Sample records for charge exchange injection

  1. Performance of the CERN PSB at 160 MeV with $H^{-}$ charge exchange injection

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084247; Santoni, Claudio

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade Project, the CERN PS Booster (PSB) will be upgraded with a H- charge exchange injection system and its injection energy will be raised from 50 MeV to 160 MeV to obtain the beam brightness required for the LHC High-Luminosity Upgrade. Space charge effects like beam losses and transverse emittance blow-up at injection are expected to be the main limitations towards the achievement of the required high brightness. Studies of beam dynamics in presence of space charge in order to evaluate the performances of the PSB after the Upgrade have been performed. The first part of the work consists of measurements in the present machine, to study the effects of space charge and its interplay with resonances and to have a good set of data for code benchmarking. The code chosen for the beam tracking in presence of space charge is PTC-Orbit (and PyOrbit). Necessary numerical convergence studies are presented together with a benchmark with the PSB measurements. Once assessed the code and it...

  2. Localization of the large-angle foil-scattering beam loss caused by the multiturn charge-exchange injection (United States)

    Kato, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kinsho, Michikazu


    In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, significant losses were observed at the branching of the H0 dump line and the beam position monitor that was inserted downstream of the H0 dump branch duct. These losses were caused by the large-angle scattering of the injection and circulating beams at the charge-exchange foil. To realize high-power operation, these losses must be mitigated. Therefore, a new collimation system was developed and installed in October 2011. To efficiently optimize this system, the behavior of particles scattered by the foil and produced by the absorber were simulated, and the optimal position and angle of the absorber were investigated. During this process, an angle regulation method for the absorber was devised. An outline of this system, the angle regulation method for the absorber, and the performance of this new collimation system are described.

  3. Beam Loss Control for the Unstripped Ions from the PS2 Charge Exchange Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Benedikt, M; Goddard, B; Kramer, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Vincke, Hel


    Control of beam losses is an important aspect of the H-injection system for the PS2, a proposed replacement of the CPS in the CERN injector complex. H- ions may pass the foil unstripped or be partially stripped to excited H0 states which may be stripped in the subsequent strong-field chicane magnet. Depending on the choice of the magnetic field, atoms in the ground and first excited states can be extracted and dumped. The conceptual design of the waste beam handling is presented, including local collimation and the dump line, both of which must take into account the divergence of the beam from stripping in fringe fields. Beam load estimates and activation related requirements of the local collimators and dump are briefly discussed.

  4. Production of antihydrogen via double charge exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Andreas


    Spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition of antihydrogen confined in a neutral atom trap and comparison with the equivalent spectral line in hydrogen will provide an accurate test of CPT symmetry and the first one in a mixed baryon-lepton system. Also, with neutral antihydrogen atoms, the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter can be tested unperturbed by the much stronger Coulomb forces. Antihydrogen is regularly produced at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator by three-body-recombination (TBR) of one antiproton and two positrons. The method requires injecting antiprotons into a cloud of positrons, which raises the average temperature of the antihydrogen atoms produced way above the typical 0.5 K trap depths of neutral atom traps. Therefore only very few antihydrogen atoms can be confined at a time. Precision measurements, like laser spectroscopy, will greatly benefit from larger numbers of simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms. Therefore, the ATRAP collaboration developed a different production method that has the potential to create much larger numbers of cold, trappable antihydrogen atoms. Positrons and antiprotons are stored and cooled in a Penning trap in close proximity. Laser excited cesium atoms collide with the positrons, forming Rydberg positronium, a bound state of an electron and a positron. The positronium atoms are no longer confined by the electric potentials of the Penning trap and some drift into the neighboring cloud of antiprotons where, in a second charge exchange collision, they form antihydrogen. The antiprotons remain at rest during the entire process, so much larger numbers of trappable antihydrogen atoms can be produced. Laser excitation is necessary to increase the efficiency of the process since the cross sections for charge-exchange collisions scale with the fourth power of the principal quantum number n. This method, named double charge-exchange, was demonstrated by ATRAP in 2004. Since then, ATRAP constructed a new

  5. Characterization of an atomic hydrogen source for charge exchange experiments (United States)

    Leutenegger, M. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Brown, G. V.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Magee, E. W.; Porter, F. S.


    We characterized the dissociation fraction of a thermal dissociation atomic hydrogen source by injecting the mixed atomic and molecular output of the source into an electron beam ion trap containing highly charged ions and recording the x-ray spectrum generated by charge exchange using a high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer. We exploit the fact that the charge exchange state-selective capture cross sections are very different for atomic and molecular hydrogen incident on the same ions, enabling a clear spectroscopic diagnostic of the neutral species.

  6. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T. A.


    Explorer 45 (S3-A) measurements were made during the recovery phase of the moderate magnetic storm of February 24, 1972, in which a symmetric ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, which is a consequence of the dissipation of the asymmetric ring current, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5-30 keV decayed throughout the L value range of 3.5-5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn (1961). After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange is more than sufficient as a particle loss mechanism for the storm time proton ring current decay.

  7. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  8. First Demonstration of Laser-Assisted Charge Exchange for Microsecond Duration H- Beams (United States)

    Cousineau, Sarah; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Kay, Martin; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Gorlov, Timofey; Liu, Yun; Plum, Michael; Shishlo, Andrei; Johnson, David


    This Letter reports on the first demonstration of laser-assisted H- charge exchange for microsecond duration H- beam pulses. Laser-assisted charge exchange injection is a breakthrough technology that overcomes long-standing limitations associated with the traditional method of producing high intensity, time structured beams of protons in accelerators via the use of carbon foils for charge exchange injection. The central theme of this experiment is the demonstration of novel techniques that reduce the laser power requirement to allow high efficiency stripping of microsecond duration beams with commercial laser technology.

  9. Charge Exchange Effect on Space-Charge-Limited Current Densities in Ion Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article theoretically studied the charge-exchange effects on space charge limited electron and ion current densities of non-relativistic one-dimensional slab ion diode, and compared with those of without charge exchange.

  10. Solar Wind Charge Exchange During Geomagnetic Storms (United States)

    Robertson, Ina P.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Sibeck, David G.; Collier, Michael R.; Kuntz, K. D.


    On March 31st. 2001, a coronal mass ejection pushed the subsolar magnetopause to the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit at 6.6 RE. The NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMe) employed a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to simulate the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction during the peak of this geomagnetic storm. Robertson et aL then modeled the expected 50ft X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal neutrals in the dayside cusp and magnetosheath. The locations of the bow shock, magnetopause and cusps were clearly evident in their simulations. Another geomagnetic storm took place on July 14, 2000 (Bastille Day). We again modeled X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange, but this time as observed from a moving spacecraft. This paper discusses the impact of spacecraft location on observed X-ray emission and the degree to which the locations of the bow shock and magnetopause can be detected in images.

  11. Performance of the Charge Injection Capability of Suzaku XIS

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, H; Matsumoto, H; Tsuru, T G; Koyama, K; Tsunemi, H; Hayashida, K; Torii, K; Namiki, M; Katsuda, S; Shoji, M; Matsuura, D; Miyauchi, T; Dotani, T; Ozaki, M; Murakami, H; Bautz, M W; Kissel, S E; LaMarr, B; Prigozhin, G Y


    A charge injection technique is applied to the X-ray CCD camera, XIS (X-ray Imaging Spectrometer) onboard Suzaku. The charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in each CCD column (vertical transfer channel) is measured by the injection of charge packets into a transfer channel and subsequent readout. This paper reports the performances of the charge injection capability based on the ground experiments using a radiation damaged device, and in-orbit measurements of the XIS. The ground experiments show that charges are stably injected with the dispersion of 91eV in FWHM in a specific column for the charges equivalent to the X-ray energy of 5.1keV. This dispersion width is significantly smaller than that of the X-ray events of 113eV (FWHM) at approximately the same energy. The amount of charge loss during transfer in a specific column, which is measured with the charge injection capability, is consistent with that measured with the calibration source. These results indicate that the charge injection technique can accura...

  12. Systematics of pion double charge exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, R.A.


    Differential cross sections have been measured for pion-induced double-charge-exchange (DCX) reactions leading to double-isobaric-analog states (DIAS) and low-lying nonanalog states in the residual nuclei. A description of the experimental details and data analysis is presented. The experimentally observed systematics of reactions leading to DIAS, to nonanalog ground states, and to low-lying 2 states are described. Lowest-order optical-model calculations of DIAS DCX are compared to the data. Efforts to understand the anomalies by invoking additional reaction-mechanism amplitudes and a higher-order optical potential are described. Calculations of nonanalog DCX reactions leading to J/sup / = 0 states were performed within a distorted-wave impulse-approximation framework. The sensitivities of these calculations to input parameters are discussed. 58 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.


    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTORa) (United States)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.


    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the Dα spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion Dα spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  15. Double charge exchange at high impact energies (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad


    In fast ion-atom collisions, double ionization always dominates the two-electron transfer. For this reason, an adequate description of double charge exchange requires proper inclusion of intermediate ionization channels. This is even more important in two- than in one-electron transitions. First-order Born-type perturbation theories ignore throughout these electronic continuum intermediate states and hence provide utterly unreliable high energy cross sections for two-electron capture processes. Therefore, it is essential to use second- and higher-order theories, which include the intermediate ionization continua of the two electrons in an approximate manner. In the present paper, a new second-order theory called the Born distorted wave (BDW) approximation is introduced and implemented in the case of symmetric resonant double electron capture from the ground state of helium by fast alpha particles. A genuine four-body formalism is adopted, in contrast to the conventional independent particle model of atomic scattering theory. The obtained results for the total cross sections are compared with the available experimental data, and satisfactory agreement is recorded. As the incident energy increases, a dramatic improvement is obtained in going from the CB1 to the BDW approximation, since the latter closely follows the measurement, whereas the former overestimates the observed total cross sections by two orders of magnitude. This strongly indicates that the role of continuum intermediate states is decisive, even at those incident energies for which the Thomas double scattering effects are not important. This is in sharp contrast to the case of one-electron transfer atomic reactions.

  16. X-ray emission from charge exchange of highly-charged ions in atoms and molecules (United States)

    Greenwood, J. B.; Williams, I. D.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.


