WorldWideScience

Sample records for charge distribution studies

  1. Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

  2. Electron-beam-charged dielectrics: Internal charge distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, B. L.; Pine, V. W.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of an electron transport model of the charging of dielectrics due to electron bombardment are compared to measurements of internal charge distributions. The emphasis is on the distribution of Teflon. The position of the charge centroid as a function of time is not monotonic. It first moves deeper into the material and then moves back near to the surface. In most time regimes of interest, the charge distribution is not unimodal, but instead has two peaks. The location of the centroid near saturation is a function of the incident current density. While the qualitative comparison of theory and experiment are reasonable, quantitative comparison shows discrepancies of as much as a factor of two.

  3. Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yanyun; Ren Zhongzhou; Wang Zaijun; Dong Tiekuang

    2010-01-01

    The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of 46 Ar and 44 S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. According to the calculation, the valence protons in 46 Ar and 44 S prefer to occupy the 1d 3/2 state rather than the 2s 1/2 state, which is different from that in the less neutron-rich argon and sulfur isotopes. As a result, the central proton densities of 46 Ar and 44 S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities. The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.

  4. First study of the negative binomial distribution applied to higher moments of net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowsky, Terence J.; Westfall, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the first four moments (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) and their products (κσ 2 and Sσ) of the net-charge and net-proton distributions in Au + Au collisions at √(s NN )=7.7–200 GeV from HIJING simulations has been carried out. The skewness and kurtosis and the collision volume independent products κσ 2 and Sσ have been proposed as sensitive probes for identifying the presence of a QCD critical point. A discrete probability distribution that effectively describes the separate positively and negatively charged particle (or proton and anti-proton) multiplicity distributions is the negative binomial (or binomial) distribution (NBD/BD). The NBD/BD has been used to characterize particle production in high-energy particle and nuclear physics. Their application to the higher moments of the net-charge and net-proton distributions is examined. Differences between κσ 2 and a statistical Poisson assumption of a factor of four (for net-charge) and 40% (for net-protons) can be accounted for by the NBD/BD. This is the first application of the properties of the NBD/BD to describe the behavior of the higher moments of net-charge and net-proton distributions in nucleus–nucleus collisions

  5. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhev, V. B.

    2004-08-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm.

  6. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storozhev, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm

  7. Study of Charge Distribution in a Dust Beam using a Faraday Cup Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausik, S.S.; Dutta, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Kakati, M.; Saikia, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday cup assembly is employed to study the charge distribution in a dust beam. The Faraday Cup scans the dust beam across its diameter and the dust particle current is noted in an Electrometer. The variation of the pico ampere current, carried by the charged dust particles in the beam, is studied with change in the gas pressure. The observations provide an insight into the variation of the charge to mass ratio in a dust beam

  8. Point charges optimally placed to represent the multipole expansion of charge distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Anandakrishnan

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance 2x the extent of the charge distribution--the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. We also calculate the 3-charge OPCA for representing the gas phase quantum mechanical charge distribution of a water molecule. The electrostatic potential calculated by the 3-charge OPCA for water, in the mid-field (2.8 Å from the oxygen atom, is on average 33.3% more accurate than the potential due to the point multipole expansion up to the octupole order. Compared to a 3 point charge approximation in which the charges are placed on the atom centers, the 3-charge OPCA is seven times more accurate, by RMS error. The maximum error at the oxygen-Na distance (2.23 Å is half that of the point multipole expansion up to the octupole

  9. Quark substructure approach to 4He charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Alberg, M.A.; Pepin, S.; Stancu, F.; Carlson, J.; Koepf, W.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study of the 4 He charge distribution based on realistic nucleonic wave functions and incorporation of quark substructure. Any central depression of the proton point density seen in modern four-body calculations is too small by itself to lead to a correct description of the charge distribution of 4 He if folded with a fixed proton size parameter, as is usually done. We utilize six-quark structures calculated in the chromodielectric model for N-N interactions to find a swelling of the proton size as the internucleon distance decreases. This swelling is a result of the short-range dynamics in the N-N system. Using the independent pair approximation, the corresponding charge distribution of the proton is folded with the two-nucleon distribution generated from Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of the 4 He nucleonic wave function. We obtain a reasonably good fit to the experimental charge distribution of 4 He. Meson-exchange currents have not been included. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 μm and 150 μm are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10 14 cm -2 and 4 x 10 15 cm -2 annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10 14 cm -2 showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time τ eff . Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time τ eff (E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 μm thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)

  11. Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time {tau}{sub eff}. Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time {tau}{sub eff}(E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 {mu}m thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)

  12. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K.; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  13. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  14. Study of position resolution for cathode readout MWPC with measurement of induced charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, J.; Iwasaki, H.; Kageyama, T.; Kuribayashi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takeda, T.

    1983-01-01

    A readout technqiue of multiwire proportional chambers by measurement of charges induced on cathode strips, orthogonal to anode wires, requires an algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position. With given chamber parameters and under the influence of noise, resolution limits depend on the chosen algorithm. We have studied the position resolution obtained by the centroid method and by the charge-ratio method, both using three consecutive cathode strips. While the centroid method uses a single number, the center of gravity of the measured charges, the charge-ratio method uses the ratios of the charges Qsub(i-1)/Qsub(i) and Qsub(i+1)/Qsub(i) where Qsub(i) is the largest. To obtain a given resolution, the charge-ratio method generally allows wider cathode strips and therefore a smaller number of readout channels than the centroid method. (orig.)

  15. Langevin description of fission fragment charge distribution from excited nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, A V

    2002-01-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on a set of three-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate fission-fragment charge distribution of compound nucleus sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U. The following collective coordinates have been chosen - elongation coordinate, neck-thickness coordinate, and charge-asymmetry coordinate. The friction coefficient of charge mode has been calculated in the framework of one-body and two-body dissipation mechanisms. Analysis of the results has shown that Langevin approach is appropriate for investigation of isobaric distribution. Moreover, the dependences of the variance of the charge distribution on excitation energy and on the two-body viscosity coefficient has been studied

  16. On the multipole moments of charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    There are two different standard methods for showing the equivalence of a charge distribution in a small volume tau surrounding a point O, to the superposition of a monopole, a dipole, a quadrupole and poles of higher moments at the point O: (a) to show that the electrostatic potential due to the charge distribution at an outside point is the same as due to these superposed multipoles (including a monopole). (b) to show that the energy of interaction of an external field with the charge distribution is the same as with the superposed equivalent monopole and multipoles. Neither of these methods gives a physical picture of the equivalence of a charge distribution to the superposition of different multipoles. An attempt is made to interpret in physical terms the emergence of the multipoles of different order, that are equivalent to a charge distribution and to show that the magnitudes of the moments of these multipoles are in agreement with the results of both the approaches (a) and (b). This physical interpretation also helps to understand, in a simple manner, some of the wellknown properties of the multipole moments of atoms and nuclei. (K.B.)

  17. Charge distribution in an two-chain dual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkowski, K.; Kotanski, A.

    1983-01-01

    Charge distributions in the multiple production processes are analysed using the dual chain model. A parametrisation of charge distributions for single dual chains based on the νp and anti vp data is proposed. The rapidity charge distributions are then calculated for pp and anti pp collisions and compared with the previous calculations based on the recursive cascade model of single chains. The results differ at the SPS collider energies and in the energy dependence of the net forward charge supplying the useful tests of the dual chain model. (orig.)

  18. Charge distributions in transverse coordinate space and in impact parameter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Sung [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dshwang@slac.stanford.edu; Kim, Dong Soo [Department of Physics, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jonghyun [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-27

    We study the charge distributions of the valence quarks inside nucleon in the transverse coordinate space, which is conjugate to the transverse momentum space. We compare the results with the charge distributions in the impact parameter space.

  19. Charge distributions in transverse coordinate space and in impact parameter space

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Jonghyun

    2008-01-01

    We study the charge distributions of the valence quarks inside nucleon in the transverse coordinate space, which is conjugate to the transverse momentum space. We compare the results with the charge distributions in the impact parameter space.

  20. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in vp and charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1992-03-01

    Using data on vp andbar vp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ˜20000 events with incident v and ˜10000 events with incidentbar v. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ˜14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for X 2. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling.

  1. Mass and Angular Distributions of Charged Dihadron Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Mary Clare [Michigan U.

    1990-01-01

    Experiment 711, conducted at Fermilab. provided a unique handle towards understanding valence quark scattering by studying pairs of single. charged, high transverse momentum hadrons produced in collisions of 800 GeV /c protons on fixed metal targets. The apparatus consisted of a double-arm spectrometer. calorimetrically triggered. with high momentum resolution and a large angular acceptance for all charge states of particle pairs. The experiment was designed to select those hadron pairs that carrted most of the momentum and energy of the underlying scattered quarks and gluons. The charge of such "leading" hadrons is correlated with the charge of the quark that produced it. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) assumes that the scattering behavior of quarks ts independent of their charge, or "flavour": Experiment 711 could test this assumption. Tilis dissertation descrtbes the analysis of the mass and angular distributions of hadron pair production for three separate charge states: +-, ++ and --. The angular distributions are found to deviate from theory predictions of flavour symmetry. Also. the mass cross sections indicate ratios of positive to negative hard-scattered particles that are larger than expected from theory. These results could warrant reconsideration of the assumptions and approximations currently made in leading-order QCD calculations.

  2. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  3. Influence of kinematic cuts on the net charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Oliinychenko, Dmytro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Steinheimer, Jan [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. By dividing the box into several parts, the volume dependence of the fluctuations is investigated. After confirming that the initial distributions follow the expectations from a binomial distribution, the influence of quantum number conservation in this case the net charge in the system on the higher moments is evaluated. For this purpose, the composition of the hadron gas is adjusted and only pions and ρ mesons are simulated to investigate the charge conservation effect. In addition, the effect of imposing kinematic cuts in momentum space is analysed. The role of resonance excitations and decays on the higher moments can also be studied within this model. This work is highly relevant to understand the experimental measurements of higher moments obtained in the RHIC beam energy scan and their comparison to lattice results and other theoretical calculations assuming infinite matter.

  4. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigit, A.R.H. [University of Sarawak, Faculty of Engineering, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shrimpton, John S. [University of Southampton, Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/d{proportional_to}200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  6. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , (EEGG) 5 /(KKGG) 5 , and (EEGG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight

  7. Sectional modeling of nanoparticle size and charge distributions in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Pulkit; Girshick, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Sectional models of the dynamics of aerosol populations are well established in the aerosol literature but have received relatively less attention in numerical models of dusty plasmas, where most modeling studies have assumed the existence of monodisperse dust particles. In the case of plasmas in which nanoparticles nucleate and grow, significant polydispersity can exist in particle size distributions, and stochastic charging can cause particles of given size to have a broad distribution of charge states. Sectional models, while computationally expensive, are well suited to treating such distributions. This paper presents an overview of sectional modeling of nanodusty plasmas, and presents examples of simulation results that reveal important qualitative features of the spatiotemporal evolution of such plasmas, many of which could not be revealed by models that consider only monodisperse dust particles and average particle charge. These features include the emergence of bimodal particle populations consisting of very small neutral particles and larger negatively charged particles, the effects of size and charge distributions on coagulation, spreading and structure of the particle cloud, and the dynamics of dusty plasma afterglows. (paper)

  8. Charged-particle inclusive distributions from hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, K.

    1990-05-01

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were the mean charged-particle multiplicity (left-angle n ch right-angle), scaled momentum (x), and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes (p perpendicular in and p perpendicular out ). The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e + e - annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations. 12 refs., 2 figs

  9. Binomial distribution for the charge asymmetry parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that for high energy collisions the distribution with respect to the charge asymmetry z = nsub(F) - nsub(B) is binomial, where nsub(F) and nsub(B) are the forward and backward charge multiplicities. (orig.)

  10. Argon-ion charge distributions following near-threshold ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    When an atom is photoionized in an inner shell, there are two mechanisms by which the remaining electron cortege relaxes to fill the vacancy: x-ray emission and radiationless Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions. In the former, the inner-shell hole moves to a less tightly bound orbital without increasing the number of atomic vacancies. In Auger processes, however, the energy liberated by transfer of a less-tightly-bound electron to the inner-shell vacancy is transferred to another electron which is ejected into the continuum. In this case, the charge on the residual ion increases by one. Through a series of radiative and non-radiative processes, the initial vacancy bubbles up until all vacancies arrive at the outermost shell. Due to the many possible routes by which this may occur, there can be a broad distribution of residual ion charge states characteristic of the decay of a single inner-shell vacancy. Because so many processes can contribute to each charge state, it is difficult to determine the effect of each by examining the total ion charge distribution; the total-ion charge distribution represents an average over many effects. To overcome this limitation, the author has recently measured argon-ion production as a function of both photon energy and Auger decay channel following photoionization of K-shell electrons with highly monochromatic synchrotron radiation. When measured differential in decay channel, the ion charge distributions are greatly simplified. Analysis, in progress, of these simplified distributions will permit extraction of information about relative decay rates and shakeoff effects that is obscured in the single spectra

  11. Mass and charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, F.; Dworzecka, M.; Feldmeier, H.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical model based on the independent particle picture is used to calculate mass and charge distributions in deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. Different assumptions on volume and charge equilibrations are compared with measured variances of charge distributions. One combination of assumptions is clearly favoured by experiment, and gives a reasonable description of the variance versus energy loss curves up to energy losses of about 200 MeV in the heavy systems Kr+Ho and Xe+Bi, and up to about 60 MeV for the light system Ar+Ca [af

  12. Discrete element method modeling of the triboelectric charging of polyethylene particles: Can particle size distribution and segregation reduce the charging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles. (paper)

  13. Studies of the pressure dependence of the charge density distribution in cerium phosphide by the maximum-entropy method

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimatsu, N; Takata, M; Nishibori, E; Sakata, M; Hayashi, J; Shirotani, I; Shimomura, O

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties relating to 4f electrons in cerium phosphide, especially the temperature dependence and the isomorphous transition that occurs at around 10 GPa, were studied by means of x-ray powder diffraction and charge density distribution maps derived by the maximum-entropy method. The compressibility of CeP was exactly determined using a helium pressure medium and the anomaly that indicated the isomorphous transition was observed in the compressibility. We also discuss the anisotropic charge density distribution of Ce ions and its temperature dependence.

  14. Optimal Coordinated EV Charging with Reactive Power Support in Constrained Distribution Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudyal, Sumit; Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-07-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging/discharging can take place in any P-Q quadrants, which means EVs could support reactive power to the grid while charging the battery. In controlled charging schemes, distribution system operator (DSO) coordinates with the charging of EV fleets to ensure grid’s operating constraints are not violated. In fact, this refers to DSO setting upper bounds on power limits for EV charging. In this work, we demonstrate that if EVs inject reactive power into the grid while charging, DSO could issue higher upper bounds on the active power limits for the EVs for the same set of grid constraints. We demonstrate the concept in an 33-node test feeder with 1,500 EVs. Case studies show that in constrained distribution grids in coordinated charging, average costs of EV charging could be reduced if the charging takes place in the fourth P-Q quadrant compared to charging with unity power factor.

  15. Charged multiplicity distributions and correlations in e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Gerhards, R.; Kirschfink, F.J.; Martyn, H.U.; Kolanoski, H.; Bowler, M.G.; Burrows, P.N.; Veitch, M.E.; Brandt, S.; Holder, M.; Caldwell, A.; Muller, D.; Ritz, S.; Strom, D.; Takashima, M.; Wu Saulan; Zobernig, G.

    1989-01-01

    We report on an analysis of the multiplicity distributions of charged particles produced in e + e - annihilation into hadrons at c.m. energies between 14 and 46.8 GeV. The charged multiplicity distributions of the whole event and single hemisphere deviate significantly from the Poisson distribution but follow approximate KNO scaling. We have also studied the multiplicity distributions in various rapidity intervals and found that they can be well described by the negative binomial distribution only for small central intervals. We have also analysed forward-backward multiplicity correlations for different energies and selections of particle charge and shown that they can be understood in terms of the fragmentation properties of the different quark flavours and by the production and decay of resonances. These correlations are well reproduced by the Lund string model. (orig.)

  16. Effective charge model in the theory of infrared intensities and its application for study of charge di.stribution in the molecules of organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, V.T.; Samvelyan, S.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    General principles of plotting the parametric theory of IR spectrum intensities of polyatomic molecules are outlined. The development of the effective charges model in this theory is considered and the mathematical formalism of the first approximation of the method of effective atom charges is described in detail. The results of calculations of charges distribution in the Mo(CO) 6 , W(CO) 6 , Cp 2 V, Cp 2 Ru and others (Cp-cyclopentadiene), performed in the frame work of the outlined scheme are presented. It is shown that in the investigated carbonyles the effective charge on oxygen and metal atoms is negative, on carbon atom - positive. In dicyclopentavienyl complexes the effective charge on the metal atom is positive and is not over 0.6e; charge values on hydrogen and carbon atoms do not exceed, 0.10-0.15e. The notions of ''electrovalence'' of coordination bond and charge distribution in the case of metallocenes are not correlated

  17. Charge-changing processes of heavy ions in matter. Non-equilibrium charge state distribution of sulfur ions after carbon foil penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Sataka, Masao; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Sugiyama, Koji; Komaki, Ken-ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Charge state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u (64 MeV) sulfur ions of various initial charge states (6+, 10+, 11+, 13+) after passing through 0.9, 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.7, 6.9 and 10 μg/cm 2 carbon foils have been studied experimentally using the heavy ion spectrometer 'ENMA'. Measured charge state distributions do not flat off to establish equilibrium within the measured thickness, proving to be the first systematic measurement of non-equilibrium charge state distribution using solid target at this energy range. The mean charge states and their distribution widths almost saturate to 12.4 and 1.03, respectively, for all initial charge states examined. Calculation with ETACHA code, developed by Rozet et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 107 (1996) 67], is employed, although the present impact energy is lower than the assumed energy region for this code. It was also confirmed that a certain portion of 16 O q+ (q=3, 4, 7) beam is included in 32 S q+ (q=6, 8, 14) beam provided from the Tandem Accelerator, which originates in the Negative Ion Source forming O 2 - . (author)

  18. Response of electrostatic probes to eccentric charge distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to eccentric charge distributions. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive a characteristic parameter. This parameter enables the response of the probe to different degrees of eccentricity...

  19. Central depression of the nuclear charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, J.; Voegler, N.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    As a systematic feature of all measured charge distributions we find a shift in the form-factor zeroes as compared to a simple folding model. To first order, this shift can be interpreted as resulting from the central depression w, caused by the Coulomb repulsion. Accounting for it leads to an increase in the surface width of nuclear charge distributions by 0.105 fm. This interpretation of the experimental findings is compared with the droplet model, which relates w with the compression modulus K and the asymmetry energy J. Accounting for w leads to an increase in the extrapolated nuclear matter density by 7.5%. However, this macroscopic model is not able to describe the experimental results in detail since w is also influenced by shell effects. HF+BCS calculations with effective Skyrme-type interactions reproduce part of the data, revealing the influence of shells on w. Here, too, there remain discrepancies in details. A level of accuracy is reached at which most probably also the skewness of the charge distribution must be taken into account. (orig.)

