WorldWideScience

Sample records for charge limited degradation

  1. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  2. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, e.g. a circular loop, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how the radiation vanishes when one goes to the continuum DC limit.

  3. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  4. Limit on the electric charge of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, A., E-mail: acapra@triumf.ca; Amole, C. [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [Imperial College, Centre for Cold Matter (United Kingdom); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Isaac, C. A. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Jonsell, S. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics (Sweden); Kurchaninov, L. [TRIUMF (Canada); and others

    2017-11-15

    The ALPHA collaboration has successfully demonstrated the production and the confinement of cold antihydrogen, H̅. An analysis of trapping data allowed a stringent limit to be placed on the electric charge of the simplest antiatom. Charge neutrality of matter is known to a very high precision, hence a neutrality limit of H̅ provides a test of CPT invariance. The experimental technique is based on the measurement of the deflection of putatively charged H̅ in an electric field. The tendency for trapped H̅ atoms to be displaced by electrostatic fields is measured and compared to the results of a detailed simulation of H̅ dynamics in the trap. An extensive survey of the systematic errors was performed, and this work focuses on those due to the silicon vertex detector, which is the device used to determine the H̅ annihilation position. The limit obtained on the charge of the H̅ atom is Q = (−1.3 ± 1.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup −8}, representing the first precision measurement with H̅ [1].

  5. Degradation Processes in Corona-Charged Electret Filter-Media

    OpenAIRE

    Warren J. Jasper, Ph.D; Roger Barker, Ph.D.; Anushree Mohan; Juan Hinestroza, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of filtration performance for coronachargedelectret filter media exposed to ethyl benzenewas assessed. Nonwoven corona-charged polypropylenefiber mats were exposed to ethyl-benzene using acustom made apparatus. Evaluated scenarios includedethyl-benzene vapor and liquid exposures. The filtrationperformance was evaluated using DOP as a testaerosol to measure filtration performance. It was observedthat significant filtration degradation occurredonly when liquid ethyl benzene came...

  6. Charge Exchange Effect on Space-Charge-Limited Current Densities in Ion Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2002-01-01

    The article theoretically studied the charge-exchange effects on space charge limited electron and ion current densities of non-relativistic one-dimensional slab ion diode, and compared with those of without charge exchange.

  7. Trapped charge-driven degradation of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Namyoung; Kwak, Kwisung; Jang, Min Seok; Yoon, Heetae; Lee, Byung Yang; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Pikhitsa, Peter V.; Byun, Junseop; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown unprecedent performance increase up to 22% efficiency. However, their photovoltaic performance has shown fast deterioration under light illumination in the presence of humid air even with encapulation. The stability of perovskite materials has been unsolved and its mechanism has been elusive. Here we uncover a mechanism for irreversible degradation of perovskite materials in which trapped charges, regardless of the polarity, play a decisive role. An experimental setup using different polarity ions revealed that the moisture-induced irreversible dissociation of perovskite materials is triggered by charges trapped along grain boundaries. We also identified the synergetic effect of oxygen on the process of moisture-induced degradation. The deprotonation of organic cations by trapped charge-induced local electric field would be attributed to the initiation of irreversible decomposition. PMID:27830709

  8. Trapped charge-driven degradation of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Namyoung; Kwak, Kwisung; Jang, Min Seok; Yoon, Heetae; Lee, Byung Yang; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Pikhitsa, Peter V.; Byun, Junseop; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown unprecedent performance increase up to 22% efficiency. However, their photovoltaic performance has shown fast deterioration under light illumination in the presence of humid air even with encapulation. The stability of perovskite materials has been unsolved and its mechanism has been elusive. Here we uncover a mechanism for irreversible degradation of perovskite materials in which trapped charges, regardless of the polarity, play a decisive role. An experimental setup using different polarity ions revealed that the moisture-induced irreversible dissociation of perovskite materials is triggered by charges trapped along grain boundaries. We also identified the synergetic effect of oxygen on the process of moisture-induced degradation. The deprotonation of organic cations by trapped charge-induced local electric field would be attributed to the initiation of irreversible decomposition.

  9. Degradation Processes in Corona-Charged Electret Filter-Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren J. Jasper, Ph.D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of filtration performance for coronachargedelectret filter media exposed to ethyl benzenewas assessed. Nonwoven corona-charged polypropylenefiber mats were exposed to ethyl-benzene using acustom made apparatus. Evaluated scenarios includedethyl-benzene vapor and liquid exposures. The filtrationperformance was evaluated using DOP as a testaerosol to measure filtration performance. It was observedthat significant filtration degradation occurredonly when liquid ethyl benzene came into direct contactwith the filter media. No significant changes in thepressure drop or filtration efficiency was observed forany of the exposure scenarios in which the fibers wereonly exposed to ethyl benzene in the vapor phase.

  10. Modelling space-charge limited transport in discotic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, L.; Bushby, R. J.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2006-05-01

    Using a self-consistent Monte Carlo/Poisson algorithm, we investigate space-charge limited conduction in discotic liquid crystal time of flight (TOF) experiments. The charge transport mechanism is via a semi-delocalised banding process, and two mechanisms of photo-generation of charge carriers are considered: excitons generated by the laser pulse, which quench at the anode, and processes, such as the Onsager mechanism, that lead to direct generation of free electron/hole pairs within the bulk. The nature of the space-charge limited TOF transient is investigated as a function of quantum yield of charge carriers and as a function of applied potential.

  11. Parker limit for monopoles with large magnetic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, H.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-28

    The survival of galactic magnetic fields places a limit on the flux of magnetic monopoles, the so-called ''Parker limit.'' Previous discussions of the Parker limit have assumed that the charge of the monopole is the Dirac value, g/sub Dirac/ = 2..pi../e. However, if the grand unified group is broken by Wilson lines, as is assumed in some superstring models, the minimum value of the magnetic charge is not the Dirac quantum, but an integer multiple of it. In this brief report we investigate the dependence of the Parker limit on the charge of the magnetic monopole. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Natural Limits for Currents in Charge Separated Pulsar Magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Jessner, A; Kunzl, T A

    2002-01-01

    Rough estimates and upper limits on current and particle densities form the basis of most of the canonical pulsar models. Whereas the surface of the rotating neutron star is capable of supplying sufficient charges to provide a current that, given the polar cap potential, could easily fuel the observed energy loss processes, observational and theoretical constraints provide strict upper limits to the charge densities. The space charge of a current consisting solely of particles having only one sign creates a compensating potential that will make the maximum current dependent on potential and distance. In the non-relativistic case this fact is expressed in the familiar Child-Langmuir law. Its relativistic generalization and subsequent application to the inner pulsar magnetosphere provides clear limits on the strength and radial extension of charged currents originating on the polar cap. Violent Pierce-type oscillations set in, if one attempts to inject more current than the space charge limit into a given volum...

  13. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and

  14. Geometry dependence of 2-dimensional space-charge-limited currents

    CERN Document Server

    De Visschere, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The space-charge-limited current in a zero thickness planar thin film depends on the geometry of the electrodes. We present a theory which is to a large extent analytical and applicable to many different lay-outs. We show that a space-charge-limited current can only be sustained if the emitting electrode induces a singularity in the field and if the singularity induced by the collecting electrode is not too strong. For those lay-outs where no space-charge-limited current can be sustained for a zero thickness film, the real thickness of the film must be taken into account using a numerical model.

  15. Space-charge limiting current in spherical cathode diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国治; 邵浩

    2003-01-01

    The results of the investigation on the space-charge limiting current for a spherical-cathode diode in the nonrelativistic situation are presented in this paper. The results show that the current enhancement factor equals the square of E-field enhancement factor on the cathode surface. The generated space-charge limiting current is deduced.In the case of a pin-shaped-cathode diode, the space-charge limiting current is also obtained, indicating that the current is independent of the geometric parameters of the diode. Analyses of the shielding effects and the conditions for generation of the uniform space-charge limiting beam show that, for pin-arrayed cathodes, the distance between pins should be in the range from 1.2D to 1.5D, where D is the distance between the two electrodes.

  16. Space Charge Effects and Limitations in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Wasef, R; Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Hernalsteens, C; Huschauer, A; Schmidt, F; Franchetti, G

    2013-01-01

    Space charge produces a large incoherent tune-spread which, in presence of betatronic resonances, could lead to beam losses and emittance growth. In the CERN Proton Synchrotron, at the current injection kinetic energy (1.4 GeV) and even at the future kinetic energy (2 GeV), space charge is one of the main limitations for high brightness beams and especially for the future High- Luminosity LHC beams. Several detailed studies and measurements have been carried out to improve the understanding of space charge limitations to determine the maximum acceptable tune spread and identify the most important resonances causing losses and emittance growth.

  17. Quantum theory of space charge limited current in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.gonzalez@uaslp.mx [Cátedras Conacyt, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78000, Mexico and Coordinación para la Innovación y la Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78000 (Mexico)

    2015-02-28

    We present a quantum model of space charge limited current transport inside trap-free solids with planar geometry in the mean field approximation. We use a simple transformation which allows us to find the exact analytical solution for the steady state current case. We use our approach to find a Mott-Gurney like behavior and the mobility for single charge carriers in the quantum regime in solids.

  18. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  19. The Characteristic of Residual Charge for Water-tree Degraded XLPE and the Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinuma, Yasumitsu; Masui, Noriaki

    Recently the measurement of residual charge has been studying as insulation deterioration diagnosis of XLPE insulated cables. Authors have studied the measurement process and the charge characteristic. The specimens are XLPE sheets of 1mm which are degraded with water-trees. There are four processes of charge removal, charge injection, ground and charge release in the measurement. The process of charge removal was introduced to measure a little charge successfully. In the process of charge injection, it was confirmed that the relation between the applied dc voltage and the charge was examined, and the higher dc voltage was, more the charge was. In addition, it has been showed that the applied process of the dc voltage greatly influences the measured charge. In the process of ground, the grounding period is changed and the charge is measured. It has been showed that the grounding period doesn't influence the measured charge greatly. In the process of charge release, the frequency and the period of applied ac voltage were changed and the charge was measured. It has been showed that neither the frequency nor the period of ac voltage greatly influence the charge measured. In addition, the dc voltage was superimposed to ac voltage, and the charge was measured. It has been showed that the charge measured changes greatly even if the dc voltage is low. The method of the insulation deterioration measurement of cable was examined from these results, and the measurement conditions and a newer method were suggested.

  20. Chaos and the continuum limit in charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry E. Kandrup

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the validity of the Vlasov-Poisson equations for calculating properties of systems of N charged particles governed by time-independent Hamiltonians. Through numerical experiments we verify that there is a smooth convergence toward a continuum limit as N→∞ and the particle charge q→0 such that the system charge Q=qN remains fixed. However, in real systems N and q are always finite, and the assumption of the continuum limit must be questioned. We demonstrate that Langevin simulations can be used to assess the importance of discreteness effects, i.e., granularity, in systems for which the physical particle number N is too large to enable orbit integrations based on direct summation of interparticle forces. We then consider a beam bunch in thermal equilibrium and apply Langevin techniques to assess whether the continuum limit can be safely applied to this system. In the process we show, especially for systems supporting a sizable population of chaotic orbits that roam globally through phase space, that for the continuum limit to be valid, N must sometimes be surprisingly large. Otherwise the influence of granularity on particle orbits cannot be ignored.

  1. Space charge limited conduction in CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradip Kr Kalita; B K Sarma; H L Das

    2003-10-01

    The current ()–voltage () characteristics of thermally evaporated CdSe thin films having thickness in the range 850–3000 Å and deposited within the substrate temperature of 303–573 K show nearly linear dependence at low voltage and afterwards a non-linear behaviour at higher voltage range. A detailed study of – curves in dark and under illumination clearly reveals the mechanism as ohmic at low voltage and that of trap limited space charge limited conduction (SCLC) at higher voltage. The transition voltage () from ohmic to SCLC is found to be quite independent of ambient temperature as well as intensity of illumination. SCLC is explained on the basis of the exponential trap distribution in CdSe films. Trap depths estimated from the ln vs 103/T plots are found to be within 0.60–0.37 eV. Using the relevant SCLC theory, the carrier concentration, 0, total trap concentration, t, and the ratio of free charge to trapped charge, , have been calculated and correlated with ambient temperature and intensity of illumination.

  2. Remark on charge conjugation in the non relativistic limit

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rojas, H P; Socolovsky, M

    2005-01-01

    We study the non relativistic limit of the charge conjugation operation $\\cal C$ in the context of the Dirac equation coupled to an electromagnetic field. The limit is well defined and, as in the relativistic case, $\\cal C$, $\\cal P$ (parity) and $\\cal T$ (time reversal) are the generators of a matrix group isomorphic to a semidirect sum of the dihedral group of eight elements and $\\Z_2$. The existence of the limit is supported by an argument based in quantum field theory. Finally, if one complexifies the Lorentz group and therefore the galilean spacetime $x_\\mu$, then the explicit form of the matrix for $\\cal C$ allows to interpret it, in this context, as the complex conjugation of the spatial coordinates: $\\vec{x} \\to \\vec{x}^*$. This result is natural in a fiber bundle description.

  3. Analysing degradation effects in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Aging-sensitive technology nodes that are resulting in performance degradations in their electronic system implementations require aging simulations in advance for a more dependable design. Simulating time-domain aging effects in these electronic systems, especially in complex analog and mixed-signa

  4. Analysing degradation effects in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Aging-sensitive technology nodes that are resulting in performance degradations in their electronic system implementations require aging simulations in advance for a more dependable design. Simulating time-domain aging effects in these electronic systems, especially in complex analog and mixed-signa

  5. Trapped-space-charge-limited currents in organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasch, Gernot [IFW Dresden (Germany); Blom, Paul; Mandoc, Magda; Boer, Bert de [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    The Mott-Gurney law for space charge limited current (SCLC) has been modified early to account for the presence of exponentially distributed traps. This expression has been widely used to analyse transport in organic light emitting diodes. However, the theory fails to describe the rather weak temperature dependence observed for electron transport, for instance in PPV derivatives. There we have shown that the trap-limited SCLC law is essentially modified if the density of transport states is of Gaussian type. Here, we discuss the origin of this modification and present a detailed analysis of the modified law. In addition, we derive further modifications for different combinations of densities of states of both the transport states and the trap distribution. As a result, rather different dependencies of the current on voltage, layer thickness and temperature are possible. Consequently, one has to exercise care in order to obtain reliable trap parameters from SCLC.

  6. Reduction of Light-induced Degradation of Boron-doped Solar-grade Czochralski Silicon by Corona Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Boulfrad, Yacine; Lindroos, Jeanette; Inglese, Alessandro; Yli-Koski, Marko; Savin, Hele

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aims at the reduction of light-induced degradation of boron-doped solar-grade Czochralski silicon wafers by corona charging. The method consists of deposition of negative charges on both surface sides of wafer and keeping the wafer in dark for 24 hours to allow the diffusion of positively-charged interstitial copper towards the surfaces. This method proves to be useful to reduce or eliminate light-induced degradation caused by copper. The degradation was significantly redu...

  7. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A performance-analys

  8. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A performance-analys

  9. Breaking the Space Charge Limit in Organic Solar Cells by a Novel Plasmonic-Electrical Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Li, Xuanhua; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental electrostatic limit, space charge limit (SCL) for photocurrent is a universal phenomenon and of paramount importance for organic semiconductors with unbalanced photocarriers mobility and high exciton generation. Here we proposed a new plasmonic-electrical concept to manipulate electrical properties of organic devices including photocarriers recombination, transport and collection. As a proof-of-concept, organic solar cells (OSCs) comprising metallic planar and grating electrodes are systematically investigated with normal and inverted device structures. Interestingly, although strong plasmonic resonances induce abnormally dense photocarriers around a grating anode, the grating-inverted OSC is exempt from space charge accumulation (limit) and degradation of electrical properties in contrast to the planar-inverted and planar-normal ones. The particular reason is that plasmonically induced photocarriers redistribution shortens the transport path of low-mobility holes, which are collected by the grating anode. The work demonstrated and explained the SCL breaking with the plasmonic-electrical effect. Most importantly, the plasmonic-electrical concept will open up a new way to manipulate both optical and electrical properties of semiconductor devices simultaneously. PMID:25168122

  10. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  11. Dolomite limits acidification of a biofilter degrading dimethyl sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet; Van Langenhove H; Philips

    1999-01-01

    The applicability of dolomite particles to control acidification in a Hyphomicrobium MS3 inoculated biofilter removing dimethyl sulphide (Me2S) was studied. While direct inoculation of the dolomite particles with the liquid microbial culture was not successful, start-up of Me2S-degradation in the biofilter was observed when the dolomite particles were mixed with 33% (wt/wt) of Hyphomicrobium MS3-inoculated compost or wood bark material. Under optimal conditions, an elimination capacity (EC) of 1680 g Me2S m(-3) d(-1) was obtained for the compost/dolomite biofilter. Contrary to a wood bark or compost biofilter, no reduction in activity due to acidification was observed in these biofilters over a 235 day period because of the micro environment neutralisation of the microbial metabolite H2SO4 with the carbonate in the dolomite material. However, performance of the biofilter decreased when the moisture content of the mixed compost/dolomite material dropped below 15%. Next to this, nutrient limitation resulted in a gradual decrease of the EC and supplementation of a nitrogen source was a prerequisite to obtain a long-term high EC (> 250 g Me2S m(-3) d(-1)) for Me2S. In relation to this nitrogen supplementation, it was observed that stable ECs for Me2S were obtained when this nutrient was dosed to the biofilter at a Me2S-C/NH4Cl-N ratio of about 10.

  12. 5 CFR 890.905 - Limits on inpatient hospital and physician charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on inpatient hospital and physician charges. 890.905 Section 890.905 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.905 Limits on...

  13. 42 CFR 412.42 - Limitations on charges to beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... representative) of his or her discharge rights in writing consistent with § 405.1205 and notifies the beneficiary... Medicare. (2) Customary charges will be made if he or she receives the services. (3) If the beneficiary... its customary charges for noncovered items and services furnished on outlier days (as described in...

  14. Thickness scaling of the space-charge-limited current in poly(p-phenylene vinylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, PWM; Tanase, C; de Leeuw, DM; Coehoorn, R

    2005-01-01

    Charge transport in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a polyp-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivative is investigated as a function of sample thickness. Via the thickness dependence, the contributions from the electric field and charge carrier density to the mobility in space-charge-limited (SCL) d

  15. Limits on Lorentz violation from charged-pion decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Noordmans, J.; K. Vos, K.

    2014-01-01

    Charged-pion decay offers many opportunities to study Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory approach, we study Lorentz violation in the lepton, W-boson, and quark sectors and derive the differential pion-decay rate, including muon polarization. Using coordinate redefinitions we are able

  16. Split charge equilibration method with correct dissociation limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Didier

    2007-12-01

    Analytic reactive potentials rely on electronegativity equalization to describe how the electron distribution is affected as chemical reactions occur. However, such models predict fractional charges for neutral species with different electronegativities. To overcome this well-known dissociation problem, an approach taking advantage of the concept of split charges [R. A. Nistor, J. G. Polihronov, M. H. Müser, and N. J. Mosey, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094108 (2006)] is put forward. A first implementation is presented. Starting from a previous model [P. Bultinck, W. Langenaeker, P. Lahorte, F. D. Proft, P. Geerlings, M. Waroquier, and J. P. Tollenaere, J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 7887 (2002)], a new contribution to the total energy is introduced in order to make up for the lack of suitable constraints on the charge density. Its effect is to restrain charge transfer between remote atoms. As a consequence, systems in gas phase naturally decompose into neutral fragments. This result is achieved using two empirical parameters in addition to atomic electronegativities and hardnesses.

  17. An experimental limit on the charge of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Vendeiro, Z.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    The properties of antihydrogen are expected to be identical to those of hydrogen, and any differences would constitute a profound challenge to the fundamental theories of physics. The most commonly discussed antiatom-based tests of these theories are searches for antihydrogen-hydrogen spectral differences (tests of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance) or gravitational differences (tests of the weak equivalence principle). Here we, the ALPHA Collaboration, report a different and somewhat unusual test of CPT and of quantum anomaly cancellation. A retrospective analysis of the influence of electric fields on antihydrogen atoms released from the ALPHA trap finds a mean axial deflection of 4.1±3.4 mm for an average axial electric field of 0.51 V mm-1. Combined with extensive numerical modelling, this measurement leads to a bound on the charge Qe of antihydrogen of Q=(-1.3±1.1±0.4) × 10-8. Here, e is the unit charge, and the errors are from statistics and systematic effects.

  18. An experimental limit on the charge of antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Tharp, T D; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Vendeiro, Z; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I; Charman, A E

    2014-01-01

    The properties of antihydrogen are expected to be identical to those of hydrogen, and any differences would constitute a profound challenge to the fundamental theories of physics. The most commonly discussed antiatom-based tests of these theories are searches for antihydrogen-hydrogen spectral differences (tests of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance) or gravitational differences (tests of the weak equivalence principle). Here we, the ALPHA Collaboration, report a different and somewhat unusual test of CPT and of quantum anomaly cancellation. A retrospective analysis of the influence of electric fields on antihydrogen atoms released from the ALPHA trap finds a mean axial deflection of 4.1±3.4 mm for an average axial electric field of 0.51 V mm−1. Combined with extensive numerical modelling, this measurement leads to a bound on the charge Qe of antihydrogen of Q=(−1.3±1.1±0.4) × 10−8. Here, e is the unit charge, and the errors are from statistics and systematic effects.

  19. Conformation of charged vesicles: the Debye Huckel and the low curvature limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Kumari Priti; Thaokar, Rochish M., , Prof.

    The shape as well as tension and pressure inside an uncharged vesicle are determined by the reduced volume. These parameters are important for a vesicle or a biological cell, since it can affect bio-physical processes such as osmosis and permeation, interaction with external agents such as bio- macromolecules and thermal fluctuations of the bilayer membrane of a vesicle. Charged membranes are ubiquitous in nature, most biological cell bio-membranes are charged, and therefore the knowledge of shape, tension and pressure of charged vesicles is critical. Additionally, the distribution of charges in the inner and outer leaflets is also important as it can affect the spatial interaction of a bilayer membrane with proteins. This work addresses these issues in the low charge and curvature limit. Our analysis indicates that despite a very strong two-way coupling between the charge and the curvature, the shapes of charged vesicles remain similar to that of uncharged vesicles at comparable reduced volumes, even for reasonable values of total charge. However, the tension and pressure values are higher, and are accurately estimated. Similarly the charge distribution on the outer and inner leaflet is strongly affected by the curvature. The value of spontaneous curvature due to charge redistribution is estimated. The insensitivity of the shape to charges persists even when only the outer leaflet is charged instead of charged inner and outer leaflets

  20. Investigating the Materials Limits on Coherence in Superconducting Charge Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    mesoscopic effects in superconductors on the coherence of qubits and on losses in superconducting films , and comparing these to experiment. This...on the superconducting films themselves, or at the metal-substrate interfaces) was the main limitation on qubit lifetimes, which were then in the...quality. We also developed and tested the “vertical transmon” design, where the transmon capacitors are formed through the bulk thickness of the

  1. 48 CFR 2152.216-70 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-risk charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of the... cost redetermination-risk charge. 2152.216-70 Section 2152.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations....216-70 Fixed price with limited cost redetermination—risk charge. As prescribed in...

  2. 48 CFR 2152.216-71 - Fixed price with limited cost redetermination-service charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... request, OPM will furnish, during the third quarter of the current contract year, an accounting of the... cost redetermination-service charge. 2152.216-71 Section 2152.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations....216-71 Fixed price with limited cost redetermination—service charge. As prescribed in...

  3. Influence of neutral and charged species on the plasma degradation of the stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Alexandre Bernardelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, stearic acid (SA was degraded in an Ar-O2and Ar-H2post-discharge environment created by a plasma reactor with a microwave source and in an Ar, Ar-H2and Ar-O2DC (Direct Current discharge environment created in a cathode-anode confined system. The afterglow region is useful for understanding the role of the chemically active species (O, O2, H and H2. In contrast, the discharge region allows the observation of the effects of chemically active species, charged species (ions and electrons and photons. The influence of these species on the grafting and etching of SA was evaluated by measuring the mass variation, mass variation rate and chemical composition. The results showed that when only chemically active oxygen species are present, the SA is preferentially grafted. However, when both photons and charged species are present, the SA is more efficiently etched. When the Ar-H2and Ar environments are utilized; the SA is not efficiently degraded.

  4. 48 CFR 52.215-23 - Limitations on Pass-Through Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause: Limitations on Pass-Through Charges (OCT 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Added... pricing data in accordance with FAR 15.403-4. (End of clause) Alternate I (OCT 2009). As prescribed in...

  5. ESTIMATING THE LIMIT POSSIBILITIES OF THE STEP CHARGING SYSTEM FOR CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Batygin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to estimate the limit possibilities of step-by-step charging the capacitive energy storage which are caused by the achievement of a balance among the processes of the receiving and losing of electromagnetic energy. Originality. For the first time a step the charging system as a high power converter for pulsed load was considered, that allow to simplify similar charging systems and make its chipper while saving output characteristics and common quality. Methodology of the analysis applied is based on the classic electric circuits theory. All of the resulted carried out, were obtained as the differential equation solutions and its behavior was analyses analytically. Results. The basic diagram of the step-by-step charging system what is an alternative to the traditional variant with the step-up transformer was described. This system realizes the serial charge voltage increasing by the separate portions of energy, which has been, accumulated preliminary in the inductive energy storage. The formulas for estimating the limit possibilities of the step-by-step charging were got. These limits are caused by achieving a balance of the entering and losing electromagnetic energy. The applicability of the formulas was illustrated by numerical examples. Practical value. According to the results that were obtained, it is possible to note, that the step charging system is acceptable to be used as a high power converter for capacitive storage charging.

  6. Charging/Discharging Nanomorphology Asymmetry and Rate-Dependent Capacity Degradation in Li-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushima, Akihiro; Koido, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Yoshiya; Kuriyama, Nariaki; Kusumi, Nobuhiro; Li, Ju

    2015-12-09

    Liquid-cell in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the charge/discharge reactions of nonaqueous Li-oxygen battery cathode were performed with ∼5 nm spatial resolution. The discharging reaction occurred at the interface between the electrolyte and the reaction product, whereas in charging, the reactant was decomposed at the contact with the gold current collector, indicating that the lithium ion diffusivity/electronic conductivity is the limiting factor in discharging/charging, respectively, which is a root cause for the asymmetry in discharging/charging overpotential. Detachments of lithium oxide particles from the current collector into the liquid electrolyte are frequently seen when the cell was discharged at high overpotentials, with loss of active materials into liquid electrolyte ("flotsam") under minute liquid flow agitation, as the lithium peroxide dendritic trees are shown to be fragile mechanically and electrically. Our result implies that enhancing the binding force between the reaction products and the current collector to maintain robust electronic conduction is a key for improving the battery performance. This work demonstrated for the first time the in situ TEM observation of a three-phase-reaction involving gold electrode, lithium oxides, DMSO electrolyte and lithium salt, and O2 gas. The technique described in this work is not limited to Li-oxygen battery but also can be potentially used in other applications involving gas/liquid/solid electrochemical reactions.

  7. An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carruth, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Charman, A. E.; Eriksson, S.; Evans, L. T.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Ishida, A.; Jones, S. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Maxwell, D.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Michan, J. M.; Momose, T.; Munich, J. J.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sameed, M.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms- of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of |Q| < 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known to be no greater than about 10-21e for a diverse range of species including H2, He and SF6. Charge-parity-time symmetry and quantum anomaly cancellation demand that the charge of antihydrogen be similarly small. Thus, our measurement constitutes an improved limit and a test of fundamental aspects of the Standard Model. If we assume charge superposition and use the best measured value of the antiproton charge, then we can place a new limit on the positron charge anomaly (the relative difference between the positron and elementary charge) of about one part per billion (one standard deviation), a 25-fold reduction compared to the current best measurement.

  8. Limitations in Bonding to Dentin and Experimental Strategies to Prevent Bond Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Tjäderhane, L.; Breschi, L; A. Mazzoni; Li, N; J. Mao; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

    2011-01-01

    The limited durability of resin-dentin bonds severely compromises the lifetime of tooth-colored restorations. Bond degradation occurs via hydrolysis of suboptimally polymerized hydrophilic resin components and degradation of water-rich, resin-sparse collagen matrices by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. This review examined data generated over the past three years on five experimental strategies developed by different research groups for extending the longevity of resi...

  9. Orbital-motion-limited theory of dust charging and plasma response

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The foundational theory for dusty plasmas is the dust charging theory that provides the dust potential and charge arising from the dust interaction with a plasma. The most widely used dust charging theory for negatively charged dust particles is the so-called orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which predicts the dust potential and heat collection accurately for a variety of applications, but was previously found to be incapable of evaluating the dust charge and plasma response in any situation. Here we report a revised OML formulation that is able to predict the plasma response and hence the dust charge. Numerical solutions of the new OML model show that the widely-used Whipple approximation of dust charge-potential relationship agrees with OML theory in the limit of small dust radius compared with plasma Debye length, but incurs large (order-unity) deviation from the OML prediction when the dust size becomes comparable with or larger than plasma Debye length. This latter case is expected for the important ...

  10. First direct limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with electric charge less than $e/6$

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, H; Nelson, R H; Ogburn, R W; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically-produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than $e$/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between $e$/6 and $e$/200.

  11. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  12. In vivo charge injection limits increased after 'unsafe' stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; Sørensen, Søren; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of unsafe stimulation on charge injection limits (Qinj) and pulsing capacitance (Cpulse) was investigated. Four stimulation protocols were applied: 20 mA – 200 and 400 Hz, 50 mA – 200 and 400 Hz. Increasing Qinj and Cpulse were observed for all stimulation protocols. Corrosion was not ...

  13. Breaking the Space Charge Limit in Organic Solar Cells by a Novel Plasmonic-Electrical Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Xuanhua Li; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental electrostatic limit, space charge limit (SCL) for photocurrent is a universal phenomenon and of paramount importance for organic semiconductors with unbalanced photocarriers mobility and high exciton generation. Here we proposed a new plasmonic-electrical concept to manipulate electrical properties of organic devices including photocarriers recombination, transport and collection. As a proof-of-concept, organic solar cells (OSCs) comprising metallic planar and grating electro...

  14. Fission of Multiply Charged Cesium and Potassium Clusters in Helium Droplets - Approaching the Rayleigh Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Renzler, Michael; Harnisch, Martina; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with cesium or potassium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are $Cs_{9}^{2+}$ and $K_{11}^{2+}$; they are a factor two smaller than reported previously. The size of potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that th...

  15. Improvements of low-detection-limit filter-free fluorescence sensor developed by charge accumulation operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kiyotsugu; Choi, Yong Joon; Moriwaki, Yu; Hizawa, Takeshi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Dasai, Fumihiro; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2017-04-01

    We developed a low-detection-limit filter-free fluorescence sensor by a charge accumulation technique. For charge accumulation, a floating diffusion amplifier (FDA), which included a floating diffusion capacitor, a transfer gate, and a source follower circuit, was used. To integrate CMOS circuits with the filter-free fluorescence sensor, we adopted a triple-well process to isolate transistors from the sensor on a single chip. We detected 0.1 nW fluorescence under the illumination of excitation light by 1.5 ms accumulation, which was one order of magnitude greater than that of a previous current detection sensor.

  16. Fission of Multiply Charged Cesium and Potassium Clusters in Helium Droplets - Approaching the Rayleigh Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Renzler, Michael; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with cesium or potassium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are $Cs_{9}^{2+}$ and $K_{11}^{2+}$; they are a factor two smaller than reported previously. The size of potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that their fissilities have been significantly overestimated. Triply charged cesium clusters as small as $Cs_{19}^{3+}$ are observed; they are a factor 2.6 smaller than previously reported. Mechanisms that may be responsible for enhanced formation of clusters with high fissilities are discussed.

  17. Fission of multiply charged alkali clusters in helium droplets - approaching the Rayleigh limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzler, Michael; Harnisch, Martina; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-04-21

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with sodium, potassium or cesium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are Na9(2+), K11(2+), and Cs9(2+); they are a factor two to three smaller than reported previously. The size of sodium and potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that their fissilities have been significantly overestimated. Triply charged cesium clusters as small as Cs19(3+) are observed; they are a factor 2.6 smaller than previously reported. Mechanisms that may be responsible for enhanced formation of clusters with high fissilities are discussed.

  18. Degradation mechanism of over-charged LiCoO2/mesocarbon microbeads battery during shallow depth of discharge cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Ma, Yulin; Cheng, Xinqun; Cui, Yingzhi; Guan, Ting; Gao, Yunzhi; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    LiCoO2/mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) batteries are over-charged to different voltage (4.4 V, 4.5 V, 4.6 V, and 4.7 V, respectively) for ten times, and then are cycled 1000 times for shallow depth of discharge. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of the electrode materials were studied in detail in order to identify the capacity fading mechanism of over-charged battery after long-term cycling. The cycling performances of LiCoO2/MCMB batteries are gradually aggravated with the increase of over-charging voltage and the degradation mechanism is diverse upon the degree of over-charging. The capacity fading after long-term cycling of battery over-charged to 4.6 V or 4.7 V is mainly attributed to the cathodes. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) demonstrates that the lower valence state of cobalt exists on the surface of the LiCoO2 after serious over-charging (4.6 V or 4.7 V), and cobalt is dissolved then deposited on the anode according to the result of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). However, after shallow over-charging (4.4 V or 4.5 V), the capacity deterioration is proposed as the loss of active lithium, presented by the generation of the SEI film on the anode, which is verified by water washed tests.

  19. Condition for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge limit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2002-11-19

    Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge limit. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions.

  20. A double-stage start-up structure to limit the inrush current used in current mode charge pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Liu; Xinquan, Lai; Hanxiao, Du; Yuan, Chi

    2016-06-01

    A double-stage start-up structure to limit the inrush current used in current-mode charge pump with wide input range, fixed output and multimode operation is presented in this paper. As a widely utilized power source implement, a Li-battery is always used as the power supply for chips. Due to the internal resistance, a potential drop will be generated at the input terminal of the chip with an input current. A false shut down with a low supply voltage will happen if the input current is too large, leading to the degradation of the Li-battery's service life. To solve this problem, the inrush current is limited by introducing a new start-up state. All of the circuits have been implemented with the NUVOTON 0.6 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show that the inrush current can be limited below 1 A within all input supply ranges, and the power efficiency is higher than the conventional structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61106026).

  1. Charged impurity scattering limited low temperature resistivity of low density silicon inversion layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, S. Das; Hwang, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    We calculate within the Boltzmann equation approach the charged impurity scattering limited low temperature electronic resistivity of low density $n$-type inversion layers in Si MOSFET structures. We find a rather sharp quantum to classical crossover in the transport behavior in the $0 - 5$K temperature range, with the low density, low temperature mobility showing a strikingly strong non-monotonic temperature dependence, which may qualitatively explain the recently observed anomalously strong...

  2. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auden, E.C., E-mail: eauden@sandia.gov; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D.K.; Bossert, D.J.; Doyle, B.L.

