditions and mechanisms by which social movement protest affects policy outcomes. This essay argues that a policy process approach offers a useful first cut into more systematic analysis of social movements, protest, and their policy consequences in Latin America. Resumen: Movimientos Sociales, Protesta y Políticas de Gobierno La capacidad de movilización social que evidencia América Latina ha captado el imaginario de investigadores desde los albores de los estudios latinoamericanos. A pesar del giro cultural sobre el tema, muchos movimientos sociales siguen entablando la política de forma directa. Amén de sus metas aspiracionales, en pos de mejorar sus condiciones dedican una cantidad apreciable de sus esfuerzos a influenciar políticas de gobierno. Si bien es cierto que una cantidad no menospreciable de investigadores consideran esos impactos aún hace falta conocimiento sistematizado sobre las condiciones y los mecanismos a través de los cuales la protesta social afecta las políticas del estado. Este ensayo argumenta que enfoques centrados en los procesos de la política pública ofrecen una buena entrada al análisis más sistemático sobre los movimientos sociales, protesta, y sus consecuencias para políticas de gobierno.

  2. National epilepsy movement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P T Fernandes; Noronha, A. L. A.; Sander, J. W.; L. M. Li

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a social network of epilepsy lay organization in Brazil to provide advocacy for people with epilepsy and eventually forma powerful National Epilepsy movement. Method.-We actively searched for any associations, support groups or organizations related to epilepsy in the country by personal contacts, internet search and by telephone search. Contact was then established with any entity found. Results: The first meeting was held in Campinas in March 2003, and was attended by ...

  3. Charge transport in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, Tamar Shoshana

    In this thesis, we study charge transport in arrays of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots. Nanocrystals are synthesized in solution, and an organic ligand on the surface of the nanocrystal creates a potential barrier that confines charges in the nanocrystal. Optical absorption measurements reveal discrete electronic energy levels in the nanocrystals resulting from quantum confinement. When nanocrystals are deposited on a surface, they self-assemble into a close-packed array forming a nanocrystal solid. We report electrical transport measurements of a PbSe nanocrystal solid that serves as the channel of an inverted field-effect transistor. We measure the conductance as a function of temperature, source-drain bias and. gate voltage. The data indicates that holes are the majority carriers; the Fermi energy lies in impurity states in the bandgap of the nanocrystal; and charges hop between the highest occupied valence state in the nanocrystals (the 1S h states). At low source-drain voltages, the activation energy for hopping is given by the energy required to generate holes in the 1Sh state plus activation over barriers resulting from site disorder. The barriers from site disorder are eliminated with a sufficiently high source-drain bias. From the gate effect, we extract the Thomas-Fermi screening length and a density of states that is consistent with the estimated value. We consider variable-range hopping as an alternative model, and find no self-consistent evidence for it. Next, we employ charge sensing as an alternative to current measurements for studying transport in materials with localized sites. A narrow-channel MOSFET serves as a charge sensor because its conductance is sensitive to potential fluctuations in the nearby environment caused by the motion of charge. In particular, it is sensitive to the fluctuation of single electrons at the silicon-oxide interface within the MOSFET. We pattern a strip of amorphous germanium within 100 nm of the transistor. The

  4. Phospholipid and Hydrocarbon Interactions with a Charged Electrode Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary A; DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Vernier, P Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and experiments we examined the interactions of alkanes and phospholipids at charged interfaces in order to understand how interfacial charge densities affect the association of these two representative molecules with electrodes. Consistent with theory and experiment, these model systems reveal interfacial associations mediated through a combination of Coulombic and van der Waals forces. van der Waals forces, in particular, mediate rapid binding of decane to neutral electrodes. No decane binding was observed at high surface charge densities because of interfacial water polarization, which screens hydrophobic attractions. The positively charged choline moiety of the phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) is primarily responsible for POPC attraction by a moderately negatively charged electrode. The hydrocarbon tails of POPC interact with the hydrophobic electrode interface similarly to decane. Previously reported electrochemical results confirm these findings by demonstrating bipolar displacement currents from PC vesicles adhering to moderately negatively charged interfaces, originating from the choline interactions observed in simulations. At more negatively charged interfaces, choline-to-surface binding was stronger. In both simulations and experiments the maximal interaction of anionic PS occurs with a positively charged interface, provided that the electrostatic forces outweigh local Lennard-Jones interactions. Direct comparisons between the binding affinities measured in experiments and those obtained in simulations reveal previously unobserved atomic interactions that facilitate lipid vesicle adhesion to charged interfaces. Moreover, the implementation of a charged interface in molecular dynamics simulations provides an alternative method for the generation of large electric fields across phospholipid bilayers, especially for systems with periodic boundary conditions, and may be useful for

  5. Evaluation of head movement periodicity and irregularity during locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuzo eShingai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is suitable for studying the nervous system, which controls behavior. C. elegans shows sinusoidal locomotion on an agar plate. The head moves not only sinusoidally but also more complexly, which reflects regulation of the head muscles by the nervous system. The head movement becomes more irregular with senescence. To date, the head movement complexity has not been quantitatively analyzed. We propose two simple methods for evaluation of the head movement regularity on an agar plate using image analysis. The methods calculate metrics that are a measure of how the head end movement is correlated with body movement. In the first method, the length along the trace of the head end on the agar plate between adjacent intersecting points of the head trace and the quasi-midline of the head trace, which was made by sliding an averaging window of 1/2 the body wavelength, was obtained. Histograms of the lengths showed periodic movement of the head and deviation from it. In the second method, the intersections between the trace of the head end and the trace of the 5 (near the pharynx or 50% (the mid-body point from the head end in the centerline length of the worm image were marked. The length of the head trace between adjacent intersections was measured, and a histogram of the lengths was produced. The histogram for the 5% point showed deviation of the head end movement from the movement near the pharynx. The histogram for the 50% point showed deviation of the head movement from the sinusoidal movement of the body center. Application of these methods to wild type and several mutant strains enabled evaluation of their head movement periodicity and irregularity, and revealed a difference in the age-dependence of head movement irregularity between the strains. A set of five parameters obtained from the histograms reliably identifies differences in head movement between strains.

  6. Cervical spine movement during intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Swain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been growing concerns following documented instances of neurological deterioration in patients with cervical spine injury as a result of intubation. A significant body of evidence has since evolved with the primary objective of ascertaining the safest way of securing the endotracheal tube in patients with suspected and proven cervical injury. The search for a mode of intubation producing the least movement at the cervical spine is an ongoing process and is limited by logistic and ethical issues. The ensuing review is an attempt to review available evidence on cervical movements during intubation and to comprehensively outline the movement at the cervical spine with a wide plethora of intubation aids. Literature search was sourced from digital libraries including PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar in addition to the standard textbooks of Anaesthesiology. The keywords used in literature search included 'cervical spine motion,' 'neurological deterioration,' 'intubation biomechanics,' 'direct laryngoscopy,' 'flexible fibreoptic intubation,' 'video laryngoscopes' and 'craniocervical motion.' The scientific information in this review is expected to assist neuroanaesthesiologists for planning airway management in patients with neurological injury as well as to direct further research into this topic which has significant clinical and patient safety implications.

  7. Movement Data Anonymity through Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monreale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks and mobile devices, such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, sense and track the movements of people and vehicles, producing society-wide mobility databases. This is a challenging scenario for data analysis and mining. On the one hand, exciting opportunities arise out of discovering new knowledge about human mobile behavior, and thus fuel intelligent info-mobility applications. On other hand, new privacy concerns arise when mobility data are published. The risk is particularly high for GPS trajectories, which represent movement of a very high precision and spatio-temporal resolution: the de-identification of such trajectories (i.e., forgetting the ID of their associated owners is only a weak protection, as generally it is possible to re-identify a person by observing her routine movements. In this paper we propose a method for achieving true anonymity in a dataset of published trajectories, by defining a transformation of the original GPS trajectories based on spatial generalization and k-anonymity. The proposed method offers a formal data protection safeguard, quantified as a theoretical upper bound to the probability of re-identification. We conduct a thorough study on a real-life GPS trajectory dataset, and provide strong empirical evidence that the proposed anonymity techniques achieve the conflicting goals of data utility and data privacy. In practice, the achieved anonymity protection is much stronger than the theoretical worst case, while the quality of the cluster analysis on the trajectory data is preserved.

  8. Electric field observations of time constants related to charging and charge neutralization processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. C.; Evans, D. S.; Troim, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Polar 5 electric field results are reviewed, and the transients from Polar 3 are presented. The phenomena are discussed from the standpoint of space charge. On the basis of the Polar 5 results, the large magnitude of the electric field from Polar 3 is seen as indicating that the observed space charge was probably within a few km or less of the payload. Reference is made to Cole's prediction (1960) that charges in the ionosphere would reach equilibrium with a time constant of the order of a few microsec. The processes involved in the two cases presented here require time constants of the order of ms. If the sheath dimensions are taken to be between 50 and 100 m, which is not considered unreasonable in view of the electric field measurements, then a qualitative estimate of the neutralization time would be the transit time for ions across the sheath. Since the kinetic velocity of a 1-eV proton is approximately 14 m/s, it would traverse the distance in 4 to 8 ms, assuming freedom of movement across magnetic field lines. This is the order of the decay times observed on Polar 5.

  9. The Transformation of the "Old Feminist" Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates how the "Old Feminist" movement, originating in broad humanitarian concerns that affirmed woman's selfhood, eventually was transformed into the essentially different "Woman Suffrage" movement. Analyzes a key episode, the 1860 divorce debate. (PD)

  10. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  11. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled.