  20. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  1. Three-dimensional space charge distribution measurement in electron beam irradiated PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Yoichi; Suzuki, Ken; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takada, Tatsuo

    1996-01-01

    The localized space charge distribution in electron beam irradiated PMMA was investigated using pulsed electroacoustic method. Using a conventional space charge measurement system, the distribution only in the depth direction (Z) can be measured assuming the charges distributed uniformly in the horizontal (X-Y) plane. However, it is difficult to measure the distribution of space charge accumulated in small area. Therefore, we have developed the new system to measure the three-dimensional space charge distribution using pulsed electroacoustic method. The system has a small electrode with a diameter of 1mm and a motor-drive X-Y stage to move the sample. Using the data measured at many points, the three-dimensional distribution were obtained. To estimate the system performance, the electron beam irradiated PMMA was used. The electron beam was irradiated from transmission electron microscope (TEM). The depth of injected electron was controlled using the various metal masks. The measurement results were compared with theoretically calculated values of electron range. (author)

  2. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kalaydzhyan, T.; Polikarpov, M.I.

    2011-11-01

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  3. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buividovich, P.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  4. Charge state distribution of ionic kryptons after photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiaohong

    1992-01-01

    Monochromatic X-rays from the 2.3 GeV synchrotron at University Bonn (Germany) are employed for inner shell excitation of krypton. Various ionic kryptons and a number of electrons are produced due to photoionization. In order to study the equilibrium charge state distribution of ionic kryptons, a time of flight mass spectrometer is set up and used to measure the resulting ionic charge spectra with photo energies near the L 1 - , L 2 - and L 3 - absorption edges of krypton. The energy dependence of relative probabilities is presented

  5. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Forte, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We summarize the next-to-leading order treatment of charged-current polarized structure functions, their relation to polarized parton distributions and scale dependence, and discuss their description by means of a next-to-leading order evolution code. We discuss current theoretical expectations and positivity constraints on the unmeasured C-odd combinations Delta q-Delta qbar of polarized quark distributions, and their determination in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We give estimates of the expected errors on charged-current structure functions at a future neutrino factory, and perform a study of the accuracy in the determination of polarized parton distributions that would be possible at such a facility. We show that these measurements have the potential to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure.

  6. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We summarize the next-to-leading-order treatment of charged-current polarized structure functions, their relation to polarized parton distributions and scale dependence, and discuss their description by means of a next-to-leading-order evolution code. We discuss current theoretical expectations and positivity constraints on the unmeasured C-odd combinations Δq-Δq-bar of polarized quark distributions, and their determination in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We give estimates of the expected errors on charged-current structure functions at a future neutrino factory, and perform a study of the accuracy in the determination of polarized parton distributions that would be possible at such a facility. We show that these measurements have the potential to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure

  7. Position Reconstruction and Charge Distribution in LHCb VELO Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Versloot, TW; Akiba, K; Artuso, M; Van Beuzekom, M; Borel, J; Bowcock, TJV; Buytaert, J; Collins, P; Dumps, R; Dwyer, L; Eckstein, D; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Frei, R; Gersabek M; Haefeli, G; Hennessy, K; Huse, T; Jans, E; John, M; Ketel, TJ; Keune, A; Lastoviicka, T; Mountain, R; Neufeld, N; Parkes, C; Stone, S; Szumlak, T; Tobin, M; Van Lysebetten, A; Viret, S; De Vries, H; Wang, J

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, a partially equipped LHCb VELO detector half was characterised in a test beam experiment (Alignment Challenge and Detector Commissioning, ACDC3). The position reconstruction and resolution for 2-strip R-sensor clusters was studied as a function of strip pitch and track inclination on the sensor surface. The Charge Density Distribution (CDD) is derived from the weighted charge distribution. It becomes asymmetric for tracks non-perpendicular to the strip surface. It is shown that the asymmetric broadening of the CDD around the track intercept position results in a linear eta-function at higher angles (>6 degrees). The sensor spatial resolution is determined both using a linear weighted mean of strip charges, as well as a third-order polynomial approximation via a eta-correction. The experimental results are in agreement with previous simulations. Future studies are underway to determine the angle and pitch dependent parameters which will be implemented in the LHCb VELO cluster position software tools.

  8. Charge state distribution of 16O from the 4He(12C,16O)γ reaction of astrophysical interest studied both experimentally and theoretically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengjin; Sakurai, Makoto; Sagara, Kenshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujita, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Sayaka; Mitsuzumi, Tatsuki; Iwazaki, Makoto; Rosary, Mariya T.; Kato, Daiji; Tolstikhina, I.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In astrophysics, 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction places an important role. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), the measurement of 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ cross section is in progress in the energy range of astrophysical nuclear reaction. Since the charge state of product 16 O ions after passing through the gas target is spread and only one charge state can be measured at terminal detector, it is necessary to know the charge state distribution of 16 O ions passing through the He gas target precisely. Here, we report the charge state distribution of the 16 O recoils both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we measured the equilibrium charge state distribution of 16 O ions in the windowless helium gas target with the beam energy of primary 16 O ions at 7.2, 4.5, and 3.45 MeV at KUTL. The measured results showed a Gaussian distribution for the charge state fraction. Theoretically, we proposed a framework for the charge state distribution study. Charge state distribution was computed by solving a set of differential equations including a series of charge exchange cross sections. For the ionization cross section, plane-wave Born approximation was applied and modified by taking target atomic screening as a function of momentum transfer into account. For the capture cross section, continuum distorted wave approximation was applied and the influence of the gas target density was taken into account in the process of electron capture. Using above charge exchange cross sections, the charge state evolution was simulated. According to the equilibrium distribution, we compared the theoretical calculation to the experimental data. After taking into account the density effects in the charge exchange process, the theoretical charge state distributions shows a good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and theoretical results are useful to understand the charge fraction of recoil oxygen created via 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction

  9. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  10. Potential distribution of a nonuniformly charged ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.; Aoki, J.; Soga, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A convenient formula is obtained for fast calculation of the three-dimensional potential distribution associated with a spatially varying charge-density distribution by reconstructing it as a superposed set of nested spheroidal shells. It is useful for experimental analyses of near-equilibrium states of non-neutral plasmas and for quick evaluation of the gravity field associated with stellar mass distributions

  11. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in (anti)neutrino-deuterium charged- and neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.G.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in νn, νp, antiνn and antiνp charged-current interactions for the hadronic energy range 2GeV ≤ W ≤ 14GeV (corresponding approximately to the neutrino energy range 5GeV ≤ E ≤ 150GeV). The experimental distributions are analysed in terms of binomial distributions. With increasing hadronic energy it is found a smooth transition from an ordinary binomial via Poissonian to the negative binomial function. KNO scaling holds approximately for the multiplicity distribution for the whole phase space. Data on the multiplicity distributions for neutral-current interactions are also presented

  12. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  13. Equilibrium distributions of free charged particles and molecules in systems with non-plane boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The equilibrium space-inhomogeneous distributions of free and pair bound charged particles are calculated in the dipole approximation for the plasma-molecular cylinder and sphere. It is shown that the space and orientational distributions of charged particles and molecules in these systems are similar to those in the cases of plasma-molecular system restricted by one or two parallel planes. The influence of the parameters of outer medium and a plasma-molecular system on the space and orientational distributions of charged particles and molecules is studied in detail

  14. Geometry, charge distribution, and surface speciation of phosphate on goethite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahnemaie, R.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The surface speciation of phosphate has been evaluated with surface complexation modeling using an interfacial charge distribution (CD) approach based on ion adsorption and ordering of interfacial water. In the CD model, the charge of adsorbed ions is distributed over two electrostatic potentials in

  15. Charge state distributions for heavy ions in carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.; Lebed, R.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1989-03-01

    We have extended the database of measured charge state distributions available in the literature through measurements at the SuperHILAC using carbon stripper foils in the energy range 1.2--8.5 MeV/u. Modifying a semi-empirical model to include the effect of electronic shells, we are able to correctly predict the mean charge state to within 1/2 a charge state for 6≤Z≤92 and energies from 30 keV/u to 16 MeV/u. We have determined parameters for the widths of the distributions for each electronic shell. For distributions lying across a shell boundary, we join the two Gaussians of different widths to get an asymmetric distribution. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Deconinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  17. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.

    1991-10-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ∝ 20 000 events with incident ν and ∝ 10 000 events with incident anti ν. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ∝ 14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for χ 2 /NDF. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling. (orig.)

  18. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1992-01-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ∝20 000 events with incident ν and ∝10 000 events with incident anti ν. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ∝14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for χ 2 /NDF. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling. (orig.)

  19. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  20. Charge state distributions from highly charged ions channeled at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, L.; Meyer, F.W.; Schippers, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of the experimental work in the field of multicharged ion-surface interactions, to date, has focused on x-ray and particularly on electron emission. These experiments include measurements of the total electron yield, the emission statistics of the electrons, and, most of all, the electron energy distributions. So far, little attention has been paid to the fate of the multicharged projectile ions after the scattering. To our knowledge, the only measurement of the charge state distribution of the scattered ions is the pioneering experiment of de Zwart et al., who measured the total yield of scattered 1+, 2+, and 3+ ions as a function of the primary charge state q (q = 1--11) for 20 key Ne, Ar, and Kr ions after reflection from a polycrystalline tungsten target. Their main finding is the sudden onset of scattered 3+ ions when inner-shell vacancies are present in the primary particles. This suggests that a certain fraction of the inner-shell vacancies survives the entire collision event, and decays via autoionization on the outgoing path. Since the projectiles scattered in the neutral charge state could not be detected in the experiment of de Zwart et al., they were not able to provide absolute charge state fractions. In our present experiment, we focus on the scattered projectiles, measuring both the final charge state and the total scattering angle with a single 2D position sensitive detector (PSD). This method gives us the number of positive, as well as neutral and negative, scattered ions, thus allowing us to extract absolute charge state fractions. Using a well-prepared single Au(110) crystal and a grazing incidence geometry, we were able to observe surface channeling along the [001] channels

  1. A guide to distribution network operator connection and use of system methodologies and charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This report aims to help those developing or planning to develop power generation schemes connected to local electricity distribution systems (distributed generation) to understand the various regional network charging schemes in the UK. It is also intended to act as a route map to understand distribution charges as they are currently applied; further changes in charging arrangements between 2005 and 2010 are indicated and signposts to sources of further information are provided. The report explains the structure of distribution networks, the outcome of the regulatory review of distribution pricing undertaken by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem) applicable from 1 April 2005 and how this affects distribution network operators (DNOs) and their distribution charges. The report considers: the energy policy framework in the UK; the commercial and regulatory framework that applies to distributed generators; DNOs and their regulatory framework; network charging methodologies and principles; charging statements; and areas of likely future changes. Individual schedules and contact details are given in an appendix for each DNO.

  2. Influence of layer charge and charge distribution of smectites on the flow behaviour and swelling of bentonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, G.E.; Blum, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of layer charge and charge distribution of dioctahedral smectites on the rheological and swelling properties of bentonites is examined. Layer charge and charge distribution were determined by XRD using the LayerCharge program [Christidis, G.E., Eberl, D.D., 2003. Determination of layer charge characteristics of smectites. Clays Clay Miner. 51, 644-655.]. The rheological properties were determined, after sodium exchange using the optimum amount of Na2CO3, from free swelling tests. Rheological properties were determined using 6.42% suspensions according to industrial practice. In smectites with layer charges of - 0.425 to - 0.470 per half formula unit (phfu), layer charge is inversely correlated with free swelling, viscosity, gel strength, yield strength and thixotropic behaviour. In these smectites, the rheological properties are directly associated with the proportion of low charge layers. By contrast, in low charge and high charge smectites there is no systematic relation between layer charge or the proportion of low charge layers and rheological properties. However, low charge smectites yield more viscous suspensions and swell more than high charge smectites. The rheological properties of bentonites also are affected by the proportion of tetrahedral charge (i.e. beidellitic charge), by the existence of fine-grained minerals having clay size, such as opal-CT and to a lesser degree by the ionic strength and the pH of the suspension. A new method for classification of smectites according to the layer charge based on the XRD characteristics of smecites is proposed, that also is consistent with variations in rheological properties. In this classification scheme the term smectites with intermediate layer charge is proposed. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental tests of charge symmetry violation in parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londergan, J.T.; Murdock, D.P.; Thomas, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions

  4. Simulation studies of gas and plasma-based charge strippers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Charge stripping of heavy ion beams at high intensities is a major challenge in current and future facilities with high intensity heavy ion beams. Conventional stripping techniques are limited in their applicability, e.g. solid carbon foils suffer from short lifetimes at high intensities and gas strippers usually achieve only low charge states. One possible alternative is the use of a plasma as a stripping medium. The presented work focuses on theoretical studies of the interaction of an heavy ion beam with a plasma and accompanying effects in possible charge strippers. The main interest in the presented studies is the final charge state distribution of the ion beam. Different models for solving the corresponding rate equations were developed, taking into account ionization, recombination, energy loss and straggling processes. Sophisticated models, e.g. for ionization cross sections, as well as limits and applicability of simplified models are discussed. Quantitative results are presented in form an overview of the charge state distributions of different - conventional and novel - charge stripping media. Furthermore comparisons are done with charge state distributions of available experimental data. Typical practically relevant target conditions are discussed as well as deterioration of beam quality.

  5. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Arq+ - Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar q+ -- Ar (8≤q≤16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar 8-16+ , recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar 10-16+ , there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy

  6. Charge state distribution of ^{86}Kr in hydrogen and helium gas charge strippers at 2.7  MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The charge state distributions of krypton (^{86}Kr with an energy of 2.7  MeV/nucleon were measured using hydrogen (H_{2} and helium (He gas charge strippers. A differential pumping system was constructed to confine H_{2} and He gases to a thickness sufficient for the charge state distributions to attain equilibrium. The mean charge states of ^{86}Kr in H_{2} and He gases attained equilibrium at 25.1 and 23.2, respectively, whereas the mean charge state in N_{2} gas at equilibrium was estimated to be less than 20. The charge distributions are successfully reproduced by the cross sections of ionization and electron capture processes optimized by a fitting procedure.

  7. Charge and mass distribution in 20Ne induced fission of 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Guin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Charge and mass distribution studies have been carried out at E lab =180 MeV in 20 Ne induced fission of 181 Ta. The mass distribution has been found to be symmetric. The width of the mass distribution has been theoretically calculated using the random neck rupture of Brosa et al. A good agreement between the calculated and experimental mass distribution has been observed. (author)

  8. Study Trapped Charge Distribution in P-Channel Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon Memory Device Using Dynamic Programming Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Hai; Chiu, Yung-Yueh; Lee, Yen-Hui; Chang, Ru-Wei; Yang, Bo-Jun; Sun, Wein-Town; Lee, Eric; Kuo, Chao-Wei; Shirota, Riichiro

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we precisely investigate the charge distribution in SiN layer by dynamic programming of channel hot hole induced hot electron injection (CHHIHE) in p-channel silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory device. In the dynamic programming scheme, gate voltage is increased as a staircase with fixed step amplitude, which can prohibits the injection of holes in SiN layer. Three-dimensional device simulation is calibrated and is compared with the measured programming characteristics. It is found, for the first time, that the hot electron injection point quickly traverses from drain to source side synchronizing to the expansion of charged area in SiN layer. As a result, the injected charges quickly spread over on the almost whole channel area uniformly during a short programming period, which will afford large tolerance against lateral trapped charge diffusion by baking.

  9. Coupling of mass and charge distributions for low excited nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamatin, V.S.; )

    2000-01-01

    The simple model for calculation of charge distributions of fission fragments for low exited nuclear fission from experimental mass distributions is offered. The model contains two parameters, determining amplitude of even-odd effect of charge distributions and its dependence on excitation energy. Results for reactions 233 U(n th ,f), 235 U(n th ,f), 229 Th(n th ,f), 249 Cf(n th ,f) are spent [ru

  10. Maximum entropy theory of recoil charge distributions in electron-capture collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberg, T.; Blomberg, A.; Tulkki, J.; Goscinski, O.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized Fermi-Dirac distribution is derived and applied to charge-state distributions in single collisions between multiply charged ions and rare-gas atoms. It relates multiple electron loss in single-electron capture to multiple ionization in multiphoton absorption and discloses inner-shell vacancy formation in double- and triple-electron capture

  11. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Chefdeville, M. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y. [Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Hartjes@nikhef.nl; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-11

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10{sup 16} hadrons/cm{sup 2}. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO{sub 2}/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  12. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  13. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2 . The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2 /DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4 H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature

  14. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illias, Hazlee A; Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  15. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illias, Hazlee A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L, E-mail: h.illias@um.edu.my [Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-22

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  16. Vacuum arc ion charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1990-06-01

    We have measured vacuum arc ion charge state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. We have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 msec; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by us. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with our earlier results and with those of other workers. We also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  17. Vacuum arc ion charge-state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured vacuum arc ion charge-state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge-state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. They have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 ms; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by the authors. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with their earlier results and those of other workers. They also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  18. Topology of charge density of flucytosine and related molecules and characteristics of their bond charge distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgich, Juan; Franco, Héctor J; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2006-08-24

    The molecular charge distribution of flucytosine (4-amino-5-fluoro-2-pyrimidone), uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and thymine was studied by means of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The resulting distributions were analyzed by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. Bonds were characterized through vectors formed with the charge density value, its Laplacian, and the bond ellipticity calculated at the bond critical point (BCP). Within each set of C=O, C-H, and N-H bonds, these vectors showed little dispersion. C-C bonds formed three different subsets, one with a significant degree of double bonding, a second corresponding to single bonds with a finite ellipticity produced by hyperconjugation, and a third one formed by a pure single bond. In N-C bonds, a decrease in bond length (an increase in double bond character) was not reflected as an increase in their ellipticity, as in all C-C bonds studied. It was also found that substitution influenced the N-C, C-O, and C-C bond ellipticity much more than density and its Laplacian at the BCP. The Laplacian of charge density pointed to the existence of both bonding and nonbonding maxima in the valence shell charge concentration of N, O, and F, while only bonding ones were found for the C atoms. The nonbonding maxima related to the sites for electrophilic attack and H bonding in O and N, while sites of nucleophilic attack were suggested by the holes in the valence shell of the C atoms of the carbonyl groups.