    2017-05-15

    The Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation as photogenerated electrons and holes recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.

  3. Effect of Ionic Advection on Electroosmosis over Charge Surfaces: Beyond the Weak Field Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Uddipta

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of ionic advection on electroosmotic flow over charge modulated surfaces in a generalized paradigm when the classically restrictive "weak field" limit may be relaxed. Going beyond the commonly portrayed weak field limit (i.e, the externally applied electric field is over-weighed by the surface-induced electrical potential, towards charge distribution in an electrified wall-adhering layer) for electroosmotic transport, we numerically solve the coupled full set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) and Navier-Stokes equations, in a semi-infinite domain, bounded at the bottom by a charged wall. Further, in an effort to obtain deeper physical insight, we solve the simplified forms of the relevant governing equations for low surface potential in two separate asymptotic limits: (i) a regular perturbation solution for Low Ionic Peclet number (Pe), where Pe is employed as the gauge function and (ii) a matched asymptotic solution for O(1) Pe in the Thin Electric Double Layer (EDL) limi...

  4. Effects of iron limitation on the degradation of toluene by Pseudomonas strains carrying the TOL (pWWO) plasmid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, IJT; Gabor, EM; Janssen, DB; Dinkla, Inez J.T.; Gabor, Esther M.

    2001-01-01

    Most aerobic biodegradation pathways for hydrocarbons involve iron-containing oxygenases. In iron-limited environments, such as the rhizosphere, this may influence the rate of degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants. We investigated the effects of iron limitation on the degradation of toluene by Pseud

  5. Analytical model of threshold voltage degradation due to localized charges in gate material engineered Schottky barrier cylindrical GAA MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    The threshold voltage degradation due to the hot carrier induced localized charges (LC) is a major reliability concern for nanoscale Schottky barrier (SB) cylindrical gate all around (GAA) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The degradation physics of gate material engineered (GME)-SB-GAA MOSFETs due to LC is still unexplored. An explicit threshold voltage degradation model for GME-SB-GAA-MOSFETs with the incorporation of localized charges (N it) is developed. To accurately model the threshold voltage the minimum channel carrier density has been taken into account. The model renders how +/- LC affects the device subthreshold performance. One-dimensional (1D) Poisson’s and 2D Laplace equations have been solved for two different regions (fresh and damaged) with two different gate metal work-functions. LCs are considered at the drain side with low gate metal work-function as N it is more vulnerable towards the drain. For the reduction of carrier mobility degradation, a lightly doped channel has been considered. The proposed model also includes the effect of barrier height lowering at the metal-semiconductor interface. The developed model results have been verified using numerical simulation data obtained by the ATLAS-3D device simulator and excellent agreement is observed between analytical and simulation results.

  6. Space Charge Limits in the Dae$\\delta$alus DIC Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Baartman, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The Dae$\\delta$alus DIC compact cyclotron is proposed to achieve an extracted current of 5 mA of singly-charged hydrogen molecules, even though unlike other compact cyclotrons, the extraction is not by stripping. The authors of the proposal consistently use perveance as a scaling argument that such high current is possible. The argument is shown to be incorrect and a realistic limit is calculated. This limit is likely about 0.2 mA and certainly no higher than 0.5 mA.

  7. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  8. Application of Gauss's law space-charge limited emission model in iterative particle tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altsybeyev, V. V.; Ponomarev, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The particle tracking method with a so-called gun iteration for modeling the space charge is discussed in the following paper. We suggest to apply the emission model based on the Gauss's law for the calculation of the space charge limited current density distribution using considered method. Based on the presented emission model we have developed a numerical algorithm for this calculations. This approach allows us to perform accurate and low time consumpting numerical simulations for different vacuum sources with the curved emitting surfaces and also in the presence of additional physical effects such as bipolar flows and backscattered electrons. The results of the simulations of the cylindrical diode and diode with elliptical emitter with the use of axysimmetric coordinates are presented. The high efficiency and accuracy of the suggested approach are confirmed by the obtained results and comparisons with the analytical solutions.

  9. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; Moisan, Camille; Larramona, Gerardo; Dennler, Gilles; Handwerg, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Eichberger, Rainer; Unold, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2 V-1 s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which were deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of phenol and photogenerated charges transfer property over BiOI-loaded ZnO composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuo; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun; Lin, Yanhong

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, a series of BiOI/ZnO photocatalysts containing various BiOI contents were prepared by a facile two-step synthetic method. The structure and crystal phase, morphology, surface element analysis, optical property of as-prepared samples are measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS). BiOI/ZnO photocatalytic activities of the prepared photocatalysts were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol under simulated light irradiation. The phenol degradation rate reached 99.9% within 2h under simulated solar light irradiation. The probable photocatalytic mechanism of composites photocatalysts is discussed by active species trapping experiments, the surface photovoltage (SPV), the transient photovoltage (TPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results manifest that the superior photocatalytic activity of BiOI/ZnO composites is derived from the strong internal electric field between BiOI and ZnO, which is beneficial for the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated charges in ZnO. Moreover, the loading of BiOI on the surface of ZnO inhibited the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in ZnO, resulting in excellent photocatalytic activity. On the contrary, the effect of an extension of the light absorption range induced by the introduction of BiOI on the phenol degradation activity is not significant.

  11. Rate limiting factors in trichloroethylene co-metabolic degradation by phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2014-04-01

    The potential of aerobic granular sludge in co-metabolic removal of recalcitrant substances was evaluated using trichloroethylene (TCE) as the model compound. Aerobic granules cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with phenol as the growth substrate exhibited TCE and phenol degradation activities lower than previously reported values. Depletion of reducing energy and diffusion limitation within the granules were investigated as the possible rate limiting factors. Sodium formate and citrate were supplied to the granules in batch studies as external electron sources. No significant enhancing effect was observed on the instant TCE transformation rates, but 10 mM formate could improve the ultimate transformation capacity by 26 %. Possible diffusion barrier was studied by sieving the biomass into five size fractions, and determining their specific TCE and phenol degradation rates and capacities. Biomass in the larger size fractions generally showed lower activities. Large granules of >700 μm diameter exhibited only 22 % of the flocs' TCE transformation capacity and 35 % of its phenol dependent SOUR, indicating the possible occurrence of diffusion limitation in larger biomass. However, the highest specific TCE transformation rate was observed with the fraction that mostly consisted of small granules (150-300 μm), suggesting an optimal size range while applying aerobic granules in TCE co-metabolic removal.

  12. A PREDICTING MODEL OF THE LIMITING FLUX FOR THE CHARGED SOLUTE IN ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-liang; GUO Yan; PU Chun-sheng; LU Feng-ji

    2004-01-01

    In the process of ultrafiltration , the occur-rence of the limiting flux is elucidated with the formation of a cake(gel) layer on the membrane surface. Before cake formation, the pressure drop on the concentration polarization layer, as well as the permeate flux, increases with the applied pressure. The pressure drop on the concentration polarization layer, however, will no longer change with the applied pressure after the formation of the cake layer. The limiting flux will be obtained if the hydrodynamic conditions in the filtration channel are not affected by the cake layer. A mathematics model for predicting the limiting flux for the charged solute in ultrafiltration is developed. In this model, a repulsive electric force is taken into account in addition to convection and diffusion when the solute is carrying the same charge as the membrane material. A procedure to correlate the model with experimental ultrafiltration data is also present. The results show that a model in this paper is developed on a more realistic perception of the ultrafiltration system and the predicting data agrees well with experimental data.

  13. Physics of Limiting Phenomena in Superconducting Microwave Resonators: Vortex Dissipation, Ultimate Quench and Quality Factor Degradation Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [IIT, Chicago

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting niobium accelerating cavities are devices operating in radio-frequency and able to accelerate charged particles up to energy of tera-electron-volts. Such accelerating structures are though limited in terms of quality factor and accelerating gradient, that translates--in some cases--in higher capital costs of construction and operation of superconducting rf accelerators. Looking forward for a new generation of more affordable accelerators, the physical description of limiting mechanisms in superconducting microwave resonators is discussed. In particular, the physics behind the dissipation introduced by vortices in the superconductor, the ultimate quench limitations and the quality factor degradation mechanism after a quench are described in detail. One of the limiting factor of the quality factor is the dissipation introduced by trapped magnetic flux vortices. The radio-frequency complex response of trapped vortices in superconductors is derived by solving the motion equation for a magnetic flux line, assuming a bi-dimensional and mean free path-dependent Lorentzian-shaped pinning potential. The resulting surface resistance shows the bell-shaped trend as a function of the mean free path, in agreement with the experimental data observed. Such bell-shaped trend of the surface resistance is described in terms of the interplay of the two limiting regimes identified as pinning and flux flow regimes, for low and large mean free path values respectively. The model predicts that the dissipation regime--pinning- or flux-flow-dominated--can be tuned either by acting on the frequency or on the electron mean free path value. The effect of different configurations of pinning sites and strength on the vortex surface resistance are also discussed. Accelerating cavities are also limited by the quench of the superconductive state, which limits the maximum accelerating gradient achievable. The accelerating field limiting factor is usually associate d to the

  14. Physics of Limiting Phenomena in Superconducting Microwave Resonators: Vortex Dissipation, Ultimate Quench and Quality Factor Degradation Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Superconducting niobium accelerating cavities are devices operating in radio-frequency and able to accelerate charged particles up to energy of tera-electron-volts. Such accelerating structures are though limited in terms of quality factor and accelerating gradient, that translates--in some cases--in higher capital costs of construction and operation of superconducting rf accelerators. Looking forward for a new generation of more affordable accelerators, the physical description of limiting mechanisms in superconducting microwave resonators is discussed. In particular, the physics behind the dissipation introduced by vortices in the superconductor, the ultimate quench limitations and the quality factor degradation mechanism after a quench are described in detail. One of the limiting factor of the quality factor is the dissipation introduced by trapped magnetic flux vortices. The radio-frequency complex response of trapped vortices in superconductors is derived by solving the motion equation for a magnetic flux line, assuming a bi-dimensional and mean free path-dependent Lorentzian-shaped pinning potential. The resulting surface resistance shows the bell-shaped trend as a function of the mean free path, in agreement with the experimental data observed. Such bell-shaped trend of the surface resistance is described in terms of the interplay of the two limiting regimes identified as pinning and flux flow regimes, for low and large mean free path values respectively. The model predicts that the dissipation regime--pinning- or flux-flow-dominated--can be tuned either by acting on the frequency or on the electron mean free path value. The effect of different configurations of pinning sites and strength on the vortex surface resistance are also discussed. Accelerating cavities are also limited by the quench of the superconductive state, which limits the maximum accelerating gradient achievable. The accelerating field limiting factor is usually associate d to the

  15. Limits on tau lepton flavor violating decays in three charged leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervelli, Alberto

    2010-04-29

    A search for the neutrinoless, lepton-flavor violating decay of the {tau} lepton into three charged leptons has been performed using an integrated luminosity of 468 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider. In all six decay modes considered, the numbers of events found in data are compatible with the background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions are set in the range (1.8-3.3) x 10{sup -8} at 90% confidence level.

  16. Rate limiting activity of charge transfer during lithiation from ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Lin, Xinrong; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-10-01

    Given the increased use of room temperature ionic liquid electrolytes in Li-ion batteries, due to their non-flammability and negligible volatility, this study evaluates the lithiation kinetics to understand and improve the rate performance of Li-ion batteries. Lithium titanate spinel is used as a model electrode and the electrolyte is composed of LiTFSI and TFSI-coordinated alkoxy-modified phosphonium ionic liquid. Based on the analysis of activation energies for each process, we report that the charge-transfer reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface is the rate-limiting step for cell operation. This finding is further supported by the observation that a 50-fold decrease in charge-transfer resistance at higher temperatures leads to a significant performance improvement over that of a traditional organic electrolyte at room temperature. Charge-transfer resistance and electrolyte wetting on the electrode surface are critical processes for optimal battery performance, and such processes need to be included when designing new ionic liquids in order to exceed the power density obtained with the use of current carbonate-based electrolytes.

  17. Observed Limits on Charge Exchange Contributions to the Diffuse X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, S. G.; Barger, K. A.; Brandl, D. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Pfendner, C. G.; Porter, F. S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background from 0.1 to 1 keV for an approximately 1 sr region of the sky centered at l = 90 degrees b = +60 degrees using a 36 pixel array of microcalorimeters flown on a sounding rocket. With an energy resolution of 11 eV FWHM below 1 keV, the spectrum s observed line ratios help separate charge exchange contributions originating within the heliosphere from thermal emission of hot gas in the interstellar medium. The X-ray sensitivity below 1 keV was reduced by about a factor of four from contamination that occurred early in the flight, limiting the significance of the results. The observed centroid of helium-like O VII is 568 (sup +2 (sub -3) eV at 90% confidence. Since the centroid expected for thermal emission is 568.4 eV and for charge exchange is 564.2 eV, thermal emission appears to dominate for this line complex. The dominance of thermal emission is consistent with much of the high-latitude O VII emission originating in 2-3 x 10(exp 6) K gas in the Galactic halo. On the other hand, the observed ratio of C VI Lygamma to Lyalpha is 0.3 plus or minus 0.2. The expected ratios are 0.04 for thermal emission and 0.24 for charge exchange, indicating that charge exchange must contribute strongly to this line and therefore potentially to the rest of the ROSAT R12 band usually associated with 10(sup 6) K emission from the Local Hot Bubble. The limited statistics of this experiment and systematic uncertainties due to the contamination require only greater than 32% thermal emission for O VII and greater than 20% from charge exchange for C VI at the 90% confidence level. An experimental gold coating on the silicon substrate of the array greatly reduced extraneous signals induced on nearby pixels from cosmic rays passing through the substrate, reducing the triggered event rate by a factor of 15 from a previous flight of the instrument.

  18. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and s...

  19. Limit on B$^{0}_{s}$ oscillation using a jet charge method

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cassel, David G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Mattison, T S; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Moffeit, K; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schwarz, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    A lower limit is set on the B_{s}^{0} meson oscillation parameter \\Delta m_{s} using data collected from 1991 to 1994 by the ALEPH detector. Events with a high transverse momentum lepton and a reconstructed secondary vertex are used. The high transverse momentum leptons are produced mainly by b hadron decays, and the sign of the lepton indicates the particle/antiparticle final state in decays of neutral B mesons. The initial state is determined by a jet charge technique using both sides of the event. A maximum likelihood method is used to set a lower limit of \\, \\Delta m_{s}. The 95\\% confidence level lower limit on \\Delta m_s ranges between 5.2 and 6.5(\\hbar/c^{2})~ps^{-1} when the fraction of b quarks from Z^0 decays that form B_{s}^{0} mesons is varied from 8\\% to 16\\%. Assuming that the B_{s}^{0} fraction is 12\\%, the lower limit would be \\Delta m_{s} > 6.1(\\hbar/c^{2})~ps^{-1} at 95\\% confidence level. For x_s = \\Delta m_s \\, \\tau_{B_s}, this limit also gives x_s > 8.8 using the B_{s}^{0} lifetime of \\ta...

  20. Constraining the existence of magnetic monopoles by Dirac-dual electric charge renormalization effect under the Planck scale limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Changyu; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-08-01

    It was suggested by dimensional analysis that there exists a limit called the Planck energy scale coming close to which the gravitational effects of physical processes would inflate and struggle for equal rights so as to spoil the validity of pure nongravitational physical theories that governed well below the Planck energy. Near the Planck scale, the Planck charges, Planck currents, or Planck parameters can be defined and assigned to physical quantities such as the single particle electric charge and magnetic charge as the ceiling value obeyed by the low energy ordinary physics. The Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation as one form of electric-magnetic duality dictates that, the present low value electric charge corresponds to a huge magnetic charge value already passed the Planck limit so as to render theories of magnetic monopoles into the strong coupling regime, and vice versa, that small and tractable magnetic charge values correspond to huge electric charge values. It suggests that for theoretic models in which the renormalization group equation provides rapid growth for the running electric coupling constant, it is easier for the dual magnetic monopoles to emerge at lower energy scales. Allowing charges to vary with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation while keeping values under the Planck limit informs that the magnetic charge value drops below the Planck ceiling value into the manageable region when the electric coupling constant grows to one fourth at a model dependent energy scale, and continues dropping toward half the value of the Planck magnetic charge as the electric coupling constant continues growing at the model dependent rate toward one near Planck energy scale.

  1. Limitations in bonding to dentin and experimental strategies to prevent bond degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tjäderhane, L; Breschi, L; Mazzoni, A; Li, N; Mao, J; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2011-08-01

    The limited durability of resin-dentin bonds severely compromises the lifetime of tooth-colored restorations. Bond degradation occurs via hydrolysis of suboptimally polymerized hydrophilic resin components and degradation of water-rich, resin-sparse collagen matrices by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. This review examined data generated over the past three years on five experimental strategies developed by different research groups for extending the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. They include: (1) increasing the degree of conversion and esterase resistance of hydrophilic adhesives; (2) the use of broad-spectrum inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes, including novel inhibitor functional groups grafted to methacrylate resins monomers to produce anti-MMP adhesives; (3) the use of cross-linking agents for silencing the activities of MMP and cathepsins that irreversibly alter the 3-D structures of their catalytic/allosteric domains; (4) ethanol wet-bonding with hydrophobic resins to completely replace water from the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar collagen compartments and immobilize the collagenolytic enzymes; and (5) biomimetic remineralization of the water-filled collagen matrix using analogs of matrix proteins to progressively replace water with intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar apatites to exclude exogenous collagenolytic enzymes and fossilize endogenous collagenolytic enzymes. A combination of several of these strategies should result in overcoming the critical barriers to progress currently encountered in dentin bonding.

  2. Comparison of dust charging between Orbital-Motion-Limited theory and Particle-In-Cell simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Delzanno, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    The Orbital-Motion-Limited (OML) theory has been modified to predict the dust charge and the results were contrasted with the Whipple approximation [Tang and Delzanno, Phys. Plasmas 21, 123708 (2014)]. To further establish its regime of applicability, in this paper the OML predictions (for a non-electron-emitting, spherical dust grain at rest in a collisionless, unmagnetized plasma) are compared with Particle-In-Cell simulations that retain the absorption radius effect. It is found that for large dust grain radius $r_d$ relative to the plasma Debye length $\\lambda_D$, the revised OML theory remains a very good approximation as, for the parameters considered ($r_d/\\lambda_D\\le10$, equal electron and ion temperatures), it yields the dust charge to within $20\\%$ accuracy. This is a substantial improvement over the Whipple approximation. The dust collected currents and energy fluxes, which remain the same in the revised and standard OML theories, are accurate to within $15-30\\%$.

  3. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H., E-mail: chensh@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Ang, L. K. [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-04-15

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  4. Observed Limits on Charge Exchange Contributions to the Diffuse X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, S G; Brandl, D E; Eckart, M E; Galeazzi, M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; McCammon, D; Pfendner, C G; Porter, F S; Rocks, L; Szymkowiak, A E; Teplin, I M

    2012-01-01

    We present a high resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background from 0.1 to 1 keV for a ~1 region of the sky centered at l=90, b=+60 using a 36-pixel array of microcalorimeters flown on a sounding rocket. With an energy resolution of 11 eV FWHM below 1 keV, the spectrum's observed line ratios help separate charge exchange contributions originating within the heliosphere from thermal emission of hot gas in the interstellar medium. The X-ray sensitivity below 1 keV was reduced by about a factor of four from contamination that occurred early in the flight, limiting the significance of the results. The observed centroid of helium-like O VII is 568+2-3 eV at 90% confidence. Since the centroid expected for thermal emission is 568.4 eV while for charge exchange is 564.2 eV, thermal emission appears to dominate for this line complex, consistent with much of the high-latitude O VII emission originating in 2-3 x 10^6 K gas in the Galactic halo. On the other hand, the observed ratio of C VI Ly gamma to Ly alpha is...

  5. Musical experience limits the degradative effects of background noise on the neural processing of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2009-11-11

    Musicians have lifelong experience parsing melodies from background harmonies, which can be considered a process analogous to speech perception in noise. To investigate the effect of musical experience on the neural representation of speech-in-noise, we compared subcortical neurophysiological responses to speech in quiet and noise in a group of highly trained musicians and nonmusician controls. Musicians were found to have a more robust subcortical representation of the acoustic stimulus in the presence of noise. Specifically, musicians demonstrated faster neural timing, enhanced representation of speech harmonics, and less degraded response morphology in noise. Neural measures were associated with better behavioral performance on the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) for which musicians outperformed the nonmusician controls. These findings suggest that musical experience limits the negative effects of competing background noise, thereby providing the first biological evidence for musicians' perceptual advantage for speech-in-noise.

  6. Surface binding sites (SBSs), mechanism and regulation of enzymes degrading amylopectin and α-limit dextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Jonas W.;

    2013-01-01

    Certain enzymes interact with polysaccharides at surface binding sites (SBSs) situated outside of their active sites. SBSs are not easily identified and their function has been discerned in relatively few cases. Starch degradation is a concerted action involving GH13 hydrolases. New insight...... into barley seed α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and limit dextrinase (LD) includes i. kinetics of bi-exponential amylopectin hydrolysis by AMY1, one reaction having low Km (8 μg/mL) and high kcat (57 s-1) and the other high Km (97 μg/mL) and low kcat (23 s-1). β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) inhibits the first reaction by binding...

  7. Terahertz generation in GaN diodes in the limited space-charge accumulation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, E. A.; Sokolov, V. N.; Kim, K. W.; Trew, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    The conditions for terahertz power generation are investigated theoretically in a nanoscale GaN-based diode coupled to an external resonant circuit for operation in the limited space-charge accumulation (LSA) mode under the high-field transport regime. The generation criteria are revisited in terms of a phase plane analysis of the diode high-field transport and circuit equations. Based on a Fourier series analysis, the waveforms of the diode voltage and current are examined and the generated power and conversion efficiencies are estimated at the fundamental and lowest harmonic frequencies. The advantages of group-III nitride LSA diodes are elucidated including their ability to simultaneously achieve large output powers (>10 mW) and high dc-to-rf conversion efficiencies (>1%) over a wide range of frequencies near 1 THz.

  8. Charge and/or spin limits for black holes at a non-commutative scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Biplab

    2017-08-01

    In the commutative geometrical background, one finds the total charge ( Q) and/or the total angular momentum ( J) of a generalized black hole of mass M to be bounded by the condition Q^2+( J{/}M) ^2≤ M^2, whereas the inclusion of the concept of non-commutativity in geometry leads to a much more richer result. It predicts that the upper limit to Q and/or J is not fixed but depends on the mass/length scale of black holes; it (the upper limit to Q and/or J) goes towards a `commutative limit' when {M≫ √{θ}} (√{θ} characterizes the minimal length scale) and rapidly diminishes towards zero with M decreasing in the strongly non-commutative regime, until approaching a perfect zero value for {M˜eq 1.904√{θ}}. We have performed separate calculations for a pure Kerr or a pure Reissner-Nordström black hole, and briefly done it for a generalized black hole.

  9. Gate-edge charges related effects and performance degradation in advanced multiple-gate MOSFETs

    OpenAIRE

    Kilchytska V.; Alvarado J; Collaert N.; Rooyackers R.; Put S.; Simoen E.; Claeys C.; Flandre D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of negative charges (NC) located at the gate edges on the advanced MOSFETs behavior, paying particular attention to the subthreshold slope, S, maximum transconductance, Gmmax, and analog figures of merit, such as transconductance over drain current ratio, Gm/ID, output conductance, GD, Early voltage, VEA, and intrinsic gain. General trends obtained by two-dimensional numerical simulations on double-gate (DG) structures are whenever possible qualitatively corr...

  10. Charge and/or spin limits for black holes at a non-commutative scale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BIPLAB PAIK

    2017-08-01

    In the commutative geometrical background, one finds the total charge $\\mathcal{(Q)}$ and/or the total angular momentum $\\mathcal{(J)}$ of a generalized black hole of mass $M$ to be bounded by the condition $\\mathcal{Q^{2} + (J/M)^{2} \\leq M^{2}}$, whereas the inclusion of the concept of non-commutativity in geometry leads to a much more richer result. It predicts that the upper limit to $\\mathcal{Q}$ and/or $\\mathcal{J}$ is not fixed but depends on the mass/length scale of black holes; it (the upper limit to $\\mathcal{Q}$ and/or $\\mathcal{J}$ ) goes towards a ‘commutative limit’ when $M \\gg \\sqrt{\\vartheta} (\\sqrt{\\vartheta}$ characterizes the minimal length scale) and rapidly diminishes towards zero with $M$ decreasing in the strongly non-commutative regime, until approaching a perfect zero value for $M \\simeq 1.904\\sqrt{\\vartheta}$. We have performed separate calculations for a pure Kerr or a pure Reissner–Nordström black hole, and briefly done it for a generalized black hole.

  11. Polarization and charge limit studies of strained GaAs photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    This thesis presents studies on the polarization and charge limit behavior of electron beams produced by strained GaAs photocathodes. These photocathodes are the source of high-intensity, high-polarization electron beams used for a variety of high-energy physics experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Recent developments on P-type, biaxially-strained GaAs photocathodes have produced longitudinal polarization in excess of 80% while yielding beam intensities of {approximately} 2.5 A/cm{sup 2} at an operating voltage of 120 kV. The SLAC Gun Test Laboratory, which has a replica of the SLAC injector, was upgraded with a Mott polarimeter to study the polarization properties of photocathodes operating in a high-voltage DC gun. Both the maximum beam polarization and the maximum charge obtainable from these photocathodes have shown a strong dependence on the wavelength of illumination, on the doping concentration, and on the negative electron affinity levels. The experiments performed for this thesis included studying the effects of temperature, cesiation, quantum efficiency, and laser intensity on the polarization of high-intensity beams. It was found that, although low temperatures have been shown to reduce the spin relaxation rate in bulk semiconductors, they don`t have a large impact on the polarization of thin photocathodes. It seems that the short active region in thin photocathodes does not allow spin relaxation mechanisms enough time to cause depolarization. Previous observations that lower QE areas on the photocathode yield higher polarization beams were confirmed. In addition, high-intensity, small-area laser pulses were shown to produce lower polarization beams. Based on these results, together with some findings in the existing literature, a new proposal for a high-intensity, high-polarization photocathode is given. It is hoped that the results of this thesis will promote further investigation on the properties of GaAs photocathodes.

  12. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Suxiang [Xuchang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Cai, Lejuan, E-mail: 494169965@qq.com [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry (China); Li, Dapeng, E-mail: lidapengabc@126.com; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi [Xuchang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  13. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(R) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(R) FEP.

  14. Degradation of Teflon(trademark) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(trademark) FEP.

  15. Efficient terahertz generation by carbon nanotubes within the limited space-charge accumulation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, G.; Wickenden, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the generation of power at terahertz frequencies by a single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT). The prediction of negative differential resistance (NDR) in s-SWCNTs allows for their consideration as a Gunn-type oscillator. Here we consider the regime of limited-space-charge accumulation within nanotubes biased with a potential along the tube axis. This regime minimizes the growth of high-field domain regions, which may be destructive to the nanotube, and allows for efficient high-power operation. Results show that a high-power, efficient, miniaturized, room temperature source of terahertz radiation is possible by appropriate biasing of the s-SWCNT element in the NDR region of operation. Nanotubes of diameter (d) 0.8-4.5 nm are considered. The generated ac power (Pac) is found to range in the μW/μm range, reaching values as high as 13 μW/μm at high bias and small diameter. Very large generation efficiencies (η ) were found with a maximum value of 20% at high bias and small d. For a fixed dc bias field to NDR threshold field ratio, performance parameters are found to decrease with increasing s-SWCNT tube diameter as Pac˜d-2 and η ˜d-1/3. Frequencies of operation where found to span the terahertz regime, indicating that a s-SWCNT may serve as the active element in terahertz oscillator diodes.

  16. Fundamental limits on wavelength, efficiency and yield of the charge separation triad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Punnoose

    Full Text Available In an attempt to optimize a high yield, high efficiency artificial photosynthetic protein we have discovered unique energy and spatial architecture limits which apply to all light-activated photosynthetic systems. We have generated an analytical solution for the time behavior of the core three cofactor charge separation element in photosynthesis, the photosynthetic cofactor triad, and explored the functional consequences of its makeup including its architecture, the reduction potentials of its components, and the absorption energy of the light absorbing primary-donor cofactor. Our primary findings are two: First, that a high efficiency, high yield triad will have an absorption frequency more than twice the reorganization energy of the first electron transfer, and second, that the relative distance of the acceptor and the donor from the primary-donor plays an important role in determining the yields, with the highest efficiency, highest yield architecture having the light absorbing cofactor closest to the acceptor. Surprisingly, despite the increased complexity found in natural solar energy conversion proteins, we find that the construction of this central triad in natural systems matches these predictions. Our analysis thus not only suggests explanations for some aspects of the makeup of natural photosynthetic systems, it also provides specific design criteria necessary to create high efficiency, high yield artificial protein-based triads.

  17. 75 FR 77741 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Limitation on Pass-Through Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...-through charges deep into the supply chain. Response: The Councils do not concur with the respondent's... activities with respect to subcontractor sourcing, selection, negotiation, and administration that facilitate...

  18. Generic Microstrip R&D Topics at SCIPP: Longitudinal Charge Division and Length Limitations for Long Strips

    CERN Document Server

    Carman, Jerome K; Mistry, Khilesh; Schumm, Bruce A; Spencer, Edwin; Taylor, Aaron; Wilder, Max

    2011-01-01

    We discuss results on the use of charge division to estimate the longitudinal position of charge deposition in silicon microstrip sensors, and on the intrinsic noise limitation of microstrip sensors in the limit of long, narrow strips. We find a resolution of \\pm6% of the length of the sensor for a 10cm-long sensor. We also find that network effects significantly reduce sensor readout noise relative to naive expectations that arise from treating the detector resistance and capacitance as single discrete electronic components.

  19. Quench degradation limit of multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x round wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei; Shen, Tengming; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Understanding safe operating limits of composite superconducting wires is important for the design of superconducting magnets. Here we report measurements of quench-induced critical current density J c degradation in commercial Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi-2212) round wires using heater-induced quenches at 4.2 K in self magnetic field that reveal a general degradation behavior. J c degradation strongly depends on the local hot spot temperature T max, and is nearly independent of operating current, the temperature gradient along the conductor dT max/dx, and the temperature rising rate dT max/dt. Both J c and n value (where n is an index of the sharpness of the superconductor-to-normal transition) exhibit small but irreversible degradation when T max exceeds 400-450 K, and large degradation occurs when T max exceeds 550 K. This behavior was consistently found for a series of Bi-2212 wires with widely variable wire architectures and porosity levels in the Bi-2212 filaments, including a wire processed using a standard partial melt process and in which Bi-2212 filaments are porous, an overpressure processed wire in which Bi-2212 filaments are nearly porosity-free and that has a J c(4.2 K, self field) exceeding 8000 A mm-2, and a wire that has nearly no filament to filament bridges after reaction. Microstructural observations of degraded wires reveal cracks in the Bi-2212 filaments perpendicular to the wire axis, indicating that the quench-induced I c degradation is primarily driven by strain. These results further suggest that the quench degradation temperature limit depends on the strain state of Bi-2212 filaments and this dependence shall be carefully considered when engineering a high-field Bi-2212 magnet.

  20. An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Capra, A; Carruth, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Charman, A E; Eriksson, S; Evans, L T; Evetts, N; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Ishida, A; Jones, S A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Maxwell, D; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Michan, J M; Momose, T; Munich, J J; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R L; Sameed, M; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Tharp, T D; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of |Q| < 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known to be no greater than...

  1. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited emission due to counter-streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Verboncoeur, J.

    2016-10-01

    A maximum electron current transmitted through a planar diode gap is limited by space charge of electrons dwelling across the gap region, the so called space charge limited (SCL) emission. By introducing a counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the SCL emission can be dramatically raised, so electron current transmission gets enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of maximum transmission by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.

  2. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2011-11-28

    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows the utilization of asymmetric contacts to describe the built-in potential within the device. The model has been applied to extract information of the distribution of traps from experimental current-voltage measurements of a rubrene single crystal from Krellner showing excellent agreement across several orders of magnitude in the current. Although the two contacts are made of the same metal, an energy offset of 580 meV between them, ascribed to differences in the deposition techniques (lamination vs evaporation) was essential to correctly interpret the shape of the current-voltage characteristics at low voltage. A band mobility of 0.13cm 2V-1s-1 for holes is estimated, which is consistent with transport along the long axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The total density of traps deeper than 0.1 eV was 2.2×1016cm -3. The sensitivity analysis and error estimation in the obtained parameters show that it is not possible to accurately resolve the shape of the trap distribution for energies deeper than 0.3 eV or shallower than 0.1 eV above the valence-band edge. The total number of traps deeper than 0.3 eV, however, can be estimated. Contact asymmetry and the diffusion component of the current play an important role in the description of the device at low bias and are required to obtain reliable information about the distribution of deep traps. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  3. Noise in space-charge-limited current in a CdS-single crystal at low injection level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driedonks, F.

    1967-01-01

    Current noise spectra (25Hz–20MHz) of a CdS-diode, working under space-charge-limited conditions. show trapping noise at low frequencies and slightly suppressed noise in the upper frequency range. Suppression is relatively small due to the effect of traps.

  4. Limits to detectability of land degradation by trend analysis of vegetation index data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a simulation approach for testing the sensitivity of linear and non-parametric trend analysis methods applied to remotely sensed vegetation index data for the detection of land degradation. The intensity, rate and timing...

  5. Degradation of the charge collection efficiency of an n-type Fz silicon diode subjected to MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Nicolò; Forneris, Jacopo [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy); Grilj, Veljko; Jakšić, Milko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Räisänen, Jyrki [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Simon, Aliz [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Skukan, Natko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vittone, Ettore, E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: •Study of charge collection efficiency degradation (CCE) in Si diode due to MeV H irradiation. •CCE evaluated by micro-IBIC using 4.5 MeV Li ions to probe the damaged region. •Generation of H-donors, which perturb the electrostatic properties of the diode. -- Abstract: We present the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation of float zone grown n-type silicon detectors irradiated with 1.3, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV protons. The analysis was carried out by irradiating small regions (50 × 50 μm{sup 2}) with a proton microbeam at fluences ranging from 10{sup 11} to 4·10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} and probing the effect of irradiation by measuring the 4.5 MeV Li ion induced charge in full depletion conditions. The CCE degradation as function of the proton fluence shows an unexpected deviation from the linear behavior predicted by the Shockley–Read–Hall model of carrier recombination. The build-up of excess hydrogen related donors due to proton irradiations is suggested to be the cause of a significant perturbation of the electrostatic properties of the diode, which drastically change the electron trajectories and hence the induced charge mechanism.

  6. Space-charge-limited current and the effect of light in CdS-single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driedonks, F.; Zijlstra, R.J.J.

    1966-01-01

    Thin CdS-single crystals in darkness show current-voltage characteristics in agreement with Lampert's theory. Illumination with photons in the extrinsic energy-range appears to increase considerably the amount of injected charge that remains free in the conduction band.