  12. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  13. The Scale Shift of Cocalero Movements in Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Productores Agricolas CONPACCP Confederación Nacional de Productores Agropecuarios de las Cuencas Cocaleras de Perú CORAH Control y Reducción del...1998, a group of cocalero leaders organized Coordinadora Nacional de Productores Agricolas (CONAPA), which was a national movement intended to unite...motivation seems to be easily revealed as increases in the U.S. foreign aid budget were to be made in ways that specifically benefitted the business

  14. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth R.; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz K.; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy.

  15. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  16. Movement Strategies in a Haptic Search Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Polanen, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Movement strategies were investigated in a haptic search task where participants indicated whether a target was present among a varying number of items. Hand movements were classified according to two criteria into three movement types. Results indicated that an easy search was performed with a para

  17. Strategic Directions of the Movement Disorder Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Hallett, M.D

    2000-01-01

    @@The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is the international not-for-profit organization representing and serving clinicians, other health professionals, researchers and policy makers interested in the area of movement disorders. The Society is represented in 68 countries by approximately 1,500 members. The Society has developed regional sections and welcomes affiliation of regional Movement Disorder groups.

  18. Human Movement Potential: Its Ideokinetic Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigard, Lulu E.

    This book focuses on the interdependence of postural alignment and the performance of movement. It provides an educational method (ideokinesis), which stresses the inherent capacity of the nervous system to determine the most efficient neuromuscular coordination for each movement. This method of teaching body balance and efficient movement has…

  19. Coding and Interpreting Movement on the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, Margot

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)

  20. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  1. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  2. Latino Movement: A Target for Harassment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Members of the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan (MEChA), which translates to Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, report that their movement is being targeted by school administrators across the country due to its demands for Chicano/Latino studies programs and protests against anti-immigration and anti-affirmative action movements.…

  3. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  4. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  5. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  6. Fractional lattice charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2017-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302

  7. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  8. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  9. New Perspectives on the Charging Mechanisms of Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forse, Alexander C; Merlet, Céline; Griffin, John M; Grey, Clare P

    2016-05-11

    Supercapacitors (or electric double-layer capacitors) are high-power energy storage devices that store charge at the interface between porous carbon electrodes and an electrolyte solution. These devices are already employed in heavy electric vehicles and electronic devices, and can complement batteries in a more sustainable future. Their widespread application could be facilitated by the development of devices that can store more energy, without compromising their fast charging and discharging times. In situ characterization methods and computational modeling techniques have recently been developed to study the molecular mechanisms of charge storage, with the hope that better devices can be rationally designed. In this Perspective, we bring together recent findings from a range of experimental and computational studies to give a detailed picture of the charging mechanisms of supercapacitors. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have revealed that the electrode pores contain a considerable number of ions in the absence of an applied charging potential. Experiments and computer simulations have shown that different charging mechanisms can then operate when a potential is applied, going beyond the traditional view of charging by counter-ion adsorption. It is shown that charging almost always involves ion exchange (swapping of co-ions for counter-ions), and rarely occurs by counter-ion adsorption alone. We introduce a charging mechanism parameter that quantifies the mechanism and allows comparisons between different systems. The mechanism is found to depend strongly on the polarization of the electrode, and the choice of the electrolyte and electrode materials. In light of these advances we identify new directions for supercapacitor research. Further experimental and computational work is needed to explain the factors that control supercapacitor charging mechanisms, and to establish the links between mechanisms and performance

  10. [Human traveling wave EEG during voluntary movement of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, D R; Stepanova, P A; Kolodiazhnyĭ, S F

    2014-01-01

    The traveling wave trajectories connected with the movements of the right hand were revealed. Above sensomotor cortex 28 electrodes were set as a rectangle--4 rows with 7 electrodes in each one. 2D center-out reaching task was used. The target appeared on the screen edge through the random intervals 0.5-2.5 s equiprobably at the left, on the right, from above or from below. The task was to touch the target with the joystick-operated cursor displacing the cursor in one of the sides from the center to edge. EEG from the target occurrence till cursor contact with it was analyzed. Leading on phase of spontaneous EEG waves in the local area of the left sensomotor cortex and in the centre of back-parietal cortex during cursor movement downwards (the hand with joystick moves to oneself) comparing to rest state and movements in three other directions is revealed. The over time smoothing of data concerning phase alignment reveals hidden constant components in EEG resembling evoked potentials.

  11. High dynamic range charge measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  12. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  13. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation.

  14. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells.

  15. Comparison of Urban Human Movements Inferring from Multi-Source Spatial-Temporal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Tu, Wei; Cao, Jinzhou; Li, Qingquan

    2016-06-01

    The quantification of human movements is very hard because of the sparsity of traditional data and the labour intensive of the data collecting process. Recently, much spatial-temporal data give us an opportunity to observe human movement. This research investigates the relationship of city-wide human movements inferring from two types of spatial-temporal data at traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level. The first type of human movement is inferred from long-time smart card transaction data recording the boarding actions. The second type of human movement is extracted from citywide time sequenced mobile phone data with 30 minutes interval. Travel volume, travel distance and travel time are used to measure aggregated human movements in the city. To further examine the relationship between the two types of inferred movements, the linear correlation analysis is conducted on the hourly travel volume. The obtained results show that human movements inferred from smart card data and mobile phone data have a correlation of 0.635. However, there are still some non-ignorable differences in some special areas. This research not only reveals the citywide spatial-temporal human dynamic but also benefits the understanding of the reliability of the inference of human movements with big spatial-temporal data.

  16. Neural correlates of tactile perception during pre-, peri-, and post-movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juravle, Georgiana; Heed, Tobias; Spence, Charles; Röder, Brigitte

    2016-05-01

    Tactile information is differentially processed over the various phases of goal-directed movements. Here, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the neural correlates of tactile and visual information processing during movement. Participants performed goal-directed reaches for an object placed centrally on the table in front of them. Tactile and visual stimulation (100 ms) was presented in separate trials during the different phases of the movement (i.e. preparation, execution, and post-movement). These stimuli were independently delivered to either the moving or resting hand. In a control condition, the participants only performed the movement, while omission (i.e. movement-only) ERPs were recorded. Participants were instructed to ignore the presence or absence of any sensory events and to concentrate solely on the execution of the movement. Enhanced ERPs were observed 80-200 ms after tactile stimulation, as well as 100-250 ms after visual stimulation: These modulations were greatest during the execution of the goal-directed movement, and they were effector based (i.e. significantly more negative for stimuli presented to the moving hand). Furthermore, ERPs revealed enhanced sensory processing during goal-directed movements for visual stimuli as well. Such enhanced processing of both tactile and visual information during the execution phase suggests that incoming sensory information is continuously monitored for a potential adjustment of the current motor plan. Furthermore, the results reported here also highlight a tight coupling between spatial attention and the execution of motor actions.

  17. COMPARISON OF URBAN HUMAN MOVEMENTS INFERRING FROM MULTI-SOURCE SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of human movements is very hard because of the sparsity of traditional data and the labour intensive of the data collecting process. Recently, much spatial-temporal data give us an opportunity to observe human movement. This research investigates the relationship of city-wide human movements inferring from two types of spatial-temporal data at traffic analysis zone (TAZ level. The first type of human movement is inferred from long-time smart card transaction data recording the boarding actions. The second type of human movement is extracted from citywide time sequenced mobile phone data with 30 minutes interval. Travel volume, travel distance and travel time are used to measure aggregated human movements in the city. To further examine the relationship between the two types of inferred movements, the linear correlation analysis is conducted on the hourly travel volume. The obtained results show that human movements inferred from smart card data and mobile phone data have a correlation of 0.635. However, there are still some non-ignorable differences in some special areas. This research not only reveals the citywide spatial-temporal human dynamic but also benefits the understanding of the reliability of the inference of human movements with big spatial-temporal data.

  18. When to be discrete: the importance of time formulation in understanding animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Brett T; Johnson, Devin S; Hooten, Mevin B; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Morales, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Animal movement is essential to our understanding of population dynamics, animal behavior, and the impacts of global change. Coupled with high-resolution biotelemetry data, exciting new inferences about animal movement have been facilitated by various specifications of contemporary models. These approaches differ, but most share common themes. One key distinction is whether the underlying movement process is conceptualized in discrete or continuous time. This is perhaps the greatest source of confusion among practitioners, both in terms of implementation and biological interpretation. In general, animal movement occurs in continuous time but we observe it at fixed discrete-time intervals. Thus, continuous time is conceptually and theoretically appealing, but in practice it is perhaps more intuitive to interpret movement in discrete intervals. With an emphasis on state-space models, we explore the differences and similarities between continuous and discrete versions of mechanistic movement models, establish some common terminology, and indicate under which circumstances one form might be preferred over another. Counter to the overly simplistic view that discrete- and continuous-time conceptualizations are merely different means to the same end, we present novel mathematical results revealing hitherto unappreciated consequences of model formulation on inferences about animal movement. Notably, the speed and direction of movement are intrinsically linked in current continuous-time random walk formulations, and this can have important implications when interpreting animal behavior. We illustrate these concepts in the context of state-space models with multiple movement behavior states using northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) biotelemetry data.

  19. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  20. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  1. Charge transport in polymeric transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salleo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric semiconductors have attracted much attention because of their possible use as active materials in printed electronics. Thin-film transistors (TFTs are a convenient tool for studying charge-transport physics in conjugated polymers. Two families of materials are reviewed here: fluorene copolymers and polythiophenes. Because charge transport is highly anisotropic in molecular conductors, the electrical properties of conjugated polymers are strongly dependent on microstructure. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and regioregularity all affect morphology and charge-transport in these materials. Charge transport models based on microstructure are instrumental in identifying the electrical bottlenecks in these materials.