  19. A probabilistic approach to combining smart meter and electric vehicle charging data to investigate distribution network impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neaimeh, Myriam; Wardle, Robin; Jenkins, Andrew M.; Yi, Jialiang; Hill, Graeme; Lyons, Padraig F.; Hübner, Yvonne; Blythe, Phil T.; Taylor, Phil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Working with unique datasets of EV charging and smart meter load demand. • Distribution networks are not a homogenous group with more capabilities to accommodate EVs than previously suggested. • Spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand alleviate the impacts on networks. • An extensive recharging infrastructure could enable connection of additional EVs on constrained distribution networks. • Electric utilities could increase the network capability to accommodate EVs by investing in recharging infrastructure. - Abstract: This work uses a probabilistic method to combine two unique datasets of real world electric vehicle charging profiles and residential smart meter load demand. The data was used to study the impact of the uptake of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on electricity distribution networks. Two real networks representing an urban and rural area, and a generic network representative of a heavily loaded UK distribution network were used. The findings show that distribution networks are not a homogeneous group with a variation of capabilities to accommodate EVs and there is a greater capability than previous studies have suggested. Consideration of the spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand has been demonstrated to reduce the estimated impacts on the distribution networks. It is suggested that distribution network operators could collaborate with new market players, such as charging infrastructure operators, to support the roll out of an extensive charging infrastructure in a way that makes the network more robust; create more opportunities for demand side management; and reduce planning uncertainties associated with the stochastic nature of EV charging demand.

  20. Modelling altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and electricity tariff charge using data analytics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ramli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Energy Commission (EC) had introduced Incentive Based Regulation (IBR) to ensure sustainable Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI), promotes transparent and fair returns, encourage maximum efficiency and maintains policy driven end user tariff. To cater such revolutionary transformation, a sophisticated system to generate policy driven electricity tariff structure is in great need. Hence, this study presents a data analytics framework that generates altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. For the purpose of this study, the power consumption distribution is being proxy using proportion of household consumption and electricity consumed in KwH and the tariff charge function is being proxy using three-tiered increasing block tariff (IBT). The altered revenue function is useful to give an indication on whether any changes in the power consumption distribution and tariff charges will give positive or negative impact to the economy. The methodology used for this framework begins by defining the revenue to be a function of power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. Then, the proportion of household consumption and tariff charge function is derived within certain interval of electricity power. Any changes in those proportion are conjectured to contribute towards changes in revenue function. Thus, these changes can potentially give an indication on whether the changes in power consumption distribution and tariff charge function are giving positive or negative impact on TNB revenue. Based on the finding of this study, major changes on tariff charge function seems to affect altered revenue function more than power consumption distribution. However, the paper concludes that power consumption distribution and tariff charge function can influence TNB revenue to some great extent.

  1. Equilibrium charge distribution on a finite straight one-dimensional wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batle, Josep; Ciftja, Orion; Abdalla, Soliman; Elhoseny, Mohamed; Alkhambashi, Majid; Farouk, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    The electrostatic properties of uniformly charged regular bodies are prominently discussed on college-level electromagnetism courses. However, one of the most basic problems of electrostatics that deals with how a continuous charge distribution reaches equilibrium is rarely mentioned at this level. In this work we revisit the problem of equilibrium charge distribution on a straight one-dimensional (1D) wire with finite length. The majority of existing treatments in the literature deal with the 1D wire as a limiting case of a higher-dimensional structure that can be treated analytically for a Coulomb interaction potential between point charges. Surprisingly, different models (for instance, an ellipsoid or a cylinder model) may lead to different results, thus there is even some ambiguity on whether the problem is well-posed. In this work we adopt a different approach where we do not start with any higher-dimensional body that reduces to a 1D wire in the appropriate limit. Instead, our starting point is the obvious one, a finite straight 1D wire that contains charge. However, the new tweak in the model is the assumption that point charges interact with each other via a non-Coulomb power-law interaction potential. This potential is well-behaved, allows exact analytical results and approaches the standard Coulomb interaction potential as a limit. The results originating from this approach suggest that the equilibrium charge distribution for a finite straight 1D wire is a uniform charge density when the power-law interaction potential approaches the Coulomb interaction potential as a suitable limit. We contrast such a finding to results obtained using a different regularised logarithmic interaction potential which allows exact treatment in 1D. The present self-contained material may be of interest to instructors teaching electromagnetism as well as students who will discover that simple-looking problems may sometimes pose important scientific challenges.

  2. Equilibrium charge distribution on a finite straight one-dimensional wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batle, Josep; Ciftja, Orion; Abdalla, Soliman; Elhoseny, Mohamed; Farouk, Ahmed; Alkhambashi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The electrostatic properties of uniformly charged regular bodies are prominently discussed on college-level electromagnetism courses. However, one of the most basic problems of electrostatics that deals with how a continuous charge distribution reaches equilibrium is rarely mentioned at this level. In this work we revisit the problem of equilibrium charge distribution on a straight one-dimensional (1D) wire with finite length. The majority of existing treatments in the literature deal with the 1D wire as a limiting case of a higher-dimensional structure that can be treated analytically for a Coulomb interaction potential between point charges. Surprisingly, different models (for instance, an ellipsoid or a cylinder model) may lead to different results, thus there is even some ambiguity on whether the problem is well-posed. In this work we adopt a different approach where we do not start with any higher-dimensional body that reduces to a 1D wire in the appropriate limit. Instead, our starting point is the obvious one, a finite straight 1D wire that contains charge. However, the new tweak in the model is the assumption that point charges interact with each other via a non-Coulomb power-law interaction potential. This potential is well-behaved, allows exact analytical results and approaches the standard Coulomb interaction potential as a limit. The results originating from this approach suggest that the equilibrium charge distribution for a finite straight 1D wire is a uniform charge density when the power-law interaction potential approaches the Coulomb interaction potential as a suitable limit. We contrast such a finding to results obtained using a different regularised logarithmic interaction potential which allows exact treatment in 1D. The present self-contained material may be of interest to instructors teaching electromagnetism as well as students who will discover that simple-looking problems may sometimes pose important scientific challenges. (paper)

  3. Charge-state distribution of MeV He ions scattered from the surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state distribution of 500-keV He ions scattered from a SnTe (001) surface has been investigated using a new technique of high-resolution high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The observed charge-state distribution of ions scattered from the topmost atomic layer coincides with that of ions scattered from the subsurface region and does not depend on the incident charge state but depends on the exit angle. The observed exit-angle dependence is explained by a model which includes the charge-exchange process with the valence electrons in the tail of the electron distribution at the surface. (author)

  4. Investigating the impact of visuohaptic simulations for the conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Uzma Abdul Sattar

    The present study assessed the benefits of a multisensory intervention on the conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges in engineering and technology undergraduate students. A novel visuohaptic intervention was proposed, which focused on exploring the forces around the different electric field configurations for distributed charges namely point, infinitely long line and uniformly charged ring. The before and after effects of the visuohaptic intervention are compared, wherein the intervention includes instructional scaffolding. Three single-group studies were conducted to investigate the effect among three different populations: (a) Undergraduate engineering students, (b) Undergraduate technology students and (c) Undergraduate engineering technology students from a different demographic setting. The findings from the three studies suggests that the haptic modality intervention provides beneficial effects by allowing students to improve their conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges, although students from groups (b) and (c) showed a statistically significant increase in the conceptual understanding. The findings also indicate a positive learning perception among all the three groups.

  5. Influence of the shell thickness and charge distribution on the effective interaction between two like-charged hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, Daniel G; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2015-10-14

    The mean-force and the potential of the mean force between two like-charged spherical shells were investigated in the salt-free limit using the primitive model and Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from an angular homogeneous distribution, a discrete charge distribution where point charges localized on the shell outer surface followed an icosahedral arrangement was considered. The electrostatic coupling of the model system was altered by the presence of mono-, trivalent counterions or small dendrimers, each one bearing a net charge of 9 e. We analyzed in detail how the shell thickness and the radial and angular distribution of the shell charges influenced the effective interaction between the shells. We found a sequence of the potential of the mean force similar to the like-charged filled spheres, ranging from long-range purely repulsive to short-range purely attractive as the electrostatic coupling increased. Both types of potentials were attenuated and an attractive-to-repulsive transition occurred in the presence of trivalent counterions as a result of (i) thinning the shell or (ii) shifting the shell charge from the outer towards the inner surface. The potential of the mean force became more attractive with the icosahedrally symmetric charge model, and additionally, at least one shell tended to line up with 5-fold symmetry axis along the longest axis of the simulation box at the maximum attraction. The results provided a basic framework of understanding the non-specific electrostatic origin of the agglomeration and long-range assembly of the viral nanoparticles.

  6. Generation of initial kinetic distributions for simulation of long-pulse charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel—both in terms of low-order rms (envelope properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of kinetic distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of unbunched or weakly bunched beams with intense space-charge fields including the following: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various nonequilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of standard accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial kinetic distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear focusing, single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for noncontinuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulations that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

  7. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e--annihilation processes in the LEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyapnikov, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of studies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions in the process of e + e - -annihilation into hadrons obtained in experiments at LEP accelerator in CERN are reviewed. Universality in energy dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity in e + e - and p ± p collisions, evidence for KNO-scaling in e + e - data, structure in multiplicity distribution and its relation to the jet structure of events, average particle multiplicities or quark and gluon jets, 'clan' picture and other topics are discussed. 73 refs.; 20 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. A distributed charge storage with GeO2 nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.C.; Yan, S.T.; Hsu, C.H.; Tang, M.T.; Lee, J.F.; Tai, Y.H.; Liu, P.T.; Sze, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a distributed charge storage with GeO 2 nanodots is demonstrated. The mean size and aerial density of the nanodots embedded in SiO 2 are estimated to be about 5.5 nm and 4.3x10 11 cm -2 , respectively. The composition of the dots is also confirmed to be GeO 2 by x-ray absorption near-edge structure analyses. A significant memory effect is observed through the electrical measurements. Under the low voltage operation of 5 V, the memory window is estimated to ∼0.45 V. Also, a physical model is proposed to demonstrate the charge storage effect through the interfacial traps of GeO 2 nanodots

  9. Charge distribution and stability in electret materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Anders

    The objective of the work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is to give a broader understanding of which key parameters influence the charge stability of polymer electrets, and how the electrical charges are distributed. This has been achieved using polypropylene as an electret polymer model system......-PP and i-PP, is because the charge retention is extremely sensitive to the sample preparation. This was seen in regard to the thermal history of the samples and the influence of micron and nano size particles in the polymer electret. Through adding micron and nano size calcium carbonate and aluminium oxide....... By means of kinetic rate theory the discharge behaviour could be explained for polypropylene when thermally stimulated. This resulted in the determination of several activation energies, which could be used for describing the discharging seen at isothermal conditions. This theory is a powerful tool...

  10. Characterization of trapped charges distribution in terms of mirror plot curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Hassan N; Mahdi, Ali S; Khaleel, Imad H

    2018-01-01

    Accumulation of charges (electrons) at the specimen surface in scanning electron microscope (SEM) lead to generate an electrostatic potential. By using the method of image charges, this potential is defined in the chamber's space of such apparatus. The deduced formula is expressed in terms a general volumetric distribution which proposed to be an infinitesimal spherical extension. With aid of a binomial theorem the defined potential is expanded to a multipolar form. Then resultant formula is adopted to modify a novel mirror plot equation so as to detect the real distribution of trapped charges. Simulation results reveal that trapped charges may take a various sort of arrangement such as monopole, quadruple and octuple. But existence of any of these arrangements alone may never be take place, rather are some a formations of a mix of them. Influence of each type of these profiles depends on the distance between the incident electron and surface of a sample. Result also shows that trapped charge's amount of trapped charges can refer to a threshold for failing of point charge approximation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, A. A., E-mail: abidaliabid1@hotmail.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Z., E-mail: mzk-qau@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yap, S. L. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Terças, H., E-mail: hugo.tercas@tecnico.ul.pt [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Mahmood, S. [Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A2 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q{sub d} = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U{sub 0}) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0.

  12. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, A. A.; Khan, M. Z.; Yap, S. L.; Terças, H.; Mahmood, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q d  = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U 0 ) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0

  13. Charge distributions of fission fragments of low- and high-energy fission of Fm, No, and Rf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşca, H.; Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The charge (mass) distributions of fission fragments resulting from low- and high-energy fission of the even-even nuclei 254 -260 ,264Fm , 258 -264No , and 262 -266Rf are studied with the statistical scission-point model. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. In contrast to the experimental data, the calculated mass distribution for 258Fm (s.f.) is strikingly similar to the experimental one for 257Fm (s.f.). The transformation of the shape of charge distribution with increasing isospin and excitation energy occurs gradually and in a similar fashion like that of the mass distribution, but slower. For 254Fm(i.f.), 257Fm(nt h,f), and 260Fm (s.f.), the unexpected difference (symmetric or asymmetric) between the shapes of charge and mass distributions is predicted for the first time. At some critical excitation energy, the saturation of the symmetric component of charge (mass) yields is demonstrated.

  14. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  15. Interfacial charge distributions in carbon-supported palladium catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Radhika G.; Blume, Raoul; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the charge transfer between a semiconducting catalyst carrier and the supported transition metal active phase represents an elite strategy for fine turning the electronic structure of the catalytic centers, hence their activity and selectivity. These phenomena have been theoretically...... and experimentally elucidated for oxide supports but remain poorly understood for carbons due to their complex nanoscale structure. Here, we combine advanced spectroscopy and microscopy on model Pd/C samples to decouple the electronic and surface chemistry effects on catalytic performance. Our investigations reveal...... treatments can be used to tune the interfacial charge distribution, hereby providing a strategy to rationally design carbon-supported catalysts.Control over charge transfer in carbon-supported metal nanoparticles is essential for designing new catalysts. Here, the authors show that thermal treatments...

  16. Measurement of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and their $H_q$ moments in hadronic Z decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2003-01-01

    The charged-particle multiplicity distribution and the inclusive momentum distribution, in terms of the variable $\\xi$, are measured for all hadronic events as well as for light-quark and b-quark events in $\\mathrm{e}^{+}\\mathrm{e}^{-}$ collisions at the Z pole. Moments of the charged-particle multiplicity distributions are calculated, and the peak positions of the $\\xi$ distributions determined. The multiplicity distributions are studied in terms of their $H_q$ moments. Their quasi-oscillations when plotted versus the rank of the moment are compared with different theoretical approaches.

  17. Global quantity for dyons with various charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, I.G.; Kim, Y.

    1980-06-01

    The spatial volume integral of Tr *F F characterizes the dyons globally. This integral is investigated for the dyons with various electric and magnetic charge distributions, which can be probed by the scattering of the test particle in these dyon fields. (author)

  18. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions passing through carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, M.; Sataka, M.; Matsuda, M.; Okayasu, S.; Kawatsura, K.; Takahiro, K.; Komaki, K.; Shibata, H.; Nishio, K.

    2015-01-01

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions were studied experimentally for 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions after passing through carbon foils. Measured charge-state distribution established the equilibrium at a target thickness of 10 μg/cm 2 and this remained unchanged until a maximum target thickness of 98 μg/cm 2 . The equilibrium charge-state distribution, the equilibrium mean charge-state, and the width and skewness of the equilibrium distribution were compared with predictions using existing semi-empirical formulae as well as simulation results, including the ETACHA code. It was found that charge-state distributions, mean charge states, and distribution widths for C 2+ , C 3+ , and C 4+ incident ions merged into quasi-equilibrium values at a target thickness of 5.7 μg/cm 2 in the pre-equilibrium region and evolved simultaneously to the ‘real equilibrium’ values for all of the initial charge states, including C 5+ and C 6+ ions, as previously demonstrated for sulfur projectile ions at the same velocity (Imai et al., 2009). Two kinds of simulation, ETACHA and solution of rate equations taking only single electron transfers into account, were used, and both of them reproduced the measured charge evolution qualitatively. The quasi-equilibrium behavior could be reproduced with the ETACHA code, but not with solution of elementary rate equations

  19. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, J. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Sosnick, T. R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Freed, K. F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other.

  20. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtanen, J. J.; Sosnick, T. R.; Freed, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other

  1. Central depression of the charge density distributions in lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2008-01-01

    The central-depression parameters is determined by fitting the charge density distributions in lead isotopes to a three-parameter Fermi distribution. The central-depression parameter increases with the number of neutrons due to the isovector coupling channel of the nuclear interaction and its dependency on density. (author)

  2. Central depression of the charge density distributions in lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2007-01-01

    The central-depression parameter is determined by fitting the charge density distributions in lead isotopes to a three-parameter Fermi distribution. The central-depression parameter increases with the number of neutrons due to the isovector coupling channel of the nuclear interaction and its dependency on density. (author)

  3. Strange quark distribution and parton charge symmetry violation in a semi-inclusive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is possible to observe a semi-inclusive reaction with tagged charged kaons using the RICH detector at DESY-HERA. Using the semi-inclusive process we study two kinds of parton properties in the nucleon. We study relations between cross sections and strange quark distributions, which are expected to be measured more precisely in such a process than in the process in which pions are tagged. We also investigate charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the nucleon, which appears in the region x ≤ 0.1. (author)

  4. Charge distribution of metallic single walled carbon nanotube–graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, P T; Danneau, R

    2014-01-01

    We report numeric and analytic calculations of the electrostatic properties for armchair carbon nanotube–graphene junctions. Using a semi-empirical method we first demonstrate that the equilibrium distance between a carbon nanotube and a graphene sheet varies with respect to the diameter of the carbon nanotube. We find significantly reduced values compared to AB-stacked graphene sheets in graphite, while even smaller value is found for a fullerene C 60 implying a dimensionality dependence of the equilibrium distance between graphene and the other sp 2 carbon allotropes. Then, we use conformal mapping and a charge–dipole model to study the charge distribution of the carbon nanotube–graphene junctions in various configurations. We observe that the charges are accumulated/depleted at and near the vicinity of the junctions and that capped carbon nanotubes induce a significantly smaller charge concentration at their ends than the open-end nanotubes. We demonstrate that the carbon nanotube influence on the graphene sheet is limited to only few atomic rows. Such an influence strongly depends on the distance between carbon nanotube and the graphene sheet and scales with the carbon nanotube radius, while the potential difference does not modify the length over which the charge concentration is disturbed by the presence of the tube. By studying the potential landscape of carbon nanotube–graphene junctions, our work could be used as a starting point to model the charge carrier injection in these unconventional systems. (paper)

  5. One-and two-dimensional topological charge distributions in stochastic optical fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The presentation on topological charge distributions in stochastic optical fields concludes that by using a combination of speckle fields one can produce inhomogeneous vortex distributions that allow both analytical calculations and numerical...

  6. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal...... shown that the socially optimal charging schedule can be implemented through a decentralized mechanism where loads respond autonomously to the posted DLMPs by maximizing their individual net surplus...