    Charge exchange followed by radiative stabilization are the main processes responsible for the recent observations of X-ray emission from comets in their approach to the Sun. A new apparatus was constructed to measure, in collisions of HCIs with atoms and molecules, (a) absolute cross sections for single and multiple charge exchange, and (b) normalized X-ray emission cross sections.

  17. Development of the charge exchange type beam scraper system at the J-PARC (United States)

    Okabe, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.


    Improvement in injection beam quality at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3-GeV rapid cycle synchrotron is to mitigate beam loss at the injection section. We developed a charge-exchange type scraper system with a thin carbon foil to collimate the beam halo in the injection beam line of the synchrotron. The key issue to realize the scraper is a reduction of the beam loss induced by the multiple-scattering effect of charge-exchange foil placed at the scraper head. In order to determine the adequate foil thickness, a charge-exchange efficiency of a carbon foil and particle-tracking simulation study of the collimated beam have been performed assuming a realistic halo at the scraper section. Using the results of this study, we chose the thickness of a 520 μg /cm2 as the scraper foils to mitigate radiation dose around the L3BT scraper section. A charge-exchange scraper system that prevents the emission of radioactive fragments of the carbon foil was build. The system was put into operation to prove its effectiveness in eliminating the beam halo. From the result of a preliminary beam experiments, we confirmed that the installed scrapers eliminate a transverse beam tail or halo. After two days of operation with beam collimation, the radiation dose level around the scraper section was a tolerable one for the hands-on maintenance.

  18. Charge exchange reaction by Reggeon exchange and W$^{+}$W$^{-}$-fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R


    Charge exchange reactions at high energies are examined. The existing cross section data on the Reggeon induced reaction pp $\\rightarrow$ n + $\\Delta^{++}$ taken at the ZGS and ISR accelerators are extrapolated to the energies of the RHIC and LHC colliders. The interest in the charge exchange reaction induced by $W^{\\pm}$-fusion is presented, and the corresponding QCD-background is examined.

  19. Meson exchange currents in pion double charge exchange at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L


    In this letter we study the high energy behavior of the forward differential cross section for the O(18)(pi+,pi-)Ne(18) double charge exchange reaction. We have evaluated the sequential and the meson exchange current mechanisms. The meson exchange current contribution shows a very weak energy dependence and becomes dominant at incident pion kinetic energies above 600 MeV.

  20. Controlled charge exchange between alkaline earth metals and their ions (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin


    We theoretically investigate the prospects of realizing controlled charge exchange via magnetic Feshbach resonances in cold and ultracold collisions of atoms and ions. In particular, we focus on near-resonant charge exchange in heteroisotopic combinations of alkaline earth metals, such as 9Be++10 Be9 Be+10Be+ , which exhibit favorable electronic and hyperfine structure. The quantum scattering calculations are performed for a range of initial states and experimentally attainable magnetic fields in standard coupled-channel Feshbach projection formalism, where higher-order corrections such as the mass-polarization term are explicitely included. In addition, we predict a number of magnetic Feshbach resonances for different heteronuclear isotopic combinations of the listed and related alkaline earth elements. Our results imply that near-resonant charge-exchange could be used to realize atom-ion quantum gates, as well as controlled charge transfer in optically trapped cold quantum gases. This work is partially supported by ARO.

  1. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich


    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  2. Measurement of absorption and charge exchange of $\\pi^+$ on carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Ieki, K; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Cao, C; de Perio, P; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Kanazawa, Y; Kim, J; Kitching, P; Mahn, K; Nakaya, T; Nicholson, M; Olchanski, K; Rettie, S; Tanaka, H A; Wilking, M J; Tobayama, S; Yamauchi, T; Yen, S; Yokoyama, M


    The combined cross section for absorption and charge exchange interactions of positively charged pions with carbon nuclei for the momentum range 200 MeV/c to 300 MeV/c have been measured with the DUET experiment at TRIUMF. The uncertainty is reduced by nearly half compared to previous experiments. This result will be a valuable input to existing models to constrain pion interactions with nuclei.

  3. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization. (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto


    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Charge Exchange and Chemical Reactions with Trapped Th$^{3+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, L R; Chapman, M S


    We have measured the reaction rates of trapped, buffer gas cooled Th$^{3+}$ and various gases and have analyzed the reaction products using trapped ion mass spectrometry techniques. Ion trap lifetimes are usually limited by reactions with background molecules, and the high electron affinity of multiply charged ions such as Th$^{3+}$ make them more prone to loss. Our results show that reactions of Th$^{3+}$ with carbon dioxide, methane, and oxygen all occur near the classical Langevin rate, while reaction rates with argon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are orders of magnitude lower. Reactions of Th$^{3+}$ with oxygen and methane proceed primarily via charge exchange, while simultaneous charge exchange and chemical reaction occurs between Th$^{3+}$ and carbon dioxide. Loss rates of Th$^{3+}$ in helium are consistent with reaction with impurities in the gas. Reaction rates of Th$^{3+}$ with nitrogen and argon depend on the internal electronic configuration of the Th$^{3+}$.

  5. A time-resolved study on the interaction of oppositely charged bicelles--implications on the charged lipid exchange kinetics. (United States)

    Yang, Po-Wei; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Hu, Yuan; Jeng, U-Ser


    Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering was applied to study charged lipid exchange between oppositely charged disc-shaped bicelles. The exchange of charged lipids gradually reduces the surface charge density and weakens the electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged bicelles which form alternately stacked aggregates upon mixing. Initially, at a high surface charge density with almost no free water layer between the stacked bicelles, fast exchange kinetics dominate the exchange process. At a later stage with a lower surface charge density and a larger water gap between the stacked bicelles, slow exchange kinetics take over. The fast exchange kinetics are correlated with the close contact of the bicelles when there is almost no free water layer between the tightly bound bicelles with a charged lipid exchange time constant as short as 20-40 min. When the water gap becomes large enough to have a free water layer between the stacked bicelles, the fast lipid exchange kinetics are taken over by slow lipid exchange kinetics with time constants around 200-300 min, which are comparable to the typical time constant of lipid exchange between vesicles in aqueous solution. These two kinds of exchange mode fit well with the lipid exchange models of transient hemifusion for the fast mode and monomer exchange for the slow mode.

  6. Current Injection Attack against the KLJN Secure Key Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsien-Pu; Kish, Laszlo B


    The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system's unconditional security.

  7. Significant enhancement of the charging efficiency in the cavities of ferroelectrets through gas exchange during charging (United States)

    Qiu, Xunlin


    Ferroelectrets are non-polar polymer foams or polymer systems with internally charged cavities. They are charged through a series of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) that are caused by the electrical breakdown of the gas inside the cavities. Thus, the breakdown strength of the gas strongly influences the charging process of ferroelectrets. A gas with a lower breakdown strength has a lower threshold voltage, thus decreasing the onset voltage for DBD charging. However, a lower threshold voltage also leads to a lower value for the remanent polarization, as back discharges that are caused by the electric field of the internally deposited charges can take place already at lower charge levels. On this basis, a charging strategy is proposed where the DBDs start in a gas with a lower breakdown strength (in the present example, helium) and are completed at a higher breakdown strength (e.g., nitrogen or atmospheric air). Thus, the exchange of the gas in the cavities during charging can significantly enhance the charging efficiency, i.e., yield much higher piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrets at significantly lower charging voltages.

  8. Imaging charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J [Plasma Research Laboratory, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Jaspers, R [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lischtschenko, O; Delabie, E [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics ' Rijnhuizen' , Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Chung, J [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    We describe the application of a simple spatial-heterodyne coherence-imaging filter for 2D Doppler imaging of charge exchange recombination (CXR) emission from a heating beam in the TEXTOR tokamak. Results obtained by the CXR imaging system are found to be consistent with measurements obtained using a standard multi-channel spectrometer-based system. We describe the system, indicate possible enhancements and future applications for imaging CXRS.

  9. Imaging charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the TEXTOR tokamak (United States)

    Howard, J.; Jaspers, R.; Lischtschenko, O.; Delabie, E.; Chung, J.


    We describe the application of a simple spatial-heterodyne coherence-imaging filter for 2D Doppler imaging of charge exchange recombination (CXR) emission from a heating beam in the TEXTOR tokamak. Results obtained by the CXR imaging system are found to be consistent with measurements obtained using a standard multi-channel spectrometer-based system. We describe the system, indicate possible enhancements and future applications for imaging CXRS.

  10. Systematics of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.


    The dependence of heavy-ion charge-exchange straggling on the beam energy has been studied theoretically for several ion-target combinations. Our previous work addressed ions up to krypton, while the present study focuses on heavier ions, especially uranium. Particular attention has been paid to a multiple-peak structure which has been predicted theoretically in our previous work. For high-Z1 and high-Z2 systems, exemplified by U in Au, we identify three maxima in the energy dependence of charge-exchange straggling, while the overall magnitude is comparable with that of collisional straggling. Conversely, for U in C, charge-exchange straggling dominates, but only two peaks lie in the energy range where we presently are able to produce credible predictions. For U-Al we find good agreement with experiment in the energy range around the high-energy maximum. The position of the high-energy peak - which is related to processes in the projectile K shell - is found to scale as Z12 , in contrast to the semi-empirical Z13/2 dependence proposed by Yang et al. Measurements for heavy ions in heavy targets are suggested in order to reconcile a major discrepancy between the present calculations and the frequently-used formula by Yang et al.

  11. Charge exchange in fluid description of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, J; Luna, M


    The effects of charge exchange on waves propagating in weakly ionized plasmas are discussed. It is shown that for low-frequency processes, ions and neutrals should be treated as a single fluid with some effective charge on all of them. We have derived a new momentum equation which should be used in such an environment. As a result, the low-frequency magnetic waves can propagate even if particles are not magnetized, which is entirely due to the charge exchange and the fact that it is not possible to separate particles into two different populations as charged and neutral species. So there can be no friction force between ions and neutrals in the usual sense. The mean force per particle is proportional to the ionization ratio $n_i/(n_i+ n_n)$. Regarding the application of the theory to the Alfven wave propagation in the lower solar atmosphere, the results predict that the plane of displacement of the fluid must change by 90 degrees when an Alfven wave propagates from the area where particles are un-magnetized (...