  2. Charged Polaritons with Spin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoilov V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for metal which is based on the stimulated vibration of independent charged Fermi-ions, representing as independent harmonic oscillators with natural frequencies, under action of longitudinal and transverse elastic waves. Due to application of the elastic wave-particle principle and ion-wave dualities, we predict the existence of two types of charged Polaritons with spin 1 which are induced by longitudinal and transverse elastic fields. As result of presented theory, at small wavenumbers, these charged polaritons represent charged phonons.

  3. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  4. Proteoglycans and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, R J; Embery, G

    2001-12-01

    Proteoglycans represent an important and diverse family of extracellular matrix components within the connective tissues of the periodontium. This review focuses on the function and metabolism of the various proteoglycans in periodontal tissues, such as alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, and considers their potential fate in response to an orthodontic force. Such considerations provide an important background in evaluating the potential for proteoglycan metabolites, alongside other connective tissue metabolites, as biomarkers for assessing the deep-seated metabolic changes and as a diagnostic tool in monitoring orthodontic tooth movement.

  5. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  6. Dance-movement therapy for movement development of a child with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sernec, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a basic need of children that allows them to learn appropriate responses and control behavior. The research problem refers to the observation of the qualitative aspect of the movement of a child with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The main purpose of the study was to verify the effects of the dance-movement therapy on movement repertoire and expression and also movement competence in different situations. The survey was conducted as action research. Case-study was b...

  7. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  8. Charge transfer in multicomponent oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, A. F.; Ceder, G.

    1998-02-01

    The transfer of charge between different ions in an oxide plays an essential role in the stability of these compounds. Since small variations in charge can introduce large changes in the total energy, a correct description of this phenomenon is critical. In this work, we show that the ionic charge in oxides can strongly depend on its atomic environment. A model to assign point charges to atoms as a function of their atomic environment has recently been proposed for binary alloys [C. Wolverton, A. Zunger, S. Froyen, and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 54, 7843 (1996)] and proven to be very successful in screened solids such as semiconductors and metals. Here, we extend this formalism to multicomponent oxides and we assess its applicability. The simple point-charge model predicts a linear relation between the charge on an atom and the number of unlike neighbors, and between the net value of the charge and the Coulomb field at a given site. The applicability of this approach is tested in a large-supercell self-consistent tight-binding calculation for a random Zr-Ca-O alloy. The observed fluctuations of the ionic charge about the average linear behavior (as a function of the number of unlike neighbors) was larger than 0.25 electrons even when many shells of atomic neighbors were considered in the fit. This variation is significant since it can introduce large errors in the electrostatic energy. On the other hand, for small absolute values of the charge, the ionic charge varied linearly with the Coulomb field, in agreement with previous findings. However, for large Coulomb fields, this function saturates at the formal chemical charge.

  9. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.

  10. Susceptibility genes in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sonja; Singleton, Andrew

    2008-05-15

    During the last years, remarkable progress in our understanding of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying movement disorders has been achieved. The successes of linkage studies, followed by positional cloning, have dominated the last decade and several genes underlying monogenic disorders have been discovered. The pathobiological understanding garnered from these mutations has laid the foundation for much of the search for genetic loci that confer risk for, rather than cause, disease. With the introduction of whole genome association studies as a novel tool to investigate genetic variation underlying common, complex diseases, a new era in neurogenomics has just begun. As the field rapidly moves forward several new challenges and critical questions in clinical care have to be addressed. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the discovery of susceptibility loci underlying major movement disorders, explain the newest methodologies and tools employed for finding and characterizing genes and discuss how insights into the molecular genetic basis of neurological disorders will impact therapeutic concepts in patient care.

  11. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Congkak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Chong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Congkak is a traditional Malaysian board game involving two players taking turns to pick up marbles from a series of holes on the board. We used this game as a model to explore the role of anticipatory eye movements during natural actions (in this case serially picking up/putting marbles as novices learnt the game. Prior work on eye and hand movements in natural behaviour shows that much of the demand on the visual system is computed at the moment it is needed and doesn't depend on information acquired from previous fixations. Vision is driven by the task demands. However, anticipatory fixations to upcoming targets of manipulation have recently been shown to confer spatial accuracy and influence the eye-hand latency. We find that experience with the game also influences the deployment of these anticipatory “look-ahead” fixations, and that their influence on eye-hand latency varies with experience. Results suggest that as our experience in Congkak grows, so does our knowledge of the space relationships necessary for task success.

  12. Analysis of EEG signal by Flicker Noise Spectroscopy: Identification of right/left hand movement imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Broniec, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Flicker Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) has been used for the analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) signal related to the movement imagination. The analysis of sensorimotor rhythms in time-frequency maps reveals the event-related desynchronization (ERD) and the post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS), observed mainly in the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for the motor imagery. The signal has been parameterized in accordance with FNS method. The significant changes of the FNS parameters, at the time when the subject imagines the movement, have been observed. The analysis of these parameters allows to distinguish between imagination of right and left hands movement. Our study shows that the flicker-noise spectroscopy can be an alternative method of analyzing EEG signal related to the imagination of movement in terms of a potential application in the brain-computer interface (BCI).

  13. A signal analysis technique of vestibulo-ocular reflex stimulated with impulsive head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhola, Martti; Aalto, Heikki; Hirvonen, Timo

    2006-07-01

    Eye movements have been investigated in several areas of medicine and also elsewhere, such as in psychology or even in the development of human-computer interfaces. In the last few years we have designed a technique to stimulate, measure and analyze vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements. In the otoneurological literature these are seen as a novel and promising means of revealing certain disorders and diseases associated with vertigo. Vestibulo-ocular reflex is stimulated by impulsive head movements. We developed the present pattern recognition technique to detect the stimulus (impulsive head movements) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (response eye movements) generated from signals and to compute the latency and the gain values between them. Using our technique to calculate these attributes, we obtained clearly different results for a group of 22 dizzy patients than for a group of 30 healthy subjects.

  14. Music and movement share a dynamic structure that supports universal expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Beau; Polansky, Larry; Casey, Michael; Wheatley, Thalia

    2013-01-02

    Music moves us. Its kinetic power is the foundation of human behaviors as diverse as dance, romance, lullabies, and the military march. Despite its significance, the music-movement relationship is poorly understood. We present an empirical method for testing whether music and movement share a common structure that affords equivalent and universal emotional expressions. Our method uses a computer program that can generate matching examples of music and movement from a single set of features: rate, jitter (regularity of rate), direction, step size, and dissonance/visual spikiness. We applied our method in two experiments, one in the United States and another in an isolated tribal village in Cambodia. These experiments revealed three things: (i) each emotion was represented by a unique combination of features, (ii) each combination expressed the same emotion in both music and movement, and (iii) this common structure between music and movement was evident within and across cultures.

  15. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  16. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Ruben; Rojas, Efrain

    2010-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We show thus that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  17. Eye movement targets are released from visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Mattingley, Jason B; Remington, Roger W

    2013-02-13

    Our ability to recognize objects in peripheral vision is impaired when other objects are nearby (Bouma, 1970). This phenomenon, known as crowding, is often linked to interactions in early visual processing that depend primarily on the retinal position of visual stimuli (Pelli, 2008; Pelli and Tillman, 2008). Here we tested a new account that suggests crowding is influenced by spatial information derived from an extraretinal signal involved in eye movement preparation. We had human observers execute eye movements to crowded targets and measured their ability to identify those targets just before the eyes began to move. Beginning ∼50 ms before a saccade toward a crowded object, we found that not only was there a dramatic reduction in the magnitude of crowding, but the spatial area within which crowding occurred was almost halved. These changes in crowding occurred despite no change in the retinal position of target or flanking stimuli. Contrary to the notion that crowding depends on retinal signals alone, our findings reveal an important role for eye movement signals. Eye movement preparation effectively enhances object discrimination in peripheral vision at the goal of the intended saccade. These presaccadic changes may enable enhanced recognition of visual objects in the periphery during active search of visually cluttered environments.

  18. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  19. Fixational eye movements during viewing of dynamic natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Roberts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even during periods of fixation our eyes undergo small amplitude movements. These movements are thought to be essential to the visual system because neural responses rapidly fade when images are stabilized on the retina. The considerable recent interest in fixational eye movements (FEMs has thus far concentrated on idealized experimental conditions with artificial stimuli and restrained head movements, which are not necessarily a suitable model for natural vision. Natural dynamic stimuli, such as movies, offer the potential to move beyond restrictive experimental settings to probe the visual system with greater ecological validity. Here, we study FEMs recorded in humans during the unconstrained viewing of a dynamic and realistic visual environment, revealing that drift trajectories exhibit the properties of a random walk with memory. Drifts are correlated at short time scales such that the gaze position diverges from the initial fixation more quickly than would be expected for an uncorrelated random walk. We propose a simple model based on the premise that the eye tends to avoid retracing its recent steps to prevent photoreceptor adaptation. The model reproduces key features of the observed dynamics and enables estimation of parameters from data. Our findings show that FEM correlations thought to prevent perceptual fading exist even in highly dynamic real-world conditions.

  20. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214-family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal ``quasiparticles'' and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  1. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  2. Charge transport in amorphous oligothiophenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Manuel; Baumeier, Bjoern; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Elschner, Chris; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl [TU Dresden, Institute of Applied Photophysics, Mommsenstr. 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Organic semiconducting materials are needed for emerging devices such as photovoltaic solar cells. In this work we combine first principle calculations, molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to study charge transport in dicyanovinyl oligothiophenes of different lengths. Poole-Frenkel behavior of the charge carrier mobility is rationalized based on electrostatic and conformational disorder.