  7. Charged multiplicity distributions in anti np interactions at 6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.V.; Boguslavskij, I.B.; Gramenitskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inelastic topological anti np cross sections at 6 GeV/c have been determined based on a study of the charged multiplicity distribution in antideuteron-proton collisions at 12 GeV/c. The data were obtained in an exposure of the ''Ludmila'' JINR 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber at the Serpukhov accelerator. In anti np interactions average charged multiplicity and its ratio to dispersion, /D, were found to be 3.32+-0.13 and 1.86+-0.16, respectively. Comparison with anti pn, anti pp and pp data was made

  8. Isovector coupling channel and central properties of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the isovector coupling channel on the central depression parameter and the central value of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei was studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to about 50% increase of the central depression parameter, and weakens the dependency of both central depression parameter and the central density on the asymmetry, impressively contributing to the semibubble form of the charge density distribution in heavy nuclei, and increasing the probability of larger nuclei with higher proton numbers and higher neutron-to-proton ratios stable. (author)

  9. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb–Pb collisions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The multiplicity and the angular distribution of charged particles are measured in a wide acceptance ... the framework of the Glauber model with the Woods–Saxon nuclear density parametriza- tion and ... First some quality cuts .... Page 6 ...

  10. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  11. Distribution of a vacuum charge near supercharged nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.B.; Popov, V.S.; Voskresenskij, D.N.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental'noj Fiziki)

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of a vacuum charge near super-critical nuclei (Ze 2 > > 1) is found. The calculation is performed in the Thomas - Fermi approximation extended to the relativistic case. The characteristic parameter in the present problem is Ze 3 approximately Z/1600. For Ze 3 approximately 1 the total charge of the vacuum shell becomes comparable to the nuclear charge Z. The relativistic Thomas - Fermi equation for the vacuum shell of a supercritical atom is solved analytically for two extreme cases, Ze 3 3 > > 1. In the intermediate region, Ze 3 approximately 1, the equation is solved numerically. The Thomas - Fermi equation for a neutral atom (in which not only the vacuum but external electron shells as well are filled up) and also the equation in which allowance is made for exchange and correlation corrections (relativistic generalization of the Thomas -Fermi - Dirac equation) are also considered

  12. Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (Germany); Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D. [Adelaide Univ. SA (Australia). School of Physics and Chemistry; Winter, F. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)

  13. Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Stueben, H.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Winter, F.; Regensburg Univ.

    2010-12-01

    By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N f =2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)

  14. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  15. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  16. Charge distribution on plutonium-containing aerosols produced in mixed-oxide reactor fuel fabrication and the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Newton, G.J.; Teague, S.V.

    1976-01-01

    The inhalation toxicity of potentially toxic aerosols may be affected by the electrostatic charge on the particles. Charge may influence the deposition site during inhalation and therefore its subsequent clearance and dose patterns. The electrostatic charge distributions on plutonium-containing aerosols were measured with a miniature, parallel plate, aerosol electrical mobility spectrometer. Two aerosols were studied: a laboratory-produced 238 PuO 2 aerosol (15.8 Ci/g) and a plutonium mixed-oxide aerosol (PU-MOX, natural UO 2 plus PuO 2 , 0.02 Ci/g) formed during industrial centerless grinding of mixed-oxide reactor fuel pellets. Plutonium-238 dioxide particles produced in the laboratory exhibited a small net positive charge within a few minutes after passing through a 85 Kr discharger due to alpha particle emission removal of valence electrons. PU-MOX aerosols produced during centerless grinding showed a charge distribution essentially in Boltzmann equilibrium. The gross alpha aerosol concentrations (960-1200 nCi/l) within the glove box were sufficient to provide high ion concentrations capable of discharging the charge induced by mechanical and/or nuclear decay processes

  17. Multiagent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an ac microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain to regulate the active power. Each DES unit...

  18. Effects of electric field and charge distribution on nanoelectronic processes involving conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marta M.D.; Correia, Helena M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The injection of charge carriers in conducting polymer layers gives rise to local electric fields which should have serious implications on the charge transport through the polymer layer. The charge distribution and the related electric field inside the ensemble of polymer molecules, with different molecular arrangements at nanoscale, determine whether or not intra-molecular charge transport takes place and the preferential direction for charge hopping between neighbouring molecules. Consequently, these factors play a significant role in the competition between current flow, charge trapping and recombination in polymer-based electronic devices. By suitable Monte Carlo calculations, we simulated the continuous injection of electrons and holes into polymer layers with different microstructures and followed their transport through those polymer networks. Results of these simulations provided a detailed picture of charge and electric field distribution in the polymer layer and allowed us to assess the consequences for current transport and recombination efficiency as well as the distribution of recombination events within the polymer film. In the steady state we found an accumulation of electrons and holes near the collecting electrodes giving rise to an internal electric field which is greater than the external applied field close to the electrodes and lower than the one in the central region of the polymer layer. We also found that a strong variation of electric field inside the polymer layer leads to an increase of recombination events in regions inside the polymer layer where the values of the internal electric field are lower

  19. Numerical experiments on charging of a spherical body in a plasma with Maxwellian distributions of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovsky, Victor L.; Kiselyov, Alexander A.

    2017-12-01

    New results of numerical simulation of collisionless plasma perturbation caused by a sphere absorbing electrons and ions are presented. Consideration is given to nonstationary phenomena accompanying the process of charging as well as to plasma steady state reached at long times. Corresponding asymptotic values of charges of the sphere and trapped-ion cloud around it have been found along with self-consistent electric field pattern depending on parameters of the unperturbed plasma. It is established that contribution of the trapped ions to screening of the charged sphere can be quite significant, so that the screening becomes essentially nonlinear in nature. A simple interconnection between the sphere radius, electron and ion Debye lengths has been revealed as the condition for maximum trapped-ion effect. Kinetic structure of the space charge induced in the plasma is discussed with relation to the specific form of the unperturbed charged particle distribution functions.

  20. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Cemil; Heyda, Jan; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  1. Effects of Macroion Geometry and Charge Discretization in Charge Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arup K.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of discrete macroion surface charge distribution and valences of these surface charges and counterions on charge reversal have been studied for macroions of three different geometries and compared with those of continuous surface charge distributions. The geometry of the macroion has been observed to play an important role in overcharging in these cases. The interplay of valences of discrete microions and counterions have noticeable effects on overcharging efficiency. For some val...

  2. Equilibrium phase-space distributions and space charge limits in linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1977-10-01

    Limits on beam current and emittance in proton and heavy ion linear accelerators resulting from space charge forces are calculated. The method involves determining equilibrium distributions in phase space using a continuous focusing, no acceleration, model in two degrees of freedom using the coordinates r and z. A nonlinear Poisson equation must be solved numerically. This procedure is a matching between the longitudinal and transverse directions to minimize the effect of longitudinal-transverse coupling which is believed to be the main problem in emittance growth due to space charge in linacs. Limits on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator performance are calculated as an example. The beam physics is described by a few space charge parameters so that accelerators with different physical parameters can be compared in a natural way. The main result of this parameter study is that the requirement of a high-intensity beam is best fulfilled with a low-frequency accelerator whereas the requirement of a high-brightness beam is best fulfilled with a high-frequency accelerator

  3. Simulation study of spheroidal dust gains charging: Applicable to dust grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.; Khorram, S.

    2006-01-01

    The charging process of nonspherical dust grains in an unmagnetized plasma as well as in the presence of a magnetic field is studied. It is shown that unlike the spherical dust grain, due to nonhomogeneity of charge distribution on the spheroidal dust surface, the resultant electric forces on electrons and ions are different. This process produces some surface charge density gradient on the nonspherical grain surface. Effects of a magnetic field and other plasma parameters on the properties of the dust particulate are studied. It has been shown that the alignment direction could be changed or even reversed with the magnetic field and plasma parameters. Finally, the charge distribution on the spheroidal grain surface is studied for different ambient parameters including plasma temperature, neutral collision frequency, and the magnitude of the magnetic field

  4. The impact of the Fermi-Dirac distribution on charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z B; Helander, M G; Greiner, M T; Lu, Z H

    2010-05-07

    The Fermi level has historically been assumed to be the only energy-level from which carriers are injected at metal/semiconductor interfaces. In traditional semiconductor device physics, this approximation is reasonable as the thermal distribution of delocalized states in the semiconductor tends to dominate device characteristics. However, in the case of organic semiconductors the weak intermolecular interactions results in highly localized electronic states, such that the thermal distribution of carriers in the metal may also influence device characteristics. In this work we demonstrate that the Fermi-Dirac distribution of carriers in the metal has a much more significant impact on charge injection at metal/organic interfaces than has previously been assumed. An injection model which includes the effect of the Fermi-Dirac electron distribution was proposed. This model has been tested against experimental data and was found to provide a better physical description of charge injection. This finding indicates that the thermal distribution of electronic states in the metal should, in general, be considered in the study of metal/organic interfaces.

  5. Simulation of distributed parameter system consisting of charged and neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.S.; Sinha, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of positively charged light particles have been simulated in an assembly of heavy gas atoms. The system is formulated in terms of partial differential equation. The stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm has been examined. Using this formulation effects of external electric field and temperature have been investigated on the lifetime and distribution function characteristics of charged particles

  6. Kapton charging characteristics: Effects of material thickness and electron-energy distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Hymann, J.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Charging characteristics of polyimide (Kapton) of varying thicknesses under irradiation by a very-low-curent-density electron beam, with the back surface of the sample grounded are reported. These charging characteristics are in good agreement with a simple analytical model which predicts that in thin samples at low current density, sample surface potential is limited by conduction leakage through the bulk material. The charging of Kapton in a low-current-density electron beam in which the beam energy was modulated to simulate Maxwellian and biMaxwellian distribution functions is measured.

  7. Thermal pulse measurements of space charge distributions under an applied electric field in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feihu; An, Zhenlian; Zhang, Yewen; Liu, Chuandong; Lin, Chen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal pulse method is a powerful method to measure space charge and polarization distributions in thin dielectric films, but a complicated calibration procedure is necessary to obtain the real distribution. In addition, charge dynamic behaviour under an applied electric field cannot be observed by the classical thermal pulse method. In this work, an improved thermal pulse measuring system with a supplemental circuit for applying high voltage is proposed to realize the mapping of charge distribution in thin dielectric films under an applied field. The influence of the modified measuring system on the amplitude and phase of the thermal pulse response current are evaluated. Based on the new measuring system, an easy calibration approach is presented with some practical examples. The newly developed system can observe space charge evolution under an applied field, which would be very helpful in understanding space charge behaviour in thin films. (paper)

  8. Distribution of nuclear charge in the proton-induced fission of Th-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, B D [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Foster, J S; Yaffe, L [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1958-09-15

    A great deal of work has been done on the distribution of nuclear mass in the fission process. About the nuclear charge distribution less is known. Data exist on the distribution from the fission of U-235 with thermal neutrons and with 14 Mev neutrons. Data also exist for the fission of uranium by 170 Mev protons, of bismuth by 190 Mev deuterons, and of uranium, thorium and bismuth by 480 Mev protons, and there is fragmentary information from other systems. The present work was undertaken to investigate the changes that occur in the charge distribution from proton-induced fission of Th-232 as the bombarding energy is raised from 8 to 90 Mev, the maximum proton energy of the McGill synchrocyclotron. This energy range is of interest in view of the substantial changes observed in the mass distribution. Also in this interval a change presumably begins in the nature of the initial step in nuclear reactions, from simple compound-nucleus formation, to a mechanism of direct interaction with individual nucleons. Thus at the lower energies studied, excitation of the nuclei at the end of the first step of the reaction will be essentially monochromatic whereas at the higher end of the bombarding-energy range, a broad spectrum of excitation energies will be produced, with corresponding complexity of the reaction products observed. (author)

  9. On the Electromagnetic Momentum of Static Charge and Steady Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsponer, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Faraday's and Furry's formulae for the electromagnetic momentum of static charge distributions combined with steady electric current distributions are generalized in order to obtain full agreement with Poynting's formula in the case where all fields are of class C[superscript 1], i.e., continuous and continuously differentiable, and the…

  10. The quantic distribution of mobile carriers in a surface charge coupled device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The quantic distribution of the electrons in a surface charge coupled device (CCD), for a MIS structure with a real insulator (finite difference energy between the conduction bands of the insulator and of the semiconductor) is presented. A fundamental limitation of the charge transfer in a surface CCD is obtained. (author)

  11. Charge distribution dependency on gap thickness of CMS endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness.Prototypes of double-gap with five different gap thickness from 1.8mm to 1.0mm in 0.2mm steps have been built with 2mm thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. The charges of cosmic-muon signals induced on the detector strips are measured as a function of time using two four-channel 400-MHz fresh ADCs. In addition, the arrival time of the muons and the strip cluster sizes are measured by digitizing the signal using a 32-channel voltage-mode front-end-electronics and a 400-MHz 64-channel multi-hit TDC. The gain and the input impedance of the front-end-electronics were 200mV/mV and 20 Ohm, respectively.

  12. Forward-backward correlations and charged-particle azimuthal distributions in $pp$ interactions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Using inelastic proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, measurements have been made of the correlations between forward and backward charged-particle multiplicities and, for the first time, between forward and backward charged-particle summed transverse momentum. In addition, jet-like structure in the events is studied by means of azimuthal distributions of charged particles relative to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum in a selected kinematic region of the event. The results are compared with predictions from tunes of the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ Monte Carlo generators, which in most cases are found to provide a reasonable description of the data.

  13. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of ...

  14. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  15. The influence of charge and the distribution of charge in the polar region of phospholipids on the activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakim, D; Eibl, H

    1992-07-05

    Studies of the mechanism of lipid-induced regulation of the microsomal enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase have been extended by examining the influence of charge within the polar region on the ability of lipids to activate delipidated pure enzyme. The effects of net negative charge, of charge separation in phosphocholine, and of the distribution of charge in the polar region of lipids were studied using the GT2p isoform isolated from pig liver. Prior experiments have shown that lipids with net negative charge inhibit the enzyme (Zakim, D., Cantor, M., and Eibl, H. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5164-5169). The current experiments show that the extent of inhibition on a molar basis increases as the net negative charge increases from -1 to -2. The inhibitory effect of negatively charged lipids is on the functional state of the enzyme and is not due to electrostatic repulsion of negatively charged substrates of the enzyme. Although the inhibitory effect of net negative charge is removed when negative charge is balanced by a positive charge due to a quaternary nitrogen, neutrality of the polar region is not a sufficient condition for activation of the enzyme. In addition to a balance of charge between Pi and the quaternary nitrogen, the distance between the negative and positive charges and the orientation of the dipole created by them are critical for activation of GT2p. The negative and positive charges must be separated by the equivalent of three -CH2- groups for optimal activation by a lipid. Shortening this distance by one -CH2- unit leads to a lipid that is ineffective in activating the enzyme. Reversal of the orientation of the dipole in which the negative charge is on the polymethylene side of the lipid-water interface and the positive charge extends into water also produces a lipid that is not effective for activating GT2p. On the other hand, lipids with phosphoserine as the polar region, which has the "normal" P-N distance but carries a net negative charge, do

  16. Electric vehicle charging algorithms for coordination of the grid and distribution transformer levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Muñoz, Edgar; Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption has increased the popularity of plug-in electric vehicles. However, a large penetration of plug-in electric vehicles can pose challenges at the grid and local distribution levels. Various charging strategies have been proposed to address such challenges, often separately. In this paper, it is shown that, with uncoordinated charging, distribution transformers and the grid can operate under highly undesirable conditions. Next, several strategies that require modest communication efforts are proposed to mitigate the burden created by high concentrations of plug-in electric vehicles, at the grid and local levels. Existing transformer and battery electric vehicle characteristics are used along with the National Household Travel Survey to simulate various charging strategies. It is shown through the analysis of hot spot temperature and equivalent aging factor that the coordinated strategies proposed here reduce the chances of transformer failure with the addition of plug-in electric vehicle loads, even for an under-designed transformer while uncontrolled and uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging results in increased risk of transformer failure. - Highlights: • Charging algorithm for battery electric vehicles, for high penetration levels. • Algorithm reduces transformer overloading, for grid level valley filling. • Computation and communication requirements are minimal. • The distributed algorithm is implemented without large scale iterations. • Hot spot temperature and loss of life for transformers are evaluated.

  17. Description of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions in Pb+Pb collisions with Tsallis thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y. [Hangzhou Dianzi University, School of Information Engineering, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, H. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Zhu, L.L. [Sichuan University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Chengdu (China); Bonasera, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-10-15

    The centrality dependence of pseudorapidity distributions for charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 130 GeV and 200 GeV at RHIC, and in Pb+Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV at LHC are investigated in the fireball model, assuming that the rapidity axis is populated with fireballs following one distribution function. We assume that the particles in the fireball fulfill the Tsallis distribution. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement is found. Using these results, the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb central collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV and 10 TeV are predicted. (orig.)

  18. Distributed Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging in a Community Microgrid Considering Real-Time Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Schaltz, Erik; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    The predictable increasing adoption of EV by residential users imposes the necessity of Electric Vehicle charging coordination, in order to charge effectively while minimizing the impact on the grid. In this paper, a two-stage distributed coordination algorithm for electric vehicle charging...... management in a community microgrid is proposed. Each local EV charging controller is taken as an agent, which can manage the charging to achieve the optimization of the whole community by communicating in a sparse network. The proposed algorithm aims at optimizing real-time, which manages the charging...

  19. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the capabilities of a neutrino factory in the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments, with special attention to the accuracy of this kind of measurements. We show that a neutrino factory would allow to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure

  20. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  1. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d+Au Collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in minimum-bias d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV is presented for the first time. This distribution falls off less rapidly in the gold direction as compared to the deuteron direction. The average value of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is ∣η∣≤0.6=9.4±0.7(syst) and the integrated primary charged particle multiplicity in the measured region is 82±6(syst). Estimates of the total charged particle production, based on extrapolations outside the measured pseudorapidity region, are also presented. The pseudorapidity distribution, normalized to the number of participants in d+Au collisions, is compared to those of Au+Au and p+p¯ systems at the same energy. The d+Au distribution is also compared to the predictions of the parton saturation model, as well as microscopic models.