  12. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A


    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  13. Nucleon charge-exchange reactions at intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, W.P. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Spicer, B.M. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    An historical review of the development of ideas pertaining to Gamow-Teller giant resonances is given, and a description of the emergence of techniques for the study of charge exchange reactions - particularly the technical advances which yielded the recent volume of new date. The present status of charge exchange reactions is reviewed and assessed. Evidence is presented from the {sup 14}C(p,n) reaction for the dominance of the spin-isospin component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in intermediate energy reactions. In (p,n) reactions the Gamow-Teller giant resonance dominates the spectra, with higher multipoles contributing. By contrast, in (n,p) reactions in the heavier nuclei, the Gamow-Teller transitions are substantially Pauli-blocked and the spin dipole resonance dominates, with contributions from higher multipoles. Discussions of the multipole decomposition process, used to obtain from the data the contributions of the different multipoles, and the contributions of the multipoles, are given. 226 refs., 19 figs.

  14. Direct Energy Exchange Enhancement in Distributed Injection Light Gas Launchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, T W; Finucane, R G; Hall, J P; Penetrante, B M; Uphaus, T M


    initially contained in the reservoir. This results deserves emphasis: whereas conventional guns apply a few percent of the reservoir pressure to a fast moving projectile, our design is paradoxically capable of applying nearly double the contained pressure. We later confirmed this experimental result analytically and related it to a type of direct energy exchange between unsteady fluid flows. This physical approach was the basis for the German V-1 ''buzz bomb'' of World War II; it has been applied to a limited number of commercial applications. (This work should not be confused with the German WWII distributed injection missile launchers.) Direct fluid-energy exchange has not previously been applied to any gas-launcher technology. As a result of these discoveries, we estimate that a practical, 15 km/s, high-velocity launcher could be built using our direct-energy-exchange, distributed-injection approach. However, the radical nature of the results, the lack of confirming or allied work being carried out anywhere else, and the fact that it would take extensive time and resources to demonstrate targeted performance precluded further development. We plan to submit the results to a refereed journal to ensure that the work will not be lost to the launcher community.

  15. Charge exchange fast neutral measurement with natural diamond detectors in neon plasma on LHD (United States)

    Saida, T.; Sasao, M.; Isobe, M.; Krasilnikov, A. V.


    Charge exchange (CX) fast neutral spectra produced by ion cyclotron resonance frequency hydrogen minority heating in neon and helium majority plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection were measured with perpendicular Natural Diamond Detectors during the fifth campaign in 2002 on large helical devices (LHDs). It was observed that there were differences between fast neutral spectra shapes in neon plasma and those in helium of the same discharge condition with similar plasma parameters. Dominant CX processes in neon and helium plasmas were studied for ionization components from outside of the last closed flux surface. High-energy proton spectra were obtained by taking account of each charge state distribution and responsible charge exchange cross sections. The high-energy proton tail formations in both plasmas were similar for the same heating regime. The relaxation time tendencies of the effective temperatures of a high-energy proton have also shown no differences, indicating that the acceleration and confinement of energetic ions in LHDs are similar in neon and helium plasmas.

  16. Charge Exchange Losses and Stochastic Acceleration in the Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Kenny, Ciaran


    Stochastic acceleration of particles under a pressure balance condition can accommodate the universal $p^{-5}$ spectra observed under many different conditions in the inner heliosphere. In this model, in order to avoid an infinite build up of particle pressure, a relationship between the momentum diffusion of particles and the adiabatic deceleration in the solar wind must exist. This constrains both the spatial and momentum diffusion coefficients and results in the $p^{-5}$ spectrum in the presence of adiabatic losses in the solar wind. However, this theory cannot explain the presence of such spectra beyond the termination shock, where adiabatic deceleration is negligible. To explain this apparent discrepancy, we include the effect of charge exchange losses, resulting in new forms of both the spatial and momentum diffusion coefficients that have not previously been considered. Assuming that the turbulence is of a large-scale compressible nature, we find that a balance between momentum diffusion and losses can...

  17. Improved edge charge exchange recombination spectroscopy in DIII-D (United States)

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Grierson, B. A.; Haskey, S. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Briesemeister, A.


    The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak has been upgraded with the addition of more high radial resolution view chords near the edge of the plasma (r/a > 0.8). The additional views are diagnosed with the same number of spectrometers by placing fiber optics side-by-side at the spectrometer entrance with a precise separation that avoids wavelength shifted crosstalk without the use of bandpass filters. The new views improve measurement of edge impurity parameters in steep gradient, H-mode plasmas with many different shapes. The number of edge view chords with 8 mm radial separation has increased from 16 to 38. New fused silica fibers have improved light throughput and clarify the observation of non-Gaussian spectra that suggest the ion distribution function can be non-Maxwellian in low collisionality plasmas.

  18. Charge Exchange Cross Sections Measured at Low Energies in Q-Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul


    A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%.......A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%....

  19. Numerical calculation of charge exchange cross sections for plasma diagnostics (United States)

    Mendez, Luis


    The diagnostics of impurity density and temperature in the plasma core in tokamak plasmas is carried out by applying the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) technique, where a fast beam of H atoms collides with the plasma particles leading to electron capture reactions with the impurity ions. The diagnostics is based on the emission of the excited ions formed in the electron capture. The application of the CXRS requires the knowledge of accurate state-selective cross sections, which in general are not accessible experimentally, and the calculation of cross sections for the high n capture levels, required for the diagnostics in the intermediate energy domain of the probe beam, is particularly difficult. In this work, we present a lattice numerical method to solve the time dependent Schrödinger equation. The method is based on the GridTDSE package, it is applicable in the wide energy range 1 - 500 keV/u and can be used to assess the accuracy of previous calculations. The application of the method will be illustrated with calculations for collisions of multiply charged ions with H. Work partially supported by project ENE2014-52432-R (Secretaria de Estado de I+D+i, Spain).

  20. Plasma code for astrophysical charge exchange emission at X-ray wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Liyi; Raassen, A J J


    Charge exchange X-ray emission provides unique insights into the interactions between cold and hot astrophysical plasmas. Besides its own profound science, this emission is also technically crucial to all observations in the X-ray band, since charge exchange with the solar wind often contributes a significant foreground component that contaminates the signal of interest. By approximating the cross sections resolved to $n$ and $l$ atomic subshells, and carrying out complete radiative cascade calculation, we create a new spectral code to evaluate the charge exchange emission in the X-ray band. Comparing to collisional thermal emission, charge exchange radiation exhibits enhanced lines from large-$n$ shells to the ground, as well as large forbidden-to-resonance ratios of triplet transitions. Our new model successfully reproduces an observed high-quality spectrum of comet C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), which emits purely by charge exchange between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. It demonstrates that a proper charge ...

  1. First measurement of the edge charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on EAST tokamak (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Yin, X. H.; Fu, J.; Jiang, D.; Feng, S. Y.; Lyu, B.; Shi, Y. J.; Yi, Y.; Zhou, X. J.; Hu, C. D.; Ye, M. Y.; Wan, B. N.


    An edge toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (eCXRS) diagnostic, based on a heating neutral beam injection (NBI), has been deployed recently on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The eCXRS, which aims to measure the plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity in the edge region simultaneously, is a complement to the exiting core CXRS (cCXRS). Two rows with 32 fiber channels each cover a radial range from ˜2.15 m to ˜2.32 m with a high spatial resolution of ˜5-7 mm. Charge exchange emission of Carbon VI CVI at 529.059 nm induced by the NBI is routinely observed, but can be tuned to any interested wavelength in the spectral range from 400 to 700 nm. Double-slit fiber bundles increase the number of channels, the fibers viewing the same radial position are binned on the CCD detector to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling shorter exposure time down to 5 ms. One channel is connected to a neon lamp, which provides the real-time wavelength calibration on a shot-to-shot basis. In this paper, an overview of the eCXRS diagnostic on EAST is presented and the first results from the 2015 experimental campaign will be shown. Good agreements in ion temperature and toroidal rotation are obtained between the eCXRS and cCXRS systems.

  2. Charge injection and transport in quantum confined and disordered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, A.J.


    Quantum dots and conducting polymers are modern semiconductors with a high potential for applications such as lasers, LEDs, displays, solar cells etc. These applications require the controlled addition of charge carriers into the material and knowledge of the details of charge transport. This thesis

  3. XMM-Newton Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.


    We present an XMM-Newton spectrum of diffuse X-ray emission from within the solar system. The spectrum is dominated by O VII and O VIII lines at 0.57 keV and 0.65 keV, O VIII (and possibly Fe XVII) lines at approximately 0.8 keV, Ne IX lines at approximately 0.92 keV, and Mg XI lines at approximately 1.35 keV. This spectrum is consistent with what is expected from charge exchange emission between the highly ionized solar wind and either interstellar neutrals in the heliosphere or material from Earth's exosphere. The emission is clearly seen as a low-energy ( E less than 1.5 keV) spectral enhancement in one of a series of observations of the Hubble Deep Field North. The X-ray enhancement is concurrent with an enhancement in the solar wind measured by the ACE satellite. The solar wind enhancement reaches a flux level an order of magnitude more intense than typical fluxes at 1 AU, and has ion ratios with significantly enhanced higher ionization states. Whereas observations of the solar wind plasma made at a single point reflect only local conditions which may only be representative of solar wind properties with spatial scales ranging from less than half of an Earth radii (approximately 10 s) to 100 Earth radii, X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange are remote sensing measurements which may provide observations which are significantly more global in character. Besides being of interest in its own right for studies of the solar system, this emission can have significant consequences for observations of more cosmological objects. It can provide emission lines at zero redshift which are of particular interest (e.g., O VII and O VIII) in studies of diffuse thermal emission, and which can therefore act as contamination in objects which cover the entire detector field of view. We propose the use of solar wind monitoring data, such as from the ACE and Wind spacecraft, as a diagnostic to screen for such possibilities.

  4. Spin Dependence in Neutron-Proton Charge Exchange at 790 MeV (United States)

    Ransome, R. D.; Hollas, C. L.; Riley, P. J.; Bonner, B. E.; Gibbs, W. R.; McNaughton, M. W.; Simmons, J. E.; Bhatia, T. S.; Glass, G.; Hiebert, J. C.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Tippens, W. B.


    The analyzing power A and spin-transfer parameters KNN, KSS, KSL, and KLL have been measured in the np charge-exchange (np-->pn) region at 790 MeV. These data provide new and unique information on the spin dependence of the np interaction in the charge-exchange region. Models which explain the charge-exchange peak in the np elastic differential cross section as being due to interference between one-pion exchange and a slowly varying background are in basic agreement with the data.