  3. Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2010-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

  4. Electrostatic charging of jumping droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J.; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-09-01

    With the broad interest in and development of superhydrophobic surfaces for self-cleaning, condensation heat transfer enhancement and anti-icing applications, more detailed insights on droplet interactions on these surfaces have emerged. Specifically, when two droplets coalesce, they can spontaneously jump away from a superhydrophobic surface due to the release of excess surface energy. Here we show that jumping droplets gain a net positive charge that causes them to repel each other mid-flight. We used electric fields to quantify the charge on the droplets and identified the mechanism for the charge accumulation, which is associated with the formation of the electric double layer at the droplet-surface interface. The observation of droplet charge accumulation provides insight into jumping droplet physics as well as processes involving charged liquid droplets. Furthermore, this work is a starting point for more advanced approaches for enhancing jumping droplet surface performance by using external electric fields to control droplet jumping.

  5. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension D_f = 2. Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the ...

  6. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  7. Holography, charge and baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mongan, T R

    2009-01-01

    The holographic principle indicates the finite number of bits of information available on the particle horizon describes all physics within the horizon. Linking information on the horizon with Standard Model particles requires a holographic model describing constituents (preons) of Standard Model particles in terms of bits of information on the horizon. Standard Model particles have charges 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1 in units of the electron charge e, so bits in a preon model must be identified with fractional charge. Energy must be transferred to change the state of a bit, and labeling the low energy state of a bit e/3n and the high energy state -e/3n amounts to defining electric charge. Any such charged preon model will produce more protons than anti-protons at the time of baryogenesis and require baryon asymmetry. It will also produce more positrons than electrons, as suggested by astrophysical measurements.

  8. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  9. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  10. Phantom hand and wrist movements in upper limb amputees are slow but naturally controlled movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J

    2016-01-15

    After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution.

  11. D-branes and coherent topological charge structure in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Hank

    2006-12-01

    Monte Carlo studies of pure glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based topological charge operator have revealed a laminar structure in the QCD vacuum consisting of extended, thin, co- herent, locally 3-dimensional sheets of topological charge embedded in 4D space, with opposite sign sheets interleaved. Studies of localization properties of Dirac eigenmodes have also shown evidence for the delocalization of low-lying modes on effectively 3-dimensional surfaces. In this talk, I review some theoretical ideas which suggest the possibility of 3-dimensionally coherent topological charge structure in 4-dimensional gauge theory and provide a possible interpretation of the observed structure. I begin with Luscher's "Wilson bag" integral over the 3-index Chern- Simons tensor. The analogy with a Wilson loop as a charged world line in 2-dimensional CP N-1 sigma models suggests that the Wilson bag surface represents the world volume of a physical membrane. The large-N chiral Lagrangian arguments of Witten also indicate the existence of multiple "k-vacuum" states with discontinuous transitions between k-vacua at θ = odd multi- ples of π. The domain walls between these vacua have the properties of a Wilson bag surface. Finally, I review the AdS/CFT duality view of θ dependence in QCD. The dual realtionship be- tween topological charge in gauge theory and Ramond-Ramond charge in type IIA string theory suggests that the coherent topological charge sheets observed on the lattice are the holographic image of wrapped D6 branes.

  12. Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zujun; Liu Yinong; Chen Wei; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Shaoyan; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.

  13. Electrokinetic inversion of ion screening charges in nano-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xin; Ni, Sheng; Zhang, Xingye; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This work studies a counter-intuitive but basic process of ionic screening in nano-fluidic channels. Numerical simulations and perturbation analysis reveal that, under significant electrokinetic transport, the ion screening charges can be locally inverted in the channels: their charge sign becomes the same as that of the channel surface charges. The process is identified to originate from the coupling of longitudinal transport and junction electrostatics. This finding may revise the common understanding of ionic screening in nano-channels and indicates that their ion selectivity can be locally changed by transport. Furthermore, the charge inversion process results in a body force torque on channel fluids, which is a possible mechanism for vortex generation in the channels.

  14. Partition Equilibrium Between Charged Membrane and Single Electrolyte Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐铜文; 杨伟华; 何柄林

    2001-01-01

    Ionic partition equilibrium in charged membrane immersed in solution of single electrolyte with monovalence or multi-valence is systematically investigated and several expressions are established for determination of partition coefficients. On this basis, the effects of the ratio of membrane charge density to hulk electrolyte solution concentration, the charge sign and valence of electrolyte ions and the type of membrane on the partition equilibrium were analyzed and simulated with in chosen parameters. It is revealed that ion partition is not related solely withthe respective concentrations but also definitely with the concentration ratio of fixed group to bulk solution in addition to the charge sign and the valence. For a counterion, the partition coefficient increases with this ratio and the valence; while for a coion, the partition coefficient decreases with this ratio and the valence. The theoreticalcal culations were compared with the experimental data and a good agreement was observed.

  15. Partition Equilibrium Between Charged Membrane and Single Electrolyte Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ionic partition equilibrium in charged membrane immersed in solution of single electrolyte with mono valence or multi-valence is systematically investigated and several expressions are established for determination of partition coefficients. On this basis, the effects of the ratio of membrane charge density to bulk electrolyte solution concentration, the charge sign and valence of electrolyte ions and the type of membrane on the partition equilibrium were analyzed and simulated within chosen parameters. It is revealed that ion partition is not related solely with the respective concentrations but also definitely with the concentration ratio of fixed group to bulk solution in addition to the charge sign and the valence. For a counterion, the partition coefficient increases with this ratio and the valence; while for a coion, the partition coefficient decreases with this ratio and the valence. The theoretical calculations were compared with the experimental data and a good agreement was observed.

  16. Microstructure and texture of electroformed copper liners of shaped charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures of copper liners of shaped charges prepared by electroforming technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the orientations distributing of thegrains in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern (EBSP) technique. TEM observations have revealed that these electroformed copper liners of shaped charges have the grain size of about 1-3 m and the grains have a preferential orientation distribution along the growth direction.EBSP analysis has demonstrated that the as-formed copper liners of shaped charges exhibit a micro-texture, i.e. one type of fiber texture, and the preferred growth direction is normal to the surface of the liners.

  17. Charged particle-like branes in ABJM: A summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, N.; Lozano, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Rodriguez-Gomez, D. [Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa, 3200 (Israel); Department of Mathematics and Physics University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon, 36006 (Israel)

    2011-07-01

    We study the effect of adding lower dimensional brane charges to the 't Hooft monopole, di-baryon and baryon vertex configurations in AdS{sub 4} x P{sup 3}. We show that these configurations capture the background fluxes in a way that depends on the induced charges, requiring additional fundamental strings to cancel the worldvolume tadpoles. The dynamics reveal that the charges must lie inside some interval, a situation familiar from the baryon vertex in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} with charges. For the baryon vertex and the di-baryon the number of fundamental strings must also lie inside an allowed interval. Some ideas about the existence of these bounds in relation to the stringy exclusion principle are given. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Features of non-conformism in the environment of informal movements

    OpenAIRE

    Трандафілова, Нарінє Араратівна

    2016-01-01

    The essence of concept of non-conformism and its application in relation to informal youth movements is revealed. Manifestations of non-conformism among "informals" are studied. An analysis of conformal and non-conformal behavior of youth subcultures is presented. An attempt to uncover common, unifying elements of the main informal movements is made through the prism of the manifestations of non-conformism. Problems of enable of the youth underground in the process of formation of social thou...

  19. How superdiffusion gets arrested: ecological encounters explain shift from Lévy to Brownian movement

    OpenAIRE

    de Jager, Monique; Bartumeus, Frederic; Kölzsch, Andrea; Franz J. Weissing; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nolet, Bart A.; Herman, Peter M. J.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory uses Brownian motion as a default template for describing ecological movement, despite limited mechanistic underpinning. The generality of Brownian motion has recently been challenged by empirical studies that highlight alternative movement patterns of animals, especially when foraging in resource-poor environments. Yet, empirical studies reveal animals moving in a Brownian fashion when resources are abundant. We demonstrate that Einstein's original theory of collision-induc...

  20. EEG Resolutions in Detecting and Decoding Finger Movements from Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eXiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mu/beta rhythms are well-studied brain activities that originate from sensorimotor cortices. These rhythms reveal spectral changes in alpha and beta bands induced by movements of different body parts, e.g. hands and limbs, in electroencephalography (EEG signals. However, less can be revealed in them about movements of different fine body parts that activate adjacent brain regions, such as individual fingers from one hand. Several studies have reported spatial and temporal couplings of rhythmic activities at different frequency bands, suggesting the existence of well-defined spectral structures across multiple frequency bands. In the present study, spectral principal component analysis (PCA was applied on EEG data, obtained from a finger movement task, to identify cross-frequency spectral structures. Features from identified spectral structures were examined in their spatial patterns, cross-condition pattern changes, detection capability of finger movements from resting, and decoding performance of individual finger movements in comparison to classic mu/beta rhythms. These new features reveal some similar, but more different spatial and spectral patterns as compared with classic mu/beta rhythms. Decoding results further indicate that these new features (91% can detect finger movements much better than classic mu/beta rhythms (75.6%. More importantly, these new features reveal discriminative information about movements of different fingers (fine body-part movements, which is not available in classic mu/beta rhythms. The capability in decoding fingers (and hand gestures in the future from EEG will contribute significantly to the development of noninvasive brain computer interface (BCI and neuroprosthesis with intuitive and flexible controls.