  7. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amo

  8. Enzyme kinetics and identification of the rate-limiting step of enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard; Xu, Cheng; Sørensen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of multi-enzymatic degradation of soluble wheat arabinoxylan by monitoring the release of xylose and arabinose during designed treatments with mono-component enzymes at different substrate concentrations. The results of different combinations of α-l-arabinofur...

  9. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the inf

  10. Degradation of polystyrene and selected analogues by biological Fenton chemistry approaches: Opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C; Seiwert, Bettina; Prager, Andrea; Zhang, Shangwei; Abel, Bernd; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    Conventional synthetic polymers typically are highly resistant to microbial degradation, which is beneficial for their intended purpose but highly detrimental when such polymers get lost into the environment. Polystyrene is one of the most widespread of such polymers, but knowledge about its biological degradability is scarce. In this study, we investigated the ability of the polymer-degrading brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum to attack polystyrene via Fenton chemistry driven by the redox-cycling of quinones. Indications of superficial oxidation were observed, but the overall effects on the polymer were weak. To assess factors constraining biodegradation of polystyrene, the small water-soluble model compounds ethylbenzene and isopropylbenzene (cumene) were also subjected to biodegradation by G. trabeum. Likewise, ethylbenzene sulfonate, cumene sulfonate and the dimer 1,3-diphenylbutane sulfonate were used as model compounds for comparison with polystyrene sulfonate, which G. trabeum can substantially depolymerise. All model compounds but cumene were degraded by G. trabeum and yielded a large variety of oxidised metabolites, suggesting that both the very poor bioavailability of polystyrene and its inert basic structure play important roles constraining biodegradability via biologically driven Fenton chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Area spectrum of the d-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the small charge limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ortega, A, E-mail: alopezo@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Calzada Legaria 694, Colonia Irrigacion, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D F, C P 11500 (Mexico)

    2011-02-07

    A conjecture by Hod states that for the black hole horizon the spacing of its area spectrum is determined by the asymptotic value of its quasinormal frequencies. Recently to overcome some difficulties, Maggiore proposes some changes to the original Hod's conjecture. Taking into account the modifications proposed by Maggiore we calculate the area quantum of the d-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the small charge limit.

  12. Quantum radiation from an inertial scalar charge evolving in the de Sitter universe: Weak-field limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaga, Robert, E-mail: robert.blaga90@e-uvt.ro [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timişoara V. Pârvan Ave. 4, RO-300223 Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    We investigate the energy radiated by an inertial scalar charge evolving in the expanding Poincaré patch of de Sitter spacetime, in the framework of scalar QED perturbation theory. We approximate the transition amplitude in the small expansion parameter limit and show that the leading contribution to the radiated energy has the form of the energy radiated by an accelerated particle in Minkowski space.

  13. Entropy of a self-gravitating electrically charged thin shell and the black hole limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, José P S; Zaslavski, Oleg B

    2015-01-01

    A static self-gravitating electrically charged spherical thin shell embedded in a (3+1)-dimensional spacetime is used to study the thermodynamic and entropic properties of the corresponding spacetime. Inside the shell, the spacetime is flat, outside it is Reissner-Nordstr\\"om, and this establishes the energy density, the pressure, and the electric charge in the shell. Imposing that the shell is at a given local temperature and that the first law of thermodynamics holds on the shell one can find the integrability conditions for the temperature and for the thermodynamic electric potential, the thermodynamic equilibrium states, and the thermodynamic stability conditions. Through the integrability conditions and the first law of thermodynamics an expression for the shell's entropy can be calculated. It is found that the shell's entropy is a function of the shell's gravitational and Cauchy radii alone. A plethora of sets of temperature and electric potential equations of state can be given. One set of equations of...

  14. Limitations of predicting in vivo biostability of multiphase polyurethane elastomers using temperature-accelerated degradation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padsalgikar, Ajay; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Genevieve; Touchet, Tyler; Iacob, Ciprian; Mellin, Lisa; Norlin-Weissenrieder, Anna; Runt, James

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane biostability has been the subject of intense research since the failure of polyether polyurethane pacemaker leads in the 1980s. Accelerated in vitro testing has been used to isolate degradation mechanisms and predict clinical performance of biomaterials. However, validation that in vitro methods reproduce in vivo degradation is critical to the selection of appropriate tests. High temperature has been proposed as a method to accelerate degradation. However, correlation of such data to in vivo performance is poor for polyurethanes due to the impact of temperature on microstructure. In this study, we characterize the lack of correlation between hydrolytic degradation predicted using a high temperature aging model of a polydimethylsiloxane-based polyurethane and its in vivo performance. Most notably, the predicted molecular weight and tensile property changes from the accelerated aging study did not correlate with clinical explants subjected to human biological stresses in real time through 5 years. Further, DMTA, ATR-FTIR, and SAXS experiments on samples aged for 2 weeks in PBS indicated greater phase separation in samples aged at 85°C compared to those aged at 37°C and unaged controls. These results confirm that microstructural changes occur at high temperatures that do not occur at in vivo temperatures. In addition, water absorption studies demonstrated that water saturation levels increased significantly with temperature. This study highlights that the multiphase morphology of polyurethane precludes the use of temperature accelerated biodegradation for the prediction of clinical performance and provides critical information in designing appropriate in vitro tests for this class of materials.

  15. 42 CFR 489.23 - Specific limitation on charges for services provided to certain enrollees of fee-for-service FEHB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Essentials of Provider Agreements § 489.23 Specific limitation on charges for services provided to certain enrollees of fee-for-service FEHB plans. A provider... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific limitation on charges for...

  16. Pushing X-ray charge densities to the limit: Comparative study of CoSb3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmøkel, Mette Stokkebro; Larsen, Finn Krebs; Overgaard, Jacob

    CoSb3 is a highly important host-guest material for the engineering of high-performance thermoelectric materials.[1] Its crystal structure has empty cavities and when guest atoms are added to CoSb3, its thermoelectric properties are greatly enhanced due to decreased thermal conductivity.[2......] In order to understand the origin of the thermoelectric properties of this family of materials, it is important to understand the crystal structure and chemical bonding of the un-doped host material.[3] This can be achieved through analysis of the charge density, which in principle can be obtained from...

  17. Application of Gauss's law space-charge limited emission model in iterative particle tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altsybeyev, V.V., E-mail: v.altsybeev@spbu.ru; Ponomarev, V.A.

    2016-11-01

    The particle tracking method with a so-called gun iteration for modeling the space charge is discussed in the following paper. We suggest to apply the emission model based on the Gauss's law for the calculation of the space charge limited current density distribution using considered method. Based on the presented emission model we have developed a numerical algorithm for this calculations. This approach allows us to perform accurate and low time consumpting numerical simulations for different vacuum sources with the curved emitting surfaces and also in the presence of additional physical effects such as bipolar flows and backscattered electrons. The results of the simulations of the cylindrical diode and diode with elliptical emitter with the use of axysimmetric coordinates are presented. The high efficiency and accuracy of the suggested approach are confirmed by the obtained results and comparisons with the analytical solutions.

  18. Systematic studies on the effect of linear lattice optics for space-charge limited beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Molodozhentsev, A; Müller, A S

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project aims to an increase of the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 10. In order to realize this ambitious goal, the LHC itself has to undergo a major upgrade accompanied by an extensive upgrade of the complete injector complex referred to as LHC injector upgrade (LIU). In the framework of the LIU project, a new rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) as an alternative to the energy upgrade of the existing PS Booster has been proposed. Motivated by the optics studies conducted for this RCS, the more general question of the influence of the linear optics on the machine performance has been raised. In this paper, we want to investigate this question by comparing different lattices with the final aim of identifying lattice characteristics advantageous under strong space-charge effects.

  19. Effects of state of charge on the degradation of LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite batteries during accelerated storage test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yong [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Yan-Bing; Qian, Kun [Engineering Laboratory for Next Generation Power and Energy Storage Batteries, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Baohua, E-mail: libh@mail.sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Engineering Laboratory for Next Generation Power and Energy Storage Batteries, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wang, Xindong [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao, Cui; Kang, Feiyu [Engineering Laboratory for Next Generation Power and Energy Storage Batteries, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Degradation of LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite batteries under different state of charge at 55 °C is investigate. • Side reactions caused by self-discharge are the main reason for performance fade during storage. • The detailed degradation mechanism is proven by post-mortem analysis. • Increased electrode resistance in LiFePO{sub 4} cathode suggests that side reactions also happen at positive electrode. - Abstract: In this paper, the degradation of LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite batteries during 10 months of storage under different temperatures and states of charge (SOCs) is studied. The effects of SOC during storage process are systematically investigated using electrochemical methods and post-mortem analysis. The results show that at elevated temperature of 55 °C, higher stored SOC results in more significant increase in bulk resistance (R{sub b}) and charge-transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) of full battery, whereas the rate-discharge capability of stored battery is unchanged. The side reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface caused by self-discharge are the main reasons for the performance fading during storage. For LiFePO{sub 4} cathode, long-time storage does not influence the framework structure under various SOCs. The existence of little irreversible capacity loss and impedance increase indicates that side reactions also occur at the positive electrode. For graphite anode, only a little capacity loss is found upon storage. There is a significant increase in impedance and a small amount of Fe deposition on graphite anode after storage at 100% SOC and 55 °C. The lithium ion loss arises from side reactions taking place at the graphite anode, which is responsible for the capacity degradation of battery during the storage process. XPS analysis confirms that a deposit layer composed of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and LiF is formed on the surface of anode.

  20. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  1. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  2. Space-charge-limited conduction in Se90Sb4Ag6 glassy alloy: observation of Meyer–Neldel rule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anjani Kumar; A Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The present paper reports the measurements of space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) in glassy Se90Sb4Ag6 alloy. For this purpose, – characteristics have been taken at certain fixed temperatures. The results indicate that super-ohmic behaviour is observed at high electric fields. The results fit well with the theory of SCLC for the uniform distribution of traps. From the temperature dependence of conductivity, activation energy is obtained at different electric fields, which is found to be field dependent. Pre-exponential factor is found to depend on the activation energy and obeys Meyer–Neldel rule.

  3. Space-charge-limited leakage current in high dielectric constant and ferroelectric thin films considering the field-dependent permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Zheng, X. J.; Yin, W.; Tang, M. H.; Li, W.

    2010-12-01

    Distinguishing from the traditional characterization on high-field leakage current density-voltage relationship, the field-dependent permittivity from the polarization derivative is used to solve the space-charge-limited conduction, and the simulated leakage current densities are compared with the previous experimental observations. The influences of the mobility, ferroelectric parameters, and film thickness on the leakage current densities are discussed. The results verify that the high-field quasi-Ohmic region observed experimentally may result from the field-dependent permittivity, and that the leakage current can be influenced by the ferroelectric polarization.

  4. Charge-exchange limits on low-energy alpha-particle fluxes in solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh; MacKinnon, Alec; Woods, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Lyman-alpha line of He ii at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary alpha particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He ii bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV/nucleon. We study ten events in total, including the gamma-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic...

  5. DNA degradation and genetic analysis of empty puparia: genetic identification limits in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Morena; Alessandrini, Federica; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Wells, Jeffrey D; Campobasso, Carlo P

    2010-02-25

    Puparial cases are common remnants of necrophagous flies in crime investigations. They usually represent the longest developmental time and, therefore, they can be very useful for the estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, before any PMI estimate, it is crucial to identify the species of fly eclosed from each puparium associated with the corpse. Morphological characteristics of the puparium are often distinctive enough to permit a species identification. But, even an accurate morphological analysis of empty puparia cannot discriminate among different species of closely related flies. Furthermore, morphological identification may be impossible if the fly puparia are poorly preserved or in fragments. This study explores the applicability of biomolecular techniques on empty puparia and their fragments for identification purposes. A total of 63 empty puparia of necrophagous Diptera resulting from forensic casework were examined. Samples were divided into three groups according to size, type and time of eclosion in order to verify whether the physical characteristics and puparia weathering can influence the amount of DNA extraction. The results suggest that a reliable genetic identification of forensically important flies may also be performed from empty puparia and/or their fragments. However, DNA degradation can deeply compromise the genetic analysis since the older the fly puparia, the smaller are the amplified fragments.

  6. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated.

  7. Deubiquitinating enzymes Ubp2 and Ubp15 regulate endocytosis by limiting ubiquitination and degradation of ARTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Chung; MacGurn, Jason A.; Emr, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Endocytic down-regulation of cell-surface proteins is a fundamental cellular process for cell survival and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Ubiquitination of cargo proteins serves as the sorting signal for downstream trafficking and relies on the arrestin-related trafficking adaptor (ART)-Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase adaptor network in yeast. Hence proper regulation of the abundance and activity of these ligase–adaptor complexes is critical for main­tenance of optimal plasma membrane protein composition. Here we report that the stability of ARTs is regulated by the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) Ubp2 and Ubp15. By counteracting the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, Ubp2 and Ubp15 prevent hyperubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of ARTs. Specifically, we show that loss of both Ubp2 and Ubp15 results in a defect in Hxt6 endocytosis associated with Art4 instability. Our results uncover a novel function for DUBs in the endocytic pathway by which Ubp2 and Ubp15 positively regulate the ART-Rsp5 network. PMID:28298493

  8. Simultaneous growth on citrate reduces the effects of iron limitation during toluene degradation in Pseudomonas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, IJT; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Rhizoremediation has been suggested as an attractive bioremediation strategy for the effective breakdown of pollutants in soil. The presence of plant root exudates such as organic acids, sugars, and amino acids that may serve as carbon sources or biosynthetic building blocks and the limited bioavail

  9. Limits of a tritium battery based on charged particle collection (CPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalch, D.; Scharmann, A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a long-lived tritium powered battery using plane electrodes with an inorganic thin-film insulator is reported. The aim of our work was to show that in principle this type of battery can be realized by the use of improved deposition techniques. In addition, the limits of this conversion system were defined with respect to the actual level of thin-film technology.

  10. First experimental proof for aberration correction in XPEEM: Resolution, transmission enhancement, and limitation by space charge effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Th., E-mail: schmidtt@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Chemical Physics, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sala, A.; Marchetto, H. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Chemical Physics, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Umbach, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freund, H.-J. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Chemical Physics, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The positive effect of double aberration correction in x-ray induced Photoelectron Emission Microscopy (XPEEM) has been successfully demonstrated for both, the lateral resolution and the transmission, using the Au 4f XPS peak for element specific imaging at a kinetic energy of 113 eV. The lateral resolution is improved by a factor of four, compared to a non-corrected system, whereas the transmission is enhanced by a factor of 5 at a moderate resolution of 80 nm. With an optimized system setting, a lateral resolution of 18 nm could be achieved, which is up to now the best value reported for energy filtered XPEEM imaging. However, the absolute resolution does not yet reach the theoretical limit of 2 nm, which is due to space charge limitation. This occurs along the entire optical axis up to the contrast aperture. In XPEEM the pulsed time structure of the exciting soft x-ray light source causes a short and highly intense electron pulse, which results in an image blurring. In contrast, the imaging with elastically reflected electrons in the low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) mode yields a resolution clearly below 5 nm. Technical solutions to reduce the space charge effect in an aberration-corrected spectro-microscope are discussed. - Highlights: ► First successful double aberration correction in XPEEM. ► Improvement of resolution and transmission by aberration correction. ► Lateral resolution of 18 nm in energy filtered XPEEM is the best up to now reported value. ► First investigation of space charge effects in aberrations corrected PEEM.

  11. Design of an Air-Sparged Tubular Photocatalytic Reactor for the Degradation of Methylene Blue: Mass-Transfer Limitation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoso Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative process for the removal of organic pollutants in aqueous systems is photocatalysis. The challenges hindering its industrial use are electron-hole recombination and mass-transfer limitations. In order to address these problems, the objective of this study is to introduce air by sparging, and design an air-sparged photocatalytic reactor using titanium dioxide immobilized on borosilicate glass. The performance of the reactor on the removal of the model pollutant, methylene blue (MB, was evaluated and compared against the reactor operated without sparging. The effect of mass-transfer limitations on reactor performance was also investigated by regression using a Langmuir-type model equation. The sparged photocatalytic reactor was able to degrade 57% MB in 2 hours, an improvement of 40% compared to no sparging, and is comparable to similar reactors in literature, but with the advantage of using less expensive materials of construction and simpler immobilization technique. Mass-transfer limitation studies showed a good fitting of the initial reaction rate r, with r = 0.1399Q / (0.6120 + Q for the sparged operation, and Q is the volumetric flowrate of water (L/min. The model also shows that the reactor operates near the reaction-limited regime, and that the extent of mass-transfer limitation effects was reduced by the present reactor.

  12. Surface binding sites (SBSs), mechanism and regulation of enzymes degrading amylopectin and α-limit dextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Jonas W.

    2013-01-01

    into barley seed α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and limit dextrinase (LD) includes i. kinetics of bi-exponential amylopectin hydrolysis by AMY1, one reaction having low Km (8 μg/mL) and high kcat (57 s-1) and the other high Km (97 μg/mL) and low kcat (23 s-1). β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) inhibits the first reaction by binding...

  13. Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S.; van Zomeren, A.

    1994-11-01

    Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.

  14. Crystal structure of an essential enzyme in seed starch degradation - barley limit dextrinase in complex with cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of Hv......LD in complex with the competitive inhibitors α-cyclodextrin (CD) and β-CD are solved and refined to 2.5 Å and 2.1 Å, respectively, and are the first structures of a limit dextrinase. HvLD belongs to glycoside hydrolase 13 family and is composed of four domains: an immunoglobulin-like N-terminal eight......-stranded β-sandwich domain, a six-stranded β-sandwich domain belonging to the carbohydrate binding module 48 family, a catalytic (β/α)8-like barrel domain that lacks α-helix 5, and a C-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain of unknown function. The CDs are bound at the active site occupying carbohydrate...

  15. Limits on the Higgs boson lifetime and width from its decay to four charged leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sudhakar, Katta; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Ferro, Cristina; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Thomas, Laurent; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Yin, Hang; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mareskas-palcek, Darren; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Demortier, Luc; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Christian, Allison; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Gomber, Bhawna; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Constraints on the lifetime and width of the Higgs boson are obtained from $\\mathrm{H} \\to \\mathrm{ZZ} \\to 4\\ell$ events using data recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 with an integrated luminosity of 5.1 and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. The measurement of the Higgs boson lifetime is derived from its flight distance in the CMS detector with an upper bound of $\\tau_{\\mathrm{H}} $ lower than $ 1.9 \\times 10^{-13}$ s at the 95% confidence level (CL), corresponding to a lower bound on the width of $\\Gamma_{\\mathrm{H}} $ larger than $ 3.5 \\times 10^{-9} $ MeV. The measurement of the width is obtained from an off-shell production technique, generalized to include anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson to two electroweak bosons. From this measurement, a joint constraint is set on the Higgs boson width and a parameter $f_{\\Lambda Q}$ that expresses an anomalous coupling contribution as an on-shell cross-section fraction. The limit on the Higgs boson width is ...

  16. Limits on GeV-scale WIMPs using charge signals in XENON100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Various theoretical models and recent experimental results have led to growing interest in the search for WIMP-like dark matter in the mass range of a few GeV. One important class of detector used in this study is based on the liquid-gas, dual-phase Xenon time projection chamber (as in XENON100 and LUX). These detectors nominally use both scintillation (S1) and ionization (S2) signals to localize collision events in their sensitive volumes and thus reject background events, but it is known that the efficiency for detecting small S1 signals (such as are expected from a GeV-scale WIMP interaction) is much smaller than the efficiency for detecting an S2 from the same recoil. By removing the requirement of an observed S1 signal, one can thus effectively lower the energy threshold of the detector, and study GeV-scale WIMPs with greater sensitivity. With this in mind, we measure the rate of WIMP candidates in 225 live days of XENON100 data in events with small S2 signals (with or without an accompanying S1) and which pass other simple selection cuts optimized for GeV-scale WIMPs. This rate is then used to set a limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross-section for the mass range 1-10 GeV.

  17. Limits on the Higgs boson lifetime and width from its decay to four charged leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael

    2015-10-22

    Constraints on the lifetime and width of the Higgs boson are obtained from $\\mathrm{H} \\to \\mathrm{ZZ} \\to 4\\ell$ events using data recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 with an integrated luminosity of 5.1 and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. The measurement of the Higgs boson lifetime is derived from its flight distance in the CMS detector with an upper bound of $\\tau_{\\mathrm{H}} $ lower than $ 1.9 \\times 10^{-13}$ s at the 95% confidence level (CL), corresponding to a lower bound on the width of $\\Gamma_{\\mathrm{H}} $ larger than $ 3.5 \\times 10^{-9} $ MeV. The measurement of the width is obtained from an off-shell production technique, generalized to include anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson to two electroweak bosons. From this measurement, a joint constraint is set on the Higgs boson width and a parameter $f_{\\Lambda Q}$ that expresses an anomalous coupling contribution as an on-shell cross-section fraction. The limit on the Higgs boson width is ...

  18. Quench Behavior and Degradation Limit of Ag-sheathed Bi 2Sr2CaCu2Ox Round Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyang

    High field superconducting magnets are important for scientific research in a variety of disciplines. With nearly field-independent critical current density over a wide range of magnetic field at 4.2 K up to 50 T, Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) round wires offer the possibility to generate magnetic fields of 30 T and above. One of the key issues in high field Bi-2212 magnet development is the quench detection and protection. A quench occurs when a part of a superconducting winding, after receiving a small disturbance, enters into the normal (resistive) state, and the event follows with significant temperature rise due to joule heating. An unprotected quench may degrade or even destruct an entire superconducting magnet system. This thesis focuses on experimentally investigating the quench behavior and degradation limit of the state-of-the-art multifilamentary Ag/Bi-2212 round wires to guide the development of Bi-2212 high field magnet, especially the quench detection and protection system. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Influence of Ion Effects on a Space Charge Limited Field Emission Flow: From Classical to ultrarelativistic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Chang, P. C.; Verboncoeur, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of ions in space charge limited field emission flow is studied using a self-consistent model, and confirmed by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The field emission of electrons is described quantum mechanically by the Fowler--Nordheim equation. The cathode plasma and surface properties are considered within the framework of the effective work function approximation. Ionization effects at the anode as well as electron space-charge effects are described by Poisson's equation coupled with the energy conservation equation including relativistic effects. The closed form of formulas has been derived and the numerical calculations are carried out self-consistently to yield the steady state of the bipolar flow from classical to ultrarelativistic regimes. The upstream ion current included in Poisson's equation has been treated as a tuning parameter. The field-emission currents in the presence of saturated ion currents are enhanced by 1.8, 1.5, and 1.4 times of the case with no ion current in the classical, intermediate, and ultrarelativistic regimes, respectively. The solutions have also been verified using 1D PIC simulations as implemented in the OOPD1 code developed by the PTSG of UC Berkeley.

  20. Magnetically insulated coaxial vacuum diode with partial space-charge-limited explosive emission from edge-type cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomyttsev, S. Ya.; Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shunailov, S. A.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Ulmaskulov, M. R. [Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106 Amundsen Str., 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kolomiets, M. D. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Mesyats, G. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Lenin Avenue, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yalandin, M. I. [Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106 Amundsen Str., 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Lenin Avenue, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-14

    The vacuum current associated with any type of electron emission for arbitrary configuration of the diode depends on the combination of the applied electric field and vacuum space charge (VSC) field created by the current. Such fundamental statement should give very close links between the diode current and the normalized cathode field θ which has been introduced by Forbes in 2008 for planar diodes as a reduction in the cathode surface field: θ = field-with/field-without VSC. This article reports the universal approximation of the type of cos(πθ/2) that is the ratio of the actual current and the fully space-charge-limited current. Also, the theoretical treatment and the experimental method of determination of the dynamic emissive characteristics of the macroscopic explosive emission from edge-type cathodes in the coaxial diode are developed. The experimental results obtained with a picosecond time reference between the cathode voltage and the onset of the high-current electron beam exhibit a good coincidence with the theoretical predictions. The presented methods enable the analysis of a real-time-resolved dynamics associated with the dense, magnetized electron beam formation, acceleration and drift motion, including kinematic effects and the phase-stable excitation of high-power microwave oscillators.

  1. Estimation of electron mobility of n-doped 4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline using space-charge-limited currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khizar-ul-Haq; Khan M A; Jiang Xueyin; Zhang Zhilin; Zhang Xiaowen; Zhang Liang; Li Jun

    2009-01-01

    The electron mobilities of 4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BPhen) doped 8-hydroxyquinolinatolithium (Liq) at various thicknesses (50-300 nm) have been estimated by using space-charge-limited current measurements. It is observed that the electron mobility of 33 wt% Liq doped BPhen approaches its true value when the thickness is more than 200 nm. The electron mobility of 33 wt% Liq doped BPhen at 300 nm is found to be ~5.2 × 10~(-3) cm~2/(V·s) (at 0.3 MV/cm) with weak dependence on electric field, which is about one order of magnitude higher than that of pristine BPhen (3.4 × 10~(-4) cm~2/(V·s)) measured by SCLC. For the typical thickness of organic light-emitting devices, the electron mobility of doped BPhen is also investigated.

  2. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  3. NMR assignment of structural motifs in intact β-limit dextrin and its α-amylase degradation products in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bent O; Meier, Sebastian; Duus, Jens Ø

    2012-10-01

    An increasingly detailed and realistic view of biological processes often hinges on atomic-level characterization of biomacromolecules and of the processes they are involved in, preferably under near-physiological conditions. Structure, degradation, and synthesis of glucose storage polymers have been studied for decades with a range of analytical tools, but the detailed in situ analysis has remained an analytical challenge. Here, we report the NMR assignment of different structural motifs in the β-limit dextrin from lintnerized maize starch as a branched α-glucan model system for starch, which is depleted of repetitive α-(1→4) glycosidic bonds at non-reducing ends but has the α-(1→6) branch points intact. By NMR spectroscopy at 18.7T magnetic field, we assign 12 discernible α-glucopyranosyl spin systems and identify them with different structural motifs. Amylolysis of the β-limit dextrin is directly followed by real-time NMR spectroscopy and four major cleavage products are identified and assigned to different branch point structures. Overall, these NMR assignments facilitate in situ assays under realistic conditions of substrate competition, transglycosylation, and product inhibition and shed light on chemical shift tendencies in different structural motifs of branched α-glucans.

  4. Facile fabrication of efficient AgBr-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterostructured photocatalyst for degrading pollutants and its photogenerated charge transfer mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxin [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Harbin 150080 (China); Jing, Liqiang, E-mail: Jinglq@hlju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Harbin 150080 (China); Qu, Yichun; Luan, Yunbo; Fu, Honggang; Xiao, Yuchen [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A microemulsion-like chemical precipitation is developed for AgBr-TiO{sub 2} composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite displays effective charge transfers between AgBr and TiO{sub 2.} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A charge transfer mechanism in the AgBr-TiO{sub 2} composite is suggested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested mechanism is responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A simple microemulsion-like chemical precipitation method has been successfully developed to construct effectively-contacted AgBr-TiO{sub 2} composite. The key of this method is the dual roles of Br{sup -} in the synthetic process, as linkers between cetyltrimethyl ammonium cation surfactants and nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} in the acidic condition, and as bromine sources to directly produce nanocrystalline AgBr on the surfaces of TiO{sub 2} by chemical precipitation. It is well demonstrated that the as-constructed AgBr-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterostructured composites display effective photogenerated charge transfer between AgBr and TiO{sub 2}, favorable to improve charge separation, by means of the surface photovoltage technique in different atmospheres at the aid of outer electric fields, especially for the transient surface photovoltage technique in air. And also, the Br{sup -} in crystal lattice of AgBr could effectively capture photogenerated holes under illumination. These factors are well responsible for the enhanced activity for photocatalytic degradation of liquid phase aqueous phenol solution and gas phase acetaldehyde under either UV-visible or visible irradiation, and the stability of AgBr in the photocatalytic processes.

  5. Breakdown of a space charge limited regime of a sheath in a weakly collisional plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, D; Kaganovich, I; Raitses, Y; Smolyakov, A

    2009-10-02

    A new regime of plasma-wall interaction is identified in particle-in-cell simulations of a hot plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission. Such a plasma has a strongly non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function and consists of bulk plasma electrons and beams of secondary electrons. In the new regime, the plasma sheath is not in a steady space charge limited state even though the secondary electron emission produced by the plasma bulk electrons is so intense that the corresponding partial emission coefficient exceeds unity. Instead, the plasma-sheath system performs relaxation oscillations by switching quasiperiodically between the space charge limited and non-space-charge limited states.

  6. Visible-Light Photolabile, Charge-Convertible Poly(ionic liquid) for Light-degradable Films and Carbon-Based Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongtong; Lei, Yuan; Zhang, Hanzhi; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian; Chen, Yongming; Yu, You

    2016-09-14

    We report for the first time an innovative visible-light photolabile poly(ionic liquid) (VP-PIL). The as-prepared VP-PIL features low Tg (47 °C), good thermal stability (Td ≈ 284 °C) and solubility in ranges of polar solvents. Upon blue light irradiation (∼452 nm), C-O bonds of picolinuim units are photocleaved, and the charges of PILs are simultaneously converted from positive to negative. Taking full advantages of these excellent properties of VP-PIL, a visible light degradable film for the first time is fabricated. Moreover, to demonstrate its applications in electronics, we prepared high-quality VP-PIL-containing conductive ink for flexible interconnects and graphene electrodes for supercapacitors.

  7. Angular-Dependent EDMR Linewidth for Spin-Dependent Space-Charge-Limited Conduction in a Polycrystalline Pentacene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunito Fukuda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent space-charge-limited carrier conduction in a Schottky barrier diode using polycrystalline p-type π-conjugated molecular pentacene is explored using multiple-frequency electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR spectroscopy with a variable-angle configuration. The measured EDMR spectra are decomposed into two components derived, respectively, from mobile and trapped positive polarons. The linewidth of the EDMR signal for the trapped polarons increases with increasing resonance magnetic field for an in-plane configuration where the normal vector of the device substrate is perpendicular to the resonance magnetic field, while it is independent of the field for an out-of-plane configuration. This difference is consistent with the pentacene arrangement on the device substrate, where pentacene molecules exhibit a uniaxial orientation on the out-of-substrate plane. By contrast, the mobile polarons do not show anisotropic behavior with respect to the resonance magnetic field, indicating that the anisotropic effect is averaged out owing to carrier motion. These results suggest that the orientational arrangements of polycrystalline pentacene molecules in a nano thin film play a crucial role in spin-dependent electrical conduction.

  8. Algorithms for minimization of charge sharing effects in a hybrid pixel detector taking into account hardware limitations in deep submicron technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Baumbaugh, A.; Deptuch, G.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Charge sharing is the main limitation of pixel detectors used in spectroscopic applications, noting that this applies to both time and amplitude/energy spectroscopy. Even though, charge sharing was the subject of many studies, there is still no ultimate solution which could be implemented in the hardware to suppress the negative effects of charge sharing. This is mainly because of strong demand on low power dissipation and small silicon area of a single pixel. The first solution of this problem was proposed by CERN and consequently it was implemented in the Medipix III chip. However, due to pixel-to-pixel threshold dispersions and some imperfections of the simplified algorithm, the hit allocation was not functioning properly. We are presenting novel algorithms which allow proper hit allocation even at the presence of charge sharing. They can be implemented in an integrated circuit using a deep submicron technology. In performed simulations, we assumed not only diffusive charge spread occurring in the course of charge drifting towards the electrodes but also limitations in the readout electronics, i.e. signal fluctuations due to noise and mismatch (gain and offsets). The simulations show that using, for example, a silicon pixel detector in the low X-ray energy range, we have been able to perform proper hit position identification and use the information from summing inter-pixel nodes for spectroscopy measurements.

  9. Towards time-dependent, non-equilibrium charge-transfer force fields: Contact electrification and history-dependent dissociation limits

    OpenAIRE

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Müser, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Force fields uniquely assign interatomic forces for a given set of atomic coordinates. The underlying assumption is that electrons are in their quantum-mechanical ground state or in thermal equilibrium. However, there is an abundance of cases where this is unjustified because the system is only locally in equilibrium. In particular, the fractional charges of atoms, clusters, or solids tend to not only depend on atomic positions but also on how the system reached its state. For example, the ch...

  10. Sub-ppm laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium and a CPT-violation limit on the antiprotonic charge and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, M; Eades, J; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Sakaguchi, J; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Torii, H A; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Yamazaki, T

    2001-08-27

    Six laser-resonant transitions have been detected in metastable antiprotonic helium atoms produced at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. They include UV transitions from the last metastable states in the v = n-l-1 = 0 and 1 cascades. Zero-density frequencies were obtained from measured pressure shifts with fractional precisions between 1.3 x 10(-7) and 1.6 x 10(-6). By comparing these with QED calculations and the antiproton cyclotron frequency, we deduce that the antiproton and proton charges and masses agree to within 6 x 10(-8) with a confidence level of 90%.

  11. Beam extraction dynamics at the space-charge-limit of the high brightness E-XFEL electron source at DESY-PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ye; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The physics of the photoemission, as one of the key issues for successful operation of linac based free-electron lasers like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL) and the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), is playing an increasingly important role in the high brightness DESY-PITZ electron source. We study photoemission physics and discuss full three-dimensional numerical modeling of the electron bunch emission. The beam extraction dynamics at the photocathode has been investigated through the 3D fully electromagnetic (EM) Particle-in-Cell (PIC) solver of CST Particle Studio under the assumption of the photoemission source operating at or close to its space charge limit. PIC simulation results have shown good agreements with measurements on total emitted bunch charge for distinct experimental parameters. Further comparisons showed a general failure for the conventional Poisson solver based tracking algorithm to correctly predict the beam dynamics at the space charge limit. It is furthermore found, that fully EM PIC simulations are also consistent with a simple emission model based on the multidimensional Child-Langmuir law.

  12. COP9 limits dendritic branching via Cullin3-dependent degradation of the actin-crosslinking BTB-domain protein Kelch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Djagaeva

    Full Text Available Components of the COP9 signalosome (CSN, a key member of the conserved 26S proteasome degradation pathway, have been detected to be altered in patients of several debilitating syndromes. These findings suggest that CSN acts in neural circuits, but the exact function of CSN in brain remains unidentified. Previously, using Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS as a model system, we determined that CSN is a critical regulator of dendritic morphogenesis. We found that defects in CSN led to the strikingly contrast phenotype of either reducing or stimulating dendritic branching. In particular, we have reported that CSN stimulates dendritic branching via Cullin1-mediated proteolysis. Here we describe that CSN inhibits dendritic arborization in PNS neurons acting via control of Cullin3 function: loss of Cullin3 causes excessive dendritic branching. We also identified a downstream target for Cullin3-dependent degradation in neurons--the actin-crosslinking BTB-domain protein Kelch. Inappropriate accumulation of Kelch, either due to the impaired Cullin3-dependent turnover, or ectopic expression of Kelch, leads to uncontrolled dendritic branching. These findings indicate that the CSN pathway modulates neuronal network in a multilayer manner, providing the foundation for new insight into the CSN role in human mental retardation disorders and neurodegenerative disease.