  5. Charge Exchange, from the Laboratory to Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory; Hell, Natalie; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.


    X-ray emission due to charge exchange (CX) between solar wind ions and neutrals in comets and planetary atmospheres is ubiquitous in the solar system, and is also a significant foreground in all observations from low-Earth orbit. It is also possible that CX is common astrophysically, in any environment where hot plasma and cold gas interact. A current challenge is that theoretical models of CX spectra do not always accurately describe observations, and require further experimental verification. This is especially important to focus on now, as the recent launch of Astro-H is providing us with the first high-resolution spectra of extended x-ray sources. In order to improve our understanding and modeling of CX spectra, we take advantage of the laboratory astrophysics program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and use an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) to perform CX experiments, using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer. We present experimental benchmarks that can be used to develop a more comprehensive and accurate CX theory. On the observational side, we also investigate the possibility of CX occurring in the filaments around the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster, NGC 1275. We use Chandra ACIS data, combined with what we know about laboratory CX spectra, to investigate the possibility of CX being a significant contributor to the x-ray emission.

  6. The Solar Wind Charge-Exchange Production Factor for Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntz, K D; Collier, M R; Connor, H K; Cravens, T E; Koutroumpa, D; Porter, F S; Robertson, I P; Sibeck, D G; Snowden, S L; Thomas, N E; Wash, B M


    The production factor, or broad band averaged cross-section, for solar wind charge-exchange with hydrogen producing emission in the ROSAT 1/4 keV (R12) band is $3.8\\pm0.2\\times10^{-20}$ count degree$^{-2}$ cm$^4$. This value is derived from a comparison of the Long-Term (background) Enhancements in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey with magnetohysdrodynamic simulations of the magnetosheath. This value is 1.8 to 4.5 times higher than values derived from limited atomic data, suggesting that those values may be missing a large number of faint lines. This production factor is important for deriving the exact amount of 1/4 keV band flux that is due to the Local Hot Bubble, for planning future observations in the 1/4 keV band, and for evaluating proposals for remote sensing of the magnetosheath. The same method cannot be applied to the 3/4 keV band as that band, being composed primarily of the oxygen lines, is far more sensitive to the detailed abundances and ionization balance in the solar wind. We also show, incidentally,...

  7. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Felix J; Lupton, John M


    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process, or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The resul...

  8. Super-knock Suppression Using Split Injection in a Turbo-Charged GDI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Meng


    Full Text Available Super-knock, which occurs under low-speed and big load operate condition in turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI engine, is an abnormal combustion phenomenon. Due to its potential to cause degradation of the engine, super knock has become the main obstacle for increasing specific power and lowing fuel consumption of engine. In order to investigate suppress strategies of super-knock, split injection is applied on a high boosted GDI engine. The results shows that: super knock correlates to some extent with split injection; further study shows that appropriate split injection duty ratio and the end of second injection time could reduce super knock effectively.

  9. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.


    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  10. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail:; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A. [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  11. Charge Exchange Collisions between Ultracold Fermionic Lithium Atoms and Calcium Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Shinsuke; Saito, Ryoichi; Mukaiyama, Takashi


    An observation of charge exchange collisions between ultracold fermionic 6Li atoms and 40Ca+ ions is reported. The reaction product of the charge exchange collision is dentified via mass spectrometry where the motion of the ions is excited parametrically. We measure the cross section of the charge exchange collisions between the 6Li atoms in the ground state and the 40Ca+ ions in the ground and metastable excited states. Investigation of the inelastic collision characteristics in the atom-ion mixture is an important step toward ultracold chemistry based on ultracold atoms and ions.

  12. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil (United States)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.


    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  13. Plasma code for astrophysical charge exchange emission at X-ray wavelengths (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Kaastra, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.


    Charge exchange X-ray emission provides unique insight into the interactions between cold and hot astrophysical plasmas. Besides its own profound science, this emission is also technically crucial to all observations in the X-ray band, since charge exchange with the solar wind often contributes a significant foreground component that contaminates the signal of interest. By approximating the cross sections resolved to n and l atomic subshells and carrying out complete radiative cascade calculation, we have created a new spectral code to evaluate the charge exchange emission in the X-ray band. Compared to collisional thermal emission, charge exchange radiation exhibits enhanced lines from large-n shells to the ground, as well as large forbidden-to-resonance ratios of triplet transitions. Our new model successfully reproduces an observed high-quality spectrum of comet C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), which emits purely by charge exchange between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. It demonstrates that a proper charge exchange model will allow us to probe the ion properties remotely, including charge state, dynamics, and composition, at the interface between the cold and hot plasmas.

  14. Radiation-induced noise in Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) and Charge-Injection Device (CID) imagers (United States)

    Yates, George J.; Turko, Bojan T.


    Measurements of radiation sensitivity for interline transfer charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and charge-injection devices (CIDs) from irradiation with high-energy photons (CO-60 gammas and 3-to 5-MeV end-point Bremsstrahlung) and 14-MeV neutrons are presented to establish imager susceptibility in such environments. Results from electric clearing techniques designed for quick (approximately 300 microseconds for the CCDs and approximately 10 microseconds for CIDs) removal (or dumping) of radiation-induced charge from prompt sources are discussed. Application of the techniques coupled with long (microsecond to millisecond) persistence radiation-to-light converters for image retention is described. Typical data illustrating the effectiveness of charge clearing in removal of radiation noise are included for nanosecond duration pulsed x ray/gamma-ray doses (50 millirad to 5-rad range) and microsecond duration neutron fluences approaching 10(exp 8) n/sq cm.

  15. Kinetic theory and atomic physics corrections for determination of ion velocities from charge-exchange spectroscopy (United States)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Chrystal, C.


    Charge-exchange spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for determining ion temperatures, densities and rotational velocities in tokamak plasmas. This technique depends on detailed understanding of the atomic physics processes that affect the measured apparent velocities with respect to the true ion rotational velocities. These atomic effects are mainly due to energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-sections, and in the case of poloidal velocities, due to gyro-motion of the ion during the finite lifetime of the excited states. Accurate lifetimes are necessary for correct interpretation of measured poloidal velocities, specially for high density plasma regimes on machines such as ITER, where l-mixing effects must be taken into account. In this work, a full nl-resolved atomic collisional radiative model coupled with a full kinetic calculation that includes the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the ion gyro-motion is presented for the first time. The model directly calculates from atomic physics first principles the excited state lifetimes that are necessary to evaluate the gyro-orbit effects. It is shown that even for low density plasmas where l-mixing effects are unimportant and coronal conditions can be assumed, the nl-resolved model is necessary for an accurate description of the gyro-motion effects to determine poloidal velocities. This solution shows good agreement when compared to three QH-mode shots on DIII-D, which contain a wide range of toroidal velocities and high ion temperatures where greater atomic corrections are needed. The velocities obtained from the model are compared to experimental velocities determined from co- and counter-injection of neutral beams on DIII-D.

  16. Recent Excitation, Charge Exchange, and Lifetime Results in Highly Charged Ions Relevant to Stellar, Interstellar, Solar and Comet Phenomena (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Hossain, S.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Smith, S. J.


    Recent JPL absolute excitation and charge exchange cross sections, and measurements of lifetimes of metastable levels in highly-charged ions (HCIs) are reported. These data provide benchmark comparisons to results of theoretical calculations. Theoretical approaches can then be used to calculate the vast array of data which cannot be measured due to experimental constraints. Applications to the X-ray emission from comets are given.

  17. A Method to Overcome Space Charge at Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya. Derbenev


    The transverse space charge forces in a high current, low energy beam can be reduced by mean of a large increase of the beam's transverse sizes while maintaining the beam area in the 4D phase space. This can be achieved by transforming the beam area in phase space of each of two normal 2D transverse (either plane or circular) modes from a spot shape into a narrow ring of a large amplitude, but homogeneous in phase. Such a transformation results from the beam evolution in the island of a dipole resonance when the amplitude width of the island shrinks adiabatically. After stacking (by using stripping foils or cooling) the beam in such a state and accelerating to energies sufficiently high that the space charge becomes insignificant, the beam then can be returned back to a normal spot shape by applying the reverse transformation. An arrangement that can provide such beam gymnastics along a transport line after a linac and before a booster and/or in a ring with circulating beam will be described and numerical estimates will be presented. Other potential applications of the method will be briefly discussed.

  18. 78 FR 6263 - Exchange Visitor Program-Fees and Charges (United States)


    ... educational and cultural exchanges to be a significant part of the public diplomacy efforts of the President... Order. The Department has examined the economic benefits, costs, and transfers associated with this... diplomacy and an integral component of American foreign policy. The benefits of these exchanges to...

  19. Solar Wind Charge Exchange and O VIII emission toward MBM 12 (United States)

    Edgar, Richard J.; Wargelin, B. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Slavin, J. D.; Smith, R. K.; Kharchenko, V.


    A Chandra observation toward MBM-12, a nearby (MBM 12 during the Chandra observation. The Solar Wind Charge Exchange mechanism can account for essentially all of the O VIII emission seen in this observation.

  20. Multi-turn injection into a heavy-ion synchrotron in the presence of space charge

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, Sabrina


    For heavy-ion synchrotrons an efficient Multi-Turn Injection (MTI) from the injector linac is crucial in order to reach the specified currents using the available machine acceptance. The beam loss during the MTI must not exceed the limits determined by machine protection and by the vacuum requirements. Especially for low energy and intermediate charge state ions, the beam loss at the injection septum can cause a degradation of the vacuum and a corresponding reduction of the beam lifetime. In order to optimize the injection of intense beams a very detailed simulation model was developed. Besides the closed orbit bump, lattice errors, the position of the septum and other aperture limiting components the transverse space charge force is included self-consistently. The space charge force causes a characteristic shift of the optimum tunes and a smoothing of the phase space density.

  1. Charge injection in thin dielectric layers by atomic force microscopy: influence of geometry and material work function of the AFM tip on the injection process (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Makasheva, K.; Boudou, L.; Teyssedre, G.