  1. Emergent group level navigation: an agent-based evaluation of movement patterns in a folivorous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tyler R; Campennì, Marco; Chapman, Colin A; Gogarten, Jan F; Reyna-Hurtado, Rafael A; Teichroeb, Julie A; Wasserman, Michael D; Sengupta, Raja

    2013-01-01

    The foraging activity of many organisms reveal strategic movement patterns, showing efficient use of spatially distributed resources. The underlying mechanisms behind these movement patterns, such as the use of spatial memory, are topics of considerable debate. To augment existing evidence of spatial memory use in primates, we generated movement patterns from simulated primate agents with simple sensory and behavioral capabilities. We developed agents representing various hypotheses of memory use, and compared the movement patterns of simulated groups to those of an observed group of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus), testing for: the effects of memory type (Euclidian or landmark based), amount of memory retention, and the effects of social rules in making foraging choices at the scale of the group (independent or leader led). Our results indicate that red colobus movement patterns fit best with simulated groups that have landmark based memory and a follow the leader foraging strategy. Comparisons between simulated agents revealed that social rules had the greatest impact on a group's step length, whereas the type of memory had the highest impact on a group's path tortuosity and cohesion. Using simulation studies as experimental trials to test theories of spatial memory use allows the development of insight into the behavioral mechanisms behind animal movement, developing case-specific results, as well as general results informing how changes to perception and behavior influence movement patterns.

  2. Emergent group level navigation: an agent-based evaluation of movement patterns in a folivorous primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler R Bonnell

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of many organisms reveal strategic movement patterns, showing efficient use of spatially distributed resources. The underlying mechanisms behind these movement patterns, such as the use of spatial memory, are topics of considerable debate. To augment existing evidence of spatial memory use in primates, we generated movement patterns from simulated primate agents with simple sensory and behavioral capabilities. We developed agents representing various hypotheses of memory use, and compared the movement patterns of simulated groups to those of an observed group of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus, testing for: the effects of memory type (Euclidian or landmark based, amount of memory retention, and the effects of social rules in making foraging choices at the scale of the group (independent or leader led. Our results indicate that red colobus movement patterns fit best with simulated groups that have landmark based memory and a follow the leader foraging strategy. Comparisons between simulated agents revealed that social rules had the greatest impact on a group's step length, whereas the type of memory had the highest impact on a group's path tortuosity and cohesion. Using simulation studies as experimental trials to test theories of spatial memory use allows the development of insight into the behavioral mechanisms behind animal movement, developing case-specific results, as well as general results informing how changes to perception and behavior influence movement patterns.

  3. Option selection in whole-body rotation movements in gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas HEINEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When a gymnast performs a somersault, the linear and angular momentum along with a particular control of inertia during the flight phase constrain the possibilities for action. Given the complexity and dynamic nature of the human moving system, one could argue that there exist a particular amount of stable coordination states when performing somersaults. The goal of this study was to explore the manifold of movement options and coordination states along with their differentiating parameters for a single somersault in gymnastics based on a simple mathematical model reflecting gymnast’s rotation behavior during the flight phase. Biomechanical parameters determining rotation behavior during a somersault were systematically varied with regard to a particular set of biomechanical constraints defining a successful somersault performance. Batch simulations revealed that from 10229760 simulation cycles only 655346 (approximately 6.41% led to successful somersault performance. A subsequent analysis of the movement option landscape for the optimum angular momentum revealed ten coordination states for a single somersault that could be clearly distinguished based on the simulation parameters. Taken the results together, it becomes apparent that it may be most advisable to perform a single somersault with a larger moment of inertia when achieving the tucked position, a longer duration to achieve the tucked position, a longer duration of staying tucked, and an intermediate moment of inertia during landing. This strategy comprises the largest amount of movement options associated with an upright landing and thus the highest probability of success when performing a single somersault.

  4. Free Instrument for Movement Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Norberto; Corrêa, Lorena Peixoto Nogueira Rodriguez Martinez Salles; França, Lucas Gabriel Souza; Cunha, Marcelo do Vale; de Sousa, Marcos Cavalcanti; Vieira, João Paulo Bomfim Cruz; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of a computational tool that serves to obtain continuous measurements of moving objects. The software uses techniques of computer vision, pattern recognition and optical flow, to enable tracking of objects in videos, generating data trajectory, velocity, acceleration and angular movement. The program was applied to track a ball around a simple pendulum. The methodology used to validate it, taking as a basis to compare the values measured by the program, as well as the theoretical values expected according to the model of a simple pendulum. The experiment is appropriate to the method because it was built within the limits of the linear harmonic oscillator and energy losses due to friction had been minimized, making it the most ideal possible. The results indicate that the tool is sensitive and accurate. Deviations of less than a millimeter to the extent of the trajectory, ensures the applicability of the software on physics, whether in research or in teaching topics.

  5. RNA silencing movement in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glykeria Mermigka; Frederic Verret; Kriton Kalantidis

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms, like higher plants, need to coordinate their growth and development and to cope with environmental cues. To achieve this, various signal molecules are transported between neighboring cells and distant organs to control the fate of the recipient cells and organs. RNA silencing produces cell non-autonomous signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. The nature of these signal molecules, the route of silencing spread, and the genes involved in their production, movement and reception are discussed in this review. Additionally, a short section on features of silencing spread in animal models is presented at the end of this review.

  6. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes.

  7. Influence of Persons' Movements on Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Hyldig, Mikkel; Kamper, Simon

    2008-01-01

    of different kinds of movement compared with the case of no movements. It is found that mixing ventilation is considerably more robust compared with displacement ventilation. At the same time it is found that displacement ventilation on average is more effective than mixing ventilation when movements prevail......Most often the ventilation effectiveness of a ventilated room is determined without considering the influence of persons´ movements. Even though the main reason for supplying the ventilation may be to create a healthy and productive environment for the occupants, their own influence...... on the ventilation is usually disregarded. This paper presents results from a systematic investigation of the movements´ influence on the ventilation effectiveness using human subjects combined with tracer gas measurements. Several typical "movements" are defined and carefully repeated to determine the influence...

  8. Numeric description of space charge in polyethylene under ac electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Xu, Z.; Chen, G.; Lewin, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    Space charge in polyethylene-based insulation materials and its effect on the local electric field under a dc environment have been extensively examined over the last few decades while the behavior of space charge under ac stress has received less attention. Space charge phenomenon under ac electric fields becomes an important issue with increased operating field strength in many applications, such as next generation high voltage cables. In this paper, a bipolar charge transport model has been developed to simulate space charge in polymers under ac electric fields. Obtained simulation results show that there is a small quantity of phase-dependent bipolar charge accumulation in the vicinity of the electrodes that does not move into the bulk under ac stress. This causes a slight distortion of the local field in the bulk. However, at lower frequencies less than 1 Hz, there is increased charge accumulation and penetration. Comparison with available experimental data suggests that the model is capable of describing the underlying physics of charge behavior when a dielectric material is subjected to ac electric fields. Due to the weak charge movement in the bulk, the conduction current density is small and hence the displacement component dominates the total current density and this increases linearly with ac frequency.

  9. Electrolyte-Mediated Assembly of Charged Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewalramani, Sumit; Bedzyk, Michael; Guerrero-García, Guillermo; Moreau, Liane; Zwanikken, Jos; Mirkin, Chad; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    Solutions at high salt concentrations are used to crystallize or segregate colloids, proteins and polyelectrolytes via an unknown mechanism referred to as ``salting-out''. Here, we show salting-out is a long-range interaction controlled by electrolyte concentration and nanoparticle charge density. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that DNA-coated Au nanoparticles designed to prevent inter-particle assembly via Watson-Crick hybridization undergo ``gas'' to FCC to ``glass-like'' transitions with increasing NaCl or CaCl2 concentration. Simulations reveal that the crystallization is concomitant with inter-particle interactions changing from purely repulsive to a long-range potential well condition. Liquid-state theory explains this attraction as a sum of cohesive and depletion forces. Our work reveals the mechanism behind salting-out and suggests new routes for the successful crystallization of colloids and proteins using concentrated salts.

  10. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities.

  11. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  12. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  13. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  14. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits.

  15. External attentional focus enhances movement automatization: a comprehensive test of the constrained action hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J; Houdijk, H

    2013-08-01

    An external focus of attention has been shown to result in superior motor performance compared to an internal focus of attention. This study investigated whether this is due to enhanced levels of movement automatization, as predicted by the constrained action hypothesis (McNevin, Shea, & Wulf, 2003). Thirty healthy participants performed a cyclic one-leg extension-flexion task with both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Focus of attention was manipulated via instructions. The degree of automatization of movement was assessed by measuring dual task costs as well as movement execution parameters (i.e., EMG activity, movement fluency, and movement regularity). Results revealed that an external focus of attention led to significantly better motor performance (i.e., shorter movement duration) than an internal focus. Although dual task costs of the motor task did not differ as a function of attentional focus, cognitive dual task costs were significantly higher when attention was directed internally. An external focus of attention resulted in more fluent and more regular movement execution than an internal focus, whereas no differences were found concerning muscular activity. These results indicate that an external focus of attention results in more automatized movements than an internal focus and, therefore, provide support for the constrained action hypothesis.

  16. What makes a movement a gesture? ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Novack, Miriam A.; Wakefield, Elizabeth M.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement—movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framewor...