  13. An overview on limitations of TiO2-based particles for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and the corresponding countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haoran; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Fan, Changzheng; Zhang, Chang; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The pollutants classified as "persistent organic pollutants (POPs)", are being subject to high concern among the scientific community due to their persistence in the environment. TiO2-based photocatalytic process has shown a great potential as a low-cost, environmentally friendly and sustainable treatment technology to remove POPs in sewage to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional technologies. However, this technology suffers from some main technical barriers that impede its commercialization, i.e., the inefficient exploitation of visible light, low adsorption capacity for hydrophobic contaminants, uniform distribution in aqueous suspension and post-recovery of the TiO2 particles after water treatment. To improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2, many studies have been carried out with the aim of eliminating the limitations mentioned above. This review summarizes the recently developed countermeasures for improving the performance of TiO2-based photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants with respect to the visible-light photocatalytic activity, adsorption capacity, stability and separability. The performance of various TiO2-based photocatalytic processes for POPs degradation and the underlying mechanisms were summarized and discussed. The future research needs for TiO2-based technology are suggested accordingly. This review will significantly improve our understanding of the process of photocatalytic degradation of POPs by TiO2-based particles and provide useful information to scientists and engineers who work in this field.

  14. Direct measurement of transition frequencies in isolated pHe+ atoms, and new CPT-violation limits on the antiproton charge and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, M; Eades, J; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Pirkl, W; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Torii, H A; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Yamazaki, T

    2003-09-19

    A radio frequency quadrupole decelerator and achromatic momentum analyzer were used to decelerate antiprotons and produce p4He+ and p3He+ atoms in ultra-low-density targets, where collision-induced shifts of the atomic transition frequencies were negligible. The frequencies at near-vacuo conditions were measured by laser spectroscopy to fractional precisions of (6-19) x 10(-8). By comparing these with QED calculations and the antiproton cyclotron frequency, we set a new limit of 1 x 10(-8) on possible differences between the antiproton and proton charges and masses.

  15. Surface Charges and Shell Crosslinks Each Play Significant Roles in Mediating Degradation, Biofouling, Cytotoxicity and Immunotoxicity for Polyphosphoester-based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Deng, Zhou J.; Lim, Young H.; Wang, Hai; Parsamian, Perouza; Hammond, Paula T.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-11-01

    The construction of nanostructures from biodegradable precursors and shell/core crosslinking have been pursued as strategies to solve the problems of toxicity and limited stability, respectively. Polyphosphoester (PPE)-based micelles and crosslinked nanoparticles with non-ionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surface characteristics for potential packaging and delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, were constructed using a quick and efficient synthetic strategy, and importantly, demonstrated remarkable differences in terms of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and biofouling properties, as a function of their surface characteristics and also with dependence on crosslinking throughout the shell layers. For instance, crosslinking of zwitterionic micelles significantly reduced the immunotoxicity, as evidenced from the absence of secretions of any of the 23 measured cytokines from RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with the nanoparticles. The micelles and their crosslinked analogs demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than several commercially-available vehicles, and their degradation products were not cytotoxic to cells at the range of the tested concentrations. PPE-nanoparticles are expected to have broad implications in clinical nanomedicine as alternative vehicles to those involved in several of the currently available medications.

  16. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Fe/ZnO for rhodamine B degradation and its photogenerated charge transfer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Shasha; Cui, Jiabao; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Lijing [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Dejun [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lin, Yanhong, E-mail: linyh@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO and Fe/ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized via a hydrothermal process. • Fe/ZnO nanoflowers show improved photocatalytic activity under the irradiation of visible light. • In the Fe/ZnO system, Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}coexistences in the ZnO host. • The detailed photocatalytic mechanism and the role of Fe in the photodegradation system are discussed. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) and iron doped zinc oxide (Fe/ZnO) nanoflowers were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman scattering, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that the dopant ions replaced some of the crystal lattice zinc ions, and furthermore, Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions coexist. Photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were assessed based on the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under both UV and visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm), respectively. All Fe/ZnO samples showed enhanced photocatalytic activity under the irradiation of visible light. On the contrary, Fe/ZnO products displayed poorer performance than that of pure ZnO in the presence of UV light. This phenomenon can be attributed to the coexistence of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} in the ZnO host. The photophysical mechanism of the UV and visible photocatalytic activity was investigated with the help of surface photovoltage (SPV) and PL measurements, respectively. The results indicated the influence of coexistence of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} in ZnO host on the separation and transfer behavior of the photogenerated charges in the UV and visible regions, which are distinctly different: under the irradiation of UV light, the recombination of the photogenerated electrons and holes was promoted, whereas the separation and transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes was facilitated under the visible light

  17. Notch Charge-Coupled Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, James

    1992-01-01

    Notch charge-coupled devices are imaging arrays of photodetectors designed to exhibit high charge-transfer efficiencies necessary for operation in ultra-large array, and less vulnerable to degradation by energetic protons, neutrons, and electrons. Main channel of horizontal register includes deep narrow inner channel (notch). Small packets of charge remain confined to notch. Larger packets spill into rest of channel; transferred in usual way. Degradation of charge-transfer efficiency by energetic particles reduced.

  18. Molecular force fields for aqueous electrolytes: SPC/E-compatible charged LJ sphere models and their limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moučka, Filip; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R

    2013-04-21

    Thirteen of the most common aqueous NaCl solution force fields based on the SPC/E water solvent are examined with respect to their prediction at ambient conditions of the concentration dependence of the total electrolyte chemical potential and the solution density. We also calculate the salt solubility and the chemical potential and density of the NaCl crystalline solid. We obtain the solution chemical potential in a computationally efficient manner using our recently developed Osmotic Ensemble Monte Carlo method [F. Moučka, M. Lísal, and W. R. Smith, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 5468 (2012)]. We find that the results of the force fields considered are scattered over a wide range of values, and none is capable of producing quantitatively accurate results over the entire concentration range, with only two of them deemed to be acceptable. Our results indicate that several force fields exhibit precipitation at concentrations below the experimental solubility limit, thus limiting their usefulness. This has important implications, both in general and for their use in biomolecular simulations carried out in the presence of counter-ions. We conclude that either different parameter fitting techniques taking high-concentration properties into account must be used when determining force field model parameters, or that the class of models considered here is intrinsically incapable of the task and more sophisticated mathematical forms must be used.

  19. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  20. Toward exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit: photoinduced interfacial charge transfer processes that store energy in excess of the equilibrated excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertz, Paul G; Staniszewski, Aaron; Marton, Andras; Higgins, Gerard T; Incarvito, Christopher D; Rheingold, Arnold L; Meyer, Gerald J

    2006-06-28

    Nanocrystalline (anatase), mesoporous TiO2 thin films were functionalized with [Ru(bpy)2(deebq)](PF6)2, [Ru(bq)2(deeb)](PF6)2, [Ru(deebq)2(bpy)](PF6)2, [Ru(bpy)(deebq)(NCS)2], or [Os(bpy)2(deebq)](PF6)2, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, bq is 2,2'-biquinoline, and deeb and deebq are 4,4'-diethylester derivatives. These compounds bind to the nanocrystalline TiO2 films in their carboxylate forms with limiting surface coverages of 8 (+/- 2) x 10(-8) mol/cm2. Electrochemical measurements show that the first reduction of these compounds (-0.70 V vs SCE) occurs prior to TiO2 reduction. Steady state illumination in the presence of the sacrificial electron donor triethylamine leads to the appearance of the reduced sensitizer. The thermally equilibrated metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state and the reduced form of these compounds do not inject electrons into TiO2. Nanosecond transient absorption measurements demonstrate the formation of an extremely long-lived charge separated state based on equal concentrations of the reduced and oxidized compounds. The results are consistent with a mechanism of ultrafast excited-state injection into TiO2 followed by interfacial electron transfer to a ground-state compound. The quantum yield for this process was found to increase with excitation energy, a behavior attributed to stronger overlap between the excited sensitizer and the semiconductor acceptor states. For example, the quantum yields for [Os(bpy)2(dcbq)]/TiO2 were phi(417 nm) = 0.18 +/- 0.02, phi(532.5 nm) = 0.08 +/- 0.02, and phi(683 nm) = 0.05 +/- 0.01. Electron transfer to yield ground-state products occurs by lateral intermolecular charge transfer. The driving force for charge recombination was in excess of that stored in the photoluminescent excited state. Chronoabsorption measurements indicate that ligand-based intermolecular electron transfer was an order of magnitude faster than metal-centered intermolecular hole transfer. Charge recombination was quantified with

  1. Influence of ion effects on a space charge limited field emission flow: from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Chang, P. C.; Lu, P. S.; Verboncoeur, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Influence of ion effects on a space charge limited field emission flow has been studied systematically, by employing both analytical and numerical approaches. In our model, the field emission of electrons is described by the Fowler-Nordheim equation. The cathode plasma and surface properties are considered within the framework of an effective work function approximation. Ionization effects at the anode as well as electron space-charge effects are described by Poisson's equation coupled with the energy conservation equation including the relativistic effects. The calculations are carried out self-consistently to yield the steady states of the bipolar flow. The electric field on the cathode surface is found to be saturated due to space charge effects and is determined by the effective work function approximately. In addition, the upstream ion current bas been treated as a tuning parameter. It is found that the field emission currents in the presence of saturated ion currents can be enhanced to be nearly 1.8, 1.5, and 1.4 times of the cases with no upstream ion current in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes, respectively. The solutions have also been verified using 1D PIC simulations, as implemented in the OOPD1 code developed by PTSG of UC Berkeley. Work supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan, R.O.C. under Grant No. NSC 96-2112-M-030-004-MY3, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, and National Center for High-Performance Computing, Taiwan, ROC which provides the computing resources.

  2. A geographic model to assess and limit cumulative ecological degradation from Marcellus Shale exploitation in New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John B.; Robinson, George R.

    2012-01-01

    When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km²), using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey), percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program), and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments) within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the number of

  3. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus

  4. Trapping charges at grain boundaries and degradation of CH3NH3Pb(I1-x Br x )3 perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Nguyen, Bich; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Kim, Byeong Jo; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2017-08-01

    The electrical properties of CH3NH3Pb(I1-x Br x )3 (x = 0.13) perovskite materials were investigated under ambient conditions. The local work function and the local current were measured using Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, respectively. The degradation of the perovskite layers depends on their grain size. As the material degrades, an additional peak in the surface potential appears simultaneously with a sudden increase and subsequent relaxation of the local current. The potential bending at the grain boundaries and the intragrains is the most likely reason for the change of the local current surface of the perovskite layers. The improved understanding of the degradation mechanism garnered from this study helps pave the way toward an improved photo-conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells.

  5. Intrinsic limits on resolutions in muon- and electron-neutrino charged-current events in the KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Mart, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A. F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijerf, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Leisos, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălas, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pleinert, M.-O.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rauch, T.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-05-01

    Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit the obtainable resolution in both energy and direction in charged-current neutrino events in the ORCA detector are investigated. These processes include the composition of the hadronic fragmentation products, the subsequent particle propagation and the photon-sampling fraction of the detector. GEANT simulations of neutrino interactions in seawater produced by GENIE are used to study the effects in the 1-20 GeV range. It is found that fluctuations in the hadronic cascade in conjunction with the variation of the inelasticity y are most detrimental to the resolutions. The effect of limited photon sampling in the detector is of significantly less importance. These results will therefore also be applicable to similar detectors/media, such as those in ice. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nelson, H.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogburn, R. W.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-18

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically- produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e/6 and e/200.

  7. First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nelson, H.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogburn, R. W.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-18

    While the standard model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e / 6 . A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers finds no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e / 6 and e / 200 .

  8. Vpx mediated degradation of SAMHD1 has only a very limited effect on lentiviral transduction rate in ex vivo cultured HSPCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how to achieve efficient transduction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs, while preserving their long-term ability to self-reproduce, is key for applying lentiviral-based gene engineering methods. SAMHD1 is an HIV-1 restriction factor in myeloid and resting CD4+ T cells that interferes with reverse transcription by decreasing the nucleotide pools or by its RNase activity. Here we show that SAMHD1 is expressed at high levels in HSPCs cultured in a medium enriched with cytokines. Thus, we hypothesized that degrading SAMHD1 in HSPCs would result in more efficient lentiviral transduction rates. We used viral like particles (VLPs containing Vpx, shRNA against SAMHD1, or provided an excess of dNTPs or dNs to study this question. Regardless of the method applied, we saw no increase in the lentiviral transduction rate. The result was different when we used viruses (HR-GFP-Vpx+ which carry Vpx and encode GFP. These viruses allow assessment of the effects of Vpx specifically in the transduced cells. Using HR-GFP-Vpx+ viruses, we observed a modest but significant increase in the transduction efficiency. These data suggest that SAMHD1 has some limited efficacy in blocking reverse transcription but the major barrier for efficient lentiviral transduction occurs before reverse transcription.

  9. Study of top quark production and decays involving a tau lepton at CDF and limits on a charged Higgs boson contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Rizzi, C.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Vázquez, F.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of top-antitop quark production and decay into a tau lepton, tau neutrino, and bottom quark using data from 9 fb-1 of integrated luminosity at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Dilepton events, where one lepton is an energetic electron or muon and the other a hadronically decaying tau lepton, originating from proton-antiproton collisions at √s =1.96 TeV, are used. A top-antitop quark production cross section of 8.1±2.1 pb is measured, assuming standard-model top quark decays. By separately identifying for the first time the single-tau and the ditau components, we measure the branching fraction of the top quark into the tau lepton, tau neutrino, and bottom quark to be (9.6±2.8)%. The branching fraction of top quark decays into a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark, which would imply violation of lepton universality, is limited to be less than 5.9% at a 95% confidence level [for B(H-→τν¯)=1].

  10. Explicit large nuclear charge limit of electronic ground states for Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne and basic aspects of the periodic table

    CERN Document Server

    Friesecke, Gero

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the Schr\\"odinger equation for atoms and ions with N=1 to 10 electrons. In the asymptotic limit of large nuclear charge $Z$, we determine explicitly the low-lying energy levels and eigenstates. The asymptotic energies and wavefunctions are in good quantitative agreement with experimental data for positive ions, and in excellent qualitative agreement even for neutral atoms ($Z=N$). In particular, the predicted ground state spin and angular momentum quantum numbers ($^1S$ for He, Be, Ne, $^2S$ for H and Li, $^4S$ for N, $^2P$ for B and F, and $^3P$ for C and O) agree with experiment in every case. The asymptotic Schr\\"odinger ground states agree, up to small corrections, with the semi-empirical hydrogen orbital configurations developed by Bohr, Hund and Slater to explain the periodic table. In rare cases where our results deviate from this picture, such as the ordering of the lowest ${}^1D^o$ and ${}^5S^o$ states of Carbon, experiment confirms our, not Hund's, predictions.

  11. Study of Top-Quark Production and Decays involving a Tau Lepton at CDF and Limits on a Charged-Higgs Boson Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi Marchese; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Rizzi, Chiara; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of top-antitop quark production and decay into a tau lepton, tau neutrino, and bottom quark using data from $9 {\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Dilepton events, where one lepton is an energetic electron or muon and the other a hadronically-decaying tau lepton, originating from proton-antiproton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV$ are used. A top-antitop quark production cross section of $8.1 \\pm 2.1 {\\rm pb}$ is measured, assuming standard-model top-quark decays. By separately identifying for the first time the single-tau and the ditau components, we measure the branching fraction of the top quark into tau lepton, tau neutrino, and bottom quark to be $(9.6 \\pm 2.8) \\%$. The branching fraction of top-quark decays into a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark, which would imply violation of lepton universality, is limited to be less than $5.9 \\%$ at $95 \\%$ confidence level.

  12. Study of Top-Quark Production and Decays involving a Tau Lepton at CDF and Limits on a Charged-Higgs Boson Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Rizzi, Chiara; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-05-13

    We present an analysis of top-antitop quark production and decay into a tau lepton, tau neutrino, and bottom quark using data from $9 {\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Dilepton events, where one lepton is an energetic electron or muon and the other a hadronically-decaying tau lepton, originating from proton-antiproton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV$ are used. A top-antitop quark production cross section of $8.1 \\pm 2.1 {\\rm pb}$ is measured, assuming standard-model top-quark decays. By separately identifying for the first time the single-tau and the ditau components, we measure the branching fraction of the top quark into tau lepton, tau neutrino, and bottom quark to be $(9.6 \\pm 2.8) \\%$. The branching fraction of top-quark decays into a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark, which would imply violation of lepton universality, is limited to be less than $5.9 \\%$ at $95 \\%$ confidence level.

  13. Current Flow and Pair Creation at Low Altitude in Rotation-Powered Pulsars' Force-Free Magnetospheres: Space Charge Limited Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of particle acceleration and electron-positron plasma generation at low altitude in the polar magnetic flux tubes of rotation-powered pulsars, when the stellar surface is free to emit whatever charges and currents are demanded by the force-free magnetosphere. We apply a new 1D hybrid plasma simulation code to the dynamical problem, using Particle-in-Cell methods for the dynamics of the charged particles, including a determination of the collective electrostatic fluctuations in the plasma, combined with a Monte Carlo treatment of the high-energy gamma-rays that mediate the formation of the electron-positron pairs.We assume the electric current flowing through the pair creation zone is fixed by the much higher inductance magnetosphere, and adopt the results of force-free magnetosphere models to provide the currents which must be carried by the accelerator. The models are spatially one dimensional, and designed to explore the physics, although of practical relevance to young, high-voltage pulsars. We observe novel behaviour (a) When the current density j is less than the Goldreich-Julian value (0 1), the system develops high voltage drops (TV or greater), causing emission of curvature gamma-rays and intense bursts of pair creation. The bursts exhibit limit cycle behaviour, with characteristic time-scales somewhat longer than the relativistic fly-by time over distances comparable to the polar cap diameter (microseconds). (c) In return current regions, where j/j(sub GJ) rotating frame), finding that such steady flows can occupy only a small fraction of the current density parameter space exhibited by the force-free magnetospheric model. The generic polar flow dynamics and pair creation are strongly time dependent. The model has an essential difference from almost all previous quantitative studies, in that we sought the accelerating voltage (with pair creation, when the voltage drops are sufficiently large; without, when they are

  14. Photogenerated charges transfer across the interface between NiO and TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalytic degradation: A surface photovoltage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Libo; Li, Shuo; Lin, Yanhong; Wang, Dejun; Xie, Tengfeng

    2016-02-15

    To better understand the behavior of photogenerated charges in the composite photocatalyst interface is beneficial to the designing of effective photocatalyst for photocatalytic reaction. In our work, the separation and transfer process of photogenerated charges in NiO/TiO2 nanotube arrays (NiO/TiO2 NTAs) has been studied by surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and transient photovoltage (TPV) measurement. Through the experimental results analysis, we find that an interfacial electric field is formed at NiO/TiO2 NTAs interface, which is attributed to the work function difference between NiO and TiO2 NTAs. The photogenerated holes in TiO2 can transfer to the NiO layer along the interface electric field under the ultraviolet irradiation. A large amount of photogenerated holes can be separated effectively and then prolonged the holes lifetime to participate in the photocatalytic oxidation reaction. The above results show that the favorable hole-collecting process of NiO in the surface of TiO2 NTAs is the main factor being responsible for the increase the photocatalytic efficiency.

  15. Comparison of modification strategies towards enhanced charge carrier separation and photocatalytic degradation activity of metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Girish; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2017-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductors (TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) finds unparalleled opportunity in wastewater purification under UV/visible light, largely encouraged by their divergent admirable features like stability, non-toxicity, ease of preparation, suitable band edge positions and facile generation of active oxygen species in the aqueous medium. However, the perennial failings of these photocatalysts emanates from the stumbling blocks like rapid charge carrier recombination and meager visible light response. In this review, tailoring the surface-bulk electronic structure through the calibrated and veritable approaches such as impurity doping, deposition with noble metals, sensitizing with other compounds (dyes, polymers, inorganic complexes and simple chelating ligands), hydrogenation process (annealing under hydrogen atmosphere), electronic integration with other semiconductors, modifying with carbon nanostructures, designing with exposed facets and tailoring with hierarchical morphologies to overcome their critical drawbacks are summarized. Taking into account the materials intrinsic properties, the pros and cons together with similarities and striking differences for each strategy in specific to TiO2, WO3 & ZnO are highlighted. These subtlety enunciates the primacy for improving the structure-electronic properties of metal oxides and credence to its fore in the practical applications. Future research must focus on comparing the performances of ZnO, TiO2 and WO3 in parallel to get insight into their photocatalytic behaviors. Such comparisons not only reveal the changed surface-electronic structure upon various modifications, but also shed light on charge carrier dynamics, free radical generation, structural stability and compatibility for photocatalytic reactions. It is envisioned that these cardinal tactics have profound implications and can be replicated to other semiconductor photocatalysts like CeO2, In2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, BiVO4, AgX, BiOX (X = Cl, Br & I), Bi2WO6, Bi2MoO6

  16. On the Remarkable Features of the Lower Limits of Charge and the Radiated Energy of Antennas as Predicted by Classical Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic energy radiated by antennas working in both the frequency domain and time domain is studied as a function of the charge associated with the current in the antenna. The frequency domain results, obtained under the assumption of sinusoidal current distribution, show that, for a given charge, the energy radiated within a period of oscillation increases initially with L/λ and then starts to oscillate around a steady value when L/λ > 1. The results show that for the energy radiated by the antenna to be equal to or larger than the energy of one photon, the oscillating charge in the antenna has to be equal to or larger than the electronic charge. That is, U ≥ hν or UT ≥ h ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the energy dissipated over a period, ν is the frequency of oscillation, T is the period, h is Planck’s constant, q is the rms value of the oscillating charge, and e is the electronic charge. In the case of antennas working in the time domain, it is observed that UΔt ≥ h/4π ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the total energy radiated, Δt is the time over which the energy is radiated, and q is the charge transported by the current. It is shown that one can recover the time–energy uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics from this time domain result. The results presented in this paper show that when quantum mechanical constraints are applied to the electromagnetic energy radiated by a finite antenna as estimated using the equations of classical electrodynamics, the electronic charge emerges as the smallest unit of free charge in nature.

  17. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  18. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  19. Exploration of pH-dependent behavior of the anion receptor pocket of subdomain IIA of HSA: determination of effective pocket charge using the Debye-Hückel limiting law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolel, Priyanka; Datta, Shubhashis; Mahapatra, Niharendu; Halder, Mintu

    2014-01-09

    Protein-ligand electrostatic interaction can be looked upon as ion receptor-ligand interaction, and the binding cavity of protein can be either an anion or cation receptor depending on the charge of the guest. Here we focus on the exploration of pH-modulated binding of a number of anionic ligands, specific to the subdomain IIA cavity of HSA, such as carmoisine, tartrazine, cochineal red, and warfarin. The logarithm of the binding constant is found to vary linearly with the square-root of ionic strength, indicating applicability of the Debye-Hückel limiting law to protein-ligand electrostatic binding equilibrium, and concludes that the subdomain IIA cavity is an anion receptor. The present approach is very unique that one can calculate the effective charge of the protein-based anion receptor pocket, and the calculated charge has been found to vary between +1 and +3 depending on the pH and ligand itself. The study also indicates that in such cases of specific ligand binding the pocket charge rather than the overall or surface charge of the macromolecule seems to have a paramount role in determining the strength of interaction. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the Debye-Hückel interionic interaction model can be successfully applied to understand the protein-based receptor-ligand electrostatic interaction in general.

  20. 42 CFR 411.35 - Limitations on charges to a beneficiary or other party when a workers' compensation plan, a no...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the provider or supplier for the medical services. (3) The amount of any charges that may be made to a... supplier may collect or seek to collect, for the Medicare-covered services from the beneficiary or any...), the provider or supplier may retain the primary payment in full without violating the terms of...

  1. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Yang, Ellen; Moon, James J

    2017-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation – the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials. PMID:28243087

  2. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Yang, Ellen; Moon, James J

    2017-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation - the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8(+) T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8(+) T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials.

  3. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  4. Limits on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, D L

    2002-01-01

    A limit on the tau neutrino mass is obtained using all the $Z^{0} \\to \\tau^{+} \\tau^{-}$ data collected at LEP by the DELPHI detector between 1992 and 1995. In this analysis events in which one of the taus decays into one charged particle, while the second $\\tau$ decays into f{}ive charged pions (1-5 topology) have been used. The neutrino mass is determined from a bidimensional \\fit ~on the invariant mass $m^{*}_{5 \\pi}$ and on the energy $E_{5 \\pi}$ of the f{}ive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ system. The result found is $m_{\

  5. Intrinsic limits on resolutions in muon- and electron-neutrino charged-current events in the KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The KM3NeT collaboration; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Mart, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; Berg, A. van den; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Beveren, V. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D’Amato, C.; D’Amico, A.; D’Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; Eijk, D. van; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; Haren, H. van; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijerf, P.; Jongen, M.; Jong, M. de; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Leisos, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălas, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pleinert, M.O.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rauch, T.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Elewyck, V. van; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; Wolf, E. de; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit

  6. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: Manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.; Brehmer, B.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, tol

  7. Proposal of law which aims at limiting the energy loads in collective buildings for accommodation purpose; Proposition de loi visant a limiter les charges energetiques dans les immeubles collectifs a usage d'habitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Y.; Billard, M.; Mamere, N.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this proposal of law is to limit to 40% maximum the share of electricity in the production of heat and hot water in new collective residential buildings. Electric heating is the less expensive solution in terms of investment but certainly the most expensive solution on the long term use for the budget of households. (J.S.)

  8. Upper limit of the muon-neutrino mass and charged-pion mass from the momentum analysis of a surface muon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Using a surface muon beam and a magnetic spectrometer equipped with a position-sensitive detector, we have measured the muon momentum from pion decay at rest {pi}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}}, to be p{sub {mu}{sup +}}=(29.79200{+-}0.00011)MeV/c. This value together with the muon mass and the favoured pion mass leads to an upper limit of 0.17 MeV (90%CL) for the muon-neutrino mass. (author) 4 figs., 5 refs.

  9. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  10. Wide-angle KTa1- x Nb x O3 deflector for swept light source using DC charge technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tatsuhiro; Shinagawa, Mitsuru; Ueno, Masahiro; Sasaki, Yuzo; Toyoda, Seiji; Sakamoto, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    A 5-pass KTa1- x Nb x O3 (KTN) deflector based on a DC charge technique for the swept light source of an optical coherence tomography system is proposed. The DC charge technique used in a 3-pass KTN deflector enables us to obtain the long-term stability of the optical power without any degradation of the important features of the swept light source. Experimental results confirm that the coherence length of a swept light source with the 5-pass KTN deflector using the DC charge technique is almost equal to that using a precharge technique reported previously. This means that the DC charge technique does not degrade the coherence length. There are limitation values for applied voltage, the KTN electrode gap, relative dielectric constant, and sweep frequency of the KTN deflector in terms of obtaining long coherence length. We believe that a 7-pass KTN deflector is effective for obtaining a longer coherence length.

  11. Microbial degradation of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in case of limited pollutant availability with nitrate as a potential electron acceptor; Der mikrobielle Abbau mono- und polyzyklischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe bei einer begrenzten Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit mit Nitrat als potentiellem Elektronenakzeptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, C.

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of using natural degradation processes for long-term remediation of tar oil contaminated sites was investigated. Field studies have shown that microbial decomposition of pollutants does take place in many sites but that it is limited by limited availability of pollutants and oxygen in soil. The investigations focused on the activation of BTEX and PAH degradation in situ by nitrate in the absence or in the presence of oxygen. Tensides should be used in order to enhance the availability of pollutants in water, especially in the case of hardly water-soluble PAH. A large-scale experiment was carried out on tar oil contaminated terrain; it was found that the availability of oxygen and not of PAH is the limiting factor so that adding of surfactants will not improve pollutant degradation. In contrast, the adding of tensides would mean even higher concentrations of oxygen-depleting substances in soil. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden im Hinblick auf langfristige Sanierungsstrategien fuer teeroelkontaminierte Standorte Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung natuerlicher Abbauvorgaenge untersucht. Zahlreiche Feldstudien belegen, dass ein mikrobieller Schadstoffabbau an vielen Standorten stattfindet, dieser jedoch sowohl durch eine begrenzte Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit als auch durch den im Untergrund nur begrenzt zur Verfuegung stehenden Sauerstoff limitiert wird. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es abzuklaeren, inwiefern ein BTEX- und PAK-Abbau in situ auch in Abwesenheit von Sauerstoff durch Nitrat allein oder durch Nitrat in Kombination mit Sauerstoff aktiviert werden kann. Um insbesondere fuer die schlecht wasserloeslichen PAK eine ausreichende Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit zu gewaehrleisten, sollten auch Tenside zur Erhoehung der im Wasser vorliegenden Schadstoffmenge eingesetzt werden. Aufbauend auf die Laboruntersuchungen wurde im Rahmen von VEGAS{sup ix} ein Grossversuch zum mikrobiellen PAK-Abbau im Abstrom einer simulierten Teeroelkontamination durchgefuehrt

  12. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  13. The essential role of nitrogen limitation in expression of xplA and degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in Gordonia sp. strain KTR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song-Hua; Reuther, Jens; Liu, Jie; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Eltis, Lindsay D; Mohn, William W

    2015-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a widely used explosive and a major soil and groundwater contaminant. Organisms such as Gordonia sp. KTR9, capable of degrading RDX and using it as an N source, may prove useful for bioremediation of contaminated sites. XplA is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase responsible for RDX degradation. Expression of xplA in KTR9 was not induced by RDX but was strongly induced (50-fold) during N-limited growth. When glnR, encoding a regulatory protein affecting N assimilation in diverse Actinobacteria, was deleted from KTR9, the bacterium lost the ability to use nitrate, nitrite, and RDX as N sources. Deletion of glnR also abolished the inhibition of xplA expression by nitrite. Our results confirm the essential role of GlnR in regulating assimilation of nitrite, but there was no evidence for a direct role of GlnR in regulating XplA expression. Rather, the general availability of nitrogen repressed XplA expression. We conclude that the inability of the glnR mutant to use RDX as an N source was due to its inability to assimilate nitrite, an intermediate in the assimilation of nitrogen from RDX. Regulation of XplA does not seem adaptive for KTR9, but it is important for RDX bioremediation with KTR9 or similar bacteria.

  14. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  15. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth.

  16. Degradable transportation network with the addition of electric vehicles: Network equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Introducing electric vehicles (EVs) into urban transportation network brings higher requirement on travel time reliability and charging reliability. Specifically, it is believed that travel time reliability is a key factor influencing travelers' route choice. Meanwhile, due to the limited cruising range, EV drivers need to better learn about the required energy for the whole trip to make decisions about whether charging or not and where to charge (i.e., charging reliability). Since EV energy consumption is highly related to travel speed, network uncertainty affects travel time and charging demand estimation significantly. Considering the network uncertainty resulted from link degradation, which influences the distribution of travel demand on transportation network and the energy demand on power network, this paper aims to develop a reliability-based network equilibrium framework for accommodating degradable road conditions with the addition of EVs. First, based on the link travel time distribution, the mean and variance of route travel time and monetary expenses related to energy consumption are deduced, respectively. And the charging time distribution of EVs with charging demand is also estimated. Then, a nested structure is considered to deal with the difference of route choice behavior derived by the different uncertainty degrees between the routes with and without degradable links. Given the expected generalized travel cost and a psychological safety margin, a traffic assignment model with the addition of EVs is formulated. Subsequently, a heuristic solution algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model. Finally, the effects of travelers' risk attitude, network degradation degree, and EV penetration rate on network performance are illustrated through an example network. The numerical results show that the difference of travelers' risk attitudes does have impact on the route choice, and the widespread adoption of EVs can cut down the total system travel

  17. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation Rhodamine B over highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays photoelectrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Xu, Hao; Yan, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Different nanotube length of TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) electrodes was successfully prepared by anodization method with different duration time. The as-prepared electrodes were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Shottky measurement. The influence of bias potential, illumination and nanotube length on Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation was investigated. The results show that applied bias potential and short nanotube length are beneficial to RhB degradation due to the enhanced charge transfer. Moreover, it is found that an induction period exists in the RhB photoelectrodegradation with short nanotube length and the rate is sensitive to the carriers' concentration. This can be attributed to the increased effective holes for degradation RhB and the decreased recombination rate of electrons-holes. Nevertheless, RhB photoelectrodegradation with long nanotube length did not display the similar kinetic characteristic. The possible explanation is that long nanotube length increases the recombination rate of electrons-holes and limits the charge transfer, hence decreases the amount of effectively charge carriers. This may decrease the degradation rate and thus result in the disappearing of the second degradation constant. Moreover, we further demonstrate our deduction by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Shottky measurement.

  18. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  19. Polyanhydride degradation and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpferich, A; Tessmar, J

    2002-10-16

    It was the intention of this paper to give a survey on the degradation and erosion of polyanhydrides. Due to the multitude of polymers that have been synthesized in this class of material in recent years, it was not possible to discuss all polyanhydrides that have gained in significance based on their application. It was rather the intention to provide a broad picture on polyanhydride degradation and erosion based on the knowledge that we have from those polymers that have been intensively investigated. To reach this goal this review contains several sections. First, the foundation for an understanding of the nomenclature are laid by defining degradation and erosion which was deemed necessary because many different definitions exist in the current literature. Next, the properties of major classes of anhydrides are reviewed and the impact of geometry on degradation and erosion is discussed. A complicated issue is the control of drug release from degradable polymers. Therefore, the aspect of erosion-controlled release and drug stability inside polyanhydrides are discussed. Towards the end of the paper models are briefly reviewed that describe the erosion of polyanhydrides. Empirical models as well as Monte-Carlo-based approaches are described. Finally it is outlined how theoretical models can help to answer the question why polyanhydrides are surface eroding. A look at the microstructure and the results from these models lead to the conclusion that polyanhydrides are surface eroding due to their fast degradation. However they switch to bulk erosion once the device dimensions drop below a critical limit.

  20. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  1. The Effects of Charge Stratification on the Limit Load and Combustion Characteristics of HCCI Gasoline Engine%混合气分层对HCCI汽油机极限负荷和燃烧特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建珍; 刘军

    2011-01-01

    对比研究HCCI汽油机在不同空燃比下采用混合气分层策略时的极限负荷、NOx排放量和燃油经济性,考察了在此策略下过量空气系数λ和EGR率对HCCI发动机燃烧特性的影响.结果表明,混合气分层压缩燃烧模式能有效降低HCCI燃烧的压力升高率,具有拓展负荷范围的潜力,但同时也使NOx排放增加;适当的过量空气系数能在一定程度上改善HCCI发动机的燃烧特性,采用9%的EGR率时发动机油耗率最低,具有明显节油效果.%The limit loads, N0x emission and fuel economy of HCCI gasoline engine with a mixture forming strategy of charge stratification under different air-fuel ratio are comparatively studied. With this strategy the effects of EGR rate and excess air coefficient on the combustion characteristics of HCCI engine are investigated. The results indicate that stratified charge compression ignition can reduce the rising rate of combustion pressure and has the potential for extending load range of HCCI mode, but it leads to a higher N0x emission; the appropriate excess air coefficient can improve the combustion characteristics of HCCI engine and the specific fuel consumption reaches its lowest point at a EGR rate of 9% , showing tangible results of fuel saving.