    Charge injection and retention in thin dielectric layers remain critical issues for the reliability of many electronic devices because of their association with a large number of failure mechanisms. To overcome this drawback, a deep understanding of the mechanisms leading to charge injection close to the injection area is needed. Even though the charge injection is extensively studied and reported in the literature to characterize the charge storage capability of dielectric materials, questions about charge injection mechanisms when using atomic force microscopy (AFM) remain open. In this paper, a thorough study of charge injection by using AFM in thin plasma-processed amorphous silicon oxynitride layers with properties close to that of thermal silica layers is presented. The study considers the impact of applied voltage polarity, work function of the AFM tip coating and tip curvature radius. A simple theoretical model was developed and used to analyze the obtained experimental results. The electric field distribution is computed as a function of tip geometry. The obtained experimental results highlight that after injection in the dielectric layer the charge lateral spreading is mainly controlled by the radial electric field component independently of the carrier polarity. The injected charge density is influenced by the nature of electrode metal coating (work function) and its geometry (tip curvature radius). The electron injection is mainly ruled by the Schottky injection barrier through the field electron emission mechanism enhanced by thermionic electron emission. The hole injection mechanism seems to differ from the electron one depending on the work function of the metal coating. Based on the performed analysis, it is suggested that for hole injection by AFM, pinning of the metal Fermi level with the metal-induced gap states in the studied silicon oxynitride layers starts playing a role in the injection mechanisms.

  2. Charge injection in thin dielectric layers by atomic force microscopy: influence of geometry and material work function of the AFM tip on the injection process. (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C; Makasheva, K; Boudou, L; Teyssedre, G


    Charge injection and retention in thin dielectric layers remain critical issues for the reliability of many electronic devices because of their association with a large number of failure mechanisms. To overcome this drawback, a deep understanding of the mechanisms leading to charge injection close to the injection area is needed. Even though the charge injection is extensively studied and reported in the literature to characterize the charge storage capability of dielectric materials, questions about charge injection mechanisms when using atomic force microscopy (AFM) remain open. In this paper, a thorough study of charge injection by using AFM in thin plasma-processed amorphous silicon oxynitride layers with properties close to that of thermal silica layers is presented. The study considers the impact of applied voltage polarity, work function of the AFM tip coating and tip curvature radius. A simple theoretical model was developed and used to analyze the obtained experimental results. The electric field distribution is computed as a function of tip geometry. The obtained experimental results highlight that after injection in the dielectric layer the charge lateral spreading is mainly controlled by the radial electric field component independently of the carrier polarity. The injected charge density is influenced by the nature of electrode metal coating (work function) and its geometry (tip curvature radius). The electron injection is mainly ruled by the Schottky injection barrier through the field electron emission mechanism enhanced by thermionic electron emission. The hole injection mechanism seems to differ from the electron one depending on the work function of the metal coating. Based on the performed analysis, it is suggested that for hole injection by AFM, pinning of the metal Fermi level with the metal-induced gap states in the studied silicon oxynitride layers starts playing a role in the injection mechanisms.

  3. 78 FR 28137 - Exchange Visitor Program-Fees and Charges (United States)


    .... The Department has examined the economic benefits, costs, and transfers associated with this rule, and declares that educational and cultural exchanges are both cornerstones of U.S. public diplomacy and...

  4. Dispersion Matching of a Space Charge dominated Beam at Injection into the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Klaus; Scrivens, Richard


    In order to match the dispersion at injection into the CERN PS Booster, the optics of the injection line was simulated using two different codes (MAD and TRACE). The simulations were benchmarked versus experimental results. The model of the line was then used to re-match the dispersion. Experimental results are presented for different optics of the line. Measurements with varying beam current show the independence of the measured quantity of space-charge effects.

  5. Charge-exchange Coupling between Pickup Ions across the Heliopause and its Effect on Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Flux (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Zank, G. P.; Pogorelov, N. V.; McComas, D. J.; Desai, M. I.


    Pickup ions (PUIs) appear to play an integral role in the multi-component nature of the plasma in the interaction between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium (LISM). Three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations with a kinetic treatment for neutrals and PUIs are currently still not viable. In light of recent energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations by the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the complex coupling between PUIs across the heliopause (HP) as facilitated by ENAs using estimates of PUI properties extracted from a 3D MHD simulation of the SW-LISM interaction with kinetic neutrals. First, we improve upon the multi-component treatment of the inner heliosheath (IHS) plasma from Zank et al. by including the extinction of PUIs through charge-exchange. We find a significant amount of energy is transferred away from hot, termination shock-processed PUIs into a colder, "freshly injected" PUI population. Second, we extend the multi-component approach to estimate ENA flux from the outer heliosheath (OHS), formed from charge-exchange between interstellar hydrogen atoms and energetic PUIs. These PUIs are formed from ENAs in the IHS that crossed the HP and experienced charge-exchange. Our estimates, based on plasma-neutral simulations of the SW-LISM interaction and a post-processing analysis of ENAs and PUIs, suggest the majority of flux visible at 1 AU from the front of the heliosphere, between ~0.02 and 10 keV, originates from OHS PUIs, indicating strong coupling between the IHS and OHS plasmas through charge-exchange.

  6. Significance of anion exchange in pentachlorophenol sorption by variable-charge soils. (United States)

    Hyun, Seunghun; Lee, Linda S; Rao, P Suresh C


    Sorption data and subsequent predictive models for evaluating acidic pesticide behavior on variable-charge soils are needed to improve pesticide management and environmental stewardship. Previous work demonstrated that sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a model organic acid, was adequately modeled by accounting for pH-and pKa-dependent chemical speciation and using two organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients; one each for the neutral and anionic species. Such models do not account for organic anion interaction to positively charged surface sites, which can be significant for variable-charge minerals present in weathered soils typical of tropical and subtropical regions. The role of anion exchange in sorption of ionizable chemicals by variable-charge soils was assessed by measuring sorption of PCP by several variable-charge soils from aqueous solutions of CaCl2, CaSO4, Ca(H2PO4)2 as a function of pH. Differences in sorption from phosphate and chloride electrolyte solutions were attributed to pentachlorophenolate interactions with anion exchange sites. Suppression of PCP sorption by phosphate ranged from negligible in a soil with essentially no positively charge sites, as measured by negligible anion exchange capacity, to as much as 69% for variable-charge soils. Pentachlorophenolate exchange correlated well with the ratio of pH-dependent anion exchange capacity to net surface charge. Sorption reversibility of PCP by both CaCl2 and Ca(H2PO4)2 solutions was also demonstrated. Results for PCP clearly demonstrate that sorption to anion exchange sites in variable-charge soils should be considered in assessing pesticide mobility and that phosphate fertilizer application may increase the mobility of acidic pesticides.

  7. Laboratory simulation of charge exchange-produced X-ray emission from comets. (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; May, M; Olson, R E; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Tillotson, W A


    In laboratory experiments using the engineering spare microcalorimeter detector from the ASTRO-E satellite mission, we recorded the x-ray emission of highly charged ions of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which simulates charge exchange reactions between heavy ions in the solar wind and neutral gases in cometary comae. The spectra are complex and do not readily match predictions. We developed a charge exchange emission model that successfully reproduces the soft x-ray spectrum of comet Linear C/1999 S4, observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  8. The Contribution of Reggeon in Charge Exchange Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Feng Zhou; Lian Shou Liu; Yufeng, Zhou; Hongan, Peng; Lianshou, Liu


    We discuss in this paper The experimental results on maximum psedo-rapidity Collaboration at HERA. We calculate the contributions of \\regg ($\\rho$-Reggeon associated with $\\rho$ meson) from regge phenomenology and $\\pi^{+}$-exchange from pion cloud model. The results show that neither the \\regg-exchange nor the pion cloud model alone can explain the experimental data well, but after considering both these two processes together, by using Monte Carlo simulation, a good agreement between theoretical results and experimental data is found. This means that in discussing the large rapidity gap phenomena in deep inelastic scattering, both of the two processes play substantial role.

  9. 76 FR 10498 - Exchange Visitor Program-Fees and Charges (United States)


    ... as sponsors of an exchange visitor program, designated as such to further the public diplomacy... Department has determined that this rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number... Department has examined the economic benefits, costs, and transfers associated with this final rule,...

  10. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.


    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  11. Determination of the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Response of a Charge - Injection Device Array Detector. (United States)


    spectroscopic systems. In contrast to these approaches the charge-injection device has several unique features. The CID * ensor consists of a discrete...Embassy University of California, San Diego APO San Francisco 96503 La Jolla, California Mr. James Kelley Dr. A. Zirino DT.R.C Code 2R03 Naval Undersea Center Annapolis, Maryland 21402 San Diego, California 92132 1

  12. Charge transport, injection, and photovoltaic phenomena in oligo(phenylenevinylene) based diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melzer, Christian; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Hadziioannou, Georges


    We report on the charge transport and injection phenomena of (E,E,E,E)-1,4-bis[(4-styryl)styryl]-2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)benzene (MEH-OPV5) sandwiched between asymmetric contacts. The hole mobility of MEH-OPV5 was determined by means of transient electroluminescence. The steady-state current was

  13. Charge-exchange Induced Modulation of the Heliosheath Ion Distribution Downstream of the Termination Shock (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.


    We consider the evolution of the solar wind ion distribution function alongthe plasma flow downstream from the termination shock induced by chargeexchange processes with cold interstellar H-atoms. We start from a kineticphase space transport equation valid in the bulk frame of the plasma flowthat takes into account convective changes, cooling processes, energydiffusion and ion injection, and describes solar wind and pick-up ionsas a co-moving, isotropic, joint ion population. From this kinetic transportequation one can ascend to an equation for the pressure moment of the iondistribution function, a so-called pressure transport equation, describingthe evolution of the ion pressure in the comoving rest frame. Assuming thatthe local ion distribution can be represented by an adequate kappa functionwith a kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinate, weobtain an ordinary differential equation for kappa as function of thestreamline coordinate s. With this result then we gain the heliosheath iondistribution function downstream of the termination shock. The latter thencan be used to predict the Voyager-2 measured moments of the distributionfunction like ion density and ion temperature, and it can also be used topredict spectral fluxes of ENA`s originating from these ions and registeredby IBEX-Hi and IBEX-Lo.We especially analyse the solar wind ion temperature decreasemeasured by Voyager-2 between the years 2008 to 2011 and try to explain itas a charge-exchange induced cooling of the ion distribution function duringthe associated ion convection period.