  17. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  18. Transcription closed and open complex dynamics studies reveal balance between genetic determinants and co-factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Adrien; Shoaib, Muhammad; Anufrieva, Olga; Mutharasu, Gnanavel; Jahan Hoque, Rawnak; Yli-Harja, Olli; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram

    2015-05-19

    In E. coli, promoter closed and open complexes are key steps in transcription initiation, where magnesium-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes RNA synthesis. However, the exact mechanism of initiation remains to be fully elucidated. Here, using single mRNA detection and dual reporter studies, we show that increased intracellular magnesium concentration affects Plac initiation complex formation resulting in a highly dynamic process over the cell growth phases. Mg2+ regulates transcription transition, which modulates bimodality of mRNA distribution in the exponential phase. We reveal that Mg2+ regulates the size and frequency of the mRNA burst by changing the open complex duration. Moreover, increasing magnesium concentration leads to higher intrinsic and extrinsic noise in the exponential phase. RNAP-Mg2+ interaction simulation reveals critical movements creating a shorter contact distance between aspartic acid residues and Nucleotide Triphosphate residues and increasing electrostatic charges in the active site. Our findings provide unique biophysical insights into the balanced mechanism of genetic determinants and magnesium ion in transcription initiation regulation during cell growth.

  19. Analyzing Affect of Image Charge in Space Charge Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXueying; XuHushan; JiaFei; LiWenfei

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing requirement of high injection current and highly charged ion beams for accelerators at many laboratories, such as CERN, GSI, GANIL and IMP, with the development of super-conducting ECR source in recent.years. In this case, the space charge effect becomes a major concern when the beam current is as high as tens of mA. In fact, the faradic field induced by the image charges will be come into the metallic surfaces while the beams are transported in a vacuum tube or in between two plates. In order to ensure studying the space charge effect in reason, it is necessary to investigate the effect from such a field.

  20. Global Social Movement(s at the Crossroads: Some Observations on the Trajectory of the Anti-Corporate Globalization Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick H. Buttel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the major structural characteristics of the anti-corporate globalization movement, its key bases and antecedents, its relationship with other global social movements (GSMs and the key challenges it faces in the post-9/11 period. We suggest that despite the potential of the anti-corporate globalization movement to usher in major social changes, the movement faces a number of major crossroads in terms of ideology, discursive approach, and overall strategy. We argue that there has been coalescence of a good many GSMs, including the international environmental movement, under the banner of the anti-corporate globalization movement. We focus primarily on the interrelations of these two GSMs, noting that over the past decade there have been trends toward both the “environmentalization” and “de-environmentalization” of the anti-corporate globalization movement. While the defection of many mainstream environmental groups fromthe “Washington consensus” and the resulting environmentalization of the trade and globalization issue were critical to the “Seattle coalition,” there has been a signi?cant decline in the movement’s embrace of environmental claims and discourses, and a corresponding increase in its use of social justice discourses. One implication of our analysis is the hypothesis that while the current vitality of the anti-corporate globalization movement can be gauged by its having adopted an increasingly coherent ideological stance in which international inequality and global corporate dominance are targeted, to be successful the movement will need to coherently ideologically integrate social justice with environmental and sustainability agendas. The amenability of the environmental GSM to such ideological integration will have important rami?cations for the future trajectory of the anti-corporate globalization movement.

  1. 6: Movement disorders II: the hyperkinetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J E; Thompson, P D

    2001-04-16

    Involuntary movements or hyperkinesias are classified into syndromes of chorea, ballism, tremor, dystonia, myoclonus and tics. The hyperkinesias are caused by disturbances in the circuitry connecting the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Drugs are a common cause of movement disorders. The aim of management is to characterise the movement disorder, identify and treat the cause or institute symptomatic treatment. The genetic basis of many movement disorders is increasingly recognised. Where there are potential implications for family members, accurate diagnosis and counselling are particularly important.

  2. The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad is a mountain-slide type of movement. Estimations of the thickness of the layer which is moving range between 10 and 100 m. There is no proof that the movement is water induced, but it could be influenced by the water household. The slope of the slide area is H: D = 1: 2. The height difference in the moving area studied, according to this paper, is 1 km. The actual rate of movement is about 12 cm/yr.

  3. Exclusive lower extremity mirror movements and diastematomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Smyth, Matthew D; Dure, Leon S; Oakes, W Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Mirror movements usually seen in the Klippel-Feil syndrome are most commonly appreciated in the upper extremities. Lower extremity involvement is seen rarely and when observed, is found in conjunction with upper extremity mirror movements. We report what we believe to be the first case of mirror movements found exclusively in the lower extremities in a female patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome. Our hopes are that this report will help elucidate mechanisms involved with these anomalous movements, as currently there is no commonly accepted etiology.

  4. Task-dependent modulation of oscillatory neural activity during movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, D. M.; Christensen, M. S.; Reck, C.

    2011-01-01

    Neural oscillations in different frequency bands have been observed in a range of sensorimotor tasks and have been linked to coupling of spatially distinct neurons. The goal of this study was to detect a general motor network that is activated during phasic and tonic movements and to study the task......-dependent modulation of frequency coupling within this network. To this end we recorded 122-multichannel EEG in 13 healthy subjects while they performed three simple motor tasks. EEG data source modeling using individual MR images was carried out with a multiple source beamformer approach. A bilateral motor network...... connecting frontal, cerebellar and central motor regions, was consistently activated throughout the motor tasks. Quantification of observed spectral responses using dynamic causal modeling revealed strong coupling in the c-band (30–48 Hz) between frontal and central motor regions when a slow finger movement...

  5. The Influence of Social Movements on Space Astronomy Policy

    CERN Document Server

    Harrisa, Hannah E

    2014-01-01

    Public engagement (PE) initiatives can lead to a long term public support of science. However most of the real impact of PE initiatives within the context of long-term science policy is not completely understood. An examination of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope, James Webb Space Telescope, and International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 reveal how large grassroots movements led by citizen scientists and space aficionados can have profound effects on public policy. We explore the role and relevance of public grassroots movements in the policy of space astronomy initiatives, present some recent cases which illustrate policy decisions involving broader interest groups, and consider new avenues of PE including crowdfunding and crowdsourcing.

  6. Deterministic and stochastic features of rhythmic human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Anke M; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J

    2006-03-01

    The dynamics of rhythmic movement has both deterministic and stochastic features. We advocate a recently established analysis method that allows for an unbiased identification of both types of system components. The deterministic components are revealed in terms of drift coefficients and vector fields, while the stochastic components are assessed in terms of diffusion coefficients and ellipse fields. The general principles of the procedure and its application are explained and illustrated using simulated data from known dynamical systems. Subsequently, we exemplify the method's merits in extracting deterministic and stochastic aspects of various instances of rhythmic movement, including tapping, wrist cycling and forearm oscillations. In particular, it is shown how the extracted numerical forms can be analysed to gain insight into the dependence of dynamical properties on experimental conditions.

  7. Charge density waves in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor'kov, LP

    2012-01-01

    The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an

  8. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  9. Uncoupling charge movement from channel opening in voltage-gated potassium channels by ruthenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D

    2011-05-06

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K(+)-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K(+)-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling.

  10. Time trends and periodic cycles in REM sleep eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynicki, V

    1975-11-01

    Eye movements during REM sleep episodes were tabulated in 16 young adults. REM episodes were then broken down into four ranges according to length in min: (1) 11.0-21.3; (2) 21.7-29.7; (3) 30.0-42.3; (4) 42.7 or longer. These data were then analyzed for linear and quadratic trends. Eight episodes had a significant linear trend, 10 had a significant quadratic trend, 7 had both linear and quadratic trends, while 12 had no trend. The residuals from the best-fitting polynomial curve were then subject to a spectral analysis. In addition, 2 long periods of pre-sleep wakefulness (approximately 2 h each) were also analyzed. In general, the spectral analysis revealed the dominant presence of a slow cycle (period of 10 min to about 30 min) the exact period of which varied according to the length of the REM episode. A binomial probability test indicated that the presence of slow cycles was significant in REM episodes except for those in the 21-30 min range. For the episodes of wakefulness, a dominant slow cycle was found in both cases. The results give the impression of similarity in the periodic organization of eye movements during REM sleep and waking. The data also indicated that an ultradian (70-150 min) cycle was present in eye movements during sleep and waking. Further, the finding of a decrease in eye movements before sleep onset, coupled with previous reports of an increase in eye movement after sleep onset, indicate the presence of a circadian cycle.

  11. Creating a movement heuristic for voluntary action: electrophysiological correlates of movement-outcome learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Reynolds, John N J; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Performance of voluntary behavior requires the selection of appropriate movements to attain a desired goal. We propose that the selection of voluntary movements is often contingent on the formation of a movement heuristic or set of internal rules governing movement selection. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the electrophysiological correlates of the formation of movement heuristics during movement-outcome learning. In two experiments, ERPs from non-learning control tasks were compared to a movement-learning task in which a movement heuristic was formed. We found that novelty P3 amplitude was negatively correlated with improved performance in the movement-learning task. Additionally, enhancement of novelty P3 amplitude was observed during learning even after controlling for memory, attentional and inter-stimulus interval parameters. The feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) was only elicited by sensory effects following intentional movements. These findings extend previous studies demonstrating the role of the fCRP in performance monitoring and the role of the P3 in learning. In particular, the present study highlights an integrative role of the fCRP and the novelty P3 for the acquisition of movement heuristics. While the fCRP indicates that the goal of intentional movements has been attained, the novelty P3 engages stimulus-driven attentional mechanisms to determine the primary aspects of movement and context required to elicit the sensory effect.