  2. Aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, D.H. [Dept. of Environmental Microbiology, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been extensively studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile elements has become available. Key enzymes, specifically biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases, have been intensively characterized, structure/sequence relationships have been determined and enzymes optimized for PCB transformation. However, due to the complex metabolic network responsible for PCB degradation, optimizing degradation by single bacterial species is necessarily limited. As PCBs are usually not mineralized by biphenyl-degrading organisms, and cometabolism can result in the formation of toxic metabolites, the degradation of chlorobenzoates has received special attention. A broad set of bacterial strategies to degrade chlorobenzoates has recently been elucidated, including new pathways for the degradation of chlorocatechols as central intermediates of various chloroaromatic catabolic pathways. To optimize PCB degradation in the environment beyond these metabolic limitations, enhancing degradation in the rhizosphere has been suggested, in addition to the application of surfactants to overcome bioavailability barriers. However, further research is necessary to understand the complex interactions between soil/sediment, pollutant, surfactant and microorganisms in different environments. (orig.)

  3. Multi-turn injection into a heavy-ion synchrotron in the presence of space charge

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    For heavy-ion synchrotrons an efficient Multi-Turn Injection (MTI) from the injector linac is crucial in order to reach the specified currents using the available machine acceptance. The beam loss during the MTI must not exceed the limits determined by machine protection and by the vacuum requirements. Especially for low energy and intermediate charge state ions, the beam loss at the injection septum can cause a degradation of the vacuum and a corresponding reduction of the beam lifetime. In order to optimize the injection of intense beams a very detailed simulation model was developed. Besides the closed orbit bump, lattice errors, the position of the septum and other aperture limiting components the transverse space charge force is included self-consistently. The space charge force causes a characteristic shift of the optimum tunes and a smoothing of the phase space density.

  4. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  5. Unveiling the irreversible performance degradation of organo-inorganic halide perovskite films and solar cells during heating and cooling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al; Ava, Tanzila Tasnim; Byun, Hye Ryung; Jeong, Hyeon Jun; Jeong, Mun Seok; Nguyen, Loi; Gausin, Christine; Namkoong, Gon

    2017-07-26

    While organo-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells show great potential to meet future energy needs, their thermal instability raises serious questions about their commercialization viability. At present, the stability of perovskite solar cells has been studied under various environmental conditions including humidity and temperature. Nonetheless, understanding of the performance of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells is limited. This study reports the irreversible performance degradation of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells during the heating and cooling processes under AM 1.5 and unveils what triggers the irreversible performance degradation of solar cells. Particularly, the primary cause of the irreversible performance degradation of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx is quantitatively analyzed by monitoring in real time the development of deteriorated crystallinity, charge trapping/detrapping, trap depth, and the PbI2 phase, namely a critical signal of perovskite degradation while varying the temperature of the perovskite films and solar cells. Most surprisingly, it is revealed that the degradation of both perovskite films and solar cells was triggered at ∼70 °C. Remarkably, even after the device temperature cooled down to room temperature, the degraded performance of the solar cells persisted with increasing charge trapping and further development of the PbI2 phase. Identification of the irreversible performance degradation of perovskite solar cells provides guidance for future development of more stable perovskite solar cells.

  6. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    breakdown of DDE by the extracellular lignolytic enzymes produced by white rot fungi. The addition of adjutants such as sodium ion, surfactants, and cellulose increased the rate of DDT aerobic or anaerobic degradation but did little to enhance the rate of DDE disappearance under anaerobic conditions. Only in the past decade has it been demonstrated that DDE can undergo reductive dechlorination under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions to form the degradation product DDMU, 1-chloro-2,2'-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane. The only pure culture reported to degrade DDE under anaerobic conditions was the denitrifier Alcaligens denitrificans. The degradation of DDE by this bacterium was enhanced by glucose, whereas biphenyl fumes had no effect. Abiotic remediation by DDE volatilization was enhanced by flooding and irrigation and deepplowing inhibited the volatilization. The use of zero-valent iron and surfactants in flooded soils enhanced DDT degradation but did not significantly alter the rate of DDE removal. Other catalysts (palladized magnesium, palladium on carbon, and nickel/aluminum alloys) degraded DDT and its metabolites, including DDE. However, these systems are often biphasic or involve explosive gases or both. Safer abiotic alternatives use UV light with titanium oxide or visible light with methylene green to degrade DDT, DDD, and DDE in aqueous or mixed solvent systems. Remediation and degradation of DDE in soil and water by phytoextraction, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, or abiotic methods can be accomplished. However, success has been limited, and great care must be taken that the method does not transfer the contaminants to another locale (by volatilization, deep plowing, erosion, or runoff) or to another species (by ingestion of accumulating plants or contaminated water). Although the remediation of DDT-, DDD-, and DDE-contaminated soil and water is beset with myriad problems, there remain many open avenues of research.

  7. Commensal ocular bacteria degrade mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M; Harris, A; Lumb, R; Powell, K

    2002-12-01

    Antimicrobial activity in tears prevents infection while maintaining a commensal bacterial population. The relation between mucin and commensal bacteria was assessed to determine whether commensals possess mucinolytic activity, how degradation depends on mucin integrity, and whether mucins affect bacterial replication. Bacteria were sampled from healthy eyes and contact lenses from asymptomatic wearers. Intracellular mucins were extracted and purified from cadaver conjunctivas, and surface mucins from extended wear contact lenses. After exposure to bacteria, changes in mucin hydrodynamic volume (proteolytic cleavage) and subunit charge (oligosaccharide degradation) were assayed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The effect of mucin on bacterial replication was followed for up to 24 hours from the end of incubation with purified ocular mucins. Ocular bacteria decreased the hydrodynamic volume of intracellular and contact lens adherent mucins, irrespective of glycosylation density. A decrease in mucin sialylation was observed after exposure to commensal bacteria. Subunit charge distributions were generally shifted to lesser negative charge, consistent with loss of charged epitopes. Subunits with high negative charge, observed after digesting lightly adhering contact lens mucins with bacteria, suggest preferential cleavage sites in the mucin molecule. The presence of purified ocular mucin in the medium inhibited bacterial growth. Bacteria in the healthy ocular surface possess mucinolytic activity on both intact and surface processed mucins, targeted to discrete sites in the mucin molecule. Inhibition of bacterial growth by ocular mucins can be seen as part of the mucosal control of microbiota.

  8. Degradation theories of concrete and development of a new deviatoric model in incremental tangent formulation: limit analysis applied to case of anchor bolts embedded in concrete; Theorie de degradation du beton et developpement d'un nouveau modele d'endommagement en formulation incrementale tangente: calcul a la rupture applique au cas des chevilles de fixation ancrees dans le beton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ung Quoc, H

    2003-12-15

    This research is achieved in the general framework of the study of the concrete behaviour. It has for objective the development of a new behaviour model satisfying to the particular requirements for an industrial exploitation. After the analysis of different existent models, a first development has concerned models based on the smeared crack theory. A new formulation of the theory permitted to overcome the stress locking problem. However, the analysis showed the persistence of some limits inert to this approach in spite of this improvement. Then, an analysis of the physical mechanisms of the concrete degradation has been achieved and permitted to develop the new damage model MODEV. The general formulation of this model is based on the theory of the thermodynamics and applied to the case of the heterogeneous and brittle materials. The MODEV model considers two damage mechanisms: extension and sliding. The model considers also that the relative tangent displacement between microcracks lips is responsible of the strain irreversibility. Thus, the rate of inelastic strain becomes function of the damage and the heterogeneity index of the material. The unilateral effect is taken in account as an elastic hardening or softening process according to re-closing or reopening of cracks. The model is written within the framework of non standard generalised materials in incremental tangent formulation and implemented in the general finite element code SYMPHONIE. The validation of the model has been achieved on the basis of several tests issued from the literature. The second part of this research has concerned the development of the CHEVILAB software. This simulation tool based on the limit analysis approach permit the evaluation of the ultimate load capacity of anchors bolts. The kinematics approach of the limit analysis has been adapted to the problem of anchors while considering several specific failure mechanisms. This approach has been validated then by comparison with the

  9. 空间电荷限制电流法测量共混体系中空穴的迁移率%Measurement of the hole mobility in the blend system by space charge limited current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於黄忠

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of carrier mobility in organic semiconductor material and device is one of important study contents. The hole- only devices based on the different solvent blends of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as acceptor are fabricated, the structures of the devices are all ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Au. The hole mobilities in the blend systems with different solvents and various annealing treatments are measured by the space charge limited current method. The results show that the J-V curves of charge transfer in the devices meet Mott-Gurney equation, the hole mobilities in the active layer with different solvents are different, the active layer formed with high boiling point solvent 1, 2-dichlorobenzene possesses higher hole mobility, heat treatment contributes to the improvement of the hole mobility in the devices. The reason of change of hole mobility is analyzed.%载流子迁移率测量是有机半导体材料与器件研究中的重要内容之一.以聚噻吩为电子给体材料,C60的衍生物为电子受体材料,制备了一种单电荷传输器件.用空间电荷限制电流法测出了不同溶剂形成的活性层及不同温度热处理后器件中空穴的迁移率.结果表明:器件中电荷的传输J-y曲线符合Mott-Gurney方程,不同溶剂形成活性层中空穴具有不同的迁移率,高沸点的溶剂1,2-二氯苯形成的活性层具有较高的空穴迁移率,热处理有利于器件中空穴迁移率的提高.同时还进一步分析了空穴迁移率变化的原因.

  10. Extremally charged line

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzner, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a static, cylindrically symmetric Majumdar-Papapetrou-type solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations. We locate its singularities, establish its algebraic type, find its asymptotic properties and weak-field limit, study the structure of electrogeodesics, and determine the mass and charge of its sources. We provide an interpretation of the spacetime and discuss the parameter appearing in the metric.

  11. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation Rhodamine B over highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays photoelectrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia; Xu, Hao, E-mail: xuhao@xjtu.edu.cn; Yan, Wei, E-mail: yanwei@xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The influence of nanotube length on photoelectrocatalytic was investigated. • Electrochemical measurement was employed to interpret the enhanced catalytic performance. • The degradation rate is sensitive to the carriers’ concentration. - Abstract: Different nanotube length of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTAs) electrodes was successfully prepared by anodization method with different duration time. The as-prepared electrodes were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Shottky measurement. The influence of bias potential, illumination and nanotube length on Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation was investigated. The results show that applied bias potential and short nanotube length are beneficial to RhB degradation due to the enhanced charge transfer. Moreover, it is found that an induction period exists in the RhB photoelectrodegradation with short nanotube length and the rate is sensitive to the carriers’ concentration. This can be attributed to the increased effective holes for degradation RhB and the decreased recombination rate of electrons-holes. Nevertheless, RhB photoelectrodegradation with long nanotube length did not display the similar kinetic characteristic. The possible explanation is that long nanotube length increases the recombination rate of electrons-holes and limits the charge transfer, hence decreases the amount of effectively charge carriers. This may decrease the degradation rate and thus result in the disappearing of the second degradation constant. Moreover, we further demonstrate our deduction by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Shottky measurement.

  12. Polysaccharide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  13. Surface degradation of Li1-xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, S.; Pereira, N.; Mukherjee, P.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Faenza, N.; Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L.; Yang, W. L.; Cosandey, F.; Amatucci, G. G.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2016-06-01

    The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1 V (versus Li/Li+) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li1-xNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 binder-free powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1 V, 4.5 V, and 4.75 V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li2CO3 and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li+ extraction is driving the rise in impedance.

  14. Surface degradation of Li{sub 1–x}Ni{sub 0.80}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallis, S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Pereira, N.; Faenza, N.; Amatucci, G. G. [Energy Storage Research Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, North Brunswick, New Jersey 08902 (United States); Mukherjee, P.; Cosandey, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, North Brunswick, New Jersey 08902 (United States); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yang, W. L. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2016-06-27

    The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1 V (versus Li/Li{sup +}) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li{sub 1–x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} binder-free powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1 V, 4.5 V, and 4.75 V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li{sup +} extraction is driving the rise in impedance.

  15. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  16. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojin Kwon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs. When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  17. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-12-26

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  18. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  20. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  1. Charge collection and charge sharing in heavily irradiated n-side read-out silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Biagi, S.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Greenall, A.; Turner, P.R

    2003-09-21

    Hadron radiation damage of n-bulk silicon detectors leads to a change in the effective space charge from positive to negative. This effect is called type inversion. Type inversion occurs after exposure to a fluence of a few 10{sup 13} proton cm{sup -2} and is characterized by migration of the diode junction to the n{sup +} implanted side (n-side) of the detector. After inversion the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of segmented detectors at low voltage is higher when the n-side, rather than the p-side, is read out. A p-side read out (p-in-n) and an n-side read out (n-in-n) strip detector with identical strip geometry and a wafer thickness of 200 {mu}m were simultaneously and inhomogenously irradiated to a maximum fluence of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2} with 24 GeV c{sup -1} protons. A comparison of the CCE at very high irradiation doses is shown with these two read out geometries. The inhomogeneous irradiation induces an inhomogenous distribution of the effective space charge with a transverse component of the electric field that could in principle affect the resolution properties of the microstrip detector. The inter-strip charge sharing properties, as a function of dose, for the n-in-n detector have been measured. No systematic distortion of the reconstructed cluster position was detected within the limits of the measurement accuracy. The detectors were manufactured using oxygen enriched silicon substrates to limit the degradation of the full depletion voltage under charged hadron irradiation. The measured CCE confirms that the use of oxygenated n-in-n detectors is viable up to fluences of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2}.

  2. Recent Progress at SLAC Extracting High Charge from Highly-Polarized Photocathodes for Future-Collider Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clendenin, J E; Garwin, E L; Harvey, S; Jiang, J; Kirby, R E; Luh, D A; Maruyama, T; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Turner, J L

    2004-01-01

    Future colliders such as NLC and JLC will require a highly-polarized macropulse with charge that is more than an order of magnitude beyond that which could be produced for the SLC. The maximum charge from the SLC uniformly-doped GaAs photocathode was limited by the surface charge limit (SCL). The SCL effect can be overcome by using an extremely high (>1019 cm-3) surface dopant concentration. When combined with a medium dopant concentration in the majority of the active layer (to avoid depolarization), the surface concentration has been found to degrade during normal heat cleaning (1 hour at 600 C). The Be dopant as typically used in an MBE-grown superlattice cathode is especially susceptible to this effect compared to Zn or C dopant. Some relief can be found by lowering the cleaning temperature, but the long-term general solution appears to be atomic hydrogen cleaning.

  3. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  4. Complete Charging for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊康旗; 徐春辉; 王卫东

    2014-01-01

    Under an in-phase assumption, the complete charging for an energy harvesting system is studied, which consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor, a switch, a controller and a rechargeable battery. For the transient charging, the results indicate that the voltage across the filter capacitor increases as the charging proceeds, which is consistent with that reported in the literature. However, a new finding shows that the charging rate and energy harvesting efficiency decrease over time after their respective peak values are acquired. For the steady-state charging, the results reveal that the energy harvesting efficiency can be adjusted by altering the critical charging voltage that controls the transition of the system. The optimal energy harvesting efficiency is limited by the optimal efficiency of the transient charging. Finally, the relationship between the critical charging voltage and the equivalent resistance of the controller and rechargeable battery is established explicitly.

  5. Cathepsin B degradable star-shaped peptidic macromolecules for delivery of 2-methoxyestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ravi; Samykutty, Abhilash; Riggin, Corinne; Kannan, Sneha; Wenzel, Ursula; Kolhatkar, Rohit

    2013-10-07

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), a natural metabolite of estradiol, has antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. However, its clinical success is limited due to poor water solubility and poor pharmacokinetic parameters suggesting the need for a delivery vehicle. In this study we evaluated cathepsin B degradable star-shaped peptidic macromolecules (SPMs) that can potentially be used to create higher generation and high molecular weight peptidic polymer as delivery vehicle of 2ME. Two peptidic macromolecules having positively charged amine (ASPM) or negatively charged carboxyl surface groups (CSPM) were synthesized and evaluated for their degradation in the presence of cathepsin B and stability in the presence of neutral or acidic buffer and serum. Both ASPM and CSPM degraded rapidly in the presence of cathepsin B. Both were stable in neutral and acidic buffer whereas only CSPM exhibited substantial stability in the presence of serum. Both macromolecules were nontoxic toward breast cancer cells whereas 2ME-containing macromolecules exhibited antiproliferative activity in the micromolar range. Overall, results from the current study indicate that tetrapeptide GFLG can be used to create star-shaped macromolecules that are degraded in the presence of cathepsin B and have the potential to be developed as delivery vehicles of 2ME.

  6. 42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31... Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges. (1) A provider may charge the beneficiary (or other person on his or her behalf) only for the first three pints of blood or units of packed red...

  7. Induced-charge Electrokinetic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Squires, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of AC electro-osmosis near micro-electrodes, we predict a broad class of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena involving induced interfacial charge. By considering various polarizable objects (metals or dielectrics) in DC and AC applied fields, we develop a simple physical picture of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO), the fluid slip at a surface due to an electric field acting on the diffuse charge it induces. We also discuss `induced-charge electrophoresis' (ICEP), the analogous motion of a freely-suspended polarizable particle. Both differ significantly from their classical linear counterparts. We present a mathematical theory of ICEO flows in the weakly nonlinear limit of thin double layers. As an example, we calculate the time-dependent ICEO slip around a metallic sphere with a thin dielectric coating in a suddenly-applied DC field. We briefly discuss possible applications of ICEO to microfluidics and of ICEP to colloidal manipulation.

  8. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  9. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-03-22

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

  10. Performance degradation of Geiger-mode APDs at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A; Breskin, A; Thers, D

    2014-01-01

    Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with THGEM multipliers, optically read out with Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs), were proposed as potential technique for charge recording in rare-event experiments. In this work we report on the degradation of the GAPD performance at cryogenic temperatures revealed in the course of the study of two-phase CRAD in Ar, with combined THGEM/GAPD-matrix multiplier; the GAPDs recorded secondary scintillation photons from the THGEM holes in the Near Infrared. The degradation effect, namely the loss of the GAPD pulse amplitude, depended on the incident X-ray photon flux. The critical counting rate of photoelectrons produced at the 4.4 mm2 GAPD, degrading its performance at 87 K, was estimated as 10000 per second. This effect was shown to result from the considerable increase of the pixel quenching resistor of this CPTA-made GAPD type. Though not affecting low-rate rare-event experiments, the observed effect may impose some limitations on the performance of CRADs with GAPD-base...

  11. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  12. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  13. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  14. Charge Injection and Transport in Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaras, George

    2007-03-01

    We will overview the state-of-the-art in our understanding of charge injection and transport in conjugated polymers. We start by discussing the identifying characteristics of this class of materials, especially in relation with their structure and morphology. We follow by reviewing the advantages and limitations of experimental techniques that are used to probe charge transport. We then embark on a discussion of the fundamentals of charge transport in organics. We follow a didactic approach, where we start from transport in crystalline semiconductors and gradually introduce corrections for space charge effects, for the influence of disorder on mobility, for high charge densities, and for electric field-dependent charge densities. We compare with experimental data from polyfluorenes. We then shift our attention to charge injection. We review some of the recent theories and compared their predictions to experimental data, again from polyfluorenes. We close by proposing directions for future work.

  15. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crys...

  16. Spinning a charged dilaton black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A charged dilaton black hole which possesses infinitesimal angular momentum is studied. We find that the gyromagnetic ratio of the dilaton black hole depends not only on the parameter which appears in the interaction between the dilaton and the electric field but also nonlinearly on the ratio of the charge to the mass of the black hole. The moment of inertia for the charged dilaton hole in the limit of infinitesimal angular momentum is also calculated.

  17. Current-voltage characteristics and charge DLTS spectra of proton-bombarded Schottky diodes on semi-insulating GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurzo, I. (Inst. of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Hrubcin, L. (Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Bartos, J. (Inst. of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Pincik, E. (Inst. of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia))

    1993-10-01

    Changes in the current-voltage characteristics and charge DLTS spectra of Schottky diodes on semi-insulating GaAs after irradiation by protons at different energies and doses are presented and discussed. Apart from a progressive degradation of the Schottky barriers with enhanced proton energy and dose, there is a threshold, positioned between 10[sup 14] and 10[sup 15] protons/cm[sup 2], for observing trap-limited transients. (orig.)

  18. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  19. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.

  20. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vasugi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.

  1. Absence of State Collapse and Revival in a Superconducting Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of a superconducting charge qubit with a configuration of dc SQUID contains an interaction between the LC oscillator part and charge qubit. This interaction may leads to quantum state collapse and revival which degrades the charge qubits and leads to serious decoherence. An analysis shows that the existing charge qubit parameters do not lead to this phenomenon, which is very good for the superconducting charge qubit.

  2. Fundamental study of mechanical and chemical degradation mechanisms of PEM fuel cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Wonseok

    One of the important factors determining the lifetime of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is membrane degradation and failure. The lack of effective mitigation methods is largely due to the currently very limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms for mechanical and chemical degradations of fuel cell membranes. In order to understand degradation of membranes in fuel cells, two different experimental approaches were developed; one is fuel cell testing under open circuit voltage (OCV) with bi-layer configuration of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and the other is a modified gas phase Fenton's test. Accelerated degradation tests for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are frequently conducted under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions at low relative humidity (RH) and high temperature. With the bi-layer MEA technique, it was found that membrane degradation is highly localized across thickness direction of the membrane and qualitatively correlated with location of platinum (Pt) band through mechanical testing, Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, fluoride emission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurement. One of the critical experimental observations is that mechanical behavior of membranes subjected to degradation via Fenton's reaction exhibit completely different behavior with that of membranes from the OCV testing. This result led us to believe that other critical factors such as mechanical stress may affect on membrane degradation and therefore, a modified gas phase Fenton's test setup was developed to test the hypothesis. Interestingly, the results showed that mechanical stress directly accelerates the degradation rate of ionomer membranes, implying that the rate constant for the degradation reaction is a function of mechanical stress in addition to commonly known factors such as temperature and humidity. Membrane degradation induced by

  3. Space-charge effects in liquid argon ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfoord, J. P.; Walker, R. B.

    2015-03-01

    We have uniformly irradiated liquid argon ionization chambers with betas from high-activity 90Sr sources. The radiation environment is similar to that in the liquid argon calorimeters which are part of the ATLAS detector installed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We measured the resulting ionization current over a wide range of applied potential for two different source activities and for three different chamber gaps. These studies provide operating experience at exceptionally high ionization rates. In particular they indicate a stability at the 0.1% level for these calorimeters over years of operation at the full LHC luminosity when operated in the normal mode at an electric field E = 1.0 kV / mm. We can operate these chambers in the normal mode or in the space-charge limited regime and thereby determine the transition point between the two. This transition point is parameterized by a positive argon ion mobility of μ+ = 0.08 ± 0.02mm2 / V s at a temperature of 88.0±0.5 K and at a pressure of 1.02±0.02 bar. In the space-charge limited regime the ionization currents are degraded and show signs of instability. At the highest electric fields in our study (6.7 kV/mm) the ionization current is still slowly rising with increasing electric field.

  4. Electrooptical Detection of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds promise for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  5. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N. F.; Jalil, A. A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Various weight loadings of Ag (1-10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag0, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  6. Lithium-ion battery aging mechanisms and life model under different charging stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Caiping; Zhang, Weige; Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The charging time-consuming and lifespan of lithium-ion batteries have always been the bottleneck for the tremendous application of electric vehicles. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of different charging current rates and cut-off voltages on the aging mechanism of batteries. The long-term effects of charging current rates and cut-off voltages on capacity degradation and resistance increase are compared. The results show that there exists a critical charging current and a critical charging cut-off voltage. When the charging stress exceeds the critical value, battery degradation speed will be greatly accelerated. Furthermore, battery aging mechanisms at various charging currents and cut-off voltages are investigated using incremental capacity analysis. It is indicated that charging current and cut-off voltage should be reduced to retard battery degradation when the battery degrades to a certain extent. The time when the loss of electrode material accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging current and the time when the loss of lithium inventory accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging cut-off voltage. Moreover, an experiential model quantitatively describing the relationship between capacity degradation rate and charging stresses at different aging states is established.

  7. Microbial degradation of the pharmaceutical ibuprofen and the herbicide 2,4-D in water and soil — Use and limits of data obtained from aqueous systems for predicting their fate in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Cristobal, E-mail: cristobal.girardi-lavin@ufz.de [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Nowak, Karolina M. [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Carranza-Diaz, Otoniel [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lewkow, Benjamín [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Miltner, Anja, E-mail: anja.miltner@ufz.de [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    The persistence of chemicals is a key parameter for their environmental risk assessment. Extrapolating their biodegradability potential in aqueous systems to soil systems would improve the environmental impact assessment. This study compares the fate of {sup 14/13}C-labelled 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and ibuprofen in OECD tests 301 (ready biodegradability in aqueous systems) and 307 (soil). 85% of 2,4-D and 68% of ibuprofen were mineralised in aqueous systems, indicating ready biodegradability, but only 57% and 45% in soil. Parent compounds and metabolites decreased to < 2% of the spiked amounts in both systems. In soil, 36% of 2,4-D and 30% of ibuprofen were bound in non-extractable residues (NER). NER formation in the abiotic controls was half as high as in the biotic treatments. However, mineralisation, biodegradation and abiotic residue formation are competing processes. Assuming the same extent of abiotic NER formation in abiotic and biotic systems may therefore overestimate the abiotic contribution in the biotic systems. Mineralisation was described by a logistic model for the aquatic systems and by a two-pool first order degradation model for the soil systems. This agrees with the different abundance of microorganisms in the two systems, but precludes direct comparison of the fitted parameters. Nevertheless, the maximum mineralisable amounts determined by the models were similar in both systems, although the maximum mineralisation rate was about 3.5 times higher in the aqueous systems than in the soil system for both compounds; these parameters may thus be extrapolated from aqueous to soil systems. However, the maximum mineralisable amount is calculated by extrapolation to infinite times and includes intermediately formed biomass derived from the labelled carbon. The amount of labelled carbon within microbial biomass residues is higher in the soil system, resulting in lower degradation rates. Further evaluation of these relationships requires

  8. Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1976-01-01

    If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to

  9. Microbial degradation of the pharmaceutical ibuprofen and the herbicide 2,4-D in water and soil - use and limits of data obtained from aqueous systems for predicting their fate in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Cristobal; Nowak, Karolina M; Carranza-Diaz, Otoniel; Lewkow, Benjamín; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Schäffer, Andreas; Kästner, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    The persistence of chemicals is a key parameter for their environmental risk assessment. Extrapolating their biodegradability potential in aqueous systems to soil systems would improve the environmental impact assessment. This study compares the fate of (14/13)C-labelled 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and ibuprofen in OECD tests 301 (ready biodegradability in aqueous systems) and 307 (soil). 85% of 2,4-D and 68% of ibuprofen were mineralised in aqueous systems, indicating ready biodegradability, but only 57% and 45% in soil. Parent compounds and metabolites decreased to 2,4-D and 30% of ibuprofen were bound in non-extractable residues (NER). NER formation in the abiotic controls was half as high as in the biotic treatments. However, mineralisation, biodegradation and abiotic residue formation are competing processes. Assuming the same extent of abiotic NER formation in abiotic and biotic systems may therefore overestimate the abiotic contribution in the biotic systems. Mineralisation was described by a logistic model for the aquatic systems and by a two-pool first order degradation model for the soil systems. This agrees with the different abundance of microorganisms in the two systems, but precludes direct comparison of the fitted parameters. Nevertheless, the maximum mineralisable amounts determined by the models were similar in both systems, although the maximum mineralisation rate was about 3.5 times higher in the aqueous systems than in the soil system for both compounds; these parameters may thus be extrapolated from aqueous to soil systems. However, the maximum mineralisable amount is calculated by extrapolation to infinite times and includes intermediately formed biomass derived from the labelled carbon. The amount of labelled carbon within microbial biomass residues is higher in the soil system, resulting in lower degradation rates. Further evaluation of these relationships requires comparison data on more chemicals and from different soils

  10. Effect of charged line defects on conductivity in graphene: Numerical Kubo and analytical Boltzmann approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radchenko, T. M.; Shylau, A. A.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    Charge carrier transport in single-layer graphene with one-dimensional charged defects is studied theoretically. Extended charged defects, considered an important factor for mobility degradation in chemically vapor-deposited graphene, are described by a self-consistent Thomas-Fermi potential. A n...

  11. Problems in point charge electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ferris, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    (Shortened due to character limit) This thesis consists of two parts. In part I we consider a discrepancy in the derivation of the electromagnetic self force for a point charge. In the point charge framework the self force can be defined as an integral of the Lienard-Wiechert stress 3-forms over a suitably defined worldtube. We show the Schott term may be obtained using a null displacement vector to define the worldtube providing certain conditions are realized. Part II comprises an investigation into a problem in accelerator physics. In a high energy accelerator the cross-section of the beampipe is not continuous and there exist geometric discontinuities such as collimators and cavities. When a relativistic bunch of particles passes such a discontinuity the field generated by a leading charge can interact with the wall and consequently affect the motion of trailing charges. The fields acting on the trailing charges are known as (geometric) wakefields. We model a bunch of particles as a one dimensional contin...

  12. Low temperature aging mechanism identification and lithium deposition in a large format lithium iron phosphate battery for different charge profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Chu, Zhengyu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Feng, Xuning; Liu, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Charging procedures at low temperatures severely shorten the cycle life of lithium ion batteries due to lithium deposition on the negative electrode. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of the charging current rate and the cut-off voltage limit on the aging mechanisms of a large format LiFePO4 battery at a low temperature (-10 °C). The capacity degradation rates accelerate rapidly after the charging current reaches 0.25 C or the cut-off voltage reaches 3.55 V. Therefore the scheduled current and voltage during low-temperature charging should be reconsidered to avoid capacity degradation. Lithium deposition contributes to low-temperature aging mechanisms, as something needle-like which might be deposited lithium is observed on the surface of the negative electrode after disassembling the aged battery cell. To confirm our explanation, incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is performed to identify the characteristics of the lithium deposition induced battery aging mechanisms. Furthermore, the aging mechanism is quantified using a mechanistic model, whose parameters are estimated with the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The loss of reversible lithium originating from secondary SEI formation and dead lithium is confirmed as the cause of the aging.

  13. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  14. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  15. Instability of Extremal Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Anninos, P; Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony

    2002-01-01

    With the question, ``Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?" in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal ($Q = M$) limit and the black hole limit ($R = R_+$). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach $Q = M$, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordtr\\"om black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, ...

  16. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  17. Wilson loops with arbitrary charges

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, Piotr; Wosiek, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    We discuss how to implement, in lattice gauge theories, external charges which are not commensurate with an elementary gauge coupling. It is shown that an arbitrary, real power of a standard Wilson loop (or Polyakov line) can be defined and consistently computed in lattice formulation of non-abelian, two dimensional gauge theories. However, such an observable can excite quantum states with integer fluxes only. Since the non-integer fluxes are not in the spectrum of the theory they cannot be created, no matter which observable is chosen. Also the continuum limit of above averages does not exist unless the powers in question are in fact integer. On the other hand, a new continuum limit exists, which is rather intuitive, and where above observables make perfect sense and lead to the string tension proportional to the square of arbitrary (non necessary commensurate with gauge coupling) charge.

  18. The Effect of Ketone Defects on the Charge Transport and Charge Recombination in Polyfluorenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Ladde, Jurre G.; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Blom, Paul W. M.; Sweelssen, Jörgen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of on-chain ketone defects on the charge transport of the polyfluorene derivative poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is investigated. Using MoO3 as ohmic hole contact, the hole transport in a pristine PFO diode is observed to be limited by space-charge, whereas fluorenone contaminated PFO (P

  19. Reducing Range Anxiety by Unifying Networks of Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of charging infrastructure is an important factor in penetration of electric vehicles into daily transportation system. Several factors in electric vehicle industry have caused range anxiety including insufficient charging stations, limited range of electric vehicles, long charging time, inaccurate estimation of available range, and energy consumption of auxiliary in-vehicle devices. However less attention has been paid to universality in charging station networks. This paper reviews the solutions to range anxiety. With regards to availability of charging station as one of the solutions, accessibility of charging stations by electric vehicle owners is also represented as another cause of range anxiety and a possible solution is provided.

  20. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  1. Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jacob

    Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.

  2. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  3. Charging characteristics of ionographic latent images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallone, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    The charging characteristics of ionographic latent images are discussed in terms of the saturation characteristics of ionographic chambers. It is shown that latent images are essentially foil electrets with surface charge densities modulated by the x-ray transmission through the object. Empirical methods for the calculation of saturation current densities and extrapolated electric fields are given. Both the saturation current density and the extrapolated field consist of two components: one, which is linear with the air gap thickness, is produced by primary photon interactions in the chamber-sensitive volume; the other, exhibiting an exponential saturation, is attributed to photoelectrons backscattered from the polarizing electrode into the chamber-sensitive volume. The minimum applied electric field needed for an optimized charge collection in the ionographic chamber is presented in terms of both the characteristic polarization time and the electret relaxation time. The maximum possible surface charge density in the latent image is calculated, first exhibiting direct proportionality with the polarizing voltage V0, and then following a V0 (1/2) dependence for voltages larger than the breakpoint voltage. The optimum exposure for latent image production is calculated. Exposures below this optimum give insufficient charge densities for subsequent development, while exposures above it degrade the image and eventually result in a uniform foil electret charged to its maximum theoretical value.

  4. a Movable Charging Unit for Green Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBanhawy, E. Y.; Nassar, K.