  14. Nanoscale quantification of charge injection and transportation process in Si-nanocrystal based sandwiched structure. (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Pengzhan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji


    Si nanocrystals are formed by using KrF pulsed laser crystallization of an amorphous SiC/ultrathin amorphous Si/amorphous SiC sandwiched structure. Electrons and holes are injected into Si nanocrystals via a biased conductive AFM tip and the carrier decay and transportation behaviours at the nanoscale are studied by joint characterization techniques of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). Quantification of the surface charge density is realized by solving the Poisson equation based on KPFM measurements. Besides, the asymmetric barrier height for electrons and holes is considered to play a dominant role in controlling the charge retention and transportation characteristics. The methodology developed in this work is promising for studying the charge injection and transportation process in other materials and structures at the nanoscale.

  15. Location of DNA damage by charge exchanging repair enzymes: effects of cooperativity on location time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Kasper


    Full Text Available Abstract Background How DNA repair enzymes find the relatively rare sites of damage is not known in great detail. Recent experiments and molecular data suggest that individual repair enzymes do not work independently of each other, but interact with each other through charges exchanged along the DNA. A damaged site in the DNA hinders this exchange. The hypothesis is that the charge exchange quickly liberates the repair enzymes from error-free stretches of DNA. In this way, the sites of damage are located more quickly; but how much more quickly is not known, nor is it known whether the charge exchange mechanism has other observable consequences. Results Here the size of the speed-up gained from this charge exchange mechanism is calculated and the characteristic length and time scales are identified. In particular, for Escherichia coli, I estimate the speed-up is 50000/N, where N is the number of repair enzymes participating in the charge exchange mechanism. Even though N is not exactly known, a speed-up of order 10 is not entirely unreasonable. Furthermore, upon over expression of all the repair enzymes, the location time only varies as N-1/2 and not as 1/N. Conclusion The revolutionary hypothesis that DNA repair enzymes use charge exchange along DNA to locate damaged sites more efficiently is actually sound from a purely theoretical point of view. Furthermore, the predicted collective behavior of the location time is important in assessing the impact of stress-ful and radioactive environments on individual cell mutation rates.

  16. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes. (United States)

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J


    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-).

  17. Theoretical study of charge exchange dynamics in He$^+$ + NO collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bene, E


    We investigate the charge transfer mechanism in the collisions of helium ions on nitric oxide using a molecular description framework with consideration of the orientation of the projectile toward the target. The anisotropy of the collision process has been analysed in detail in connection with the non-adiabatic interactions around avoided crossings. Potential energy curves, radial and rotational coupling matrix elements have been determined by means of ab initio quantum chemical methods. The collision dynamics is performed in the [1.-25.] keV collision energy range using a semiclassical approach, and the total electron transfer cross sections are analysed with regard to available experimental data.

  18. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro


    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  19. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Martin, E-mail: [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)


    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  20. Feedback Direct Injection Current Readout For Infrared Charge-Coupled Devices (United States)

    Kubo, Kazuya; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Kajihara, Nobuyuki; Awamoto, Kenji; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro


    We are proposing current readout for infrared charge coupled devices (IRCCDs) which can operate at higher temperatures. Feedback direct injection (FDI) consists of a simple amplifier of gain, AFDI was used in a medium-wavelength IRCCD operating at a high temperature. We made a 64-element HgCdTe linear IRCCD using FDI. The device operates at 195 K with an NETD of 0.5 K.

  1. Total cross sections for pion charge exchange on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, J.


    This work describes the measurement of total SCX cross sections employing a new 4{pi} scintillation counter to perform transmission measurements in the incident pion energy range from about 38 to 250 MeV. A small 4{pi} detector box consisting of thin plastic scintillators has been constructed. The transmission technique, which was used, relates the number of transmitted charged pions to that of incident beam pions and this way effectively counts events with neutral products. The incoming negative pions were counted by three beam defining counters before they hit a target of very well known size and chemical composition. The target was placed in the box detector which was not sensitive to the neutral particles resulting from the SCX. The total cross section for emerging neutral particles was derived from the comparison of the numbers of the incoming and transmitted charged particles. The total SCX cross section on hydrogen was derived from the transmissions of a CH{sub 2} target, a carbon target and an empty target. For a detailed offline analysis all TDC, QDC and FADC information was recorded in an event by event mode for each triggered beam event. Various corrections had to be applied to the data, such as random correction, the detection of neutrals in the detector, Dalitz decay, pion decay and the radiative pion capture. This measurement covers, as the only experiment, the whole {delta}-resonance and the sp-interference region in one single experimental setup and improves the available data base for the SCX reaction. It is shown that the description of the SCX cross sections is improved if the s-wave amplitudes, that have been fixed essentially by elastic pion-nucleon scattering data, is reduced by (4{+-}1.5)%. The exact value depends on the SCX literature data included and on the parameters of the {delta}{sup 0} Breit-Wigner resonance describing the p{sub 33}-waves. This shows that p-wave as well as s-wave effects should be considered in studies of isospin

  2. Charge state distributions and charge exchange cross sections of carbon in helium at 30-258 keV (United States)

    Maxeiner, Sascha; Seiler, Martin; Suter, Martin; Synal, Hans-Arno


    With the introduction of helium stripping in radiocarbon (14C) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), higher +1 charge state yields in the 200 keV region and fewer beam losses are observed compared to nitrogen or argon stripping. To investigate the feasibility of even lower beam energies for 14C analyses the stripping characteristics of carbon in helium need to be further studied. Using two different AMS systems at ETH Zurich (myCADAS and MICADAS), ion beam transmissions of carbon ions for the charge states -1, +1, +2 and +3 were measured in the range of 258 keV down to 30 keV. The correction for beam losses and the extraction of charge state yields and charge exchange cross sections will be presented. An increase in population of the +1 charge state towards the lowest measured energies up to 75% was found as well as agreement with previous data from literature. The findings suggest that more compact radiocarbon AMS systems are possible and could provide even higher efficiency than current systems operating in the 200 keV range.

  3. High spatial and temporal resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the HL-2A tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Y. L.; Yu, D. L.; Liu, L.; Ida, K.; von Hellermann, M.; Cao, J. Y.; Sun, A. P.; Ma, Q.; Chen, W. J.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong


    A 32/64-channel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system is developed on the HL-2A tokamak (R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m), monitoring plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity simultaneously. A high throughput spectrometer (F/2.8) and a pitch-controlled fiber bundle e

  4. Conceptual design of the ITER upper port plug for charge exchange diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakov, S.; Baross, T.; Biel, W.; Borsuk, V.; Hawkes, N.; Hellermann, M. von; Gille, P.; Kiss, G.; Koning, J.; Knaup, M.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Krasikov, Yu.; Litnovsky, A.; Neubauer, O.; Panin, A.


    A plug for the ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (core CXRS) is located in the upper port 3. It transfers the light emitted by interaction of plasma ions with the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB). The plug consists of a main shell, a shielding cassette and a retractable tube. The tub

  5. Microscopic structure of charge-exchange spin-isospin modes through decay measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, M.N.


    The study of particle decay of charge-exchange giant resonances (CEGR) furnishes information on their microscopic structure. Furthermore, gamma decay of CEGR call help to unravel their structure. For example, the gamma-decay of the Gamow-Teller (GT) resonance to the isobaric analogue state (IAS) poi

  6. The role of ionic functionality on charge injection processes in conjugated polymers and fullerenes (United States)

    Weber, Christopher David

    Understanding the fundamental chemistry of conjugated polymers and fullerenes has been the subject of intense research for the last three decades, with the last ten years seeing increased research toward the application of these materials into functional organic electronic devices such as organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). This field has seen significant advances is cell efficiency in just the last few years (to >10%), in large part due to the development of new donor and acceptor materials, the fine tuning of fabrication parameters to control material nanostructure, as well as the introduction of new interfacial materials such as ionically functionalized conjugated polymers, also known as conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs). This dissertation aims to further understand the fundamental chemistry associated with charge injection processes in CPEs and ionically functionalized fullerenes. The role of ionic functionality on electrochemical, chemical, and interfacial charge injection processes is explored. The results presented demonstrate the use of ionic functionality to control the spatial doping profile of a bilayer structure of anionically and cationically functionalized CPEs to fabricate a p-n junction (Chapter II). The role of ionic functionality on chemical charge injection processes is explored via the reaction of polyacetylene and polythiophene based CPEs with molecular oxygen (Chapters III and IV). The results show the dramatic effect of ionic functionality, as well as the specific role of the counterion, on the photooxidative stability of CPEs. The control of reaction pathway via counterion charge density is also explored (Chapter IV) and shows a continuum of reaction pathways based on the charge density of the counter cation. Finally, the role of ionic functionality on interfacial charge injection processes in a functional OPV is explored using a cationically functionalized fullerene derivative (Chapters V and VI). Cell performance increases due to an

  7. Charge exchange collisions of slow C6 + with atomic and molecular H (United States)

    Saha, Bidhan C.; Guevara, Nicolais L.; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, Erik; Öhrn, Yngve


    Charge exchange in collisions of C6+ ions with H and H2 is investigated theoretically at projectile energies 0.1 motions. Both the total and partial cross sections are reported for the collision of C6+ ions with atomic and molecular hydrogen. A comparison with other theoretical and experimental results shows, in general good agreement except at very low energy, considered here. For H2, the one- and two-electron charge exchange cross sections are calculated and compared with other theoretical and experimental results. Small but non-negligible isotope effects are found at the lowest energy studied in the charge transfer of C6+ with H. In low energy region, it is observed that H2 has larger isotope effects than H atom due to the polarizability effect which is larger than the mass effect.

  8. Performance of multiple mini-tube heat exchangers as an internal heat exchanger of a vapor-injection cycle heat pump (United States)

    Jang, Jin Yong; Jeong, Ji Hwan


    A multiple mini-tube (MMT) heat exchanger was considered as an internal heat exchanger of vapor-injection cycle heat pump. Heat transfer and pressure drop in multiple mini-tube heat exchangers were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results show that the best performance of the MMT heat exchanger can be obtained when the intermediate-pressure two-phase refrigerant is supplied to the shell-side and this refrigerant reaches a saturated vapor state at the exit of the heat exchanger.