  12. Effect of Zn Adsorption on Charge of Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNHAN-YUAN

    1993-01-01

    The variation in appa rent carge of two typical variable charge soils resulting from Zn adsorption were studied by KCl saturation and NH4NO3 replacement methods.Results showed that zinc were adsorbed specifically to those sites with negative charge.As in different pH ranges,the percantages of specific and electrostatic adsorptions of zine and the mechanisms of specific adsorption were different,the effects of Zn adsorption on apparent charge were varied and could be characterized as:when 1 mmol Zn2+ was adsorbed,a change about 1 mmol in the apparent charge was observed in the low pH range(1),1.4 to 1.5mmol in the moderate pH range(II) and 0.55 to 0.6mmol in the high pH range (III).These experimental data,in terms of soil charge,proved once more author's conclusion in the preceding paper(Sun,1993) that in accordance with the behaviors of Zn adsorption by the variable charge soils in relation to pH,three pH ranges with different adsorption mechanisms were delineated;that is,in Range I,specific adsorption was the predominant mechanism,in Ranges II and III,specific and electrostatic adsorptions co-existed,but their specific adsorption mechanisms were not identical.

  13. Screening Effect in Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Ming; XIAO Xiao; GAO Yi-Bo

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of screening effect on quantum decoherence for charge qubit and the process of quantum information storage. When the flux produced by the circulating current in SQUID loop is considered, screening effect is formally characterized by a LC resonator. Using large-detuning condition and Fr(o)hlich transformation in the qubit-cavity-resonator system, we calculate the decoherence factor for charge qubit and the effective qubit-cavity Hamiltonian. The decoherence factor owns a factorized structure, it shows that screening effect is a resource of decoherence for charge qubit. The effective Hamiltonian shows that the screening effect results in a frequency shift for charge qubit and a modified qubit-cavity coupling constant induced by a LC resonator.

  14. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  15. Induced-charge Electrokinetic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Squires, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of AC electro-osmosis near micro-electrodes, we predict a broad class of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena involving induced interfacial charge. By considering various polarizable objects (metals or dielectrics) in DC and AC applied fields, we develop a simple physical picture of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO), the fluid slip at a surface due to an electric field acting on the diffuse charge it induces. We also discuss `induced-charge electrophoresis' (ICEP), the analogous motion of a freely-suspended polarizable particle. Both differ significantly from their classical linear counterparts. We present a mathematical theory of ICEO flows in the weakly nonlinear limit of thin double layers. As an example, we calculate the time-dependent ICEO slip around a metallic sphere with a thin dielectric coating in a suddenly-applied DC field. We briefly discuss possible applications of ICEO to microfluidics and of ICEP to colloidal manipulation.

  16. BRST charge for nonlinear algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, I L

    2007-01-01

    We study the construction of the classical nilpotent canonical BRST charge for the nonlinear gauge algebras where a commutator (in terms of Poisson brackets) of the constraints is a finite order polynomial of the constraints.

  17. Organic Text Authors Charge Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the recent controversy involving two organic chemistry textbooks. The charge of plagiarism and the court litigations are the object of interest in the chemical community since many prominant scientists are planned as witnesses. (SA)

  18. Charge Transport in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Holcombe, S R

    2010-01-01

    We consider charge transport in nanopores where the dielectric constant inside the nanopore is much greater than in the surrounding material, so that the flux of the electric fields due to the charges is almost entirely confined to the nanopore. That means that we may model the electric fields due to charge densities in the nanopore in terms of average properties across the nanopore as solutions of one dimensional Poisson equations. We develop basic equations for an M component system using equations of continuity to relate concentrations to currents, and flux equations relating currents to concentration gradients and conductivities. We then derive simplified scaled versions of the equations. We develop exact solutions for the one component case in a variety of boundary conditions using a Hopf-Cole transformation, Fourier series, and periodic solutions of the Burgers equation. These are compared with a simpler model in which the scaled diffusivity is zero so that all charge motion is driven by the electric fi...

  19. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karlo J Lizarraga; Alessandra Gorgulho; Wei Chen; Antonio A De Salles

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors(D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography(SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation(DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease(PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  20. Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-08-01

    Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

  1. On the role of local charge carrier mobility in the charge separation mechanism of organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Saya; Saeki, Akinori; Saito, Masahiko; Osaka, Itaru; Seki, Shu

    2015-07-21

    Although the charge separation (CS) and transport processes that compete with geminate and non-geminate recombination are commonly regarded as the governing factors of organic photovoltaic (OPV) efficiency, the details of the CS mechanism remain largely unexplored. Here we provide a systematic investigation on the role of local charge carrier mobility in bulk heterojunction films of ten different low-bandgap polymers and polythiophene analogues blended with methanofullerene (PCBM). By correlating with the OPV performances, we demonstrated that the local mobility of the blend measured by time-resolved microwave conductivity is more important for the OPV output than those of the pure polymers. Furthermore, the results revealed two separate trends for crystalline and semi-crystalline polymers. This work offers guidance in the design of high-performance organic solar cells.

  2. Multizone Artillery Propelling Charge Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS IL162618AH80 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS US Army Armament Research & Development Command...are affected by the many interrelated components comprising the charge. We have identified areas of concern for bagged multizone charges; studies...B. Brodman DRDAP-LCB-I, D. Spring DRDAR-LCE, R. Walker DRDAR-LCU-CT E. Barrleres R. Davitt DRDAR-CLU-CV C.Mandala E. Moore DRDAR-LCM-E S

  3. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, J.M

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal 'quasiparticles' and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  4. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal “quasiparticles” and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  5. Charged-lepton flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andreas Hoecker

    2012-11-01

    This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is also discussed.

  6. A note on charged interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Huaqiang [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Yu, M Y [Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    A condition associated with the plasma boundary or other charged interface is reviewed. It is pointed out that in comparing theories and simulations of such interfaces, in order to avoid conflicting results it should be ascertained that the systems under consideration are thermodynamically equivalent. For the plasma-wall interface in equilibrium, the rate of change of the surface-charge density with respect to the surface potential must be positive.

  7. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Sébastien; Bickel, Thomas; Würger, Alois

    2008-04-01

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  8. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Fayolle, Sébastien; Bickel, Thomas; Würger, Alois

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  9. “Degenerated” Leadership of Social Movements: Implications from the Tharu Movement in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Social movements and protest activities in contemporary Nepalese society have been a common phenomenon. They are becoming intermediary power to challenge the State-led political mainstream and development affairs. With a long history, Tharu movement is a part of such movement discourse in Nepal. The leadership, however, has not been dealt in detail for scholarly research. This paper analyses how the leadership of Tharu movement is becoming degenerated and elite-centric in representing the poo...

  10. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p  0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p segment coordination during turning. As such, eye movements may be an important addition to training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and potentially reducing the risk of falls.

  11. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vasugi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.

  12. Electroelasticity of Charged Black Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    We present the first order corrected dynamics of fluid branes carrying higher-form charge by obtaining the general form of their equations of motion to pole-dipole order. Assuming linear response theory, we characterize the corresponding effective theory of stationary bent charged (an)isotropic fluid branes in terms of two sets of response coefficients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently find large classes of examples in gravity of this effective theory, by constructing stationary strained charged black brane solutions to first order in a derivative expansion. Using solution generating techniques and bent neutral black branes as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D-branes of type II string theory. By subsequently measuring the be...

  13. Jet charge at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, David; Schwartz, Matthew D; Lin, Tongyan; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2013-05-24

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the standard model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-standard-model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pileup, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as standard model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically decaying W bosons in tt[over ¯] events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multihadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte Carlo fragmentation models.

  14. Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Other deep brain stimulation-related movement disorders include dyskinesias associated with stimulation of the globus pallidus externus and ataxic gait as a side effect of chronic bilateral stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus. These movement disorders are generally reversible and usually resolved once the stimulation is reduced or turned off. This, however, typically leads to loss of benefit of the underlying movement disorder which can be re-gained by using different contacts, changing targets or stimulation parameters, and adjusting pharmacological therapy. New and innovative emerging technologies and stimulation techniques may help to prevent or overcome the various deep brain stimulation-induced movement disorders. In this review we aim to describe the clinical features, frequency, pathophysiology, and strategies for treatment of these iatrogenic movement disorders.

  15. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  16. Whatever Happened to the Free School Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Looks at the free school movement within and outside the realm of public education. Presents an historical perspective on the radical private free school movement evidence suggesting that the development of educational options within the public school system has come from within the system. (DN)

  17. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  18. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  19. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the mos

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  1. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a smal...

  2. Multipulse control of saccadic eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, S. L.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    We present three conclusions regarding the neural control of saccadic eye movements, resulting from comparisons between recorded movements and computer simulations. The controller signal to the muscles is probably a multipulse-step. This kind of signal drives the fastest model trajectories. Finally, multipulse signals explain differences between model and electrophysiological results.

  3. Eye movements predict recollective experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Sharot

    Full Text Available Previously encountered stimuli can bring to mind a vivid memory of the episodic context in which the stimulus was first experienced ("remembered" stimuli, or can simply seem familiar ("known" stimuli. Past studies suggest that more attentional resources are required to encode stimuli that are subsequently remembered than known. However, it is unclear if the attentional resources are distributed differently during encoding and recognition of remembered and known stimuli. Here, we record eye movements while participants encode photos, and later while indicating whether the photos are remembered, known or new. Eye fixations were more clustered during both encoding and recognition of remembered photos relative to known photos. Thus, recognition of photos that bring to mind a vivid memory for the episodic context in which they were experienced is associated with less distributed overt attention during encoding and recognition. The results suggest that remembering is related to encoding of a few distinct details of a photo rather than the photo as a whole. In turn, during recognition remembering may be trigged by enhanced memory for the salient details of the photos.