    2013-05-01

    Battery swapping of electric vehicles (EVs) matter appears to be the swiftest and most convenient to users. The existence of swapping stations increases the feasibility of distributed energy storage via the electric grid. However, it is a cost-prohibitive way of charging. Early adaptors' preferences of /perceptions about EV system in general, has its inflectional effects on potential users hence the market penetration level. Yet, the charging matter of electric batteries worries the users and puts more pressure on them with the more rigorous planning-ahead they have to make prior to any trip. This paper presents a distinctive way of charging. It aims at making the overall charging process at ease. From a closer look into the literature, most of EVs' populations depend on domestic charge. Domestic charging gives them more confidence and increases the usability factor of the EV system. Nevertheless, they still need to count on the publically available charging points to reach their destination(s). And when it comes to multifamily residences, it becomes a thorny problem as these apartments do not have a room for charging outlets. Having said the irritating charging time needed to fatten the batteries over the day and the minimal average mileage drove daily, hypothetically, home delivery charging (Movable Charging Unit-MCU) would be a stupendous solution. The paper discusses the integration of shortest path algorithm problem with the information about EV users within a metropolitan area, developing an optimal route for a charging unit. This MCU delivers charging till homes whether by swapping batteries or by fast charging facility. Information about users is to be provided by the service provider of the neighbourhood, which includes charging patterns (timing, power capacity). This problem lies under the shortest path algorithms problem. It provides optimal route of charging that in return shall add more reliability and usability values and alleviate the charging

  5. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  6. Challenges Considering the Degradation of Cell Components in Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells: A Review and Evaluation of Present Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Karin; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the high energy and power density of lithium-ion cells (1200 Wh kg(-1) and 200 Wh kg(-1)) and due to their compact design, they are used as energy storage devices in many contemporary mobile applications such as telecommunication systems, notebooks and domestic appliances. Meanwhile their application is not limited only to consumer electronics, they are also standard in hybrid electric (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profitable application of lithium-ion cells in the automobile industry requires lower costs, lower safety risks, a higher specific energy density and a longer lifetime under everyday conditions. All these aspects are directly or indirectly related to the degradation of the materials in a lithium-ion cell. One possibility for reducing the costs is a second life application of the cells after their usage in (H)EVs. In order to enable this, the safety risks at the end of life of a cell operated in a vehicle have to be reliably predicted. This requires a fundamental knowledge about underlying material degradations during operation. The safety risk of a lithium-ion cell increases during operation because the voltage windows in which the electrodes are cycled shift, resulting in a higher possibility that at least one electrode is operated in a meta- or unstable state. Furthermore, higher impedances due to material degradations lead to increasing heat generation and therefore to an increase in the risk of failure. Higher energy densities can be achieved by raising the end of charge voltage of a cell, causing additional safety risks because many cathode materials tend to decompose at high voltages. Another possibility for achieving higher energy densities is to use nickel-rich or lithium-excess cathode materials, since cathodes are currently limiting the capacity of lithium-ion cells. But these systems show a poor cycling stability (a higher degradation rate). The lifetime of a lithium-ion cell is limited by the degradation of the

  7. Greybody factors of massive charged fermionic fields in a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)

  8. An improved HCI degradation model for a VLSI MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yi; Wan Xinggong; Gu Xiang; Wang Wenyuan; Zhang Huirui; Liu Yuwei

    2009-01-01

    An improved hot carrier injection (HCI) degradation model was proposed based on interface trap gen-eration and oxide charge injection theory. It was evident that the degradation behavior of electric parameters such as I_(dlin), I_(dsat), G_m and V_t fitted well with this model. Devices were prepared with 0.35μm technology and different LDD processes, I_(dlin) and I_(dsat) after HCI stress were analyzed with the improved model. The effects of interface trap generation and oxide charge injection on device degradation were extracted, and the charge injection site could be obtained by this method. The work provides important information to device designers and process engineers.

  9. Advantages and limits to the fermentation of easily-degradable industrial and food wastes in sewage treatment works; Vorteile und Grenzen der Vergaerung von leicht abbaubaren Industrie- und Lebensmittelabfaellen in Abwasserreinigungsanlagen. Vergleich zu landwirtschaftlichen Anlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, N.; Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aadorf (Switzerland); Bachmann, N. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the advantages and limits that apply to the fermentation of industrial and food wastes in sewage treatment facilities in comparison to agricultural installations. For this ecological review, a material-flow analysis was made which permitted the nutrient loss to be quantified. The report presents data on the energy and carbon dioxide balances for the method and also looks at the method from an economical point of view. Co-fermentation in the wastewater treatment plant in Berne, Switzerland, and in agricultural plant are examined.

  10. Charging and Growth of Fractal Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Lorin S

    2007-01-01

    The structure and evolution of aggregate grains formed within a plasma environment are dependent upon the charge acquired by the micron-sized dust grains during the coagulation process. The manner in which the charge is arranged on developing irregular structures can affect the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during collisions, which in turn influences the coagulation rate and size evolution of the dust within the plasma cloud. This paper presents preliminary models for the charge and size evolution of fractal aggregates immersed in a plasma environment calculated using a modification to the orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory. Primary electron and ion currents incident on points on the aggregate surface are determined using a line-of-sight (LOS) approximation: only those electron or ion trajectories which are not blocked by another grain within the aggregate contribute to the charging current. Using a self-consistent iterative approach, the equilibrium charge and dipole moment are calculated for the d...

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: An improved HCI degradation model for a VLSI MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tang; Xinggong, Wan; Xiang, Gu; Wenyuan, Wang; Huirui, Zhang; Yuwei, Liu

    2009-12-01

    An improved hot carrier injection (HCI) degradation model was proposed based on interface trap generation and oxide charge injection theory. It was evident that the degradation behavior of electric parameters such as Idlin, Idsat, Gm and Vt fitted well with this model. Devices were prepared with 0.35 μm technology and different LDD processes. Idlin and Idsat after HCI stress were analyzed with the improved model. The effects of interface trap generation and oxide charge injection on device degradation were extracted, and the charge injection site could be obtained by this method. The work provides important information to device designers and process engineers.

  12. Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

  13. Entanglement thermodynamics for charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Malvimat, Vinay; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-09-01

    The holographic quantum entanglement entropy for an infinite strip region of the boundary for the field theory dual to charged black holes in A d S3 +1 is investigated. In this framework we elucidate the low and high temperature behavior of the entanglement entropy pertaining to various limits of the black hole charge. In the low temperature regime we establish a first law of entanglement thermodynamics for the boundary field theory.

  14. Electrostatic interactions of asymmetrically charged membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Burak, Yoram; Andelman, David; Safran, S. A.

    2007-08-01

    We predict the nature (attractive or repulsive) and range (exponentially screened or long-range power law) of the electrostatic interactions of oppositely charged, planar plates as a function of the salt concentration and surface charge densities (whose absolute magnitudes are not necessarily equal). An analytical expression for the crossover between attractive and repulsive pressure is obtained as a function of the salt concentration. This condition reduces to the high-salt limit of Parsegian and Gingell where the interaction is exponentially screened and to the zero salt limit of Lau and Pincus in which the important length scales are the inter-plate separation and the Gouy-Chapman length. In the regime of low salt and high surface charges we predict —for any ratio of the charges on the surfaces— that the attractive pressure is long-ranged as a function of the spacing. The attractive pressure is related to the decrease in counter-ion concentration as the inter-plate distance is decreased. Our theory predicts several scaling regimes with different scaling expressions for the pressure as a function of salinity and surface charge densities. The pressure predictions can be related to surface force experiments of oppositely charged surfaces that are prepared by coating one of the mica surfaces with an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte.

  15. Synthesis of Ag/g-C3 N4 and the Comparative Studies of its Photocatalytic Properties for Degradation of Dyes with Different Charges%Ag/g-C3 N4的合成及其对不同电荷的染料的光降解性能对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚尚; 陶卫国; 郭婷; 蒋晓慧

    2016-01-01

    利用硝酸银见光分解的特性合成了 Ag 负载的 Ag /g-C3 N 4光催化剂。采用 X 射线衍射(XRD)、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、紫外-可见光谱(UV-vis)对材料进行了表征。然后以亚甲基蓝和甲基橙为对象,对比研究了g-C3 N 4与 Ag /g-C3 N 4对两种不同类型染料的光催化活性。实验结果表明,Ag /g-C3 N 4比 g-C3 N 4对两种染料具有更好的光催化性能。不同的光催化剂对于电性不同的染料具有不同的光降解能力,g-C3 N 4对阴离子染料有较好的选择性,而 Ag /g-C3 N 4对阳离子型染料具有更好的催化降解作用。因此 Ag 的负载,不仅增强了 g-C3 N 4的对染料的光催化能力,还改变了 g-C3 N 4对染料的光催化选择性。%The silver-doped Ag /g-C 3 N 4 were synthesized by utilizing the decomposition characteristics of silver ni-trate under light.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Fourier transform infrared spectros-copy (FT-IR),and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.Then,the comparative studies of the photocatalytic ac-tivity of g-C 3 N 4 and Ag /g-C 3 N 4 for two different types dyes (methyl orange and methylene blue)were carried out. Experimental results show that Ag /g-C 3 N 4 have better photocatalytic properties than g-C 3 N 4 .Different photocatalysts have different photocatalytic activities for dyes bearing different charges.g-C 3 N 4 shows better photocatalytic degrada-tion for anionic dyes,but Ag /g-C 3 N 4 for cationic dyes.Therefore,silver doping in g-C 3 N 4 not only enhances the abil-ity of the photocatalytic performance for dyes,but also changes the selectivity of g-C 3 N 4 for photocatalytic degrada-tion of dyes.

  16. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    . Bioaugmentation i.e. addition of specific degrader organisms, has been suggested as an environmentally friendly and economically competitive strategy for cleaning polluted sites. Several organisms have been isolated, capable of degrading different compounds. However the capacity to degrade the desired compound...... SRS2, Variovorax SRS16 and Arthrobacter globiformis D47. The degradation capacity of each strain individually as well as two- and three-member consortia was studied in a sand column set up. Glass beads were added to the set up to create a dry patch, separating the organisms and the diuron-spiked sand...

  17. Enzymatic degradation of endomorphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Anna; Staniszewska, Renata; Gach, Katarzyna; Fichna, Jakub

    2008-11-01

    Centrally acting plant opiates, such as morphine, are the most frequently used analgesics for the relief of severe pain, even though their undesired side effects are serious limitation to their usefulness. The search for new therapeutics that could replace morphine has been mainly focused on the development of peptide analogs or peptidomimetics with high selectivity for one receptor type and high bioavailability, that is good blood-brain barrier permeability and enzymatic stability. Drugs, in order to be effective, must be able to reach the target tissue and to remain metabolically stable to produce the desired effects. The study of naturally occurring peptides provides a rational and powerful approach in the design of peptide therapeutics. Endogenous opioid peptides, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, are two potent and highly selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, discovered only a decade ago, which display potent analgesic activity. However, extensive studies on the possible use of endomorphins as analgesics instead of morphine met with failure due to their instability. This review deals with the recent investigations that allowed determine degradation pathways of endomorphins in vitro and in vivo and propose modifications that will lead to more stable analogs.

  18. Precision charging of microparticles in plasma via the Rayleigh instability for evaporating charged liquid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Euan; Mahony, Charles M. O.; Potts, Hugh E.; Everest, Paul; Rutherford, David; Askari, Sadegh; Kelsey, Colin; Perez-Martin, Fatima; Hamilton, Neil; McDowell, David A.; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul; Diver, Declan A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel method for delivering a precise, known amount of electric charge to a micron-sized solid target. Aerosolised microparticles passed through a plasma discharge will acquire significant electric charge. The fluid stability under evaporative stress is a key aspect that is core to the research. Initially stable charged aerosols subject to evaporation (i.e. a continually changing radius) may encounter the Rayleigh stability limit. This limit arises from the electrostatic and surface tension forces and determines the maximum charge a stable droplet can retain, as a function of radius. We demonstrate that even if the droplet charge is initially much less than the Rayleigh limit, the stability limit will be encountered as the droplet evaporates. The instability emission mechanism is strongly linked to the final charge deposited on the target, providing a mechanism that can be used to ensure a predictable charge deposit on a known encapsulated microparticle. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from EPSRC via Grant Numbers EP/K006142/1 and EP/K006088/1.

  19. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are formed by secondary synthesis reactions (humification) during the decay process and transformation of biomolecules originating from plants and other dead organisms. In nature, HS are extremely resistant to biological degradation. Thus, these substances are major components in the C cycle and in the biosphere and therefore, the understanding of the process leading to their formation and transformation and degradation is vital. Fungi active in the decomposition process of HS include mainly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that are common in the upper layer of forest and grassland soils. Many basidiomycetes belong to the white-rot fungi (WRF) and litter-decomposing fungi (LDF). These fungi are considered to be the most efficient lignin degraders due to their nonspecific oxidizing enzymes: manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase. Although bacteria dominate compost and participate in the turnover of HS, their ability to degrade stable macromolecules such as lignin and HS is limited. The overall objectives of this research were to corroborate biodegradation processes of HS by WRF. The specific objectives were: (i) To isolate, identify and characterize HS degrading WRF from biosolids (BS) compost; (ii) To study the biodegradation process of three types of HS, which differ in their structure, by WRF isolated from BS compost; and (iii) To investigate the mechanisms of HA degradation by WRF using two main approaches: (a) Study the physical and chemical analyses of the organic compounds obtained from direct fungal degradation of HA as well as elucidation of the relevant enzymatic reactions; and (b) Study the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms involved during HA degradation. In order to study the capability of fungi to degrade HS, seventy fungal strains were isolated from biosolids (BS) compost. Two of the most active fungal species were identified based on rDNA sequences and designated Trametes sp. M23 and Phanerochaetesp., Y6

  20. Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezouin, S.; Iftikhar, Z.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Ouerghi, A.; Levkivskyi, I. P.; Idrisov, E.; Sukhorukov, E. V.; Glazman, L. I.; Pierre, F.

    2016-08-01

    In 1909, Millikan showed that the charge of electrically isolated systems is quantized in units of the elementary electron charge e. Today, the persistence of charge quantization in small, weakly connected conductors allows for circuits in which single electrons are manipulated, with applications in, for example, metrology, detectors and thermometry. However, as the connection strength is increased, the discreteness of charge is progressively reduced by quantum fluctuations. Here we report the full quantum control and characterization of charge quantization. By using semiconductor-based tunable elemental conduction channels to connect a micrometre-scale metallic island to a circuit, we explore the complete evolution of charge quantization while scanning the entire range of connection strengths, from a very weak (tunnel) to a perfect (ballistic) contact. We observe, when approaching the ballistic limit, that charge quantization is destroyed by quantum fluctuations, and scales as the square root of the residual probability for an electron to be reflected across the quantum channel; this scaling also applies beyond the different regimes of connection strength currently accessible to theory. At increased temperatures, the thermal fluctuations result in an exponential suppression of charge quantization and in a universal square-root scaling, valid for all connection strengths, in agreement with expectations. Besides being pertinent for the improvement of single-electron circuits and their applications, and for the metal-semiconductor hybrids relevant to topological quantum computing, knowledge of the quantum laws of electricity will be essential for the quantum engineering of future nanoelectronic devices.

  1. Quasineutral limit of a standard drift diffusion model for semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The limit of vanishing Debye length (charge neutral limit ) in a nonlinear bipolar drift-diffusion model for semiconductors without pn-junction (i.e. without a bipolar background charge ) is studied. The quasineutral limit (zero-Debye-length limit) is performed rigorously by using the weak compactness argument and the so-called entropy functional which yields appropriate uniform estimates.

  2. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  3. Evaluation of Bioaugmentation with Entrapped Degrading Cells as a Soil Remediation Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil augmentation with microbial degraders immobilized on carriers is evaluated as a potential remediation technology using a mathematical model that includes degradation within spatially distributed carriers and diffusion or advectiondispersion as contaminant mass transfer mechanisms. The total...... to determine whether the spatially distributed model is required. Results show that field scale applications of immobilized degraders will be limited by the amount of carriers required to reach acceptable degradation rates....... degraders have low intrinsic degradation rates and that only limited carrier to soil volume ratios are practically feasible, bioaugmented soils are characterized by low effective degradation ratesandcanbeconsidered fully mixed. A simple exponential model is then sufficient to predict biodegradation...

  4. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  5. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  6. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Veterinarian in Charge may extend the time limit to 30 days if: (1) The animals' owner asks the Veterinarian in... before the original 15-day period expires; and (2) The Veterinarian in Charge determines that extending...

  7. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  8. Syntrophy in Methanogenic Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Müller, N.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Schink, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter deals with microbial communities of bacteria and archaea that closely cooperate in methanogenic degradation and perform metabolic functions in this community that neither one of them could carry out alone. The methanogenic degradation of fatty acids, alcohols, most aromatic compounds, a

  9. Rate of NDF degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Koukolová, V; Lund, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop.......Degradation profiles for NDF were estimated for 83 samples of grass/grass-clover, 27 samples of cereal whole crop and 14 samples of maize whole crop....

  10. Degradation of diclofenac by UV-activated persulfate process: Kinetic studies, degradation pathways and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Chen, Juxiang; Zhang, Yansen; Xiang, Huiming; Guo, Youluo

    2017-03-21

    Diclofenac (DCF) is the frequently detected non-steroidal pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In this study, the degradation of DCF was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (UV/PS). The degradation of DCF followed the pseudo first-order kinetics pattern. The degradation rate constant (kobs) was accelerated by UV/PS compared to UV alone and PS alone. Increasing the initial PS dosage or solution pH significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency. Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on DCF degradation, with an enhancement or inhibition in the presence of inorganic anions (HCO3(-) or Cl(-)) and a significant inhibition in the presence of NOM. In addition, preliminary degradation mechanisms and major products were elucidated using LC-MS/MS. Hydroxylation, decarbonylation, ring-opening and cyclation reaction involving the attack of SO4(•)(-) or other substances, were the main degradation mechanism. TOC analyzer and Microtox bioassay were employed to evaluate the mineralization and cytotoxicity of solutions treated by UV/PS at different times, respectively. Limited elimination of TOC (32%) was observed during the mineralization of DCF. More toxic degradation products and their related intermediate species were formed, and the UV/PS process was suitable for removing the toxicity. Of note, longer degradation time may be considered for the final toxicity removal.

  11. Charging of Proteins in Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Anna C.; Xia, Zijie; Tang, Henry Y. H.; Tainer, John A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2017-02-01

    Factors that influence the charging of protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and function were investigated. Protein ions ranging in molecular weight from 12.3 to 79.7 kDa and pI values from 5.4 to 9.6 were formed from different solutions and reacted with volatile bases of gas-phase basicities higher than that of ammonia in the cell of a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. The charge-state distribution of cytochrome c ions formed from aqueous ammonium or potassium acetate is the same. Moreover, ions formed from these two solutions do not undergo proton transfer to 2-fluoropyridine, which is 8 kcal/mol more basic than ammonia. These results provide compelling evidence that proton transfer between ammonia and protein ions does not limit protein ion charge in native electrospray ionization. Both circular dichroism and ion mobility measurements indicate that there are differences in conformations of proteins in pure water and aqueous ammonium acetate, and these differences can account for the difference in the extent of charging and proton-transfer reactivities of protein ions formed from these solutions. The extent of proton transfer of the protein ions with higher gas-phase basicity bases trends with how closely the protein ions are charged to the value predicted by the Rayleigh limit for spherical water droplets approximately the same size as the proteins. These results indicate that droplet charge limits protein ion charge in native mass spectrometry and are consistent with these ions being formed by the charged residue mechanism.

  12. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  13. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  14. Determining the maximum charging currents of lithium-ion cells for small charge quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsmann, F.; Gerbert, T.; Brauchle, F.; Gruhle, A.; Parisi, J.; Knipper, M.

    2017-10-01

    In order to optimize the operating parameters of battery management systems for electric and hybrid vehicles, great interest has been shown in achieving the maximum permissible charging currents during recuperation, without causing a cell damage due to lithium plating, in relation to the temperature, charge quantity and state of charge. One method for determining these recuperation currents is measuring the cell thickness, where excessively high charging currents can be detected by an irreversible increase in thickness. It is not possible to measure particularly small charge quantities by employing mechanic dial indicators, which have a limited resolution of 1 μm. This is why we developed a measuring setup that has a resolution limit of less than 10 nm using a high-resolution contactless inductance sensor. Our results show that the permissible charging current I can be approximated in relation to the charge quantity x by a correlating function I =a /√{(x) } which is compliant with the Arrhenius law. Small charge quantities therefore have an optimization potential for energy recovery during recuperation.

  15. Singlet Oxygen Formation during the Charging Process of an Aprotic Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, Johannes; Jakes, Peter; Granwehr, Josef; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2016-06-06

    Aprotic lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) batteries have attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to their outstanding theoretical energy density. A major challenge is their poor reversibility caused by degradation reactions, which mainly occur during battery charge and are still poorly understood. Herein, we show that singlet oxygen ((1) Δg ) is formed upon Li2 O2 oxidation at potentials above 3.5 V. Singlet oxygen was detected through a reaction with a spin trap to form a stable radical that was observed by time- and voltage-resolved in operando EPR spectroscopy in a purpose-built spectroelectrochemical cell. According to our estimate, a lower limit of approximately 0.5 % of the evolved oxygen is singlet oxygen. The occurrence of highly reactive singlet oxygen might be the long-overlooked missing link in the understanding of the electrolyte degradation and carbon corrosion reactions that occur during the charging of Li-O2 cells.

  16. Test of charge conjugation invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefkens, B M K; Prakhov, S; Gårdestig, A; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Supek, I; Tippens, W B

    2005-02-04

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of eta decay to pi0pi0gamma and to pi0pi0pi0gamma. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(eta-->pi0pi0gamma)pi0pi0pi0gamma)<6 x 10(-5) at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  17. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  18. 20 CFR 702.413 - Fees for medical services; prevailing community charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... charges. All fees charged by medical care providers for persons covered by this Act shall be limited to... the medical care provider is located and shall not exceed the customary charges of the medical care... federal fee schedules. The opinion of the Director that a charge by a medical care provider disputed...

  19. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  20. Silk structure and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-jian; Pu, De-yong; Lin, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk.

  1. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  2. Limiting Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John

    2011-01-01

    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...

  3. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  4. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  5. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gal'tsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some authors suggest that strictly massless charge does not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for ab initio massless particle of zero spin. Provided E2≫eH, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at ħω=E/3, and the average photon energy is 4E/9. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on E nor on H. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Classical theory is reliable only as providing the low-frequency part of the true quantum radiation spectrum.

  6. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  7. Asymptotic analysis of ultra-relativistic charge

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, D A; Tucker, R W; Burton, David A.; Gratus, Jonathan; Tucker, Robin W.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a new approach for analysing the dynamic behaviour of distributions of charged particles in an electromagnetic field. After discussing the limitations inherent in the Lorentz-Dirac equation for a single point particle a simple model is proposed for a charged continuum interacting self-consistently with the Maxwell field in vacuo. The model is developed using intrinsic tensor field theory and exploits to the full the symmetry and light-cone structure of Minkowski spacetime. This permits the construction of a regular stress-energy tensor whose vanishing divergence determines a system of non-linear partial differential equations for the velocity and self-fields of accelerated charge. Within this covariant framework a particular perturbation scheme is motivated by an exact class of solutions to this system describing the evolution of a charged fluid under the combined effects of both self and external electromagnetic fields. The scheme yields an asymptotic approximation in terms of inhomogeneo...

  8. Degradation of thermal control materials under a simulated radiative space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Sridhara, N.

    2012-11-01

    A spacecraft with a passive thermal control system utilizes various thermal control materials to maintain temperatures within safe operating limits. Materials used for spacecraft applications are exposed to harsh space environments such as ultraviolet (UV) and particle (electron, proton) irradiation and atomic oxygen (AO), undergo physical damage and thermal degradation, which must be considered for spacecraft thermal design optimization and cost effectiveness. This paper describes the effect of synergistic radiation on some of the important thermal control materials to verify the assumptions of beginning-of-life (BOL) and end-of-life (EOL) properties. Studies on the degradation in the optical properties (solar absorptance and infrared emittance) of some important thermal control materials exposed to simulated radiative geostationary space environment are discussed. The current studies are purely related to the influence of radiation on the degradation of the materials; other environmental aspects (e.g., thermal cycling) are not discussed. The thermal control materials investigated herein include different kind of second-surface mirrors, white anodizing, white paints, black paints, multilayer insulation materials, varnish coated aluminized polyimide, germanium coated polyimide, polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE). For this purpose, a test in the constant vacuum was performed reproducing a three year radiative space environment exposure, including ultraviolet and charged particle effects on North/South panels of a geostationary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Reflectance spectra were measured in situ in the solar range (250-2500 nm) and the corresponding solar absorptance values were calculated. The test methodology and the degradations of the materials are discussed. The most important degradations among the low solar absorptance materials were found in the white paints whereas the rigid optical solar reflectors remained quite

  9. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies revealed by charge-sensitive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, J; Ionescu, R

    2008-12-01

    The expanding field of monoclonal antibody-based pharmaceuticals has triggered increased interest in analytical characterization of these large proteins and in understanding of their heterogeneity and degradation pathways. As a result, a large number of enzymatic modifications as well as chemical and physical degradations have been reported in monoclonal antibodies in recent years. Most heterogeneity is related to changes in the surface charge of the antibody, either directly, as a change in the number of charged residues, or indirectly as a chemical or physical alteration that changes surface-charge distribution. This review presents an overview of the sources of charge-related heterogeneity in monoclonal antibodies and the methods used for their detection. A detailed section is dedicated to deamidation of asparagine and isomerization of aspartic acid residues, two ubiquitous degradation pathways detected in antibodies and other proteins as well. Finally, kinetic modeling of the accumulation of antibody variants is presented as a tool to determine the expected fraction of molecules that have undergone one or more degradation reactions.

  10. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  11. An improved charge pump with suppressed charge sharing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Bai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential charge pump with reduced charge sharing effect is presented. The current-steering topology is adopted for fast switching. A replica charge pump is added to provide a current path for the complementary branch of the master charge pump in the current switching. Through the replica charge pump, the voltage at the complementary node of the master charge pump keeps stable during switching, and the dynamic charge sharing effect is avoided. Apply the charge pump to a 4.8 GHz band integer-N PLL, the measured reference spur is -49.7dBc with a 4-MHz reference frequency.

  12. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  13. Degradation of implant materials

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the degradation of implant materials, reviewing in detail such failure mechanisms as corrosion, fatigue and wear, along with monitoring techniques. Surveys common implant biomaterials, as well as procedures for implant retrieval and analysis.

  14. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  15. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  16. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  17. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  18. The London Congestion Charge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leape, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    .... Traffic congestion has declined substantially, and the program is largely popular. This article describes the origins of the London congestion charge, how it overcame practical and theoretical difficulties, and what effects it has had...

  19. Environmental degradation in biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, Maya J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available molecular chain scission, surface oxidation, and breakdown of molecules to form active radicals. The main degradation processes occurring by weathering includes photoradiation, thermal degradation, photooxidation, and hydrolysis [22,23]. The effect... which exhibits transitions from glassy stage to a rubbery stage at its glass transition temperature. ● Weathering Composites commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications are subjected to varying conditions of sunlight, rain, moisture...

  20. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Hot-carrier-induced on-resistance degradation of step gate oxide NLDMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Bin, Zhang; Koubao, Ding; Shifeng, Zhang; Chenggong, Han; Jiaxian, Hu; Dazhong, Zhu

    2010-12-01

    The hot-carrier-induced on-resistance degradations of step gate oxide NLDMOS (SG-NLDMOS) transistors are investigated in detail by a DC voltage stress experiment, a TCAD simulation and a charge pumping test. For different stress conditions, degradation behaviors of SG-NLDMOS transistors are analyzed and degradation mechanisms are presented. Then the effect of various doses of n-type drain drift (NDD) region implant on Ron degradation is investigated. Experimental results show that a lower NDD dosage can reduce the hot-carrier induced Ron degradation effectively, which is different from uniform gate oxide NLDMOS (UG-NLDMOS) transistors.

  2. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  3. Charge-sensitive amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Startsev V. I.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider design and circuit design techniques of reduction of the influence of the pyroelectric effect on operation of the charge sensitive amplifiers. The presented experimental results confirm the validity of the measures taken to reduce the impact of pyroelectric currents. Pyroelectric currents are caused by the influence of the temperature gradient on the piezoelectric sensor and on the output voltage of charge sensitive amplifiers.

  4. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  5. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m‑2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  6. Electrical properties and degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous Si alloys for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, W.; Kusian, W.; Karg, F.; Pfleiderer, H.

    1986-12-01

    The electrical properties and the degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys (a-Si1- x A x : H, with A=C, Ge, B, P) in designs of pin, pip, nin, and MOS structures are investigated by measuring the dark and light I(V) characteristics and the spectral response as well as the space-charge-limited current (SCLC), the time of flight (TOF) of carriers and the field effect (FE). These investigations give an overview of our recent work combined with new results emphasizing the physics of the a-Si:H pin solar cells. We discuss the stabilizing influence on the degradation behavior achieved by profiling the i layers of the pin solar cells with P and B. Two kinds of pin solar cells, namely glass/SnO2/p(C)in/metal and glass/metal/pin/ITO, are investigated and an explanation of their different spectral response behavior is given. SCLC measurements lead to the conclusion that trapping is also involved in the degradation mechanism, as is recombination. TOF experiments on a-Si1- x Ge x : H pin diodes indicate that the incorporation of Ge widens the tail-state distribution below the conduction band. FE measurements showed densities of gap states of about 5×l016cm-3eV-1.

  7. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, B. R.; Ridge, D. P.; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge), both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4)(H2SO4)x]- and [(NH4)x(HSO4)x+1(H2SO4)3]-. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4) x(HSO4) x+1(H2SO4)3]- clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4) (H2SO4) x]- clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400), whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2-3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition. Therefore, in locations where amine levels are within a few orders of magnitude of ammonia levels, amine chemistry may compete favorably with ammonia chemistry.

  8. Charged Higgs Boson Searches

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of a charged Higgs boson would be tangible proof of physics beyond the Standard Model. This note presents the ATLAS potential for discovering a charged Higgs boson, utilizing five different final states of the signal arising from the three dominating fermionic decay modes of the charged Higgs boson. The search covers the region below the top quark mass, taking into account the present experimental constraints, the transition region with a charged Higgs boson mass of the order of the top quark mass, and the high-mass region with a charged Higgs boson mass up to 600 GeV. All studies are performed with a realistic simulation of the detector response including all three trigger levels and taking into account all dominant systematic uncertainties. Results are given in terms of discovery and exclusion contours for each channel individually and for all channels combined, showing that the ATLAS experiment is capable of detecting the charged Higgs boson in a significant fraction of the (tan beta , mH+-) ...

  9. ALPHA experiment : limit on the charge of antihydrogen atom

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists due to its apparent absence in the observable universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter should have appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Stan- dard Model offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half of the universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms1–4 of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter.

  10. Low-temperature charging of lithium-ion cells Part II: Model reduction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmlinger, Jürgen; Tippmann, Simon; Buchholz, Michael; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-ion cells, especially when used in electric vehicles at varying operation conditions, require a sophisticated battery management to ensure an optimal operation regarding operation limits, performance, and maximum lifetime. In some cases, the best trade-off between these conflictive goals can only be reached by considering internal, non-measurable cell characteristics. This article presents a data-driven model-reduction method for a strict electrochemical model. The model describes the charging process of a lithium-ion cell and possibly occurring degradation effects in a large temperature range and is presented in Part I of this contribution. The model-reduction process is explained in detail, and the gained model is compared to the original electrochemical model showing a very high approximation quality. This reduced model offers a very low computation complexity and is therefore suitable for the implementation in a battery management system (BMS). Based on this model, an advanced charging strategy is presented and evaluated for possible reductions in charging times especially at low temperatures.

  11. Charge Carrier Transport Mechanism Based on Stable Low Voltage Organic Bistable Memory Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, V V; Moodley, M K; Kumar, A B V Kiran; Kannan, V

    2015-05-01

    A solution processed two terminal organic bistable memory device was fabricated utilizing films of polymethyl methacrylate PMMA/ZnO/PMMA on top of ITO coated glass. Electrical characterization of the device structure showed that the two terminal device exhibited favorable switching characteristics with an ON/OFF ratio greater than 1 x 10(4) when the voltage was swept between - 2 V and +3 V. The device maintained its state after removal of the bias voltage. The device did not show degradation after a 1-h retention test at 120 degrees C. The memory functionality was consistent even after fifty cycles of operation. The charge transport switching mechanism is discussed on the basis of carrier transport mechanism and our analysis of the data shows that the charge carrier trans- port mechanism of the device during the writing process can be explained by thermionic emission (TE) and space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) mechanism models while erasing process could be explained by the FN tunneling mechanism. This demonstration provides a class of memory devices with the potential for low-cost, low-power consumption applications, such as a digital memory cell.

  12. Roughness-dependent dynamics of a point charge near a conducting plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintautas, Vadas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hubler, Alfred [U ILLINOIS

    2008-01-01

    Nearly any surface in the real world is rough at some scale. Fmthermore, in most experiments there is some limit at which a surface is too rough to approximate by a smooth one. In this work the dynamics of a point charge near a rough surface are studied as the roughness of the surface is allowed to vary. The equation of motion of a charged pendulum near a rough, grounded, conducting plane is derived analytically and then analyzed both analytically and numerically . As the roughness is varied, a phase transition is observed in the fixed points of the pendulum. The consequences of a roughness phase transition on waveguide and electromagnetic scattering applications are considered. Also, the grounded plane may be considered to be a rough mirror and the point charge to be interacting with its image in this mirror. The quality of the image degrades with increasing roughness; the implications of this to interactions between systems in the real world and synthetic models are explored.

  13. Simulations of counterions at charged plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A G; Netz, R R

    2002-05-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the counterion distribution close to planar charged walls in two geometries: i) when only one charged wall is present and the counterions are confined to one half-space, and ii) when the counterions are confined between two equally charged walls. In both cases the surface charge is smeared out and the dielectric constant is the same everywhere. We obtain the counterion density profile and compare it with both the Poisson-Boltzmann theory (asymptotically exact in the limit of weak coupling, i.e. low surface charge, high temperature and low counterion valence) and the strong-coupling theory (valid in the opposite limit of high surface charge, low temperature and high counterion valence) and with previously calculated correction terms to both theories for different values of the coupling parameter, thereby establishing the domain of validity of the asymptotic limits. Gaussian corrections to the leading Poisson-Boltzmann behavior (obtained via a systematic loop expansion) in general perform quite poorly: At coupling strengths low enough so that the Gaussian (or one-loop) correction does describe the numerical deviations from the Poisson-Boltzmann result correctly, the leading Poisson-Boltzmann term by itself matches the data within high accuracy. This reflects the slow convergence of the loop expansion. For a single charged plane, the counterion pair correlation function indicates a behavioral change from a three-dimensional, weakly correlated counterion distribution (at low coupling) to a two-dimensional, strongly correlated counterion distribution (at high coupling), which is paralleled by the specific-heat capacity which displays a rounded hump at intermediate coupling strengths. For the case of counterions confined between two equally charged walls, we analyze the inter-wall pressure and establish the complete phase diagram, featuring attraction between the walls for large enough coupling strength and at intermediate wall

  14. Optimal Coordinated EV Charging with Reactive Power Support in Constrained Distribution Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudyal, Sumit; Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-07-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging/discharging can take place in any P-Q quadrants, which means EVs could support reactive power to the grid while charging the battery. In controlled charging schemes, distribution system operator (DSO) coordinates with the charging of EV fleets to ensure grid’s operating constraints are not violated. In fact, this refers to DSO setting upper bounds on power limits for EV charging. In this work, we demonstrate that if EVs inject reactive power into the grid while charging, DSO could issue higher upper bounds on the active power limits for the EVs for the same set of grid constraints. We demonstrate the concept in an 33-node test feeder with 1,500 EVs. Case studies show that in constrained distribution grids in coordinated charging, average costs of EV charging could be reduced if the charging takes place in the fourth P-Q quadrant compared to charging with unity power factor.