  9. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  10. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  11. Chiral anion exchangers applied to capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation of oppositely charged chiral analytes: investigation of stationary and mobile phase parameters. (United States)

    Lämmerhofer, M; Tobler, E; Lindner, W


    Weak anion-exchange (WAX) type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) based on tert.-butyl carbamoyl quinine as chiral selector (SO) and different types of silica particles (porous and non-porous) as chromatographic support are evaluated in packed capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Their ability to resolve the enantiomers of negatively charged chiral analytes, e.g., N-derivatized amino acids, in the anion-exchange mode and their electrochromatographic characteristics are described in dependence of several mobile phase parameters (pH, buffer type and concentration, organic modifier type and concentration) and other experimental variables (electric field strength, capillary temperature). The inherent "zwitterionic" surface character of such silica-based WAX type CSPs (positively charged SO and negatively charged residual silanols) allows the reversal of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) towards the anode at pH values below the isoelectric point (pI) of the modified surface, whereas a cathodic EOF results at pH values above the pI. Since for negatively charged analytes also an electrophoretic transport increment has to be considered, which can be either in or against the EOF direction, several distinct modes of elution have been observed under different stationary phase and mobile phase conditions: (i) co-electrophoretic elution of the negatively charged solutes with the anodic EOF in the negative polarity mode, (ii) counter-electrophoretic elution with the cathodic EOF in the positive polarity mode, and (iii) electrophoretically dominated elution in the negative polarity mode with a cathodic EOF directed to the injection end of the capillary. Useful enantioseparations of chiral acids have been obtained with all three modes. Enantioselectivity values as high as under pressure-driven conditions and theoretical plate numbers up to 120000 per meter could be achieved under electrically driven conditions. A repeatability study yielded RSD values below 2% for retention times and

  12. Signatures of the electron saddle swaps mechanism in the photon spectra following charge-exchange collisions (United States)

    Otranto, Sebastian


    During the last few years, several experimental and theoretical studies have focused on state selective charge exchange processes between charged ions and alkali metals. These data are of particular importance for the tokamak nuclear fusion reactor program, since diagnostics on the plasma usually rely on charge-exchange spectroscopy. In this sense, alkali metals, have been proposed as potential alternatives to excited hydrogen/deuterium for which laboratory experiments are not feasible at present. In this talk, we present our recent work involving ion collisions with alkali metals. Oscillatory structures in the angular differential charge-exchange cross sections obtained using the MOTRIMS technique are correctly described by classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. These oscillations are found to originate from the number of swaps the electron undergoes around the projectile-target potential saddle before capture takes place and are very prominent at impact energies below 10 keV/amu. Moreover, cross sections of higher order of differentiability also indicate that the swaps leave distinctive signatures in the (n,l)-state selective cross sections and in the photon line emission cross sections. Oscillatory structures for the x-ray hardness ratio parameter are also predicted. In collaboration with Ronnie Hoekstra, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen and Ronald Olson, Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology.

  13. Absolute Charge Exchange Cross Sections for ^3He^2+ Collisions with ^4He and H_2 (United States)

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Greenwood, J.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.


    The JPL charge exchange beam-line(J.B. Greenwood, et al., Phys. Rev A 63), 062707 (2001) was modified to increase the forward acceptance angle and enable the measurement of total charge-exchange cross sections for slow, light, highly-charged ion collisions with neutral targets(R. E. Olson and M. Kimura, J. Phys. B 15), 4231 (1982). Data are presented for single charge exchange cross sections for ^3He^2+ nuclei scattered by ^4He and H2 in the energy range 0.33-4.67 keV/amu. For both targets there is good agreement with Kusakabe, et al.(T. Kusakabe, et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 59), 1218 (1990). Angular collection is studied by a comparison with differential measurements(D. Bordenave-Montesquieu and R. Dagnac, J. Phys. B 27), 543 (1994), as well as with earlier JPL results(J.B. Greenwood, et al., Ap. J. 533), L175 (2000), ibid. 529, 605 (2000) using heavier projectiles and targets. This work was carried out at JPL/Caltech, and was supported through contract with NASA. RJM thanks the NRC for a Senior Associateship at JPL.

  14. Analysis of the effects of constant-current Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling injection with charge trapping inside the potential barrier (United States)

    Lopez-Villanueva, J. A.; Jimenez-Tejada, J. A.; Cartujo, P.; Bausells, J.; Carceller, J. E.


    Charge trapping and the generation of interface traps in thermally grown SiO2 and its interface with silicon, produced by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling injection at low temperatures from highly doped Si substrates, have been investigated. The results that can be obtained with the constant-current-injection method, when a moderate amount of charge is trapped inside the potential barrier, have been analyzed. This has afforded information about the position of the charge trapped in the oxide. No increase in the interface-trap density has been produced immediately after injection at 77 K, but, as the temperature is raised after injection, the growing of a peak of interface states has been observed. This phenomenon had been reported to be produced as a consequence of a previous hole trapping but, in this case, this intermediate stage of positive-charge building has not been observed. This effect is discussed, taking into account published models.

  15. Entropy Exchange in Coupled Field-Superconducting Charge Qubit System with Intrinsic Decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; ZHANG Jian; ZOU Jian


    Based on the intrinsic decoherence effect, partial entropy properties of a super conducting charge qubitinside a single-mode cavity field is investigated, and entropy exchange which is recently regarded as a kind of anti-correlated behavior of the entropy between subsystems is explored. Our results show that although the intrinsic decoherenceleads to an effective irreversible evolution of the interacting system due to a suppression of coherent quantum features through the decay of off-diagonal matrix elements of the density operator and has an apparently influence on the partial entropy of two individual subsystems, it does not effect the entropy exchange between the two subsystems.

  16. Inclusive double-charge-exchange. pi. /sup -/ production at 100 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.; Lanou, R.E.; Massimo, J.T.; Meunier, R.; Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Weitsch, G.A.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.


    Measurements of inclusive cross sections at 100 GeV/c are presented for the double-charge-exchange reactions a/sup +/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/X with a = ..pi.., K, or p. The measurements covered a kinematic range in the Feynman x variable of 0.3 < or = x < or = 0.9 at transverse momenta of 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c. A model summing the contributions from resonance production and from inclusive central-region ..pi../sup -/ production is used to fit the data and demonstrates the importance of resonance production via one-pion exchange for large values of the Feynman x.

  17. Calibration by precise charge injection of a sub-detector of CMS; Calibration par injection de charge du calorimetre electromagnetique de CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong-Wook Baek


    This thesis was carried out within the framework of the international collaboration which has the responsibility of the experience CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) on LHC, at CERN. The physics of the fundamental particles which will be explored by this experiment is described within the standard model. The configuration of sub-detector of CMS is briefly described, with a particular weight on the read-out chain of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The work carried out to calibrate this chain by a precise charge injection at the input of preamplifiers is described. The 4 integrated circuits CTRL, TPLS, DAC, and injector which will constitute the components of this chain of calibration are described. The circuit of injection, which is the main circuit in this project, was imagined and developed at the laboratory in DMILL technology. This injector generates a signal which has a form identical to the signal of the detector. The measurements on the linearity of the injectors are presented. In order to know its behavior under real conditions (flow of neutrons {approx} 2 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/10 years) where this circuit is installed in detector CMS, we submitted the prototypes of injector to irradiation and the results are summarized. The research and development on this circuit produced an integrated circuit hardened to irradiations, whose variation of slope is lower than 0.25% for an integrated of 2 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} and indestructible under 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. This circuit has satisfactory qualities to be assembled on the electronic card which will treat the data of calorimeter ECAL of CMS. (author)

  18. WFC3/UVIS Charge Injection Behavior: Results of an Initial Test (United States)

    Bushouse, H.; Baggett, S.; Gilliland, R.; Noeske, K.; Petro, L.


    The WFC3 CCD Charge Injection (CI) capability has been tested on-orbit in Cycle18 calibration program 12348. Bias, dark, and science exposures of star cluster NGC 104 have been obtained in all commandable CI modes. Super-bias images were constructed for each CI mode and used to calibrate the NGC 104 exposures. Analysis has shown that the CI mode is working as expected, producing injected signals of ~15000 e-/pix. The CI signal is stable and repeatable to a level of a few e-/pix. CI rows in calibrated science images have mean residual signals of a few e-/pix with 1-sigma noise of ~18 e-/pix. Noise in science images in the rows in between CI varies from 3.5-6.5 e-/pix, compared to ~3.4 e-/pix in non-CI images.

  19. Pionic charge exchange on the proton from 40 to 250 MeV (United States)

    Breitschopf, J.; Bauer, M.; Clement, H.; Cröni, M.; Denz, H.; Friedman, E.; Gibson, E. F.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.


    The total cross sections for pionic charge exchange on hydrogen were measured using a transmission technique on thin CH2 and C targets. Data were taken for π- lab energies from 39 to 247 MeV with total errors of typically 2% over the Δ-resonance and up to 10% at the lowest energies. Deviations from the predictions of the SAID phase shift analysis in the 60-80 MeV region are interpreted as evidence for isospin-symmetry breaking in the s-wave amplitudes. The charge dependence of the Δ-resonance properties appears to be smaller than previously reported.

  20. Removing Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charged Exchange Recombination (United States)

    Wargelin, Brad


    Our research uses the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study X-ray emission from the charge exchange (CX) of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data help to fill a void in existing experimental and theoretical understanding of this atomic physics process, and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the soft X-ray background, stellar winds, the Galactic Center and Galactic Ridge, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae. Appreciation of the astrophysical relevance of our work continues to grow with the publication of roughly a dozen papers in the past four years describing Chandra and XMM observations of geocoronal and heliospheric CX emission, the temporal variation of such emission and correlation with X-ray emission enhancements observed by ROSAT, the theoretical spatial distribution of that emission, and CX emission around other stars. A similar number of papers were also published during that time describing CX emission from planets and comets. We expect that the launch of ASTRSE2, with its second-generation XRS microcalo- (with 6-eV resolution), will reveal even more clearly the contributions of CX to astrophysical emission. In our EBIT work we collected CX spectra from such ions as H-like and He-like Ne, Ar, and Fe. Our early measurements were made with a high-purity Ge detector, but during the second year we began operation of the first-generation XRS microcalorimeter (a twin of the XRS on ASTRO-E) and greatly improved the resolution of our measurements from roughly 150 eV (FWHM) with the Ge detectors to 10 eV with the XRS. We found that saturation of the XRS counting apparatus, which we described in our proposal as a potential concern, is not a problem for studying CX. During the course of our research, we expanded the number of injection gases permitted by the LLNL safety team, purchased and eventually operated an atomic H source, and clearly demonstrated the

  1. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V


    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  2. Infrared study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang


    We present a systematic infrared (IR) spectroscopic study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors (FET). These experiments have revealed new unexpected aspects of both polymers and molecular crystals. IR spectromicroscopy was employed to image the charges in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) FETs. The charge density profile in the conducting channel uncovers a density-dependent mobility in P3HT due to disorder effects. Our IR studies of single crystal rubrene based FETs show that charge transport in these devices at room temperature is governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands. This result is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids. The above experiments have demonstrated the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for investigating physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices. This work is in collaboration with G. M. Wang, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger (UCSB), V. Podzorov, M.E. Gershenson (Rutgers), Z. Hao, M. C. Martin (ALS), N. Sai, A. D. Meyertholen, M. M. Fogler, M. Di Ventra and D. N. Basov (UCSD).