  2. Study of charge exchanges of heavy ions passing through solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Eric.

    1975-01-01

    The charge state distributions of 1 to 6MeV/nucleon heavy ions (from oxygen to krypton) passing through thin targets of various materials (C, Cu, Ag, Au) are studied. The variation of the average charge state and of the charge state fractions as a function of the thickness of carbon targets ranging from zero to the equilibrium thickness is measured; this allows the calculation of effective cross-sections of the charge changing process. It is also shown that the lower the target atomic number, the higher the average charge state, which is explained by a decrease of the capture cross sections. Finally, a semi-empirical formula predicting the average charge state is proposed, as an extension of Betz's and Nikolaev and Dmitriev's formula [fr

  3. Pseudorapidity and transverse-momentum distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\mathbf{\\sqrt{\\textit s}}$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-02-10

    The pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) and transverse-momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions are measured at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. The pseudorapidity distribution in $|\\eta|<$ 1.8 is reported for inelastic events and for events with at least one charged particle in $|\\eta|<$ 1. The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<$ 0.5 is 5.31 $\\pm$ 0.18 and 6.46 $\\pm$ 0.19 for the two event classes, respectively. The transverse-momentum distribution of charged particles is measured in the range 0.15 $<$ $p_{\\rm T}$ $<$ 20 GeV/c and $|\\eta|<$ 0.8 for events with at least one charged particle in $|\\eta|<$ 1. The correlation between transverse momentum and particle multiplicity is also investigated by studying the evolution of the spectra with event multiplicity. The results are compared with calculations from PYTHIA and EPOS Monte Carlo generators.

  4. Emittance growth caused by nonuniform charge distribution of bunched beam in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Zhang Zhenhai

    1993-09-01

    The nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac is one of the important reasons that induces the emittance growth because of the conversion of the field energy to kinetic energy. The authors have worked out the internal field energies associated with some nonuniform space change distributions of a bunched beam, such as Gaussian distribution, waterbag distribution and parabolic distribution. And the emittance growths caused by these nonuniformities are obtained

  5. Role of Molecular Weight Distribution on Charge Transport in Semiconducting Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott

    2014-10-28

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Model semiconducting polymer blends of well-controlled molecular weight distributions are fabricated and demonstrated to be a simple method to control intermolecular disorder without affecting intramolecular order or degree of aggregation. Mobility measurements exhibit that even small amounts of low molecular weight material are detrimental to charge transport. Trends in charge carrier mobility can be reproduced by a simple analytical model which indicates that carriers have no preference for high or low molecular weight chains and that charge transport is limited by interchain hopping. These results quantify the role of long polymer tie-chains and demonstrate the need for controlled polydispersity for achieving high carrier mobilities.

  6. A comparative study of charge movement in rat and frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W

    1981-12-01

    1. The middle of the fibre voltage--clamp technique (Adrian & Marshall, 1977), modified where necessary for electrically short muscle fibres, has been used to measure non-linear charge movements in mammalian fast twitch (rat extensor digitorum longus), mammalian slow twitch (rat soleus) and frog (sartorius) muscles. 2. The maximum amount of charge moved in mammalian fast twitch muscle at 2 degrees C in hypertonic solution, was 3--5 times greater than in slow twitch muscle. The voltage distribution of fast twitch charge was 10--15 mV more positive when compared to slow twitch. 3. In both mammalian muscle types hypertonic Ringer solution negatively shifted the voltage distribution of charge some 6 mV. The steepness of charge moved around mechanical threshold was unaffected by hypertonicity. 4. The amount of charge in frog sartorius fibres at 2 degrees C in hypertonic solution was about half of that in rat fast twitch muscle; the voltage distribution of the frog charge was similar to rat soleus muscle. 5. Warming between 2 and 15 degrees C had no effect on either the amount of steady-state distribution of charge in mammalian or frog muscles. 6. At 2 degrees C, the kinetics of charge movement in fast and slow twitch mammalian muscles were similar and 2--3 times faster than frog muscle at the same temperature. In fast and slow mammalian fibres at 2 degrees C similar times were taken to shift the same fractions of the total amount of charge. The Q10 of charge movement kinetics was between 1.2 and 2.0 in the three muscles studied.

  7. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  8. Microscopic gate-modulation imaging of charge and field distribution in polycrystalline organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Kamata, Toshihide; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a high-resolution microscopic gate-modulation imaging (μ-GMI) technique is successfully developed to visualize inhomogeneous charge and electric field distributions in operating organic thin-film transistors (TFTs). We conduct highly sensitive and diffraction-limit gate-modulation sensing for acquiring difference images of semiconducting channels between at gate-on and gate-off states that are biased at an alternate frequency of 15 Hz. As a result, we observe unexpectedly inhomogeneous distribution of positive and negative local gate-modulation (GM) signals at a probe photon energy of 1.85 eV in polycrystalline pentacene TFTs. Spectroscopic analyses based on a series of μ-GMI at various photon energies reveal that two distinct effects appear, simultaneously, within the polycrystalline pentacene channel layers: Negative GM signals at 1.85 eV originate from the second-derivative-like GM spectrum which is caused by the effect of charge accumulation, whereas positive GM signals originate from the first-derivative-like GM spectrum caused by the effect of leaked gate fields. Comparisons with polycrystalline morphologies indicate that grain centers are predominated by areas with high leaked gate fields due to the low charge density, whereas grain edges are predominantly high-charge-density areas with a certain spatial extension as associated with the concentrated carrier traps. Consequently, it is reasonably understood that larger grains lead to higher device mobility, but with greater inhomogeneity in charge distribution. These findings provide a clue to understand and improve device characteristics of polycrystalline TFTs.

  9. Space charge distributions in glass fibre/epoxy resin composites under dc 10 kV mm-1 electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidesato; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Fukunaga, Kaori; Maeno, Takashi; Okamoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss one- and three-dimensional space charge distributions in glass fibre/epoxy resin composites. By the conventional pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method, only a one-dimensional distribution of the average charge over a whole area parallel to the two electrodes can be observed. Therefore, the authors have developed a new PEA system capable of measuring a three-dimensional space charge distribution. Using this system, they measured the charge distribution in glass fibre/epoxy resin composites made of lattice-woven glass fibre and epoxy resin. It has become clear that spatial variation in signal intensity observed depends on the internal structure of the composite. There appear repetitious positions where a high charge density is observed on the same lateral cross section along the vertical direction in the composite. Such positions are consistent with the intersections of the glass fibres. Accumulation of mobile charge carriers or appearance of polarization charge due to mismatch of the ratio of the conductivity and permittivity between the glass fibre and the epoxy resin is thought to be responsible for the PEA signals

  10. Charge distributions and correlations in fragmentation models for soft hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    1984-01-01

    Data on charge distributions and charge correlations in pp and meson-proton interactions at PS and SPS energies are successfully compared with the Lund fragmentation model for low-psub(T) hadron collisions. It is argued that local conservation of quantum numbers and resonance production, as implemented in fragmentation models, are sufficient ingredients to explain most of the available experimental results at these energies. No necessity is found for dual-sheet contributions considered in DTU-based parton models. (orig.)

  11. Mass distribution studies in 28Si + 232Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Pujari, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Mass distribution is one of the important observables to understand the fusion-fission potential energy landscape. In the fission involving composite systems with Z ∼ 100, the fission barrier is lower and the saddle point is compact. Thus, apart from transfer induced fission,various non compound nucleus (NCN) fission processes like quasi-fission, pre-equilibrium fission and fast fission compete with the complete fusion fission (CFF). This would be further affected by the entrance channel parameters like choice of the target-projectile combination (mass asymmetry) and the projectile energy. Charge and mass distribution studies in such system would provide information about various fission processes such as complete fusion fission, non-compound nucleus fission and transfer induced fission, which would help in understanding the fusion-fission process in heavy ion collisions forming composite system in the heavy and trans-actinide region. In view of this, a systematic study of the charge and mass distribution in 28 Si+ 232 Th reaction was planned at beam energy close to and above the entrance channel Coulomb barrier. The experiments were carried out at the TIFR-LINAC booster facility. Self supporting foils of 232 Th were bombarded with 180 and 160 MeV 28 Si beam in a stack foil arrangement. The recoiling fission products were assayed radiochemically by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Results of charge distribution studies at E lab =180 MeV have been reported earlier. In the poster, the data on charge and mass distribution distribution will be presented.The results of the present studies will be compared with those from the reactions involving lighter and heavier composite systems

  12. Electronic structure and partial charge distribution of Doxorubicin in different molecular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Lokendra; Wen, Amy M; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2015-05-18

    The electronic structure and partial charge of doxorubicin (DOX) in three different molecular environments-isolated, solvated, and intercalated in a DNA complex-are studied by first-principles density functional methods. It is shown that the addition of solvating water molecules to DOX, together with the proximity to and interaction with DNA, has a significant impact on the electronic structure as well as on the partial charge distribution. Significant improvement in estimating the DOX-DNA interaction energy is achieved. The results are further elucidated by resolving the total density of states and surface charge density into different functional groups. It is concluded that the presence of the solvent and the details of the interaction geometry matter greatly in determining the stability of DOX complexation. Ab initio calculations on realistic models are an important step toward a more accurate description of the long-range interactions in biomolecular systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Space charge-limited emission studies using Coulomb's Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Child and Langmuir introduced a solution to space charge limited emission in an infinite area planar diode. The solution follows from starting with Poisson's equation, and requires solving a non-linear differential equation. This approach can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical geometries, but only for one-dimensional cases. By approaching the problem from Coulomb's law and applying the effect of an assumed charge distribution...

  14. Planned studies of charge collection in non-uniformly irradiated Si and GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A.; Reinhard, M.; Carolan, M.; Kaplan, G.; Lerch, M.; Alexiev, D.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the time and amplitude characteristics of silicon ion-implanted detectors non-uniformly irradiated with fast neutrons in order to predict their radiation behaviour in the LHC and space. It is expected in such detectors increases of the charge deficit due to trapping by large scale traps and transient time increases due to the reduction of the mobility. The theoretical model will be modified to describe the charge kinetics in the electrical field of the detector created by a non uniform space charge distribution. Experimental confirmation techniques are needed to develop non uniform predictable damage of silicon detectors using fast neutron sources (accelerators, reactors) and to study peculiarities of the charge transport in different parts of the detector. In parallel to experimental research will be started the theoretical development of the charge transport model for non-uniform distribution of space charge in the depletion layer (Neff). The model will include the linear distribution of Neff(y) along the detector as well as the change of sign of Neff (conversion from n to p type of silicon) inside the detector

  15. The implication of charged particle lateral distribution function for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kempa, J.; Kulikov, G.V.; Sulakov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of charged particle lateral distribution function (LDF) is of prime importance in extensive air shower (EAS) investigations. This function is necessary for the determination of the total number of particles as well as some other classification parameters. The Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen (NKG) function is being actively employed by many researchers in spite of the fact that it was derived under rather crude assumptions (in so-called B Approximation of the electromagnetic cascade theory). Our paper discusses the dependence of the EAS size spectrum on the LDF form adopted and compares two LDFs: the traditional NKG-function and the scaling function suggested recently. Prominence is given to the EAS MSU data but the results of other EAS arrays (AGASA, Yakutsk and KASCADE) are also considered

  16. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly

  17. Factors influencing the charge distribution on Pd x Pt y bimetallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Celis-Cornejo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed quantum mechanics calculations to elucidate the electronic behavior of Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, using density functional theory, in response to particle size and stoichiometric composition. Using neutrally charged nanoparticles and the Bader charge analysis, we found that external Pd atoms were positively charged, which agrees with previous XPS observations of supported Pd-Pt nanoparticles. From the calculations, unsupported nanoparticles exhibit an electron transfer from Pd to Pt. This result supports the idea that Pd electron-deficient species are possibly responsible of the hydrogenating function of these catalysts, in the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene. Additionally, it was found that the particle size does not affect the electronic charge distribution and the stoichiometric composition is the factor that greatly influences this property in nanoparticles.

  18. Inclusive charged particle distributions in deep inelastic scattering events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-11-01

    A measurement of inclusive charged particle distributions in deep inelastic ep scattering for γ * p centre-of-mass energies 75 2 2 from the ZEUS detector at HERA is presented. The differential charged particle rates in the γ*p centre-of-mass system as a function of the scaled longitudinal momentum, x F , and of the transverse momentum, p* t and t 2 >, as a function of x F , W and Q 2 are given. Separate distributions are shown for events with (LRG) and without (NRG) a rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction. The data are compared with results from experiments at lower beam energies, with the naive quark parton model and with parton models including perturbative QCD corrections. The comparison shows the importance of the higher order QCD processes. Significant differences of the inclusive charged particle rates between NRG and LRG events at the same W are observed. The value of t 2 > for LRG events with a hadronic mass M X , which excludes the forward produced baryonic system, is similar to the t 2 > value observed in fixed target experiments at W∼M X . (orig.)

  19. Plasma flow around and charge distribution of a dust cluster in a rf discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleede, J.; Lewerentz, L.; Bronold, F. X.; Schneider, R.; Fehske, H.

    2018-04-01

    We employ a particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision/particle-particle particle-mesh simulation to study the plasma flow around and the charge distribution of a three-dimensional dust cluster in the sheath of a low-pressure rf argon discharge. The geometry of the cluster and its position in the sheath are fixed to the experimental values, prohibiting a mechanical response of the cluster. Electrically, however, the cluster and the plasma environment, mimicking also the experimental situation, are coupled self-consistently. We find a broad distribution of the charges collected by the grains. The ion flux shows on the scale of the Debye length strong focusing and shadowing inside and outside the cluster due to the attraction of the ions to the negatively charged grains, whereas the electron flux is characterized on this scale only by a weak spatial modulation of its magnitude depending on the rf phase. On the scale of the individual dust potentials, however, the electron flux deviates in the vicinity of the cluster strongly from the laminar flow associated with the plasma sheath. It develops convection patterns to compensate for the depletion of electrons inside the dust cluster.

  20. Deployment Strategy for Charging Piles Based on Distribution Network Capacity Planning and Users’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chongyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are the most potential transports in the future. However, the large scale of charging facilities will make a great influence on gird. There is a need to make a research on the construction of charging facilities. Based on the power demand characteristics of electric vehicle charging, distribution network capacity, charging system performance and other aspects, this paper mainly researched the deployment strategy of charging piles. First, the authors built up a model with characteristics of charging power demand of electric vehicle and a model of charging service system. The characteristic of daily load curve is analyzed. Second, based on these works, the authors designed the progress of strategy making. At last, the progress was verified by the actual use case.

  1. Effect of the surface charge discretization on electric double layers. A Monte Carlo simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Madurga Díez, Sergio; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Vilaseca i Font, Eudald; Mas i Pujadas, Francesc; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the electric double layer in contact with discrete and continuously charged planar surfaces is studied within the framework of the primitive model through Monte Carlo simulations. Three different discretization models are considered together with the case of uniform distribution. The effect of discreteness is analyzed in terms of charge density profiles. For point surface groups,a complete equivalence with the situation of uniformly distributed charge is found if profiles are...

  2. Electromagnetic contribution to charge symmetry violation in parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.G. Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a calculation of the combined effect of photon radiation and quark mass differences on charge symmetry violation (CSV in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. Following a recent suggestion of Martin and Ryskin, the initial photon distribution is calculated in terms of coherent radiation from the proton as a whole, while the effect of the quark mass difference is based on a recent lattice QCD simulation. The distributions are then evolved to a scale at which they can be compared with experiment by including both QCD and QED radiation. Overall, at a scale of 5 GeV2, the total CSV effect on the phenomenologically important difference between the d and u-quark distributions is some 20% larger than the value based on quark mass differences alone. In total these sources of CSV account for approximately 40% of the NuTeV anomaly.

  3. Fission profits of thorium: Distribution in charge and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is presented the improvement of a semi-empiric model to describe behavior fo the 235 U + thermal neutrons system. The model is applied to fission of the 232 Th case reproducing the distribution of mass profits of fission products from the behavior of independent profits of fragments related the mass and charge, and the emission of prompt neutrons per fragment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  5. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  6. Current distribution in triodes neglecting space charge and initial velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, H.C.

    1950-01-01

    A theory of the current distribution in triodes with positive grid is developed on the assumption that space charge and the initial velocities of both primary and secondary electrons may be neglected. This theory, which is originally due to De Lussanct de la Sablonière, has been put in a more lucid

  7. Effect of nonuniform radial density distribution on the space charge dominated beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Beam dynamics of a space charge dominated beam during the bunch compression is studied self consistently for the case of fixed shape non-uniform bell shape and hollow shape density distributions in the transverse direction. We have used thick slices at different parts of the beam to account for variation in the beam radius in the study of the transverse dynamics. The longitudinal dynamics has been studied using the disc model. The axial variation of the radius of the slices and emittance growth arising from the phase dependence of the transverse rf forces are also included in the simulation. We have modified the beam envelope equation to take into account the longitudinal space charge effect on the transverse motion which arises due to the finite bunch size. To demonstrate the application of the theoretical formulations developed, we have studied a sinusoidal beam bunching system and presented detailed numerical results.

  8. Novel applications of Lattice QCD: Parton Distributions, proton charge radius and neutron electric dipole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrou Constantia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly discuss the current status of lattice QCD simulations and review selective results on nucleon observables focusing on recent developments in the lattice QCD evaluation of the nucleon form factors and radii, parton distribution functions and their moments, and the neutron electric dipole moment. Nucleon charges and moments of parton distribution functions are presented using simulations generated at physical values of the quark masses, while exploratory studies are performed for the parton distribution functions and the neutron electric dipole moment at heavier than physical value of the pion mass.

  9. Hybrid fuzzy charged system search algorithm based state estimation in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid charged system search (CSS algorithm based state estimation in radial distribution networks in fuzzy framework. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the weighted square of the difference between the measured and the estimated quantity. The proposed method of state estimation considers bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as state variable along with some equality and inequality constraints for state estimation in distribution networks. A rule based fuzzy inference system has been designed to control the parameters of the CSS algorithm to achieve better balance between the exploration and exploitation capability of the algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed fuzzy adaptive charged system search (FACSS algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 33-bus system and Indian 85-bus practical radial distribution system. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional CSS algorithm, weighted least square (WLS algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO for feasibility of the algorithm.

  10. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  11. Pseudorapidity and transverse-momentum distributions of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at s=13 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pseudorapidity (η and transverse-momentum (pT distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions are measured at the centre-of-mass energy s=13 TeV. The pseudorapidity distribution in |η|<1.8 is reported for inelastic events and for events with at least one charged particle in |η|<1. The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity region |η|<0.5 is 5.31±0.18 and 6.46±0.19 for the two event classes, respectively. The transverse-momentum distribution of charged particles is measured in the range 0.15charged particle in |η|<1. The evolution of the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles is also investigated as a function of event multiplicity. The results are compared with calculations from PYTHIA and EPOS Monte Carlo generators.

  12. Scaled momentum distributions of charged particles in dijet photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-04-01

    The scaled momentum distributions of charged particles in jets have been measured for dijet photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 359 pb -1 . The distributions are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD carried out in the framework of the modified leading-logarithmic approximation (MLLA) and assuming local parton-hadron duality (LPHD). The universal MLLA scale, Λ eff , and the LPHD parameter, κ ch , are extracted. (orig.)