  15. Photochemical processes for atrazine degradation: methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, V; Gonzalez, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2001-12-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out on s-triazines, and more specifically on atrazine, with the long-term objective of resolving the problems caused by these herbicides: removing them from drinking water. However, applications have remained too limited. So far, processes based on photochemical degradation have been little implemented. We, therefore, investigated the development of photochemical processes, emphasizing their capacity to degrade triazine by photolytic and photocatalytic mode. The study sought to assess the performance of these ssstems. Experiments ts showed that according to a medium pressure mercury source (UV-Vis irradiation), the photolytic degradation of atrazine was very efficient, with a best atrazine degradation half-life shorter that 5 min. The main degradation pathway was deshalogenation. The photocatalytic degradation of atrazine under irradiation over 290 nm in the presence of titanium dioxide was shown to be efficient too, with a half-life of about 20 min. In this case an experimental design was conducted so as to assess the influence of various parameters: pH, water medium, and amount of catalyst. There has been observational evidence for the efficiency of the processes investigated here and for potential technological developments as regards drinking water treatment.

  16. Development of a Charge Adjustment Model for Cardiac Catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Andrew; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean; O’Connell, Cheryl; David, Sthuthi; Almodovar, Melvin; DiNardo, James; Banka, Puja; Mayer, John E.; Marshall, Audrey C.; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A methodology that would allow for comparison of charges across institutions has not been developed for catheterization in congenital heart disease. A single institution catheterization database with prospectively collected case characteristics was linked to hospital charges related and limited to an episode of care in the catheterization laboratory for fiscal years 2008–2010. Catheterization charge categories (CCC) were developed to group types of catheterization procedures using a combinati...

  17. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity - a speed at which quantum information propagates - may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  18. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Andrew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinberg, Julia [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength “hydrodynamic' disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  19. Concentrated Light for Accelerated Photo Degradation of Polymer Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Tromholt, Thomas; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated light is used to perform photochemical degradation of polymer solar cell materials with acceleration factors up to 1200. At constant temperature the photon efficiency in regards to photo degradation is constant for 1–150 suns and oxygen diffusion rates are not a limiting factor. Acce...

  20. Charge-transport simulations in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Falk

    2012-07-06

    In this thesis we have extended the methods for microscopic charge-transport simulations for organic semiconductors, where weak intermolecular interactions lead to spatially localized charge carriers, and the charge transport occurs as an activated hopping process between diabatic states. In addition to weak electronic couplings between these states, different electrostatic environments in the organic material lead to a broadening of the density of states for the charge energies which limits carrier mobilities. The contributions to the method development include (i) the derivation of a bimolecular charge-transfer rate, (ii) the efficient evaluation of intermolecular (outer-sphere) reorganization energies, (iii) the investigation of effects of conformational disorder on intramolecular reorganization energies or internal site energies and (iv) the inclusion of self-consistent polarization interactions for calculation of charge energies. These methods were applied to study charge transport in amorphous phases of small molecules used in the emission layer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED). When bulky substituents are attached to an aromatic core in order to adjust energy levels or prevent crystallization, a small amount of delocalization of the frontier orbital to the substituents can increase electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. This leads to improved charge-transfer rates and, hence, larger charge-mobility. We therefore suggest using the mesomeric effect (as opposed to the inductive effect) when attaching substituents to aromatic cores, which is necessary for example in deep blue OLEDs, where the energy levels of a host molecule have to be adjusted to those of the emitter. Furthermore, the energy landscape for charges in an amorphous phase cannot be predicted by mesoscopic models because they approximate the realistic morphology by a lattice and represent molecular charge distributions in a multipole expansion. The microscopic approach shows that

  1. Microbial degradation of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Herbicides remain the most effective, efficient and economical way to control weeds; and its market continues to grow even with the plethora of generic products. With the development of herbicide-tolerant crops, use of herbicides is increasing around the world that has resulted in severe contamination of the environment. The strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. In this review, an attempt has been made to pool all the available literature on the biodegradation of key herbicides, clodinafop propargyl, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, metolachlor, diuron, glyphosate, imazapyr, pendimethalin and paraquat under the following objectives: (1) to highlight the general characteristic and mode of action, (2) to enlist toxicity in animals, (3) to pool microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides, (4) to discuss the assessment of herbicides degradation by efficient microbes, (5) to highlight biodegradation pathways, (6) to discuss the molecular basis of degradation, (7) to enlist the products of herbicides under degradation process, (8) to highlight the factors effecting biodegradation of herbicides and (9) to discuss the future aspects of herbicides degradation. This review may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for cleanup of soil and water contaminated with such compounds.

  2. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is preferent

  4. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is

  5. 49 CFR 375.401 - Must I estimate charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an inaccurately low estimate, you may be limiting the amount you will collect at the time of delivery... GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Estimating Charges § 375.401 Must I estimate charges? (a) You must conduct a physical survey of the household goods to be transported and...

  6. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  7. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  8. Charging performance of automotive batteries-An underestimated factor influencing lifetime and reliable battery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard; Fricke, Birger; Blanke, Holger; Thele, Marc; Bohlen, Oliver; Schiffer, Julia; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Kaiser, Rudi

    Dynamic charge acceptance and charge acceptance under constant voltage charging conditions are for two reasons essential for lead-acid battery operation: energy efficiency in applications with limited charging time (e.g. PV systems or regenerative braking in vehicles) and avoidance of accelerated ageing due to sulphation. Laboratory tests often use charge regimes which are beneficial for the battery life, but which differ significantly from the operating conditions in the field. Lead-acid batteries in applications with limited charging time and partial-state-of-charge operation are rarely fully charged due to their limited charge acceptance. Therefore, they suffer from sulphation and early capacity loss. However, when appropriate charging strategies are applied most of the lost capacity and thus performance for the user may be recovered. The paper presents several aspects of charging regimes and charge acceptance. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that temperature is the most critical parameter. Full charging within short times can be achieved only at elevated temperatures. A strong dependency of the charge acceptance during charging pulses on the pre-treatment of the battery can be observed, which is not yet fully understood. But these effects have a significant impact on the fuel efficiency of micro-hybrid electric vehicles.

  9. Annealing bounds to prevent further Charge Transfer Inefficiency increase of the Chandra X-ray CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monmeyran, Corentin, E-mail: comonmey@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Patel, Neil S., E-mail: neilp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bautz, Mark W., E-mail: mwb@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grant, Catherine E., E-mail: cgrant@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Prigozhin, Gregory Y., E-mail: gyp@space.mit.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agarwal, Anuradha, E-mail: anu@mit.edu [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kimerling, Lionel C., E-mail: lckim@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    After the front-illuminated CCDs on board the X-ray telescope Chandra were damaged by radiation after launch, it was decided to anneal them in an effort to remove the defects introduced by the irradiation. The annealing led to an unexpected increase of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The performance degradation is attributed to point defect interactions in the devices. Specifically, the annealing at 30 °C activated the diffusion of the main interstitial defect in the device, the carbon interstitial, which led to its association with a substitutional impurity, ultimately resulting in a stable and electrically active defect state. Because the formation reaction of this carbon interstitial and substitutional impurity associate is diffusion limited, we recommend a higher upper bound for the annealing temperature and duration of any future CCD anneals, that of −50 °C for one day or −60 °C for a week, to prevent further CTI increase.

  10. Annealing bounds to prevent further Charge Transfer Inefficiency increase of the Chandra X-ray CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monmeyran, Corentin; Patel, Neil S.; Bautz, Mark W.; Grant, Catherine E.; Prigozhin, Gregory Y.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2016-12-01

    After the front-illuminated CCDs on board the X-ray telescope Chandra were damaged by radiation after launch, it was decided to anneal them in an effort to remove the defects introduced by the irradiation. The annealing led to an unexpected increase of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The performance degradation is attributed to point defect interactions in the devices. Specifically, the annealing at 30 °C activated the diffusion of the main interstitial defect in the device, the carbon interstitial, which led to its association with a substitutional impurity, ultimately resulting in a stable and electrically active defect state. Because the formation reaction of this carbon interstitial and substitutional impurity associate is diffusion limited, we recommend a higher upper bound for the annealing temperature and duration of any future CCD anneals, that of -50 °C for one day or -60 °C for a week, to prevent further CTI increase.

  11. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  12. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  13. Holographic charge density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2013-01-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with non-zero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  14. Holographic charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  15. Charges for linearized gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aksteiner, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes, i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity, which may be seen to correspond to the Poincare Lie-algebra. The 2-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a 2-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.

  16. Amino alcohol-based degradable poly(ester amide) elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Bettinger (Christopher); J.P. Bruggeman (Joost); J.T. Borenstein (Jeffrey); R.S. Langer (Robert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCurrently available synthetic biodegradable elastomers are primarily composed of crosslinked aliphatic polyesters, which suffer from deficiencies including (1) high crosslink densities, which results in exceedingly high stiffness, (2) rapid degradation upon implantation, or (3) limited c

  17. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing fluids: a critical review of their usage, mobility, degradation, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Genevieve A; Blotevogel, Jens; Stewart, Philip S; Borch, Thomas

    2015-01-06

    Biocides are critical components of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") fluids used for unconventional shale gas development. Bacteria may cause bioclogging and inhibit gas extraction, produce toxic hydrogen sulfide, and induce corrosion leading to downhole equipment failure. The use of biocides such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds has spurred a public concern and debate among regulators regarding the impact of inadvertent releases into the environment on ecosystem and human health. This work provides a critical review of the potential fate and toxicity of biocides used in hydraulic fracturing operations. We identified the following physicochemical and toxicological aspects as well as knowledge gaps that should be considered when selecting biocides: (1) uncharged species will dominate in the aqueous phase and be subject to degradation and transport whereas charged species will sorb to soils and be less bioavailable; (2) many biocides are short-lived or degradable through abiotic and biotic processes, but some may transform into more toxic or persistent compounds; (3) understanding of biocides' fate under downhole conditions (high pressure, temperature, and salt and organic matter concentrations) is limited; (4) several biocidal alternatives exist, but high cost, high energy demands, and/or formation of disinfection byproducts limits their use. This review may serve as a guide for environmental risk assessment and identification of microbial control strategies to help develop a sustainable path for managing hydraulic fracturing fluids.

  18. Selective photocatalytic degradation of aquatic pollutants by titania encapsulated into FAU-type zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan; Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Seok Han; Hong, Suk Bong

    2011-04-15

    The selective photocatalytic degradation of charged pollutants in water was achieved on titania encapsulated into FAU-type zeolites. The electrostatic attraction of cationic substrates and repulsion of anionic substrates by the negatively charged zeolite framework facilitated the selective photocatalytic degradation of charged substrates. The hybrid zeolite-titania photocatalysts were prepared through the ion-exchange method. The titania clusters were mainly well distributed within the cavities of FAU-type zeolites whereas no TiO(2) nanoparticles aggregates were observed on the external surface of zeolite crystals. The hybrid zeolite-titania photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The selective degradation of charged pollutants was investigated by employing three pairs of oppositely charged substrates. The comparison between the cationic and anionic substrates clearly showed that the degradation rates for the cationic substrates on the hybrid photocatalysts are markedly higher than those for the anionic substrates. Among the cationic substrates, the smaller cations such as tetramethylammoniums were preferentially degraded. This enabled the selective removal of cationic substrates among the mixture. Such a selective photocatalytic degradation of water pollutants may provide a useful strategy for the development of economical photocatalytic process by targeting only the most recalcitrant pollutant.

  19. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten

    2010-05-05

    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main

  20. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2003-01-01

    A search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons is performed with the L3 detector at LEP using data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 629.4/pb. Decays into a charm and a strange quark or into a tau lepton and its neutrino are considered. No significant excess is observed and lower limits on the mass of the charged Higgs boson are derived at the 95% confidence level. They vary from 76.5 to 82.7GeV, as a function of the H->tv branching ratio.

  1. First Electrooptical Detection of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarus, D M; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Semertzidis, Y K; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a birefringent crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured in a single shot, 120 ps, was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds promise for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  2. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  3. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  4. Influence of water solubility, side chain degradability and side chain configuration on the degradation of phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnervik, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water solubility and degradability of side chains estrifying phthalic acid are factors possible to influence the degradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To investigate the importance of these factors degradation of butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) were examined under methanogenic conditions as well as was the degradability of the alcohols estrifying these PAEs. We also investigated if the degradation of resistant PAEs could be stimulated by the addition of a degradable PAE. Synthesis of degradation intermediates and two methods for PAE analyses are presented. The investigation showed that all alcohols were degraded to methane and carbon dioxide and that the degradation of PAE occurred in incubations amended with BBP, BEHP, DHP and DBP, whilst DEHP, DOP and DDP were unaffected throughout the experimental period. BBP added to incubations with DEHP, could not stimulate DEHP degradation. In conclusion, the degradability of alcohols estrifying phthalic acid in this study does not affect the anaerobic degradability of PAEs. Water solubility of a PAE can not be rejected as a factor limiting phthalate degradation under methanogenic conditions. Anaerobic degradation of persistent PAEs can not be stimulated by mixing it with a degradable phthalate. 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Stability of charge inversion, Thomson problem, and application to electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Michael; Patriarca, Marco; Karttunen, Mikko

    2003-03-01

    We analyze charge inversion in colloidal systems at zero temperature using stability concepts, and connect this to the classical Thomson problem of arranging electrons on sphere. We show that for a finite microion charge, the globally stable, lowest-energy state of the complex formed by the colloid and the oppositely charged microions is always overcharged. This effect disappears in the continuous limit. Additionally, a layer of at least twice as many microions as required for charge neutrality is always locally stable. In an applied external electric field the stability of the microion cloud is reduced. Finally, this approach is applied to a system of two colloids at low but finite temperature.

  6. Stationary Charged Scalar Clouds around Black Holes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Canisius

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that Kerr-Newman black holes can support linear charged scalar field in their exterior regions. This stationary massive charged scalar field can form a bound-state and these bound-states are called stationary scalar clouds. In this paper, we study that Kerr-Sen black holes can also support stationary massive charged scalar clouds by matching the near and far region solutions of the radial part of Klein-Gordon wave equation. We also review stationary scalar clouds within the background of static electrically charged black hole solution in the low energy limit of heterotic string field theory namely the GMGHS black holes.

  7. Stationary charged scalar clouds around black holes in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Canisius

    2016-10-01

    It was reported that Kerr-Newman black holes can support linear charged scalar fields in their exterior regions. These stationary massive charged scalar fields can form bound states, which are called stationary scalar clouds. In this paper, we show that Kerr-Sen black holes can also support stationary massive charged scalar clouds by matching the near- and far-region solutions of the radial part of the Klein-Gordon wave equation. We also review stationary scalar clouds within the background of static electrically charged black hole solutions in the low-energy limit of heterotic string field theory, namely, the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes.

  8. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  9. The London Congestion Charge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leape, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    .... In early 2003, London imposed a congestion charge—a daily charge for driving or parking a vehicle on public roads within central London between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. on workdays...

  10. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  11. Polymer scaffold degradation control via chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Dirk, Shawn; Cicotte, Kirsten

    2016-01-05

    A variety of polymers and copolymers suitable for use as biologically compatible constructs and, as a non-limiting specific example, in the formation of degradable tissue scaffolds as well methods for synthesizing these polymers and copolymers are described. The polymers and copolymers have degradation rates that are substantially faster than those of previously described polymers suitable for the same uses. Copolymers having a synthesis route which enables one to fine tune the degradation rate by selecting the specific stoichiometry of the monomers in the resulting copolymer are also described. The disclosure also provides a novel synthesis route for maleoyl chloride which yields monomers suitable for use in the copolymer synthesis methods described herein.

  12. Experimental Tests of Charge Symmetry Violation in Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Londergan; D.P. Murdock; A.W. Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions.

  13. Force degradation behavior of glucocorticoid deflazacort by UPLC: isolation, identification and characterization of degradant by FTIR, NMR and mass analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Sharma, Lata; Tekade, Muktika; Kesharwani, Prashant; Trivedi, Piyush; Tekade, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, sensitive and reproducible methods are described for quantitative determination of deflazacort in the presence of its degradation product. The method was based on high performance liquid chromatography of the drug from its degradation product on reverse phase using Acquity UPLC BEH C18 columns (1.7 µm, 2.1 mm × 150 mm) using acetonitrile and water (40:60 V/V) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/minute in UPLC. UV detection was performed at 240.1 nm. Deflazacort was subjected to oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. The drug was found to be stable in water and thermal stress, as well as under neutral stress conditions. However, forced-degradation study performed on deflazacort showed that the drug degraded under alkaline, acid and photolytic stress. The degradation products were well resolved from the main peak, which proved the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness, selectivity and specificity. Apart from the aforementioned, the results of the present study also emphasize the importance of isolation characterization and identification of degradant. Hence, an attempt was made to identify the degradants in deflazacort. One of the degradation products of deflazacort was isolated and identified by the FTIR, NMR and LC-MS study. PMID:28276670

  14. Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-03-01

    Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the

  15. Test of Charge Conjugation Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefkens, B. M.; Prakhov, S.; Gårdestig, A.; Allgower, C. E.; Bekrenev, V.; Briscoe, W. J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J. R.; Craig, K.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Knecht, N.; Koetke, D.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Lolos, G.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D. M.; Manweiler, R.; Marušić, A.; McDonald, S.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J. W.; Ramirez, A. F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, T. D.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H. M.; Supek, I.; Tippens, W. B.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of η decay to π0π0γ and to π0π0π0γ. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(η→π0π0γ)<5×10-4 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isoscalar electromagnetic interactions of the light quarks. We have also measured BR(η→π0π0π0γ)<6×10-5 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  16. A degradable polydopamine coating based on disulfide-exchange reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Daewha; Lee, Hojae; Kim, Beom Jin; Park, Taegyun; Choi, Ji Yu; Park, Matthew; Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Hong, Seok-Pyo; Yang, Sung Ho; Jung, Sun Ho; Ko, Sung-Bo; Choi, Insung S.

    2015-11-01

    Although the programmed degradation of biocompatible films finds applications in various fields including biomedical and bionanotechnological areas, coating methods have generally been limited to be substrate-specific, not applicable to any kinds of substrates. In this paper, we report a dopamine derivative, which allows for both universal coating of various substrates and stimuli-responsive film degradation, inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins. Two dopamine moieties are linked together by the disulfide bond, the cleavage of which enables the programmed film degradation. Mechanistic analysis of the degradable films indicates that the initial cleavage of the disulfide linkage causes rapid uptake of water molecules, hydrating the films, which leads to rapid degradation. Our substrate-independent coating of degradable films provides an advanced tool for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and anti-fouling strategies.Although the programmed degradation of biocompatible films finds applications in various fields including biomedical and bionanotechnological areas, coating methods have generally been limited to be substrate-specific, not applicable to any kinds of substrates. In this paper, we report a dopamine derivative, which allows for both universal coating of various substrates and stimuli-responsive film degradation, inspired by mussel-adhesive proteins. Two dopamine moieties are linked together by the disulfide bond, the cleavage of which enables the programmed film degradation. Mechanistic analysis of the degradable films indicates that the initial cleavage of the disulfide linkage causes rapid uptake of water molecules, hydrating the films, which leads to rapid degradation. Our substrate-independent coating of degradable films provides an advanced tool for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and anti-fouling strategies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, characterization, and other additional details. See DOI: 10

  17. Reconfigurable and writable magnetic charge crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2017-07-18

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. It has, however, proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. An artificial spin structure design is described that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. A technique is also developed to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multi-functionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice provides a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnetics and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  18. Space charge and screening in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.; Abrams, Daniel L.

    2016-11-01

    Undoped bilayer graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a low-energy excitation spectrum that is parabolic in the momentum. As a result, the screening of an arbitrary external charge Ze is accompanied by a reconstruction of the ground state: valence band electrons (for Z  >  0) are promoted to form a space charge around the charge while the holes leave the physical picture. The outcome is a flat neutral object resembling the regular atom except that for Z\\gg 1 it is described by a strictly linear Thomas-Fermi theory. This theory also predicts that the bilayer’s static dielectric constant is the same as that of a two-dimensional electron gas in the long-wavelength limit.

  19. Search for fractional charges in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, D. C.; Abrams, P. C.; Bland, R. W.; Johnson, R. T.; Lindgren, M. A.; Savage, M. H.; Scholz, M. H.; Young, B. A.; Hodges, C. L.

    1983-08-01

    The results of a search for quarks in water, using a modified Millikan-oil-drop experiment, are presented. A total of 51 micrograms of water from different fresh and salt sources were investigated in a computer-controlled device comprising a piezoelectric drop injector, a series of 90 optical timing slits, and a chamber with an electric field that is reversed as the drop reaches split 39 and again at slit 74. Only drops with a charge between -12 and +12 e were accepted. A typical drift-velocity plot and the residual-charge frequency distribution for all the observations are shown. No fractional charges were detected in the samples, corresponding to an upper limit of quark concentration per nucleon of 9.8 x 10 to the -20th. This negative finding is discussed in terms of the presumed chemical properties of quarked atoms and compared with the results of other quark searches.

  20. Optimization of BEV Charging Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    This paper presents different approaches to optimize fast charging and workplace charging strategy of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers. For the fast charging analysis, a rule-based model was built to simulate BEV charging behavior. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to explore to the potential range of congestion at fast charging stations which could be more than four hours at the most crowded stations. Genetic algorithm was performed to explore the theoretical minimum waiting time at fast charging stations, and it can decrease the waiting time at the most crowded stations to be shorter than one hour. A deterministic approach was proposed as a feasible suggestion that people should consider to take fast charging when the state of charge is approaching 40 miles. This suggestion is hoped to help to minimize potential congestion at fast charging stations. For the workplace charging analysis, scenario analysis was performed to simulate temporal distribution of charging demand under different workplace charging strategies. It was found that if BEV drivers charge as much as possible and as late as possible at workplace, it could increase the utility of solar-generated electricity while relieve grid stress of extra intensive electricity demand at night caused by charging electric vehicles at home.

  1. Degradation behavior of poly(glycerol sebacate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Irina; Krebs, Nicholas; Hart, Alison; Neville, Craig M; Huang, Albert Y; Sundback, Cathryn A

    2009-12-15

    Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), a promising scaffold material for soft tissue engineering applications, is a soft, tough elastomer with excellent biocompatibility. However, the rapid in vivo degradation rate of PGS limits its use as a scaffold material. To determine the impact of crosslink density on degradation rate, a family of PGS materials was synthesized by incrementally increasing the curing time from 42 to 144 h, at 120 degrees C and 10 mTorr vacuum. As expected, PGS became a stiffer, tougher, and stronger elastomer with increasing curing time. PGS disks were subcutaneously implanted into rats and periodically harvested; only mild tissue responses were observed and the biocompatibility remained excellent. Regardless of crosslink density, surface erosion degradation was observed. The sample dimensions linearly decreased with implantation time, and the mass loss rates were constant after 1-week implantation. As surface erosion degradation frequently correlates with enzymatic digestion, parallel in vitro digestion studies were conducted in lipase solutions which hydrolyze ester bonds. Enzymatic digestion played a significant role in degrading PGS, and the mass loss rates were not a function of curing time. Alternative chemistry approaches will be required to decrease the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of the ester bonds in PGS polymers.

  2. Anaerobic microbial degradation of organochlorine insecticides Aldrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T.C.; Yen, J.H.; Wang, Y.S. [National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4-endo-exo-5,8-dimethanonnaphthalene), a cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide, was banned by nations and classified as B2 carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of its chemical stability and lipophilicity, aldrin is regarded as a persistent and recalcitrant compound. Aldrin is easily adsorbed to soil and sediment after spreading to the environments, furthermore, it may be accumulated in animal's tissue or milk and then cause adverse effects by food-chain. The dissipation process of aldrin in environments has continuously been paid much attention by researchers. In general, the dissipation of aldrin has been thought as relating to three mechanisms: photo-degradation, chemical hydrolysis, and microbial degradation. And it has been well known that microbial degradation is the most important agent for breakdown of organochlorine pesticides. There has been shown that aldrin could be transformed to its metabolites, such as dieldrin or photo-dieldrin, by microorganisms under aerobic conditions, however, limited information has been shown under anaerobic conditions. For this reason, the degradation potential of aldrin by anaerobic microorganisms obtained from indigenous river sediment was evaluated, and the effect of environmental factors such as temperatures and nutrients on the aldrin degradation was also investigated in this study.

  3. Multiplicity distributions and charged-neutral fluctuations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan K Nayak; M M Aggarwal; A Agnihotri; Z Ahammed; A L S Angelis; V Antonenko; V Arefiev; V Astakhov; V Avdeitchikov; T C Awes; P V K S Baba; S K Badyal; A Baldine; L Barabach; C Barlag; S Bathe; B Tatiounia; T Bernier; K B Bhalla; V S Bhatia; C Blume; R Bock; E-M Bohne; D Bucher; A Buijs; E-J Buis; H Büsching; L Carlen; V Chalyshev; S Chattopadhyay; K E Chenawi; R Cherbatchev; T Chujo; A Claussen; A C Das; M P Decowski; V Djordjadze; P Donni; I Doubovik; A K Dubey; M R Dutta Majumdar; S Eliseev; K Enosawa; H Feldmann; P Foka; S Fokin; V Frolov; M S Ganti; S Garpman; O Gavrishchuk; F J M Geurts; T K Ghosh; R Glasow; S K Gupta; B Guskov; H A Gustafsson; H H Gutbrod; R Higuchi; I Hrivnacova; M Ippolitov; H Kalechofsky; R Kamermans; K-H Kampert; K Karadjev; K Karpio; S Kato; S Kees; H Kim; B W Kolb; I Kosarev; I Koutcheryaev; A Kugler; P Kulinich; V Kumar; M Kurata; K Kurita; K Kuzmin; I Langbein; A Lebedev; Y Y Lee; H Löhner; D P Mahapatra; V Manko; M Martin; A Maximov; R Mehdiyev; G Mgebrichvili; Y Miake; D Mikhalev; G C Mishra; Y Miyamoto; B Mohanty; D Morrison; D S Mukhopadhyay; V Myalkovski; H Naef; B K Nandi; S K Nayak; T K Nayak; S Neumaier; A Nianine; V Nikitine; S Nikolaev; S Nishimura; P Nomokov; J Nystrand; F E Obenshain; A Oskarsson; I Otterlund; M Pachr; A Parfenov; S Pavliouk; T Peitzmann; V Petracek; F Plasil; M L Purschke; B Raeven; J Rak; R Raniwala; S Raniwala; V S Ramamurthy; N K Rao; F Retiere; K Reygers; G Roland; L Rosselet; I Roufanov; J M Rubio; S S Sambyal; R Santo; S Sato; H Schlagheck; H-R Schmidt; G Shabratova; I Sibiriak; T Siemiarczuk; B C Sinha; N Slavine; K Söderström; N Solomey; G Sood; S P Sørensen; P Stankus; G Stefanek; P Steinberg; E Stenlund; D Stüken; M Sumbera; T Svensson; M D Trivedi; A Tsvetkov; C Twenhöfel; L Tykarski; J Urbahn; N V Eijndhoven; W H V Heeringen; G J V Nieuwenhuizen; A Vinogradov; Y P Viyogi; A Vodopianov; S Vörös; M A Vos; B Wyslouch; K Yogi; Y Yokota; G R Young

    2001-08-01

    Results from the multiplicity distributions of inclusive photons and charged particles, scaling of particle multiplicities, event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations, and charged-neutral fluctuations in 158 GeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented and discussed. A scaling of charged particle multiplicity as $N^{1.07± 0:05}_{\\text{part}}$ and photons as $N^{1.12± 0:03}_{\\text{part}}$ have been observed, indicating violation of naive wounded nucleon model. The analysis of localized charged-neutral fluctuation indicates a model-independent demonstration of non-statistical fluctuations in both charged particles and photons in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charged-neutral fluctuations are observed.

  4. Charging of Fractal Dust Agglomerates in a Plasma Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, L S

    2007-01-01

    The charge on micron-sized dust grains plays a crucial role in the structure and evolution of forming aggregates within the dust population during the coagulation process. The manner in which the charge is arranged on developing irregular structures can affect the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during collisions, which in turn influences the coagulation rate and size evolution of the dust cloud. Preliminary models for the charge evolution on fractal aggregates immersed in a plasma environment calculated using a modification to the orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory are presented in this paper. The model calculates currents to each point on the aggregate surface using a line-of-sight (LOS) approximation: only those electron or ion trajectories which are not blocked by another grain within the aggregate contribute to the charging current. Both the total charge and the dipole moment are calculated for the dust aggregate. While most coagulation theories assume that it is difficult for like-charged grains...

  5. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Wall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the data is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. The results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement.

  6. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the data is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. The results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement.

  7. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the data is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. The results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement. PMID:27437111

  8. Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Michael Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Neutrinos are among the least understood particles in the standard model of particle physics. At neutrino energies in the 1 GeV range, neutrino properties are typically determined by observing the outgoing charged lepton produced in a charged current quasi-elastic interactions. The largest charged current background to these measurements comes from charged current pion production interactions, for which there is very little available data.

  9. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  10. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  11. Electrically charged curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation was generated through the curvaton mechanism from a scalar field with an electric charge, or precisely the Standard Model U(1) weak hypercharge. This links the dynamics of the very early universe concretely to the Standard Model of particle physics, and because the coupling strength is known, it reduces the number of free parameters in the curvaton model. We show that the model is compatible with CMB observations for Hubble rate $H_* > 10^8 GeV$ and curvaton mass $m > 10^{-2}H_*$. Charge fluctuations generated during inflation are screened by electron-positron pairs, and therefore do not violate observational constraints. The interaction with the gauge field leads to interesting dynamics after inflation, including resonant preheating, with potentially highly non-trivial observational consequences, which should be studied more carefully using numerical field theory simulations.

  12. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe;

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked......Fibrosis of the liver and its end-stage, cirrhosis, represent major health problems worldwide. In these fibrotic conditions, activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells display a net deposition of collagen. This collagen deposition is a major factor leading to liver dysfunction, thus making...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...

  13. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  14. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  15. Existence of magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, David

    1990-10-01

    A status report is presented on the existence of quarks carrying the Dirac unit of magnetic charge g = (137/2) e. The Paschen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed. From the dyonium model, Akers predicted the existence of a new η meson at 1814 MeV with I G(JPC) = 0+(0-+). Experimental evidence now confirms the existence of the meson resonance.

  16. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casada, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  17. Age Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  18. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  19. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  20. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  1. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  2. Thermal Implications for Extreme Fast Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  3. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  4. Multimodal Degradation Prognostics Based on Switching Kalman Filter Ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pin; Goh, Chi Keong; Tan, Kay Chen; Dutta, Partha

    2017-01-01

    For accurate prognostics, users have to determine the current health of the system and predict future degradation pattern of the system. An increasingly popular approach toward tackling prognostic problems involves the use of switching models to represent various degradation phases, which the system undergoes. Such approaches have the advantage of determining the exact degradation phase of the system and being able to handle nonlinear degradation models through piecewise linear approximation. However, limitations of such existing methods include, limited applicability due to the discretization of predicted remaining useful life, insufficient robustness due to the use of single models and others. This paper circumvents these limitations by proposing a hybrid of ensemble methods with switching methods. The proposed method first implements a switching Kalman filter (SKF) to classify between various linear degradation phases, then predict the future propagation of fault dimension using appropriate Kalman filters for each phase. This proposed method achieves both continuous and discrete prediction values representing the remaining life and degradation phase of the system, respectively. The proposed framework is shown via a case study on benchmark simulated aeroengine data sets. The evaluation of the proposed framework shows that the proposed method achieves better accuracy and robustness against noise compared with other methods reported in the literature. The results also indicate the effectiveness of the SKF in detecting the switching point between various degradation modes.

  5. Predictions of nuclear charge radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, M.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear charge radius is a fundamental property of an atomic nucleus. In this article we study the predictive power of empirical relations for experimental nuclear charge radii of neighboring nuclei and predict the unknown charge radii of 1085 nuclei based on the experimental CR2013 database within an uncertainty of 0.03 fm.

  6. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-15

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  7. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  8. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The charge-spot technique for modeling the static electric forces acting between charged fine particles entails treating electric charges on individual particles as small sets of discrete point charges, located near their surfaces. This is in contrast to existing models, which assume a single charge per particle. The charge-spot technique more accurately describes the forces, torques, and moments that act on triboelectrically charged particles, especially image-charge forces acting near conducting surfaces. The discrete element method (DEM) simulation uses a truncation range to limit the number of near-neighbor charge spots via a shifted and truncated potential Coulomb interaction. The model can be readily adapted to account for induced dipoles in uncharged particles (and thus dielectrophoretic forces) by allowing two charge spots of opposite signs to be created in response to an external electric field. To account for virtual overlap during contacts, the model can be set to automatically scale down the effective charge in proportion to the amount of virtual overlap of the charge spots. This can be accomplished by mimicking the behavior of two real overlapping spherical charge clouds, or with other approximate forms. The charge-spot method much more closely resembles real non-uniform surface charge distributions that result from tribocharging than simpler approaches, which just assign a single total charge to a particle. With the charge-spot model, a single particle may have a zero net charge, but still have both positive and negative charge spots, which could produce substantial forces on the particle when it is close to other charges, when it is in an external electric field, or when near a conducting surface. Since the charge-spot model can contain any number of charges per particle, can be used with only one or two charge spots per particle for simulating charging from solar wind bombardment, or with several charge spots for simulating triboelectric charging

  9. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  10. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial sur-face potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crys-tallinity.

  11. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial surface potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crystallinity.

  12. Charge renormalization in planar and spherical charged lipidic aqueous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordi, Federico; Cametti, Cesare; Sennato, Simona; Paoli, Beatrice; Marianecci, Carlotta

    2006-03-16

    The charge renormalization in planar and spherical charged lipidic aqueous interfaces has been investigated by means of thermodynamic and electrokinetic measurements. We analyzed the behavior of mixed DOTAP/DOPE monolayers at the air-electrolyte solution interface and DOTAP/DOPE liposomes 100 nm in size dispersed in an aqueous phase of varying ionic strength. For the two systems, we have compared the "effective" surface charge derived from the measurements of surface potential and zeta-potential to the "bare" charge based on the stoichiometry of the lipid mixture investigated. The results confirm that a strong charge renormalization occurs, whose strength depends on the geometry of the mesoscopic system. The dependence of the "effective" charge on the "bare" charge is discussed in light of an analytical approximation based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation recently proposed.

  13. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  14. Comparing aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) presence and distribution between degraded and non-degraded forest within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Sefczek, Timothy; Wright, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    The aye-aye is considered the most widely distributed lemur in Madagascar; however, the effect of forest quality on aye-aye abundance is unknown. We compared aye-aye presence across degraded and non-degraded forest at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We used secondary signs (feeding sites, high activity sites) as indirect cues of aye-aye presence and Canarium trees as an indicator of resource availability. All 3 measured variables indicated higher aye-aye abundance within non-degraded forest; however, the differences across forest type were not significant. Both degraded and non-degraded forests showed a positive correlation between feeding sites and high activity sites. We found that Canarium, an important aye-aye food source, was rare and had limited dispersal, particularly across degraded forest. This preliminary study provides baseline data for aye-aye activity and resource utilization across degraded and non-degraded forests.