  4. Within-Individual Variation in Preferences Equity Effects of Congestion Charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borjesson, Maria; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    collected in Switzerland, a revealed stated preference logit mode choice model was estimated. The model was applied to simulate how VTT and change in consumer surplus vary across trips within and between individuals over the 6 weeks in response to a hypothetical congestion-charging scheme. The variation...... equity effects of congestion charges are likely to be overestimated....

  5. Investigations on Several Mechanical Problems in Windblown Sand Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Zheng

    2006-01-01

    It is very necessary for investigation on mechanism of windblown sand movement to understand and find out effective measures of preventing and reducing windblown sand. This also deals with some general features and hot spots in the scientific forelands, such as multi-scale problems, interactions among multi-physical-fields, randomness and nonlinearity as well as complex systems. In recent years, a series of experiments in wind tunnels and theoretical modeling as well as computer simulation have been taken by our research group (the Laboratory of Environmental Mechanics on Windblown Sand Movement in Lanzhou University) in a cross-disciplinary (mechanics and geography) viewpoint. Several original and essential studies were explored such as the main regularities of charges on sand particles, the mechanisms of electric field in windblown sand flux, the effects induced by the electric field on the flux, the microwave propagations, the evolution process of windblown sand flux under mutual couple interactions among several physical fields, and the simulation of the main features of Aeolian sand ripples.

  6. Reconstruction of eye movements during blinks

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, M S; Kliegl, R; Engbert, R; Kurths, J

    2008-01-01

    In eye movement research in reading, the amount of data plays a crucial role for the validation of results. A methodological problem for the analysis of the eye movement in reading are blinks, when readers close their eyes. Blinking rate increases with increasing reading time, resulting in high data losses, especially for older adults or reading impaired subjects. We present a method, based on the symbolic sequence dynamics of the eye movements, that reconstructs the horizontal position of the eyes while the reader blinks. The method makes use of an observed fact that the movements of the eyes before closing or after opening contain information about the eyes movements during blinks. Test results indicate that our reconstruction method is superior to methods that use simpler interpolation approaches. In addition, analyses of the reconstructed data show no significant deviation from the usual behavior observed in readers.

  7. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  8. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  9. Molecular basis of chloroplast photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Chloroplast photorelocation movement is an essential physiological response for sessile plant survival and the optimization of photosynthetic ability. Simple but effective experiments on the physiological, cell biological and molecular genetic aspects have been widely used to investigate the signaling components of chloroplast photorelocation movement in Arabidopsis for the past few decades. Although recent knowledge on chloroplast photorelocation movement has led us to a deeper understanding of its physiological and molecular basis, the biochemical roles of the downstream factors remain largely unknown. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances regarding chloroplast photorelocation movement and propose that a new high-resolution approach is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying actin-based chloroplast photorelocation movement.

  10. Modelling die filling with charged particles using DEM/CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Nkem Nwose; Chunlei Pei; Chuan-Yu Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electrostatic charge on powder flow behaviour during die filling in a vacuum and in air were analysed using a coupled discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM/CFD) code,in which long range electrostatic interactions were implemented.The present 2D simulations revealed that both electrostatic charge and the presence of air can affect the powder flow behaviour during die filling.It was found that the electrostatic charge inhibited the flow of powders into the die and induced a loose packing structure.At the same filling speed,increasing the electrostatic charge led to a decrease in the fill ratio which quantifies the volumetric occupancy of powder in the die.In addition,increasing the shoe speed caused a further decrease in the fill ratio,which was characterised using the concept of critical filling speed.When the electrostatic charge was low,the air/particle interaction was strong so that a lower critical filling speed was obtained for die filling in air than in a vacuum.With high electrostatic charge,the electrostatic interactions became dominant.Consequently,similar fill ratio and critical filling speed were obtained for die filling in air and in a vacuum.

  11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells, action of acetylcholine depends on its binding with its two specific receptors on the plasma membrane: the nicotinic and muscarinic respectively. The present investigation has shown that agonists of muscarinic receptor (muscarine) could induce stomatal opening, while the antagonists (atropine) could block stomatal opening induced by acetylcholine. Their effects can only be realized in medium containing Ca2+, but not in medium containing K+. The results tend to reveal that the muscarinic receptor is involved in acetylcholine-induced stomatal movement.

  12. Health care consumerism movement takes a step forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Cutler, Charles M

    2010-01-01

    One of the contributing factors to both the increase in health care costs and the backlash to managed care was the lack of consumer awareness of the cost of health care service, the effect of health care costs on profits and wages, and the need to engage consumers more actively as consumers in health care decisions. This article reviews the birth of the health care consumerism movement and identifies gaps in health care consumerism today. The authors reveal some of the keys to building a sustainable health care consumerism framework, which involves enlisting consumers as well as other stakeholders.

  13. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  14. Differentially phased leaf growth and movements in Arabidopsis depend on coordinated circadian and light regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Tino; Michaud, Olivier; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to vastly studied hypocotyl growth, little is known about diel regulation of leaf growth and its coordination with movements such as changes in leaf elevation angle (hyponasty). We developed a 3D live-leaf growth analysis system enabling simultaneous monitoring of growth and movements. Leaf growth is maximal several hours after dawn, requires light, and is regulated by daylength, suggesting coupling between growth and metabolism. We identify both blade and petiole positioning as important components of leaf movements in Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal a temporal delay between growth and movements. In hypocotyls, the combination of circadian expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 and their light-regulated protein stability drives rhythmic hypocotyl elongation with peak growth at dawn. We find that PIF4 and PIF5 are not essential to sustain rhythmic leaf growth but influence their amplitude. Furthermore, EARLY FLOWERING3, a member of the evening complex (EC), is required to maintain the correct phase between growth and movement. Our study shows that the mechanisms underlying rhythmic hypocotyl and leaf growth differ. Moreover, we reveal the temporal relationship between leaf elongation and movements and demonstrate the importance of the EC for the coordination of these phenotypic traits.

  15. Does movement planning follow Fitts' law? Scaling anticipatory postural adjustments with movement speed and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucco, M; Cesari, P

    2010-11-24

    We wanted to determine whether movement planning followed Fitts' law by investigating the relationship between movement planning and movement performance in experienced dancers executing a typical classical ballet step in which the big toe was pointed to targets at different distances and of different widths so as to obtain several indices of difficulty (ID). Movement time, velocity and variability at the target were the variables of movement performance kinematics; movement planning was evaluated by analysis of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) to assess their modulation at different IDs. Movement time and peak of velocity were found to scale with the ID only when individual movement distance across target widths was entered into the analysis. APA magnitude and duration both scaled according to movement parameters but not in the same way. APA magnitude scaled with movement velocity, while APA duration was sensitive to the amplitude-to-accuracy ratio following the ID for movements performed in the shortest time interval when on-line feedback control is probably not available. Here we show that timing of muscle activation acts as an independent central command that triggers fine-tuning for speed-accuracy trade-off.

  16. A framework for understanding the architecture of collective movements using pairwise analyses of animal movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Wittemyer, George

    2011-03-06

    The study of collective or group-level movement patterns can provide insight regarding the socio-ecological interface, the evolution of self-organization and mechanisms of inter-individual information exchange. The suite of drivers influencing coordinated movement trajectories occur across scales, resulting from regular annual, seasonal and circadian stimuli and irregular intra- or interspecific interactions and environmental encounters acting on individuals. Here, we promote a conceptual framework with an associated statistical machinery to quantify the type and degree of synchrony, spanning absence to complete, in pairwise movements. The application of this framework offers a foundation for detailed understanding of collective movement patterns and causes. We emphasize the use of Fourier and wavelet approaches of measuring pairwise movement properties and illustrate them with simulations that contain different types of complexity in individual movement, correlation in movement stochasticity, and transience in movement relatedness. Application of this framework to movements of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides unique insight on the separate roles of sociality and ecology in the fission-fusion society of these animals, quantitatively characterizing the types of bonding that occur at different levels of social relatedness in a movement context. We conclude with a discussion about expanding this framework to the context of larger (greater than three) groups towards understanding broader population and interspecific collective movement patterns and their mechanisms.

  17. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  18. Separating timing, movement conditions and individual differences in the analysis of human movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Grimme, Britta; Schöner, Gregor;

    2016-01-01

    mixed-effects models as viable alternatives to conventional analysis frameworks. The model is then combined with a novel factor-analysis model that estimates the low-dimensional subspace within which movements vary when the task demands vary. Our framework enables us to visualize different dimensions......A central task in the analysis of human movement behavior is to determine systematic patterns and differences across experimental conditions, participants and repetitions. This is possible because human movement is highly regular, being constrained by invariance principles. Movement timing...... of movement variation and to test hypotheses about the effect of obstacle placement and height on the movement path. We demonstrate that the approach can be used to uncover new properties of human movement....

  19. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  20. Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Jiang, Aimin

    2015-01-07

    The goal of animal movement analysis is to understand how organisms explore and exploit complex and varying environments. Animals usually exhibit varied and complicated movements, from apparently deterministic behaviours to highly random behaviours. It has been a common method to assess movement efficiency and foraging strategies by means of quantifying and analyzing movement trajectories. Here we introduce a tortuosity entropy (TorEn), a simple measure for quantifying the behavioral change in animal movement data. In our approach, the differences between pairwise successive track points are transformed into symbolic sequences, then we map these symbols into a group of pattern vectors and calculate the information entropy of pattern vectors. We test the algorithm on both simulated trajectories and real trajectories to show that it can accurately identify not only the mixed segments in simulated data, but also the different phases in real movement data. Tortuosity entropy can be easily applied to arbitrary real-world data, whether deterministic or stochastic, stationary or non-stationary. It could be a promising tool to reveal behavioral mechanism in movement data.