  13. Controlling charges distribution at the surface of a single GaN nanowire by in-situ strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the strain on the charge distribution at the surface of a GaN semiconductor nanowire (NW has been investigated inside transmission electron microscope (TEM by in-situ off-axis electron holography. The outer and inner surfaces of the NW bent axially under compression of two Au electrodes were differently strained, resulting in difference of their Fermi levels. Consequently, the free electrons flow from the high Fermi level to the low level until the two Fermi levels aligned in a line. The potential distributions induced by charge redistribution in the two vacuum sides of the bent NW were examined respectively, and the opposite nature of the bounded charges on the outer and inner surfaces of the bent NW was identified. The results provide experimental evidence that the charge distribution at the surfaces of a single GaN NW can be controlled by different strains created along the NW.

  14. Non-Gaussianities in the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cè, Marco; Consonni, Cristian; Engel, Georg P.; Giusti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    We study the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with high precision in order to be able to detect deviations from Gaussianity. The computation is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by implementing a naive discretization of the topological charge evolved with the Yang-Mills gradient flow. This definition is far less demanding than the one suggested from Neuberger's fermions and, as shown in this paper, in the continuum limit its cumulants coincide with those of the universal definition appearing in the chiral Ward identities. Thanks to the range of lattice volumes and spacings considered, we can extrapolate the results for the second and fourth cumulant of the topological charge distribution to the continuum limit with confidence by keeping finite volume effects negligible with respect to the statistical errors. Our best results for the topological susceptibility is t02χ =6.67 (7 )×1 0-4 , where t0 is a standard reference scale, while for the ratio of the fourth cumulant over the second, we obtain R =0.233 (45 ). The latter is compatible with the expectations from the large Nc expansion, while it rules out the θ behavior of the vacuum energy predicted by the dilute instanton model. Its large distance from 1 implies that, in the ensemble of gauge configurations that dominate the path integral, the fluctuations of the topological charge are of quantum nonperturbative nature.

  15. Effect of the surface charge discretization on electric double layers: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga, Sergio; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Vilaseca, Eudald; Mas, Francesc; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2007-06-21

    The structure of the electric double layer in contact with discrete and continuously charged planar surfaces is studied within the framework of the primitive model through Monte Carlo simulations. Three different discretization models are considered together with the case of uniform distribution. The effect of discreteness is analyzed in terms of charge density profiles. For point surface groups, a complete equivalence with the situation of uniformly distributed charge is found if profiles are exclusively analyzed as a function of the distance to the charged surface. However, some differences are observed moving parallel to the surface. Significant discrepancies with approaches that do not account for discreteness are reported if charge sites of finite size placed on the surface are considered.

  16. Scaled momentum distributions of charged particles in dijet photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The scaled momentum distributions of charged particles in jets have been measured for dijet photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 359 pb{sup -1}. The distributions are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD carried out in the framework of the modified leading-logarithmic approximation (MLLA) and assuming local parton-hadron duality (LPHD). The universal MLLA scale, {lambda}{sub eff}, and the LPHD parameter, {kappa}{sup ch}, are extracted. (orig.)

  17. Distribution and predictors of emergency department charges: the case of a tertiary hospital in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani; Hitti, Eveline

    2016-03-18

    As health care costs continue to increase worldwide, health care systems, and more specifically hospitals are facing continuous pressure to operate more efficiently. One service within the hospital sector whose cost structure has been modestly investigated is the Emergency Department (ED). The study aims to report on the distribution of ED resource use, as expressed in charges, and to determine predictors of/contributors to total ED charges at a major tertiary hospital in Lebanon. The study used data extracted from the ED discharge database for visits between July 31, 2012 and July 31, 2014. Patient visit bills were reported under six major categories: solutions, pharmacy, laboratory, physicians, facility, and radiology. Characteristics of ED visits were summarized according to patient gender, age, acuity score, and disposition. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with total charges as the dependent variable. Findings revealed that the professional fee (40.9 %) followed by facility fee (26.1 %) accounted for the majority of the ED charges. While greater than 80 % of visit charges went to physician and facility fee for low acuity cases, these contributed to only 52 and 54 % of the high acuity presentations where ancillary services and solutions' contribution to the total charges increased. The total charges for males were $14 higher than females; age was a predictor of higher charges with total charges of patients greater than 60 years of age being around $113 higher than ages 0-18 after controlling for all other variables. Understanding the components and determinants of ED charges is essential to developing cost-containment interventions. Institutional modeling of charging patterns can be used to offer price estimates to ED patients who request this information and ultimately help create market competition to drive down costs.

  18. The determination of nuclear charge distributions using a Bayesian maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaulay, V.A.; Buck, B.

    1995-01-01

    We treat the inference of nuclear charge densities from measurements of elastic electron scattering cross sections. In order to get the most reliable information from expensively acquired, incomplete and noisy measurements, we use Bayesian probability theory. Very little prior information about the charge densities is assumed. We derive a prior probability distribution which is a generalization of a form used widely in image restoration based on the entropy of a physical density. From the posterior distribution of possible densities, we select the most probable one, and show how error bars can be evaluated. These have very reasonable properties, such as increasing without bound as hypotheses about finer scale structures are included in the hypothesis space. The methods are demonstrated by using data on the nuclei 4 He and 12 C. (orig.)

  19. A Wigner quasi-distribution function for charged particles in classical electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanda, M.; Fleurov, V.

    2001-01-01

    A gauge-invariant Wigner quasi-distribution function for charged particles in classical electromagnetic fields is derived in a rigorous way. Its relation to the axial gauge is discussed, as well as the relation between the kinetic and canonical momenta in the Wigner representation. Gauge-invariant quantum analogs of Hamilton-Jacobi and Boltzmann kinetic equations are formulated for arbitrary classical electromagnetic fields in terms of the 'slashed' derivatives and momenta, introduced for this purpose. The kinetic meaning of these slashed quantities is discussed. We introduce gauge-invariant conditional moments and use them to derive a kinetic momentum continuity equation. This equation provides us with a hydrodynamic representation for quantum transport processes and a definition of the 'collision force'. The hydrodynamic equation is applied for the rotation part of the electron motion. The theory is illustrated by its application in three examples: Wigner quasi-distribution function and equations for an electron in a magnetic field and harmonic potential; Wigner quasi-distribution function for a charged particle in periodic systems using the kq representation; two Wigner quasi-distribution functions for heavy-mass polaron in an electric field

  20. Angular distribution in proton-hydrogen charge-transfer collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glembocki, O.; Halpern, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical angular distributions for p-H charge transfer to the 1s state for energies of 1 keV and above have been examined and compared for three approximation schemes: the plane-wave Born approximation of Jackson and Schiff (JS), the Coulomb projected Born approximation of Geltman (G), and the distorted-wave eikonal approximation of one of the authors (D). The sharp dip in the forward distribution characteristic of JS is found to exist in G and D as well. As expected, G and D give identical results for all but the lowest energies. In the cases of G and D the dip, which is located close to that of JS, disappears and then reappears as the energy rises. Analytic high-energy limits for the angular dependence in both the JS and G cases have been found and are discussed

  1. Effect of Structure on Charge Distribution in the Isatin Anions in Aprotic Environment: Spectral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tisovský

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Five isatin anions were prepared by deprotonation of initial isatins in aprotic solvents using basic fluoride and acetate anions (F− and CH3COO−. The F− basicity is sufficient to deprotonate isatin NH hydrogen from all the studied compounds. This process is reversible. In the presence of proton donor solvents, the anions form the corresponding isatins. The isatin hydrogen acidity depends on the overall structure of the isatin derivatives. The anions were characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the anions form aggregates at concentrations above 10−3 mol·dm−3. Further, the effect of cations on the UV–Vis spectra of the studied anions was studied. Charge transfer and its distribution in the anion depends on the radius and the cation electron configuration. The alkali metal cations, tetrabutylammonium (TBA+, Mg2+ and Ag+, interact with the C-2 carbonyl oxygen of the isatin anion. The interaction has a coulombic character. On the other hand, Cd2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, Co2+, and Cu+ cations form a coordinate bond with the isatin nitrogen.

  2. Dirac-Fock atomic electronic structure calculations using different nuclear charge distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L; Dyall, KG

    1997-01-01

    Numerical Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for the first 109 elements of the periodic table are presented. The results give the total electronic energy, as a function of the nuclear model that is used, for four different models of the nuclear charge distribution. The

  3. Mass and charge distributions in Fe-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, H.; Mignerey, A.C.; Marchetti, A.A.; Weston-Dawkes, A.P.; Kehoe, W.L.; Obenshain, F.

    1995-01-01

    The charge and mass of the projectile-like fragments produced in the 12-MeV/nucleon 56 Fe + 165 Ho reaction were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 16 degrees. The mass and charge distributions of the projectile-like fragments were generated as a function of total kinetic energy loss (TKEL), and characterized by their neutron and proton centroids and variances, and correlation factors. A weak drift of the system towards mass asymmetry, opposite to the direction which minimizes the potential energy of the composite system, was observed. The increase in the variances with energy loss is consistent with a nucleon exchange mechanism as a means for energy dissipation. Predictions of two nucleon exchange models, Randrup's and, Tassan-Got's models, are compared to the experimental results of the 672-MeV 56 Fe + 165 Ho reaction and to other Fe-induced reactions. The proton and neutron centroids were found to be generally better reproduced by Tassan-Got's model than by Randrup's model. The variances and correlation factor are well reproduced for asymmetric systems by both models

  4. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  5. Mitigation of the Impact of High Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration on Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential distribution grid contains 120 houses and is modeled in GridLAB-D. Co-simulation is performed using Matlab and GridLAB-D to enable the optimal control algorithm in Matlab to control PEV charging loads in the residential grid modeled in GridLAB-D. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal charging control method in mitigating the negative impacts of PEV charging on the residential grid.

  6. Charge-state distribution measurements of ^{238}U and ^{136}Xe at 11  MeV/nucleon using gas charge stripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge-state distributions and equilibrium charge states of uranium (^{238}U and xenon (^{136}Xe ions at 11  MeV/nucleon were determined using a gas charge stripper. A differential pumping system facilitated the increase of the nitrogen gas thickness up to 1.3  mg/cm^{2}, which is sufficient for the most probable charge state to attain equilibrium. The charge states of ^{238}U attain equilibrium at 56.0, 56.6, and 55.7 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 125, 79, and 126  μg/cm^{2}, respectively, while those of ^{136}Xe attain equilibrium at 40.5, 40.1, and 40.3 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 163, 95, and 139  μg/cm^{2}, respectively. The equilibrium charge states of ^{136}Xe are acceptable for acceleration by the subsequent cyclotron. The measured data of ^{238}U were used to devise an empirical formula for the prediction of the equilibrium charge state in gaseous media over the energy region of 0.01–60  MeV/nucleon. The equilibrium charge state of ^{136}Xe as predicted by the devised formula is in good agreement with the data.

  7. Shallow gas charged sediments off the Indian west coast: Genesis and distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Peketi, A.; Dewangan, P.; Badesab, F.K.; Ramprasad, T; Ramana, M.V.; Patil, D.J.; Dayal, A.M.

    Geophysical and geochemical surveys were carried out off Goa, central west coast of India, to understand the genesis and distribution of shallow gases in marine sediments. Shallow gas charged sediments within the water depths of approx. 15 to 40 m...

  8. Charge distribution and response time for a modulation-doped extrinsic infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadek, Victor

    1987-01-01

    The electric charge distribution and response time of a modulation-doped extrinsic infrared detector are determined. First, it is demonstrated theoretically that the photoconductive layer is effectively depleted of ionized majority-impurity charges so that scattering is small and mobility is high for photogenerated carriers. Then, using parameters appropriate to an actual detector, the predicted response time is 10 to the -8th to about 10 to the -9th s, which is much faster than comparable conventional detectors. Thus, the modulation-doped detector design would be valuable for heterodyne applications.

  9. Momentum distribution of charged particles in jets in dijet events and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-19

    Jul 19, 2016 ... Momentum distribution of charged particles in jets in dijet events and comparison to perturbative QCD predictions. M E ZOMORRODIAN1,∗, M HASHEMINIA1,4, S M ZABIHINPOUR2 and A MIRJALILI3. 1Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775-1436, Mashhad, Iran. 2Department of ...

  10. Optimal planning of electric vehicle charging station at the distribution system using hybrid optimization algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Abhishek; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    India's ever increasing population has made it necessary to develop alternative modes of transportation with electric vehicles being the most preferred option. The major obstacle is the deteriorating impact on the utility distribution system brought about by improper setup of these charging...... stations. This paper deals with the optimal planning (siting and sizing) of charging station infrastructure in the city of Allahabad, India. This city is one of the upcoming smart cities, where electric vehicle transportation pilot project is going on under Government of India initiative. In this context......, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm and improved version of conventional particle swarm optimization is utilized for finding optimal placement of charging station in the Allahabad distribution system. The particle swarm optimization algorithm re-optimizes the received sub-optimal solution (site...

  11. Measurements of jet fragmentation and the angular distributions of charged particles within and around jets in $pp$ and Pb+Pb with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rybar, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Highly energetic jets produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions are considered to be direct probes to study the properties of the hot and dense QCD matter created in these collisions. The measurement of the fragmentation functions of jets into charged particles in Pb+Pb collisions is sensitive to the strength and mechanism of jet quenching. In this talk, we present the latest measurement of the internal structure of jets and the angular distributions of charged particles within and around jets performed with the ATLAS detector. Fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions and distributions of the transverse momentum of charged particles are compared to the same quantities measured in pp collisions at the same collision energy. Measurements are presented as a function of collision centrality, jet transverse momentum, and jet rapidity at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. Furthermore, a new measurement of the angular distributions of charged-particles with respect to jet axis extended to distances outside the jet radius...

  12. Charge-state distribution in close collisions of 3 MeV C2+ ions with Ag and Au atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.O; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Kabachnik, N.M.; Khodyrev, V.A.

    The charge-state distributions of 3 MeV carbon ions scattered over angles of 40 degrees and 60 degrees from sub-monolayers of Ag and Au atoms evaporated on a substrate and from thick layers of Ag and Au have been measured. A close similarity of the charge distributions in all cases is interpreted as

  13. Observation and simulation of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency photoinjector using a transverse multibeamlet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rihaoui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental study of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency (rf photoinjector. A 5 MeV electron bunch, consisting of a number of beamlets separated transversely, was generated in an rf photocathode gun and propagated in the succeeding drift space. The collective interaction of these beamlets was studied for different experimental conditions. The experiment allowed the exploration of space-charge effects and its comparison with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Our observations also suggest the possible use of a multibeam configuration to tailor the transverse distribution of an electron beam.

  14. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mass and charge distributions in chlorine-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Projectile-like fragments were detected and characterized in terms of A, Z, and energy for the reactions 37 Cl on 40 Ca and 209 Bi at E/A = 7.3 MeV, and 35 Cl, on 209 Bi at E/A = 15 MeV, at angles close to the grazing angle. Mass and charge distributions were generated in the N-Z plane as a function of energy loss, and have been parameterized in terms of their centroids, variances, and coefficients of correlation. Due to experimental problems, the mass resolution corresponding to the 31 Cl on 209 Bi reaction was very poor. This prompted the study and application of a deconvolution technique for peak enhancement. The drifts of the charge and mass centroids for the system 37 Cl on 40 Ca are consistent with a process of mass and charge equilibration mediated by nucleon exchange between the two partners, followed by evaporation. The asymmetric systems show a strong drift towards larger asymmetry, with the production of neutron-rich nuclei. It was concluded that this is indicative of a net transfer of protons from the light to the heavy partner, and a net flow of neutrons in the opposite direction. The variances for all systems increase with energy loss, as it would be expected from a nucleon exchange mechanism; however, the variances for the reaction 37 Cl on 40 Ca are higher than those expected from that mechanism. The coefficients of correlation indicate that the transfer of nucleons between projectile and target is correlated. The results were compared to the predictions of two current models based on a stochastic nucleon exchange mechanism. In general, the comparisons between experimental and predicted variances support this mechanism; however, the need for more realistic driving forces in the model calculations is indicated by the disagreement between predicted and experimental centroids

  16. Charge distribution effects in polyatomic reactants involved in simple electron transfer reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fawcett, W. R.; Chavis, G. J.; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 23 (2008), s. 6787-6792 ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electron transfer kinetics * charge distribution effects * double - layer effects in electrode kinetics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.078, year: 2008

  17. Numerical and experimental study of the distribution of charged species in a flat stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, an existing ion reaction mechanism is used to compute the distribution of charged species in a at stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame stabilized on top of a McKenna burner. The ion reaction rates and charged species thermodynamic data are updated according to the most recent data. A modified version of the detailed ARAMCO 1.3 reaction mechanism is used to describe the chemistry of neutral species. Because of the important role of CH in the chemi-ionization process, its prediction is improved based on the available measured data. The ability of the ion reaction mechanism to predict the distribution of positive ions is assessed by comparing to the experimental measurements performed in our group. The calculated results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental data, even though there exist quantitative differences that need to be addressed in future work.

  18. Numerical and experimental study of the distribution of charged species in a flat stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie; Alquaity, Awad B. S.; Belhi, Memdouh; Farroq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an existing ion reaction mechanism is used to compute the distribution of charged species in a at stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame stabilized on top of a McKenna burner. The ion reaction rates and charged species thermodynamic data are updated according to the most recent data. A modified version of the detailed ARAMCO 1.3 reaction mechanism is used to describe the chemistry of neutral species. Because of the important role of CH in the chemi-ionization process, its prediction is improved based on the available measured data. The ability of the ion reaction mechanism to predict the distribution of positive ions is assessed by comparing to the experimental measurements performed in our group. The calculated results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental data, even though there exist quantitative differences that need to be addressed in future work.

  19. Electric field distribution and the charge collection process in not-ideally compensated coaxial Ge(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczyk, W.M.; Moszynski, M.

    1978-01-01

    The not-ideally compensated space charge of donors and acceptors in lithium-drifted coaxial Ge(Li) detectors can modify the electric field distribution in the detector depleted volume, and influence in this way the charge collection process. Observations of the capacity, the time of charge collection (transit time), and the relative efficiency characteristics vs. detector bias voltage, showed that in conventional pin + coaaxial structures an undercompensation near the inner p-type core was typical. It was found that such an undercompensation had negligible consequences from the charge collection point of view. However, one case was observed where the modification near the outer electrode was present. In that case the charge pulses with remarkably increased rise-times were observed, as compared to the predictions based on the assumption of the classical, E proportional to 1/r, electric field distribution. The pulses expected from not-ideally compensated detectors were calculated using the Variable Velocity Approximation. The pulses expected from and much better agreement with the observed pulses was obtained. The calculated and observed dependencies of the charge transit times vs. reciprocal of the detector bias voltage exhibited, in the absence of the outer-electrode modification, linear parts. Measurement of their slopes permitted to find experimentally the depletion layer width provided the charge carriers mobility value was known, or vice versa. (Auth.)