  15. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  16. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  17. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  18. Doubly-charged Higgs searches by ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nuti, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A search for new physics in dilepton final states with same electric charge, $e^{\\pm}e^{\\pm}$, $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$ and $\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$, with the ATLAS detector at LHC, is presented. No significant contribution from beyond the Standard Model physics is observed in 4.7$~$fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}= 7~$TeV proton-proton collisions. An upper limit at 95% Confidence Level$~$(CL) on the fiducial cross section for new physics processes is derived, ranging between 1.7$~$fb and 64$~$fb depending on the dilepton invariant mass and the lepton flavour combination. A 95% CL limit is also set on the cross section for pair production of doubly-charged Higgs as a function of its mass, varying between 25$~$fb and 0.6$~$fb. Lower limits on the mass of doubly-charged Higgs bosons in the Left-Right symmetric models and in the Zee-Babu models are obtained.

  19. Reduction of surface charges during coalescence of elastomer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Cornelius; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-07-15

    Reaction-limited aggregation of soft elastomer particles has been studied with specific attention to the fate of surface charges during coalescence. The employed system is an aqueous dispersion of fluoroelastomer particles, which are known to coalesce completely at 70 degrees C. In contrast to diffusion-limited conditions, under reaction-limited conditions the stability of the system is expected to change during aggregation because of surface reduction and charge accumulation resulting from coalescence. This allows investigating the mechanism of charge relocation during cluster coalescence. For particles stabilized by ionic surfactants, it has been found that the charges are mobile (i.e., they redistribute between aqueous solution and particle surface according to their adsorption equilibrium) (Gauer, C.; Jia, Z.; Wu, H.; Morbidelli, M. Langmuir 2009, 25, 9703). In this work, we consider the case of fixed charges, as those given by charged polymer end groups covalently bound to the particle surface. We demonstrate that a loss of fixed surface charges occurs during the coalescence and strongly affects the time evolution and the shape of the resulting cluster mass distribution.

  20. Quantitative response relationships between degradation rates and functional genes during the degradation of beta-cypermethrin in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ji, Guo-Dong

    2015-12-15

    In the present study, the degradation mechanisms of beta-cypermethrin and its metabolites in soil were explored through the quantitative response relationships between the degradation rates and related functional genes. We found that the degradation rate of beta-cypermethrin was rapid in unsterilized soil but not in sterilized soil, which indicated that the degradation process is microbially based. Moreover, three metabolites (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, phenol and protocatechuic acid) were detected during the degradation process and used to identify the degradation pathway and functional genes related to the degradation process. The key rate-limiting functional genes were pytH and pobA, and the relative contributions of these genes to the degradation process were examined with a path analysis. The path analysis revealed that the genes pobA and pytH had the greatest direct effects on the degradation of beta-cypermethrin (pobA), alpha-cypermethrin (pobA), theta-cypermethrin (pytH) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (pytH).

  1. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  2. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  3. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  4. Bench Marking of Alternate Soft-charging Circuits for Variable-frequency Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anandh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents about various soft charging techniques used in variable frequency drives to limit the in-rush current into the dc-bus capacitors during pre-charging condition. The main objective of a pre-charging circuit is to charge the capacitor within possible allowed time and maximum converter current without any voltage overshoot. A capacitor pre-charging circuit needs to be robust and simple in control by limiting the dc link inductor and input ac current to any desired magnitude. In this study we will discuss about various soft charging topologies, techniques and their performance during different operating conditions such as partially pre-charged capacitors, input line voltage variation, ground faults and bus faults. In the final this study discusses also about a novel pre-charging circuit, technique and provides a comparison of proposed technique with the existing techniques.

  5. Antiproton charge radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, P.; Cooke, D.; Heiss, M. W.

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming operation of the extra low energy antiprotons ring at CERN, the upgrade of the antiproton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of 1 08 e+ /s will open the possibility for new experiments with antihydrogen (H ¯). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of H ¯. For four months of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of C P T and the first determination of the antiproton charge radius at the level of 10%.

  6. Improving battery charging with solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boico, Florent Michael

    Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.

  7. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracyclines used in veterinary therapy invariably will find their way as parent compound and degradation products to the agricultural field. Major degradation products formed due to the limited stability of parent tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) in aqueous s...

  8. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  9. On-line charge breeding using ECRIS and EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The efficient and rapid production of a high-quality, pure beam of highly charged ions is at the heart of any radioactive ion beam facility. Whether an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source or an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is used to produce these highly charged ions, their operating characteristics will set the boundaries on the range of experiments which can be performed. In addition, time structure and duty cycle have to be considered when defining the operating parameters of the accelerator system as a whole. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), an ECR charge breeder was developed as part of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) program. The charge breeding efficiency and high charge state production of the source is at the forefront of ECR charge breeders, but its overall performance as part of the accelerator system is limited by pervasive background and relatively long breeding times. As such, an EBIS charge breeder has been developed and is running in an off-line configuration. It has already demonstrated good breeding efficiencies, shorter residence times, and reduced background and is scheduled to replace the ECR charge breeder in late 2015. The resultant change in duty cycle and time structure necessitates changes to the overall operation of the facility. The experiences with these breeders, as well as from several other facilities which already utilize an ECR or EBIS for charge breeding, help to define the operational characteristics of each technology - their strengths, their weaknesses, and the possible paths to improvement.

  10. Photothermal degradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Key reaction intermediates of photooxidation identified and characterized by laser flash Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were discussed. Effects of temperature and ultraviolet intensity were studied in order to develop meaningful accelerated testing procedures for encapsulant evaluation. In a program to study the failure of Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/stainless steel modules, failure modes similar to those observed outdoors in real-time conditions were simulated in accelerated testing. An experimental technique was developed to quantitatively assess the extent of degradation.

  11. Retrolensing by a charged black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Gong, Yungui

    2017-03-01

    Compact objects with a light sphere such as black holes and wormholes can reflect light rays like a mirror. This gravitational lensing phenomenon is called retrolensing and it is an interesting tool to survey dark and compact objects with a light sphere near the solar system. In this paper, we calculate the deflection angle analytically in the strong deflection limit in the Reissner-Nordström spacetime without Taylor expanding it in the power of the electric charge. Using the obtained deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, we investigate the retrolensing light curves and the separation of double images by the light sphere of Reissner-Nordström black holes.

  12. Characterisation of charge voltage of lead-acid batteries: application to the charge control strategy in photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, N. [CIEMAT-DER, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Energia Solar Fotovoltaica; Aguilera, J. [Universidad de Jaen (Spain). Escuela Politecnica Superior

    2006-12-15

    In stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, charge controllers prevent excessive battery overcharge by interrupting or limiting the current flow from the PV array to the battery when the battery becomes fully charged. Charge regulation is most often accomplished by limiting the battery voltage to a predetermined value or cut-off voltage, higher than the gassing voltage. These regulation voltages are dependent on the temperature and battery charge current. An adequate selection of overcharge cut-off voltage for each battery type and operating conditions would maintain the highest battery state of charge without causing significant overcharge thus improving battery performance and reliability. To perform this work, a sample of nine different lead-acid batteries, typically used in stand-alone PV systems including vented and sealed batteries with 2 V cells and monoblock configurations have been selected. This paper presents simple mathematical expressions fitting two charge characteristic voltages: the gassing voltage (V{sub g}) and the end-of charge voltage (V{sub fc}) as function of charge current and temperature for the tested batteries. With these expressions, we have calculated V{sub g} and V{sub fc} at different current rates. An analysis of the different values obtained is presented here focusing in the implication in control strategies of batteries in stand-alone PV systems. (author)

  13. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  14. Facile fabrication of ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride for RhB photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Anfeng; Janik, Michael J.; Li, Keyan; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2017-02-01

    Ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nitrides were prepared by directly condensing the uniform mixtures of melamine and KIT-6. After removal of the KIT-6 sacrificial template, the carbon nitrides were characterized with TEM, N2 physical adsorption, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, UV-vis and PL spectrometries, and tested for their RhB photocatalytic degradation activity. Together, these characterizations confirmed the as-prepared tunable mesoporous materials with enhanced charge separation efficiency and superior photocatalytic performance. Compared with a conventional bulk g-C3N4, ordered mesoporous g-C3N4 exhibits a larger specific surface area of 279.3 m2/g and a pore size distribution about 4.0 nm and 13.0 nm. Meanwhile, the reduced bandgap energy of 2.77 eV and lower photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination frequency were evidenced by UV-Vis and PL spectra. The RhB photocatalytic degradation activity maximizes with a mass ratio of KIT-6/melamine of 80% (KCN80), and the kinetic constant reaches 0.0760 min-1 which is 16 times higher than that of the bulk sample. Reusability of KCN80 was demonstrated by a lack of evident deactivation after three consecutive reaction periods. The direct condensation of the KIT-6 and melamine mixture does not require pre-casting of the precursor into the pore system of the templates. Owing to its high product yield, improved SBET, reduced bandgap energy and limited charge recombination, the facile-prepared ordered mesoporous g-C3N4 is a practical candidate for further modification.

  15. Self-induced bio-potential and graphite electron accepting conditions enhances petroleum sludge degradation in bio-electrochemical system with simultaneous power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-10-01

    Bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) documented effective degradation of real field petroleum sludge over the conventional anaerobic treatment (AnT). BET (41.08%) operation showed enhanced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal over AnT (20.72%). Aromatic fraction visualized higher removal (75.54%) compared to other TPH fractions viz., aliphatics, asphaltenes and NSO (nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen) during BET operation. Higher ring aromatics (5-6) documented easy degradation in BET, while AnT was limited to lower ring (2-3) compounds. Voltammetric analysis evidenced simultaneous redox behavior during BET operation due to presence of graphite electrode as electron acceptor, while AnT showed extended reduction behavior only. Self-induced primary and secondary oxidation reactions and capacitive-deionization might have enhanced the degradation capability of BET. BET documented higher charge/capacitance (2810 mJ/1120 mF) than AnT (450 mJ/180 mF). Power output corroborated well with observed results supporting BET performance as fuel cell. Electrodes offer a potential alternative electron acceptor for promoting the degradation of organic contaminants.

  16. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

  17. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  18. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  19. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  20. On the universality of thermodynamics and $\\eta/s$ ratio for the charged Lovelock black branes

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoni, Mariano; Frassino, Antonia; Tuveri, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate general features of charged Lovelock black branes by giving a detailed description of geometrical, thermodynamic and holographic properties of charged Gauss-Bonnet (GB) black branes in five dimensions. We show that when expressed in terms of effective physical parameters, the thermodynamic behaviour of charged GB black branes is completely indistinguishable from that of charged Einstein black branes. Moreover, the extremal, near-horizon limit of the two classes of branes is exa...

  1. Controlling the Degradation of Bioresorbable Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Istvan; Crowley, Brian; Brundage, Elizabeth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Bioresorbable polymers play a vital role in the development of implantable materials that are used in surgical procedures, controlled drug delivery systems; and tissue engineering scaffolds. The half-life of common bioresorbable polymers ranges from 3 to over 12 months and slow bioresorption rates of these polymers restrict their use to a limited set of applications. The use of embedded enzymes was previously proposed to control the degradation rate of bioresorbable polymers, and was shown to decrease average degradation time to about 0.5 months. In this study, electromagnetic actuation of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles embedded in an encapsulant polymer, poly(ethyleneoxide), PEO, was employed to initiate enzyme assisted degradation of bioresorbable polymer poly(caprolactone), PCL. Results indicate that the internal temperature of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle doped PEO samples can be increased via an alternating magnetic field, and temperature increase depends strongly on nanoparticle concentration and magnetic field parameters. The temperature achieved is sufficient to relax the PEO matrix and to enable the diffusion of enzymes from PEO to a surrounding PCL matrix. Current studies are directed at measuring the degradation rate of PCL due to the diffused enzyme. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  2. Rat myocardial protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, J H; Hopkins, B E

    1981-07-01

    1. Myocardial protein degradation rates were determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated left hemi-atria in vitro. 2. After two 20 min preincubations the rate of tyrosine release from hemi-atria was constant for 4 h. 3. Skeletal muscle protein degradation was determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated hemi-diaphragm (Fulks, Li & Goldberg, 1975). 4. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited tyrosine release from hemi-atria and hemi-diaphragm to a similar extent. A 48 h fast increased tyrosine release rate from hemi-diaphragm and decreased tyrosine release rate from hemi-atria. Hemi-diaphragm tyrosine release was inhibited by 15 mmol/l D-glucose but a variety of concentrations of D-glucose (0, 5, 15 mmol/l) had no effect on tyrosine release from hemi-atria. Five times the normal plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine had no effect on tyrosine release from either hemi-atria or hemi-diaphragm.

  3. Degradability of dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1992-09-01

    The degradation of dental ceramics generally occurs because of mechanical forces or chemical attack. The possible physiological side-effects of ceramics are their tendency to abrade opposing dental structures, the emission of radiation from radioactive components, the roughening of their surfaces by chemical attack with a corresponding increase in plaque retention, and the release of potentially unsafe concentrations of elements as a result of abrasion and dissolution. The chemical durability of dental ceramics is excellent. With the exception of the excessive exposure to acidulated fluoride, ammonium bifluoride, or hydrofluoric acid, there is little risk of surface degradation of virtually all current dental ceramics. Extensive exposure to acidulated fluoride is a possible problem for individuals with head and/or neck cancer who have received large doses of radiation. Such fluoride treatment is necessary to minimize tooth demineralization when saliva flow rates have been reduced because of radiation exposure to salivary glands. Porcelain surface stains are also lost occasionally when abraded by prophylaxis pastes and/or acidulated fluoride. In each case, the solutes are usually not ingested. Further research that uses standardized testing procedures is needed on the chemical durability of dental ceramics. Accelerated durability tests are desirable to minimize the time required for such measurements. The influence of chemical durability on surface roughness and the subsequent effect of roughness on wear of the ceramic restorations as well as of opposing structures should also be explored on a standardized basis.

  4. Space charge physics for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed....

  5. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  6. Annealed Scaling for a Charged Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravenna, F.; den Hollander, F.; Pétrélis, N.; Poisat, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies an undirected polymer chain living on the one-dimensional integer lattice and carrying i.i.d. random charges. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes to the interaction Hamiltonian an energy that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The focus is on the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We derive a spectral representation for the free energy and use this to prove that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane of charge bias versus inverse temperature separating a ballistic phase from a subballistic phase. We show that the phase transition is first order. We prove large deviation principles for the laws of the empirical speed and the empirical charge, and derive a spectral representation for the associated rate functions. Interestingly, in both phases both rate functions exhibit flat pieces, which correspond to an inhomogeneous strategy for the polymer to realise a large deviation. The large deviation principles in turn lead to laws of large numbers and central limit theorems. We identify the scaling behaviour of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias. In addition, we identify the scaling behaviour of the free energy for small charge bias and small inverse temperature. Both are linked to an associated Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. A key tool in our analysis is the Ray-Knight formula for the local times of the one-dimensional simple random walk. This formula is exploited to derive a closed form expression for the generating function of the annealed partition function, and for several related quantities. This expression in turn serves as the starting point for the derivation of the spectral representation for the free energy, and for the scaling theorems

  7. Annealed Scaling for a Charged Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravenna, F., E-mail: francesco.caravenna@unimib.it [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni (Italy); Hollander, F. den, E-mail: denholla@math.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Mathematical Institute (Netherlands); Pétrélis, N., E-mail: nicolas.petrelis@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, Laboratoire de Mathématiques Jean Leray UMR 6629 (France); Poisat, J., E-mail: poisat@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University, CEREMADE, UMR 7534 (France)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies an undirected polymer chain living on the one-dimensional integer lattice and carrying i.i.d. random charges. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes to the interaction Hamiltonian an energy that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The focus is on the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We derive a spectral representation for the free energy and use this to prove that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane of charge bias versus inverse temperature separating a ballistic phase from a subballistic phase. We show that the phase transition is first order. We prove large deviation principles for the laws of the empirical speed and the empirical charge, and derive a spectral representation for the associated rate functions. Interestingly, in both phases both rate functions exhibit flat pieces, which correspond to an inhomogeneous strategy for the polymer to realise a large deviation. The large deviation principles in turn lead to laws of large numbers and central limit theorems. We identify the scaling behaviour of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias. In addition, we identify the scaling behaviour of the free energy for small charge bias and small inverse temperature. Both are linked to an associated Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. A key tool in our analysis is the Ray-Knight formula for the local times of the one-dimensional simple random walk. This formula is exploited to derive a closed form expression for the generating function of the annealed partition function, and for several related quantities. This expression in turn serves as the starting point for the derivation of the spectral representation for the free energy, and for the scaling theorems

  8. Dryland degradation: Measurement and effects on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, P.; Prince, S. D.; Rishmawi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Production (NPP) which, in turn, is used as a surrogate for land condition. The land surface is classified into homogeneous land capability units based on the physical environment and the maximum NPP found in the unit is used as the best estimator of the potential NPP. Other parts of the unit are scaled relative to the maximum. This technique, known as Local NPP Scaling (LNS), has been applied in southern Africa, the Sahel , and in various stages of completion in SW USA, Negev and Queensland. The effects of the degradation on surface fluxes of water, energy and carbon dioxide have been assessed in the Sahel. The provisional conclusions are that there are, indeed areas of drylands that are performing below expectation from their physical environment and that limited parts of these areas have entered into a long-term, maybe permanent degraded state. Furthermore, a key factor is the loss of soil moisture.

  9. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  10. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2010-07-02

    We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

  11. Search for Doubly-Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Greco, F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2003-01-01

    Doubly-charged Higgs bosons are searched for in e^+e^- collision data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. Final states with four leptons are analysed to tag the pair-production of doubly charged Higgs bosons. No significant excess is found and lower limits at 95% confidence level on the doubly-charged Higgs boson mass are derived. They vary from 95.5 GeV to 100.2 GeV, depending on the decay mode. Doubly-charged Higgs bosons which couple to electrons would modify the cross section and forward-backward asymmetry of the e^+e^- -> e^+e^- process. The measurements of these quantities do not deviate from the Standard Model expectations and doubly-charged Higgs bosons with masses up to the order of a TeV are excluded.

  12. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  13. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  14. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ionic species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia are also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4(H2SO4x]clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (> m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by

  15. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  16. Soil physical land degradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  17. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  18. Diagnostic and Detectors for Charging and Damage of Dielectrics in High-gradient Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shchelkunov, S V; Hirshfield, J L

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to address issues of analysis and mitigation of high repetition rate effects in Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators, and more specifically, to study charging rate and charge distribution in a thin walled dielectric wakefield accelerator from a passing charge bunch and the physics of conductivity and discharge phenomena in dielectric materials useful for such accelerator applications. The issue is the role played by the beam halo and intense wakefields in charging of the dielectric, possibly leading to undesired deflection of charge bunches and degradation of the dielectric material. The detector that was developed is based on measurement of the complex electrical conductivity, which would appear as a transient phenomenon accompanying the passage of one or more charge bunches, by observing the change of complex admittance of a resonant microwave cavity that is fitted around the dielectric tubing. The detector also can detect permanent damage to the material. During initial stage of developm...

  19. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical...

  20. Determining potential for microbial atrazine degradation in agricultural drainage ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Heather L; Khalid, Sheza; Jackson, Colin R; Moore, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Passage of agricultural runoff through vegetated drainage ditches has been shown to reduce the amount of pesticides, such as atrazine, exiting out of agricultural watersheds. Previous studies have found that microbial communities in soil from fields treated with atrazine display enhanced rates of atrazine degradation. However, no studies have examined the potential for atrazine degradation in ditches used to drain these lands. The purpose of the current study was to determine the potential of the drainage ditch soil microbial community for atrazine degradation. Soil samples were collected from fields and adjacent drainage ditches and from nonagricultural land with no previous exposure to atrazine. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated widespread presence of atrazine degradation genes in fields and ditches. Potential for degradation was determined by following the decrease of atrazine in spiked soil samples over a 28-d incubation period. Greater than 95% of atrazine was degraded in field and ditch soils, whereas only 68.5 ± 1.3% was degraded in the nonagricultural control. Comparison with autoclaved soil samples indicated the primary mechanism of atrazine degradation in agricultural soils was microbially mediated, whereas its breakdown in nonagricultural soil appeared to be the byproduct of abiotic processes. Therefore, microbial communities in drainage ditch sediments have the potential to play a role in atrazine removal from agricultural runoff by breaking down atrazine deposited in sediments and limiting the amount of this herbicide carried into downstream ecosystems.

  1. Degradation study of different brands of paracetamol by UV spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safila Naveed; Humera Ishaq; Sheeba Urooj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investgate the forced degradation study for the determination of degradation of the drug substance. Methods: Paracetamol was exposed to different conditions according to International Conference on Harmonization guideline. The amount of degradation product can be calculated with the help of UV spectrophotometer. The official test limits according to British Pharmacopoeia/United States Pharmacopoeia should not less than and should not more than lapelled amount. Forced degradation of drug substance was exposed to acidic and basic medium of panadol.Forced degradation of drug substance of panadol,disprol and calpol were also observed negligible difference in availability on exposure to UV and heat. This method can be used successfully for studying the stress degradation factors. Because this method is less time consuming and simple and cost effective also. Results:The brandsi.e. calpol, panadol and disprol, when they come in contact with different degradation parameters (before, acid, base, heat and UV treatments) according to statistical analysis, the result showed significant values (P Conclusions:The result indicated there is no degradation found in these brands.

  2. Materials and system degradation in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Green Energy and Fuel Cell Group

    2007-07-01

    Various degradation processes in fuel cell anodes and cathodes can cause the release of fluoride ions that thin the ionomer membrane and allow more gases to permeate the cell. This presentation provided an overview of reliability modelling techniques used to identify the failure modes of material degradation in fuel cells. A reliability model of a fuel cell stack and hydrogen power system was presented in addition to solution methods for Nafion degradation of the main polymer chain. Changes in the molecular weight of Nafion were discussed. A case study of a model was used to demonstrate that reaction slowed as the ionomer on the cathode degraded. Equations were developed for hydrogen crossover, peroxide production; peroxide destruction; F-ion production; thickness change; diffusion through the gas diffusion layer (GDL); and open circuit voltage (OCV). It was concluded that the OCV durability experiments generated a mechanism for degradation of commercial membranes. The modelling study showed that degradation was related to the permeability of hydrogen to the cathode, and oxygen to the anode. It was concluded that at lower oxygen pressures anode degradation was limited, while at higher pressures anode degradation was more significant. A power point presentation of the University of Waterloo's alternative fuel team provided details of the team's recent research activities. tabs., figs.

  3. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  4. Fractional lattice charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2017-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302

  5. Stable charged cosmic strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18)  m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  6. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  7. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  8. DEGRADATION OF SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    VanderMeer, R.

    1982-01-01

    An important parameter for deciding whether or not a SME alloy is suitable for practical applications is the magnitude of the strain reversa1 accompanying martensite reversion. This research is concerned with elucidating metallurgical factors that cause degradation of this heat-activated recovery strain, ER. After explaining what is meant by degradation, two manifestations of degradation recently identified in near-monotectoid uranium-niobium alloys will be described. The first was associated...

  9. High dynamic range charge measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  10. Negative charging effect of traps on the gate leakage current of an AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. J.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, J. W. [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Stanchina, W. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The negative charging effect of surface traps on the gate leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) was investigated. The gate leakage current could be decreased by two orders of magnitude by using a photo-electrochemical process to treat of the source and the drain region, but current flowed into the gate even at a negative voltage in a limited region when the measurement was executed with a gate voltage sweep from negative to positive voltage. Also the electrical characteristics of the HEMT were degraded by pulsed operation of the gate. Traps newly generated on the surface were regarded as sources for the current that flowed against the applied voltage, and the number of traps was estimated. Also, a slow transient in the drain current was confirmed based on the results of delayed sweep measurements.

  11. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  12. Space Charge Effect in the Sheet and Solid Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Young; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Ahn, Saeyoung

    1998-11-01

    We analyze the space charge effect of two different types of electron beam ; sheet and solid electron beam. Electron gun simulations are carried out using shadow and control grids for high and low perveance. Rectangular and cylindrical geometries are used for sheet and solid electron beam in planar and disk type cathode. The E-gun code is used to study the limiting current and space charge loading in each geometries.

  13. Space-Charge Compensation Options for the LHC Injector Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Dorda, U; Franchetti, G; Garoby, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martini, M; Métral, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Scandale, Walter; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Space-charge effects have been identified as the most serious intensity limitation in the CERN PS and PS Booster, on the way towards ultimate LHC performance and beyond. We here explore the application of several previously proposed space-charge compensation methods to the two LHC pre-injector rings, and the challenges which need to be overcome. The methods considered include the reduction of tune shift and resonance strengths via octupoles, pole-face windings, electron lenses, or neutralisation.

  14. Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, I

    2002-01-01

    We have carried out the largest search for stable particles with fractional electric charge, based on an oil drop method that incorporates a horizontal electric field and upward air flow. No evidence for such particles was found, giving a 95% C.L. upper limit of $1.15\\times 10^{-22}$ particles per nucleon on the abundance of fractional charge particles in silicone oil for $0.18 e \\le |Q_{residual}| \\le 0.82 e$.

  15. Anisotropy of the charge-carrier mobility in polydiacetylene crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofman, Romano J. O. M.; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.; de Haas, Matthijs P.; Hummel, Andries; Bloor, David

    1998-08-01

    The anisotropic mobility of excess charge carriers in pure and mixed crystals of two polydiacetylene derivatives was determined. The charge carriers were produced by pulsed irradiation and detected by time-resolved measurement of the microwave conductivity. The charge-carrier mobility was measured as a function of the orientation of the polymer backbone in the crystal with respect to the probing electric microwave field. A lower limit in the intrinsic anisotropy in the charge-carrier mobility was found to be 15 in favor of charge transport in the direction of the polymer backbone as compared to the transverse direction for polydiacetylene-(bis p-fluorobenzene sulfonate) (pFBS), while a value of 90 was found for polydiacetylene-(bis p-toluene sulfonate) (pTS) and the 50:50 pTS/FBS copolymer. A lower limit of the charge-carrier mobility along the backbone of 3 cm2/V s was found for both pTS and pFBS. The charge-carrier mobility in the copolymer was found to be one order of magnitude lower than in the pure polymers.

  16. Optimal Planning of Charging for Plug-In Electric Vehicles Focusing on Users’ Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many electric vehicles’ (EVs charging strategies were proposed to optimize the operations of the power grid, while few focus on users’ benefits from the viewpoint of EV users. However, low participation is always a problem of those strategies since EV users also need a charging strategy to serve their needs and interests. This paper proposes a method focusing on EV users’ benefits that reduce the cost of battery capacity degradation, electricity cost, and waiting time for different situations. A cost model of battery capacity degradation under different state of charge (SOC ranges is developed based on experimental data to estimate the cost of battery degradation. The simulation results show that the appropriate planning of the SOC range reduces 80% of the cost of battery degradation, and the queuing theory also reduces over 60% of the waiting time in the busy situations. Those works can also become a premise of charging management to increase the participation. The proposed strategy focusing on EV users’ benefits would not give negative impacts on the power grid, and the grid load is also optimized by an artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA in the solution space of the charging time restricted by EV users’ benefits.

  17. Search for charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, K.D.; Gippner, P.; Seidel, W.; Stary, F.; Wohlfarth, D. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf bei Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-05-01

    Results are presented from the search for energetic charged particles possibly emitted from a deuterium loaded palladium electrode in an electrolysis cell. Within the sensitivity of our experimental set-up, we could not find events originating from 'cold nuclear fusion' processes. Based on this outcome, an upper limit for the non-observation of CNF of 2.0x10{sup -2}s{sup -1} emitted charged particles per cm{sup 3} (Pd) resp. 1.6x10{sup -24}s{sup -1} emitted charged particles per D pair has been deduced. (orig.).

  18. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  19. Quantization of charges and fluxes in warped Stenzel geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Akikazu

    2011-01-01

    We examine the quantization of fluxes for the warped Stiefel cone and Stenzel geometries and their orbifolds, and distinguish the roles of three related notions of charge: Page, Maxwell, and brane. The orbifolds admit discrete torsion, and we describe the associated quantum numbers which are consistent with the geometry in its large radius and small radius limits from both the type IIA and the M-theory perspectives. The discrete torsion, measured by a Page charge, is related to the number of fractional branes. We relate the shifts in the Page charges under large gauge transformations to the Hanany-Witten brane creation effect.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Off-state avalanche breakdown induced degradation in 20 V NLDMOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifeng, Zhang; Koubao, Ding; Yan, Han; Chenggong, Han; Jiaxian, Hu; Bin, Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Degradation behaviors of 20 V NLDMOS operated under off-state avalanche breakdown conditions are presented. A constant current pulse stressing test is applied to the device. Two different degradation mechanisms are identified by analysis of electrical data, technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations and charge pumping measurements. The first mechanism is attributed to positive oxide-trapped charges in the N-type drift region, and the second one is due to decreased electron mobility upon interface state formation in the drift region. Both of the mechanisms are enhanced with increasing avalanche breakdown current.

  1. Transcellular degradation of axonal mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chung-ha O; Kim, Keun-Young; Bushong, Eric A; Mills, Elizabeth A; Boassa, Daniela; Shih, Tiffany; Kinebuchi, Mira; Phan, Sebastien; Zhou, Yi; Bihlmeyer, Nathan A; Nguyen, Judy V; Jin, Yunju; Ellisman, Mark H; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    It is generally accepted that healthy cells degrade their own mitochondria. Here, we report that retinal ganglion cell axons of WT mice shed mitochondria at the optic nerve head (ONH), and that these mitochondria are internalized and degraded by adjacent astrocytes. EM demonstrates that mitochondria are shed through formation of large protrusions that originate from otherwise healthy axons. A virally introduced tandem fluorophore protein reporter of acidified mitochondria reveals that acidified axonal mitochondria originating from the retinal ganglion cell are associated with lysosomes within columns of astrocytes in the ONH. According to this reporter, a greater proportion of retinal ganglion cell mitochondria are degraded at the ONH than in the ganglion cell soma. Consistently, analyses of degrading DNA reveal extensive mtDNA degradation within the optic nerve astrocytes, some of which comes from retinal ganglion cell axons. Together, these results demonstrate that surprisingly large proportions of retinal ganglion cell axonal mitochondria are normally degraded by the astrocytes of the ONH. This transcellular degradation of mitochondria, or transmitophagy, likely occurs elsewhere in the CNS, because structurally similar accumulations of degrading mitochondria are also found along neurites in superficial layers of the cerebral cortex. Thus, the general assumption that neurons or other cells necessarily degrade their own mitochondria should be reconsidered.

  2. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  3. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  4. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  5. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  6. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  7. Charge transport in polymeric transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salleo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric semiconductors have attracted much attention because of their possible use as active materials in printed electronics. Thin-film transistors (TFTs are a convenient tool for studying charge-transport physics in conjugated polymers. Two families of materials are reviewed here: fluorene copolymers and polythiophenes. Because charge transport is highly anisotropic in molecular conductors, the electrical properties of conjugated polymers are strongly dependent on microstructure. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and regioregularity all affect morphology and charge-transport in these materials. Charge transport models based on microstructure are instrumental in identifying the electrical bottlenecks in these materials.

  8. Charged Polaritons with Spin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoilov V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for metal which is based on the stimulated vibration of independent charged Fermi-ions, representing as independent harmonic oscillators with natural frequencies, under action of longitudinal and transverse elastic waves. Due to application of the elastic wave-particle principle and ion-wave dualities, we predict the existence of two types of charged Polaritons with spin 1 which are induced by longitudinal and transverse elastic fields. As result of presented theory, at small wavenumbers, these charged polaritons represent charged phonons.

  9. Charge renormalization of nanoparticles immersed in a molecular electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gómez, B L; González-Mozuelos, P

    2010-01-07

    The renormalization of the electric charge of nanoparticles (small colloids) at infinite dilution immersed in a supporting electrolyte containing molecular ions is studied here using a simple model. The nanoparticles are represented by charged spheres of finite diameter, the anions are assumed to be pointlike, and the cations are modeled as two identical charged points connected by a rigid rod. The static structure of this model system is determined using the reference interaction site model equations with suitable closure relations and the renormalized charges are analyzed employing the dressed interactions site theory approach. It is found that for a wide range of ionic strengths these renormalized charges are clearly dependent on the length of the cations for nanoparticles with negative bare charge, but this dependence is practically negligible for nanoparticles with positive bare charges. In the limit of zero cation length and small nanoparticle charges the standard Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek model renormalization is recovered. A brief account of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the model molecular electrolyte is also provided.

  10. Contribution of ethylamine degrading bacteria to atrazine degradation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Crowley, David E

    2006-11-01

    Bacterial communities that cooperatively degrade atrazine commonly consist of diverse species in which the genes for atrazine dechlorination and dealkylation are variously distributed among different species. Normally, the first step in degradation of atrazine involves dechlorination mediated by atzA, followed by stepwise dealkylation to yield either N-ethylammelide or N-isopropylammelide. As the liberated alkylamine moieties are constituents of many organic molecules other than atrazine, it is possible that a large number of alkylamine-degrading bacteria other than those previously described might contribute to this key step in atrazine degradation. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 82 bacterial strains from soil by plating soil water extracts on agar media with ethylamine as a sole carbon source. Among the relatively large number of isolates, only 3 were able to degrade N-ethylammelide, and in each case were shown to carry the atzB gene and atzC genes. The isolates, identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum, Flavobacterium sp., and Arthrobacter sp., were all readily substituted into an atrazine-degrading consortium to carry out N-ethylammelide degradation. The distribution of these genes among many different species in the soil microbial population suggests that these genes are highly mobile and over time may lead to generation of various atrazine-degrading consortia.

  11. Enantioselective Degradation Mechanism of Beta-Cypermethrin in Soil From the Perspective of Functional Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ji, Guo-Dong

    2015-12-01

    The behavior and mechanisms of the enantioselective degradation of beta-cypermethrin were studied in soil. The four isomers were degraded at different rates, and the enantiomer fractions of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin exceeded 0.5. Moreover, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, phenol, and protocatechuic acid were detected; based on the presence of these metabolites, we predicted the degradation pathway and identified the functional genes that are related to this degradation process. We established quantitative relationships between the data on degradation kinetics and functional genes; we found that the quantitative relationships between different enantiomers differed even under the same conditions, and the genes pobA and pytH played key roles in limiting the degradation rate. Data obtained using path analysis revealed that the same gene had different direct and indirect effects on the degradation of different isomers. A mechanism was successfully proposed to explain the selective degradation of chiral compounds based on the perspective of functional genes.

  12. Charge-transport model for conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmin Kang, Stephen; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    2016-11-01

    The growing technological importance of conducting polymers makes the fundamental understanding of their charge transport extremely important for materials and process des