  3. Electron capture rates in stars studied with heavy ion charge exchange reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A


    Indirect methods using nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies (here, high energies mean $\\sim$ 50 MeV/nucleon and higher) are now routinely used to extract information of interest for nuclear astrophysics. This is of extreme relevance as many of the nuclei involved in stellar evolution are short-lived. Therefore, indirect methods became the focus of recent studies carried out in major nuclear physics facilities. Among such methods, heavy ion charge exchange is thought to be a useful tool to infer Gamow-Teller matrix elements needed to describe electron capture rates in stars and also double beta-decay experiments. In this short review, I provide a theoretical guidance based on a simple reaction model for charge exchange reactions.

  4. Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron-proton charge exchange at 726 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dymov, S; Bagdasarian, Z; Barsov, S; Carbonell, J; Chiladze, D; Engels, R; Gebel, R; Grigoryev, K; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A; Khoukaz, A; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Kurbatov, V; Lomidze, N; Lorentz, B; Macharashvili, G; Mchedlishvili, D; Merzliakov, S; Mielke, M; Mikirtychyants, M; Mikirtychyants, S; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Seyfarth, H; Shmakova, V; Ströher, H; Tabidze, M; Trusov, S; Tsirkov, D; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Weidemann, C; Wilkin, C


    The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td = 726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy E_{pp}, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn ~ 1/2 Td =363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both E_{pp} and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron-proton partial-wave solution that was used in the estimation.

  5. Polarization of the Charge-Exchange X-rays Induced in the Heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Gacesa, Marko; Côt\\/e, Robin; Kharchenko, Vasili


    We report results of a theoretical investigation of polarization of the X-ray emissions induced in charge-exchange collisions of fully stripped solar wind ions C$^{6+}$ and O$^{8+}$ with the heliospheric hydrogen atoms. The polarization of X-ray emissions has been computed for line-of-sight observations within the ecliptic plane as a function of solar wind ion velocities, including a range of velocities corresponding to the slow and fast solar wind, and Coronal Mass Ejections. To determine the variability of polarization of heliospheric X-ray emissions, the polarization has been computed for solar minimum conditions with self-consistent parameters of the solar wind plasma and heliospheric gas and compared with the polarization calculated for an averaged solar activity. We predict the polarization of charge-exchange X-rays to be between 3% and 8%, depending on the line-of-sight geometry, solar wind ion velocity, and the selected emission lines.

  6. ROSAT Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange with the Lunar Exosphere (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Travnicek, P.


    We analyze the ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the count rate in three wedges, two wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 degrees off (19 degrees wide) the terminator towards the dark side and one wedge 38 degrees wide centered on the anti-solar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show substantial limb brightening that is absent in the 38 degree wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the count rate increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere. Along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which solar wind charge exchange has been observed. This technique can be used to explore the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  7. Charge-Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic of TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontdecaba, J. M.; Balbin, R.; Petrov, S.; TJ-II team


    A description of the Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzers in operation in the heliac flexible TJ-II is reported. A description of the detectors, as well as the operation characteristics, hardware and software used in the control and analysis of the data obtained with the diagnostic is detailed. Two NPAs are in operation in TJ-II. One of them is a 5-channel analyzer and another one is an Acord-12. The 5-channel analyzer provides measurements of charge exchange neutral fluxes at five energy channels, whereas the Acord-12 can measure simultaneously two different hydrogen isotopes (H and D) at six energy channels. Their lines of sight can be varied poloidally in order to observe the different sections of the plasma. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron–proton charge exchange at 726 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dymov


    Full Text Available The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td=726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy Epp, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron–proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn≈12Td=363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both Epp and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron–proton partial wave solution that was used in the estimation.

  9. Nuclear fragmentation and charge-exchange reactions induced by pions in the $\\Delta$-resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing


    Dynamics of the nuclear fragmentations and the charge exchange reactions in pion-nucleus collisions near the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance energies has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. An isospin, momentum and density-dependent pion-nucleon potential is implemented in the model, which influences the pion dynamics, in particular the kinetic energy spectra, but weakly impacts the fragmentation mechanism. The absorption process in pion-nucleon collisions to form the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance dominates the heating mechanism of target nucleus. The excitation energy transferred to the target nucleus increases with the pion kinetic energy and is similar for both $\\pi^{-}$ and $\\pi^{+}$ induced reactions. The magnitude of fragmentation of target nucleus weakly depends on the pion energy. The isospin ratio in the pion double charge exchange is influenced by the isospin ingredient of target nucleus.

  10. Using Kappa Functions to Characterize Outer Heliosphere Proton Distributions in the Presence of Charge-exchange (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; McComas, D. J.


    Kappa functions have long been used in the analysis and modeling of suprathermal particles in various space plasmas. In situ observations of the supersonic solar wind show its distribution contains a cold ion core and power-law tail, which is well-represented by a kappa function. In situ plasma observations by Voyager, as well as observations of energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), showed that the compressed and heated inner heliosheath (IHS) plasma beyond the termination shock can also be represented by a kappa function. IBEX exposes the IHS plasma properties through the detection of ENAs generated by charge-exchange in the IHS. However, charge-exchange modifies the plasma as it flows through the IHS, and makes it difficult to ascertain the parent proton distribution. In this paper we investigate the evolution of proton distributions, initially represented by a kappa function, that experience losses due to charge-exchange in the IHS. In the absence of other processes, it is no longer representable by a single kappa function due to the energy-dependent, charge-exchange process. While one can still fit a kappa function to the evolving proton distribution over limited energy ranges, this yields fitting parameters (pseudo-density, pseudo-temperature, pseudo-kappa index) that depend on the energy range of the fit. We discuss the effects of fitting a kappa function to the IHS proton distribution over limited energy ranges, its dependence on the initial proton distribution properties at the termination shock, and implications for understanding the observations.

  11. Measurement of pion double charge exchange on carbon-13, carbon-14, magnesium-26, and iron-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.


    Cross sections for the /sup 13,14/C,/sup 26/Mg,/sup 56/Fe(..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup -/)/sup 13,14/O,/sup 26/Si,/sup 56/Ni reactions were measured with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility for 120 less than or equal to T/sub ..pi../ less than or equal to 292 MeV and 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 50. The double isobaric analog states (DIAS) are of primary interest. In addition, cross sections for transitions to /sup 14/O(0/sup +/, 5.92 MeV), /sup 14/O(2/sup +/, 7.77 MeV), /sup 56/Ni(gs), /sup 13/O(gs), and /sup 13/O(4.21 MeV) are presented. The /sup 13/O(4.21 MeV) state is postulated to have J/sup ..pi../ = 1/2/sup -/. The data are compared to previously measured double-charge-exchange cross sections on other nuclei, and the systematics of double charge exchange on T greater than or equal to 1 target nuclei leading to the DIAS are studied. Near the 33/ resonance, cross sections for the DIAS transitions are in disagreement with calculations in which the reaction is treated as sequential charge exchange through the free pion-nucleon amplitude, while for T/sub ..pi../ > 200 MeV the anomalous features of the 164 MeV data are not apparent. This is evidence for significant higher order contributions to the double-charge-exchange amplitude near the reasonable energy. Two theoretical approaches that include two nucleon processes are applied to the DIAS data. 64 references.

  12. Ionization and Charge Exchange Reactions in Neutral Entrainment of a Field Reversed Configuration Thruster (United States)


    non - Maxwellian . This indicates that a kinetic approach has to be used to model neutral entrainment in FRC thrusters. Strong impact of electron...radiative cooling can be problematic for high-Z plasma (due to a Z2 dependence) and in radiative non -equilibrium conditions (volumetric emission).1...dg, (1) where g is the relative collision velocity and fe is the Maxwellian distribution function. 2. Single charge exchange (SCX, A+ +A → A+A+) For

  13. The inconsistency between proton charge exchange and the observed ring current decay (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Evans, D. S.


    The equatorial pitch-angle distributions of ring-current ions observed during a storm recovery phase at L values between 3 and 4 are compared with the pitch-angle distributions predicted by proton charge exchange with neutral hydrogen. Large disagreements are found, and three alternative explanations are explored. (1) A strong proton source acts to mask the effects of charge exchange. It is believed that the required strong continual source with a unique pitch-angle and energy dependence is unrealistic at these low L values. (2) Presently accepted neutral hydrogen density models have densities well over an order of magnitude too large for a storm recovery phase. No evidence is known to support the required large errors in the densities. (3) The ring current at particle energies not exceeding 50 keV was dominated by some ion species other than protons during the storm recovery phase. Such ions must have much longer lifetimes for charge exchange with hydrogen than do protons. This alternative is strongly favored, with He(+) being an attractive candidate.

  14. X-ray Emission Measurements following Charge Exchange between C6+ and He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defay, X [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, K [University of Wisconsin, Madison; McCammon, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Wulf, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Andrianarijaona, V. M. [Pacific Union College; Fogle, Jr., M R, [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Havener, Charles C [ORNL


    X-ray spectra following charge exchange collisions between C6+ and He are presented for collision energies between 460 eV/u and 32,000 eV/u. Spectra were obtained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory ion-atom merged-beams apparatus, using a microcalorimeter X-ray detector capable of fully resolving the C VI Lyman series lines through Ly-gamma. These line ratios are sensitive to the initial electron