  20. New Method for Shallow and Deep Trap Distribution Analysis in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper Based on the Space Charge Detrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space charge has close relation with the trap distribution in the insulation material. The phenomenon of charges trapping and detrapping has attracted significant attention in recent years. Space charge and trap parameters are effective parameters for assessing the ageing condition of the insulation material qualitatively. In this paper, a new method for calculating trap distribution based on the double exponential fitting analysis of charge decay process and its application on characterizing the trap distribution of oil impregnated insulation paper was investigated. When compared with the common first order exponential fitting analysis method, the improved dual-level trap method could obtain the energy level range and density of both shallow traps and deep traps, simultaneously. Space charge decay process analysis of the insulation paper immersed with new oil and aged oil shows that the improved trap distribution calculation method can distinguish the physical defects and chemical defects. The trap density shows an increasing trend with the oil ageing, especially for the deep traps mainly related to chemical defects. The greater the energy could be filled by the traps, the larger amount of charges could be trapped, especially under higher electric field strength. The deep trap energy level and trap density could be used to characterize ageing. When one evaluates the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation using trap distribution parameters, the influence of oil performance should not be ignored.

  1. Calculating method for confinement time and charge distribution of ions in electron cyclotron resonance sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D.; Umnov, A.M.; Kutner, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is common knowledge that the electrostatic pit in a core plasma of electron cyclotron resonance sources exerts strict control over generation of ions in high charge states. This work is aimed at finding a dependence of the lifetime of ions on their charge states in the core region and to elaborate a numerical model of ion charge dispersion not only for the core plasmas but for extracted beams as well. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental results on charge distributions and magnitudes for currents of beams extracted from the 14 GHz DECRIS source. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Dielectric sample with two-layer charge distribution for space charge calibration purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Rasmussen, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper is described a dielectric test sample with two very narrow concentrations of bulk charges, achieved by two internal electrodes not affecting the acoustical properties of the sample, a fact important for optimal application of most space charge measuring systems. Space charge...

  3. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  4. Surface complexation of selenite on goethite: MO/DFT geometry and charge distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of selenite on goethite (alpha-FeOOH) has been analyzed with the charge distribution (CD) and the multi-site surface complexation (MUSIC) model being combined with an extended Stem (ES) layer model option. The geometry of a set of different types of hydrated iron-selenite complexes

  5. Effects of target size on the comparison of photon and charged particle dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Tjoa, T.; Lyman, J.T.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.

    1989-12-01

    The work presented here is part of an ongoing project to quantify and evaluate the differences in the use of different radiation types and irradiation geometries in radiosurgery. We are examining dose distributions for photons using the ''Gamma Knife'' and the linear accelerator arc methods, as well as different species of charged particles from protons to neon ions. A number of different factors need to be studied to accurately compare the different modalities such as target size, shape and location, the irradiation geometry, and biological response. This presentation focuses on target size, which has a large effect on the dose distributions in normal tissue surrounding the lesion. This work concentrates on dose distributions found in radiosurgery, as opposed to those usually found in radiotherapy. 5 refs., 2 figs

  6. Study on Impact of Electric Vehicles Charging Models on Power Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Hui-mei, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles, which will lead the power load on grid increased and have an adversely affect. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the following factors, such as scale of the electric cars, charging mode, initial charging time, initial state of charge, charging power and other factors. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to compare the two charging modes, which are conventional charging and fast charging, and MATLAB is used to model and simulate the electric vehicle charging load. The results show that compared with the conventional charging mode, fast charging mode can meet the requirements of fast charging, but also bring great load to the distribution network which will affect the reliability of power grid.

  7. Fragment ion distribution in charge-changing collisions of 2-MeV Si ions with C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, A.; Tsuchida, H.; Miyabe, K.; Majima, T.; Nakai, Y.

    2001-09-01

    We have measured positive fragment ions produced in collisions of 2 MeV Siq+ (q=0, 1, 2, 4) projectiles with a C60 molecular target. The measurement was performed with a time-of-flight coincidence method between fragment ions and charge-selected outgoing projectiles. For all the charge-changing collisions investigated here, the mass distribution of small fragment ions C+n (n=1-12) can be approximated fairly well by a power-law form of n-λ as a function of the cluster size n. The power λ derived from each mass distribution is found to change strongly according to different charge-changing collisions. As a remarkable experimental finding, the values of λ(loss) in electron loss collisions are almost the same for the same final charge states k irrespective of the initial charge q, exhibiting a nearly perfect linear relationship with k. We also performed calculations of the projectile ionization on the basis of the semiclassical approximation and obtained inelastic energy deposition for individual collision processes. The estimated energy deposition is found to have a simple correlation with the experimentally determined values of λ(loss).

  8. A direct and at nanometer scale study of electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlière Christian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented an innovative method to map in-vivo and at nanometer scale the electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells. It relies on a new atomic force microscopy (AFM mode based on an electro-mechanical coupling effect. Furthermore, an additional electrical signal detected by both the deflection of the AFM cantilever and simultaneous direct current measurements was detected at low scanning rates. It was attributed to the detection of the current stemming from ionic channels. It opens a new way to directly investigate in situ biological electrical surface processes involved in bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cells, etc.

  9. Price and access charge discrimination in electricity distribution: an application to the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, R.; Giaconi, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a model of electricity distribution in Chile with three alternative regulatory pricing contract schemes for assigning a common capacity cost to final customers and competitive energy sellers. The first scheme involves Ramsey Pricing, while under the second and third schemes the monopoly chooses final prices and access charges subject either to a peak-load Physical Cap or a total revenue Price Cap constraint. In addition, we consider circumstances in which the regulator does not know consumer demand, the monopoly cannot price discriminate beyond a range defined by the marginal cost as a floor and the stand-alone cost as a ceiling, and access charges are set at the fully distributed cost allocation level currently in force. The model is calibrated with Chilean data, and demonstrates that in terms of social welfare the fully distributed cost contract scheme currently in effect can be improved by discriminatory pricing complemented by certain of the analyzed constraints. (author)

  10. Two-dimensional potential and charge distributions of positive surface streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daiki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Information on the potential and the field profile along a surface discharge is required for quantitatively discussing and clarifying the propagation mechanism. The sensing technique with a Pockels crystal has been developed for directly measuring the potential and electric field distribution on a dielectric material. In this paper, the Pockels sensing system consists of a pulse laser and a CCD camera for measuring the instantaneous two-dimensional potential distribution on a 25.4 mm square area with a 50 μm sampling pitch. The temporal resolution is 3.2 ns which is determined by the pulse width of the laser emission. The transient change in the potential distribution of a positive surface streamer propagating in atmospheric air is measured with this system. The electric field and the charge distributions are also calculated from the measured potential profile. The propagating direction component of the electric field near the tip of the propagating streamer reaches 3 kV mm -1 . When the streamer stops, the potential distribution along a streamer forms an almost linear profile with the distance from the electrode, and its gradient is about 0.5 kV mm -1 .

  11. The influence of the breakdown electric field in the configuration of lightning corona sheath on charge distribution in the channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatovic, Milan; Cvetic, Jovan; Heidler, Fridolin; Markovic, Slavoljub; Djuric, Radivoje

    2014-11-01

    A model of corona sheath that surrounds the thin core of the lightning channel has been investigated by using a generalized traveling current source return stroke model. The lightning channel is modeled by a charged corona sheath that stretches around a highly conductive central core through which the main current flows. The channel core with the negatively charged outer channel sheath forms a strong electric field, with an overall radial orientation. The return stroke process is modeled as the negative leader charge in the corona sheath being discharged by the positive charge coming from the channel core. Expressions that describe how the corona sheath radius evolves during the return stroke are obtained from the corona sheath model, which predicts charge motion within the sheath. The corona sheath model, set forth by Maslowski and Rakov (2006), Tausanovic et al. (2010), Marjanovic and Cvetic (2009), Cvetic et al. (2011) and Cvetic et al. (2012), divides the sheath onto three zones: zone 1 (surrounding the channel core with net positive charge), zone 2 (surrounding zone 1 with negative charge) and zone 3 (the outer zone, representing uncharged virgin air). In the present study, we have assumed a constant electric field inside zone 1, as suggested by experimental research of corona discharges in coaxial geometry conducted by Cooray (2000). The present investigation builds upon previous studies by Tausanovic et al. (2010) and Cvetic et al. (2012) in several ways. The value of the breakdown electric field has been varied for probing its effect on channel charge distribution prior and during the return stroke. With the aim of investigating initial space charge distribution along the channel, total electric field at the outer surface of the channel corona sheath, just before the return stroke, is calculated and compared for various return stroke models. A self-consistent algorithm is applied to the generalized traveling current source return stroke model, so that the

  12. On the charge distribution of calcium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeger, F.

    1981-01-01

    The mean square charge radii and the quadrupole moments of Ca nuclei are discussed in the light of theoretical predictions. The very peculiar dependence of the charge radii on the mass number between double magic 40 Ca and double magic 48 Ca can be ascribed to changes of the nuclear deformation, whereas the volume of the nuclear charge remains constant for all the Ca isotopes. Furthermore, correlations between nuclear charge radii and binding energies are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Calculations of charged-particle recoils, slowing-down spectra, LET and event-size distributions for fast neutrons and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Stinchcomb, T.G.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid system has been developed for computing charged-particle distributions generated in tissue by any neutron spectra less than 4 MeV. Oxygen and carbon recoils were derived from R-matrix theory, and hydrogen recoils were obtained from cross-section evaluation. Application to two quite different fission-neutron spectra demonstrates the flexibility of this method for providing spectral details of the different types of charged-particle recoils. Comparisons have been made between calculations and measurements of event-size distributions for a sphere of tissue 1 μm in diameter irradiated by these two neutron spectra. LET distributions have been calculated from computed charged-particle recoils and also derived from measurements using the conventional approximation that all charged particles traverse the chamber. The limitations of the approximation for these neutron spectra are discussed. (author)

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of the distributions of intra- and extra-vesicular ions and membrane associated charges in hybrid liposomes composed of negatively charged tetraether and zwitterionic diester phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István P. Sugár

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we model a negatively charged lipid vesicle, composed of a mixture of bipolar tetraether and diester (or diether phospholipid molecules, by a spherical shell that has zero ion permeability. We take into consideration all the charge-charge interactions between intra-vesicular ions, extra-vesicular ions, and membrane lipid associated charges. Monte Carlo simulations result in homogeneous and double-exponential ion distribution, respectively, in the intra- and extra-vesicular space. The extra-vesicular ion concentration close to the membrane surface is proportional to the total amount of the membrane charges (Nm and is independent of the partitioning of the membrane charges between the outer (Nom and inner membrane (Nim surface. This result shows that one should not disregard the effect of the charges on the inner membrane surface when calculating the ion distributions around a charged vesicle. If the partitioning of the membrane charges is not restricted (i.e., lipid flip-flop is allowed, then at different Nm, the Nom/Nim ratio remains constant and the value of Nom/Nim, as a consequence of the interaction between every charges of the model, is close to, but significantly higher than, the ratio of the outer to the inner surface area of the membrane. These results indicate that the amount and the orientation of the negatively-charged tetraether lipids in the membrane are important determinants of membrane properties in tetraether/zwitterionic diester phospholipid liposomes. Finally we compared the results of our discrete charge model and continuous models based on the solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and pointed out qualitative similarities and sometimes major quantitative differences between these two types of models.

  15. Interactions Between Charged Macroions Mediated by Molecules with Rod-like Charged Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc, K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A short review of recent theoretical advances in studies of the interaction between highly charged systems embedded in a solution of rod-like molecules is presented. The system is theoretically described by the functional density theory, where the correlations within the rod-like molecules are accounted for. We show that for sufficiently long molecules and large surface charge densities, an attractive force between like-charged surfaces arises due to the spatially distributed charges within the molecules. The added salt has an influence on the condition for the attractive force between like-charged surfaces. The theoretical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Many phenomena motivate the study of the interaction between like-charged surfaces (DNA condensation, virus aggregation, yeast flocculation, cohesion of cement paste.

  16. Charged state distributions of swift heavy ions behind various solid targets (36 ≤ Zp ≤ 92, 18 MeV/u ≤ E ≤ 44 MeV/u)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Melki, S.; Lisfi, D.; Grandin, J.P.; Jardin, P.; Suraud, M.G.; Cassimi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Noting the lack of and the increasing need for information concerning heavy ion stripping in the intermediate velocity regime, the authors have studied a large number of ion-target systems experimentally. They present experimental charge state distributions obtained at the GANIL accelerator for several projectiles (36 ≤ Z p ≤ 92) with energies ranging from 18 MeV/u to 44 MeV/u, emerging from various target foils (4 ≤ Z t ≤ 79) of natural isotopic composition. The target thicknesses (from 1 microg/cm 2 up to several mg/cm 2 ) are chosen to cover the pre- and post-charge-state equilibrium regimes. Charge state fractions, mean charge state, charge distribution width, and emerging ion energy are tabulated for each of the 107 projectile-target element-target thickness combinations. They also present an improvement of the semi-empirical formulae proposed by Baron et al. to predict the mean charge states and the distribution widths at equilibrium. These formulae are compared with the available experimental data

  17. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC-BNL energies (BRAHMS Experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argintaru, D.; Bearden, I.G.; Beavis, D.

    2002-01-01

    The BRAHMS Experiment (Broad RAnge Hadronic Magnetic Spectrometers) takes place at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from Brookhaven National Laboratory and searches for a transition of matter into a new phase called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a phase transition that appears in extreme conditions of nuclear matter densities and temperatures. Important signals for this transition are related to dependencies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions on the pseudorapidity range. The charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies are obtained from the global detector measurements. These detectors are: - An array of Si strip detectors and scintillation tiles placed around the interaction region; they cover the range η < 2 in pseudorapidity, measuring the majority of charged particles; - Two systems of Cerenkov detectors (Beam-Beam Counters) placed both sides of the nominal interaction point at 220 cm and cover the range 3 < η < 4.3 in pseudorapidity. These detectors are used for vertex determination and supply a level zero trigger for the entire experiment; - Zero Degree Calorimeters placed at zero degree with respect to the beam axis, both sides of the vertex, measuring the spectator neutrons from the nuclear reactions. These detectors supplies information about the reaction centrality and could estimate the interaction vertex. The paper presents some results on charged particle multiplicities in different pseudorapidity ranges at different impact parameters. Interesting dependencies of the average charged particle multiplicities on the pseudorapidity range, impact parameters and total available energy in the centre of mass system. Some comparisons with the simulation codes predictions and theoretical model estimations are included, too. (authors)

  18. Speciation dynamics of metals in dispersion of nanoparticles with discrete distribution of charged binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Pavel D; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2014-02-07

    We report a comprehensive theory to evaluate the kinetics of complex formation between metal ions and charged spherical nanoparticles. The latter consist of an ion-impermeable core surrounded by a soft shell layer characterized by a discrete axisymmetric 2D distribution of charged sites that bind metal ions. The theory explicitly integrates the conductive diffusion of metal ions from bulk solution toward the respective locations of the reactive sites within the particle shell volume. The kinetic constant k for outer-sphere nanoparticle-metal association is obtained from the sum of the contributions stemming from all reactive sites, each evaluated from the corresponding incoming flux of metal ions derived from steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. Illustrations are provided to capture the basic intertwined impacts of particle size, overall particle charge, spatial heterogeneity in site distribution, type of particle (hard, core-shell or porous) and concentration of the background electrolyte on k. As a limit, k converges with predictions from previously reported analytical expressions derived for porous particles with low and high charge density, cases that correspond to coulombic and mean-field (smeared-out) electrostatic treatments, respectively. The conditions underlying the applicability of these latter approaches are rigorously identified in terms of (i) the extent of overlap between electric double layers around charged neighbouring sites, and (ii) the magnitude of the intraparticulate metal concentration gradient. For the first time, the proposed theory integrates the differentiated impact of the local potential around the charged binding sites amidst the overall particle field, together with that of the so-far discarded intraparticulate flux of metal ions.

  19. Effect of position and momentum constraints on charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajni; Kumar, Suneel

    2012-01-01

    The rich phenomenology of multifragmentation has been widely explored after two decades of its discovery. It has been experimentally shown that in one single heavy ion collision many intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) are produced, where IMFs are defined as fragments with 5 ≤ A ≤ A tot /6. In the earlier literature, the multifragmentation was studied by Jakobsson et al. who measured the charge particle distribution along with their kinetic energy spectra in 16 O/ 36 Ar induced reaction between 25 and 200 MeV/nucleon representing the various phenomena in heavy ion collisions

  20. Future prospects for ECR ion sources with improved charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the steady advance in the technology of the ECR ion source, present art forms have not yet reached their full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width. single-frequency microwave radiation used to heat the plasma electrons. This article identifies fundamentally important methods which may enhance the performances of ECR ion sources through the use of: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration (spatial domain) in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR ''volume'' or (2) the use of broadband frequency domain techniques (variable-frequency, broad-band frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation), derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma ''surfaces'' of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma ''volume''. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, thereby producing higher charge state ions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of' the source. The ECR ion source concepts described in this article offer exciting opportunities to significantly advance the-state-of-the-art of ECR technology and as a consequence, open new opportunities in fundamental and applied research and for a variety of industrial applications

  1. Depth Distribution Studies of Carbon in Steel Surfaces by Means of Charged Particle Activation Analysis with an Account of Heat and Diffusion Effects in the Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Lorenzen, J [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Witalis, E [Swedish National Defence Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1972-05-15

    Depth distribution studies of carbon in steel and iron were carried out in the concentration range 0.05-1 %, using proton activation analysis. Surface content studies were performed in the concentration range 0.01-1 % using deuteron activation analysis. The following reactions were utilized: {sup 12}C(p,{gamma}){sup 13}N and {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N Evaluations of depth distribution were based on resonances in the excitation function. The carbon content was determined with the aid of the positron emitter, {sup 13}N, using either single-peak or coincidence measurements. The heat dissipation in the irradiated region of the samples was calculated, and the temperature rise was measured using thermocouples. The temperature distribution within the hot zone subjected to irradiation by charged particles, together with the temperature distribution around this zone, was studied in order to estimate any effect this might have on the carbon diffusion. A device for automatic sample exchange which is remotely controlled is described.

  2. Depth Distribution Studies of Carbon in Steel Surfaces by Means of Charged Particle Activation Analysis with an Account of Heat and Diffusion Effects in the Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Lorenzen, J.; Witalis, E.

    1972-05-01

    Depth distribution studies of carbon in steel and iron were carried out in the concentration range 0.05-1 %, using proton activation analysis. Surface content studies were performed in the concentration range 0.01-1 % using deuteron activation analysis. The following reactions were utilized: 12 C(p,γ) 13 N and 12 C(d,n) 13 N Evaluations of depth distribution were based on resonances in the excitation function. The carbon content was determined with the aid of the positron emitter, 13 N, using either single-peak or coincidence measurements. The heat dissipation in the irradiated region of the samples was calculated, and the temperature rise was measured using thermocouples. The temperature distribution within the hot zone subjected to irradiation by charged particles, together with the temperature distribution around this zone, was studied in order to estimate any effect this might have on the carbon diffusion. A device for automatic sample exchange which is remotely controlled is described

  3. A hybrid charged-particle guide for studying (n, charged particle) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; White, R.M.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charged-particle transport systems consisting of magnetic quadrupole lenses have been employed in recent years in the study of (n, charged particle) reactions. A new transport system was completed at the laboratory that is based both on magnetic lenses as well as electrostatic fields. The magnetic focusing of the charged-particle guide is provided by six magnetic quadrupole lenses arranged in a CDCCDC sequence (in the vertical plane). The electrostatic field is produced by a wire at high voltage which stretches the length of the guide and is physically at the centre of the magnetic axis. The magnetic lenses are used for charged particles above 5 MeV; the electrostatic guide is used for lower energies. This hybrid system possesses the excellent focusing and background rejection properties of other magnetic systems. For low energy charged-particles, the electrostatic transport avoids the narrow band-passes in charged-particle energy which are a problem with purely magnetic transport systems. This system is installed at the LLNL Cyclograaff facility for the study of (n, charged particle) reactions at neutron energies up to 35 MeV. (Auth.)

  4. Space distribution and energy straggling of charged particles via Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manservisi, S.; Molinari, V.; Nespoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation describing a beam of charged particles entering a homogeneous medium is solved here for a stationary case. Interactions are taken into account through Coulomb cross-section. Starting from the charged-particle distribution as a function of velocity and penetration depth, some important kinetic quantities are calculated, like mean velocity, range and the loss of energy per unit space. In such quantities the energy straggling is taken into account. This phenomenon is not considered in the continuous slowing-down approximation that is commonly used to obtain the range and the stopping power. Finally the well-know Bohr of Bethe formula is found as a first-order approximation of the Fokker-Planck equation

  5. Study of momentum distributions for projectile fragments of 22Ne and 28Si nuclei in collisions with emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Steit, S.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The charge and mass yield curves and the momentum distributions of the projectile fragments produced in the interactions of 4.1 A GeV/c 22 Ne and 4.5 A GeV/c 28 Si with emulsion have been studied. The overall charge distributions of the projectile fragments resulting from these interactions are presented. The dependence of the mass yield distributions of the projectile fragments on the impact parameter has been tested. The momentum distributions for the considered reactions have been investigated by two methods. First, the projected momentum distributions in the plane of the microscope have been achieved by fitting the projected angular distributions to gaussian ones. It has been found that the width of the distribution changes with the charge of the projectile fragment and it decreases with the increase of the projectile fragment charge. Secondly, the transverse momentum distributions have been compared with previous studies. The momentum distribution, in the forward cone, is a typically narrow gaussian one

  6. North Slope, Alaska: Source rock distribution, richness, thermal maturity, and petroleum charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Valin, Z.C.; Keller, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Four key marine petroleum source rock units were identified, characterized, and mapped in the subsurface to better understand the origin and distribution of petroleum on the North Slope of Alaska. These marine source rocks, from oldest to youngest, include four intervals: (1) Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, (2) basal condensed section in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, (3) Cretaceous pebble shale unit, and (4) Cretaceous Hue Shale. Well logs for more than 60 wells and total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses for 1183 samples in 125 well penetrations of the source rocks were used to map the present-day thickness of each source rock and the quantity (TOC), quality (hydrogen index), and thermal maturity (Tmax) of the organic matter. Based on assumptions related to carbon mass balance and regional distributions of TOC, the present-day source rock quantity and quality maps were used to determine the extent of fractional conversion of the kerogen to petroleum and to map the original TOC (TOCo) and the original hydrogen index (HIo) prior to thermal maturation. The quantity and quality of oil-prone organic matter in Shublik Formation source rock generally exceeded that of the other units prior to thermal maturation (commonly TOCo > 4 wt.% and HIo > 600 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC), although all are likely sources for at least some petroleum on the North Slope. We used Rock-Eval and hydrous pyrolysis methods to calculate expulsion factors and petroleum charge for each of the four source rocks in the study area. Without attempting to identify the correct methods, we conclude that calculations based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis overestimate expulsion factors and petroleum charge because low pressure and rapid removal of thermally cracked products by the carrier gas retards cross-linking and pyrobitumen formation that is otherwise favored by natural burial maturation. Expulsion factors and petroleum charge based on hydrous pyrolysis may also be high

  7. The interstitial distribution of macromolecules in rat tumours is influenced by the negatively charged matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Helge; Gyenge, Christina C; Tenstad, Olav

    2005-09-01

    Knowledge of macromolecular distribution volumes is essential in understanding fluid transport within normal and pathological tissues. In this study in vivo we determined the distribution volumes of several macromolecules, including one monoclonal antibody, in tumours and tested whether charges associated with the tumour extracellular matrix influence their available volumes. Steady state levels of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) (pI = 9.2), IgG (pI = 7.6) as well as native (pI = 5.0) and cationized albumin (pI = 7.6) were established in rats bearing dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumours by continuous infusion using osmotic minipumps. After a 5-7 day infusion period, the rats were nephrectomized and the extracellular volume was determined with 51Cr-labelled EDTA. Plasma volumes were measured with 125I-labelled human serum albumin or rat IgM in a separate series. Steady state concentrations of probes were determined in the interstitial fluid that was isolated by centrifugation from tumours or by post mortem wick implantation in the back skin. Calculations were made for interstitial fluid volume (Vi), along with the available (Va/Vi) and excluded (Ve/Vi) relative interstitial volume fractions. The Ve/Vi for the positively charged trastuzumab in tumours averaged 0.29 +/- 0.03 (n = 16), a value which was significantly lower than the corresponding one for IgG of 0.36 +/- 0.02 (n = 16). Native albumin was excluded from 38% of the tumour interstitial fluid, whereas cationization of albumin reduced the excluded volume by approximately 50%. Our experiments suggest that the tumour interstitium acts as a negatively charged matrix and is an important factor in determining the macromolecular distribution volume.

  8. Charged-particle distributions in $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV $pp$ interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Nechansky, Filip; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; 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Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; 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Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; 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Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; 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Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-07-10

    Charged-particle distributions are measured in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, using a data sample of nearly 9 million events, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 170 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$, recorded by the ATLAS detector during a special Large Hadron Collider fill. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on the charged-particle multiplicity are presented. The measurements are performed with charged particles with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV and absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5, in events with at least one charged particle satisfying these kinematic requirements. Additional measurements in a reduced phase space with absolute pseudorapidity less than 0.8 are also presented, in order to compare with other experiments. The results are corrected for detector effects, presented as particle-level distributions and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Ca...

  9. Charged-particle distributions in s=13 TeV pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Charged-particle distributions are measured in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, using a data sample of nearly 9 million events, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 170 μb−1, recorded by the ATLAS detector during a special Large Hadron Collider fill. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on the charged-particle multiplicity are presented. The measurements are performed with charged particles with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV and absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5, in events with at least one charged particle satisfying these kinematic requirements. Additional measurements in a reduced phase space with absolute pseudorapidity less than 0.8 are also presented, in order to compare with other experiments. The results are corrected for detector effects, presented as particle-level distributions and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators.

  10. Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies for Reduced Load Variation and Guaranteed Charge Completion in Regional Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weige Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, fully decentralized strategy to coordinate charge operation of electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Based on stochastic switching control of on-board chargers, this strategy ensures high-efficiency charging, reduces load variations to the grid during charging periods, achieves charge completion with high probability, and accomplishes approximate “valley-filling”. Further improvements on the core strategy, including individualized power management, adaptive strategies, and battery support systems, are introduced to further reduce power fluctuation variances and to guarantee charge completion. Stochastic analysis is performed to establish the main properties of the strategies and to quantitatively show the performance improvements. Compared with the existing decentralized charging strategies, the strategies proposed in this paper can be implemented without any information exchange between grid operators and electric vehicles (EVs, resulting in a communications cost reduction. Additionally, it is shown that by using stochastic charging rules, a grid-supporting battery system with a very small energy capacity can achieve substantial reduction of EV load fluctuations with high confidence. An extensive set of simulations and case studies with real-world data are used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed strategies.

  11. Charge symmetry breaking in spin dependent parton distributions and the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloet, I.C.; Horsley, R.; Londergan, J.T.

    2012-04-01

    We present the rst determination of charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is done by determining the rst two Mellin moments of the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the octet baryons from N f =2+1 lattice simulations. The results are compared with predictions from quark models of nucleon structure. We discuss the contribution of partonic spin CSV to the Bjorken sum rule, which is important because the CSV contributions represent the only partonic corrections to the Bjorken sum rule.

  12. Charge symmetry breaking in spin dependent parton distributions and the Bjorken sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Adelaide Univ, SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Londergan, J.T. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (US). Dept. of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter] (and others)

    2012-04-15

    We present the rst determination of charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is done by determining the rst two Mellin moments of the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations. The results are compared with predictions from quark models of nucleon structure. We discuss the contribution of partonic spin CSV to the Bjorken sum rule, which is important because the CSV contributions represent the only partonic corrections to the Bjorken sum rule.

  13. Effects of emission layer doping on the spatial distribution of charge and host recombination rate density in organic light emitting devices: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanli; Zhou, Maoqing; Zheng, Tingcai; Yao, Bo; Peng, Yingquan

    2013-12-01

    Based on drift-diffusion theory, a numerical model of the doping of a single energy level trap in the emission layer of an organic light emitting device (OLED) was developed, and the effects of doping of this single energy level trap on the distribution of the charge density, the recombination rate density, and the electric field in single- and double-layer OLEDs were studied numerically. The results show that by doping the n-type (p-type) emission layer with single energy electron (hole) traps, the distribution of the recombination rate density can be tuned and shifted, which is useful for improvement of the device performance by reduced electrode quenching or for realization of desirable special functions, e.g., emission spectrum tuning in multiple dye-doped white OLEDs.

  14. Effects of emission layer doping on the spatial distribution of charge and host recombination rate density in organic light emitting devices: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanli; Zhou, Maoqing; Zheng, Tingcai; Yao, Bo [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Peng, Yingquan, E-mail: yqpeng@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-12-28

    Based on drift-diffusion theory, a numerical model of the doping of a single energy level trap in the emission layer of an organic light emitting device (OLED) was developed, and the effects of doping of this single energy level trap on the distribution of the charge density, the recombination rate density, and the electric field in single- and double-layer OLEDs were studied numerically. The results show that by doping the n-type (p-type) emission layer with single energy electron (hole) traps, the distribution of the recombination rate density can be tuned and shifted, which is useful for improvement of the device performance by reduced electrode quenching or for realization of desirable special functions, e.g., emission spectrum tuning in multiple dye-doped white OLEDs.

  15. Effects of emission layer doping on the spatial distribution of charge and host recombination rate density in organic light emitting devices: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanli; Zhou, Maoqing; Zheng, Tingcai; Yao, Bo; Peng, Yingquan

    2013-01-01

    Based on drift-diffusion theory, a numerical model of the doping of a single energy level trap in the emission layer of an organic light emitting device (OLED) was developed, and the effects of doping of this single energy level trap on the distribution of the charge density, the recombination rate density, and the electric field in single- and double-layer OLEDs were studied numerically. The results show that by doping the n-type (p-type) emission layer with single energy electron (hole) traps, the distribution of the recombination rate density can be tuned and shifted, which is useful for improvement of the device performance by reduced electrode quenching or for realization of desirable special functions, e.g., emission spectrum tuning in multiple dye-doped white OLEDs

  16. Nano-islands Based Charge Trapping Memory: A Scalability Study

    KAUST Repository

    Elatab, Nazek; Saadat, Irfan; Saraswat, Krishna; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and zirconia (ZrO2) metal oxides have been studied extensively in the past few decades with several potential applications including memory devices. In this work, a scalability study, based on the ITRS roadmap, is conducted on memory devices with ZnO and ZrO2 nano-islands charge trapping layer. Both nano-islands are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD), however, the different sizes, distribution and properties of the materials result in different memory performance. The results show that at the 32-nm node charge trapping memory with 127 ZrO2 nano-islands can provide a 9.4 V memory window. However, with ZnO only 31 nano-islands can provide a window of 2.5 V. The results indicate that ZrO2 nano-islands are more promising than ZnO in scaled down devices due to their higher density, higher-k, and absence of quantum confinement effects.

  17. Nano-islands Based Charge Trapping Memory: A Scalability Study

    KAUST Repository

    Elatab, Nazek

    2017-10-19

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and zirconia (ZrO2) metal oxides have been studied extensively in the past few decades with several potential applications including memory devices. In this work, a scalability study, based on the ITRS roadmap, is conducted on memory devices with ZnO and ZrO2 nano-islands charge trapping layer. Both nano-islands are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD), however, the different sizes, distribution and properties of the materials result in different memory performance. The results show that at the 32-nm node charge trapping memory with 127 ZrO2 nano-islands can provide a 9.4 V memory window. However, with ZnO only 31 nano-islands can provide a window of 2.5 V. The results indicate that ZrO2 nano-islands are more promising than ZnO in scaled down devices due to their higher density, higher-k, and absence of quantum confinement effects.

  18. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  19. Neighbouring charge fragmentations in low energy fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.

    1986-10-01

    Shell and odd-even effects in fission have been largely studied until now. The structure in fragment mass, charge and kinetic energy distributions of fragments were interpreted as shell and even-odd effects. In this paper, we want to show that the discret change of fragment charge symmetry should produce also structures in those distribution. 19 refs

  20. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density for Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 GeV has been measured over a wide range of impact parameters and compared to results obtained at other energies. As a function of collision energy, the pseudorapidity distribution grows systematically both in height and width. The midrapidity density is found to grow approximately logarithmically between BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) energies and the top BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy. There is also an approximate factorization of the centrality and energy dependence of the midrapidity yields. The new results at sNN=62.4 GeV confirm the previously observed phenomenon of “extended longitudinal scaling” in the pseudorapidity distributions when viewed in the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei. It is also found that the evolution of the shape of the distribution with centrality is energy independent, when viewed in this reference frame. As a function of centrality, the total charged particle multiplicity scales linearly with the number of participant pairs as it was observed at other energies.

  1. Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule interfaces studied by electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Pan Lijia; Pu Lin; Shi Yi; Liu Chuan; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2012-01-01

    Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule (SAM) interfaces is studied by the electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure, where interfacial charge trapping tunes the potential barrier of the SAM layer. The sample with rubrene exhibits the write-once read-many-times memory effect, which is due to the interfacial charges trapped at deep states. On the other hand, the sample with 2-amino-4,5-dicyanoimidazole presents recyclable conduction transition, which results from the trapped charges distributed at shallow states. Moreover, the percentage of the charges trapped at shallow states can be estimated from electrical transition levels. (paper)

  2. Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule interfaces studied by electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Chuan; Pan, Lijia; Pu, Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Shi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule (SAM) interfaces is studied by the electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure, where interfacial charge trapping tunes the potential barrier of the SAM layer. The sample with rubrene exhibits the write-once read-many-times memory effect, which is due to the interfacial charges trapped at deep states. On the other hand, the sample with 2-amino-4,5-dicyanoimidazole presents recyclable conduction transition, which results from the trapped charges distributed at shallow states. Moreover, the percentage of the charges trapped at shallow states can be estimated from electrical transition levels.

  3. Model improvements to simulate charging in SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, K. T.; Klimpel, T.; Hagen, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Charging of insulators is a complex phenomenon to simulate since the accuracy of the simulations is very sensitive to the interaction of electrons with matter and electric fields. In this study, we report model improvements for a previously developed Monte-Carlo simulator to more accurately simulate samples that charge. The improvements include both modelling of low energy electron scattering and charging of insulators. The new first-principle scattering models provide a more realistic charge distribution cloud in the material, and a better match between non-charging simulations and experimental results. Improvements on charging models mainly focus on redistribution of the charge carriers in the material with an induced conductivity (EBIC) and a breakdown model, leading to a smoother distribution of the charges. Combined with a more accurate tracing of low energy electrons in the electric field, we managed to reproduce the dynamically changing charging contrast due to an induced positive surface potential.

  4. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  5. Incentive-based coordinated charging control of plug-in electric vehicles at the distribution-transformer level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.M.; Almassalkhi, M.R.; Hiskens, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution utilities are becoming increasingly aware that their networks may struggle to accommodate large numbers of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, uncoordinated overnight charging is expected to be problematic, as the corresponding aggregated power demand exceeds the capacity

  6. Sheet beam model for intense space charge: Application to Debye screening and the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies in a thermal equilibrium beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson model for sheet beams is reviewed and extended to provide a simple framework for analysis of space-charge effects. Centroid and rms envelope equations including image-charge effects are derived and reasonable parameter equivalences with commonly employed 2D transverse models of unbunched beams are established. This sheet-beam model is then applied to analyze several problems of fundamental interest. A sheet-beam thermal equilibrium distribution in a continuous focusing channel is constructed and shown to have analogous properties to two- and three-dimensional thermal equilibrium models in terms of the equilibrium structure and Debye screening properties. The simpler formulation for sheet beams is exploited to explicitly calculate the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies within a thermal equilibrium beam. It is shown that as space-charge intensity increases, the frequency distribution becomes broad, suggesting that beams with strong space-charge can have improved stability relative to beams with weak space-charge.

  7. Kinetic energy and charge distributions of multiply charged ions produced by heavy ions and by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Biedermann, C.; Cederquist, H.; Liljeby, L.; Short, R.T.; Sellin, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contrasts two methods of production of multiply charged ions which may have application in future hot-atom chemistry experiments. Interest in extending the study of ion-atom collisions from MeV to keV to eV energies has grown rapidly in the last decade as previously inaccessible astrophysical, fusion, and spectroscopic problems have been addressed. One of these methods involves highly charged secondary beams formed from ions created in dilute gas samples irradiated by fast (MeV), high-charge-state, heavy ions. The measurements show, however, that such ions often have mean recoil energies two orders of magnitude higher than kinetic energies of ions in similar charge states resulting from vacancy cascades of atomic inner shells photoionized by synchrotron x rays. These results may be applicable to development of a cold source of highly charged ions featuring low energy spread and good angular definition. Results from other laboratories (Grandin et al at Ganil, Ullrich et al in Frankfurt, and Watson et al at Texas A ampersand M) will also be discussed

  8. Direct measurement of the charge distribution along a biased carbon nanotube bundle using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image....

  9. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  10. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach...... is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question....

  11. Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Kalinowski, Artur; Miné, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Tito DAgnolo, Raffaele; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villaseñor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Aumeyr, Thomas; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Mini, Giuliano; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Raposo, Luis; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Soares, David; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Maletic, Dimitrije; Milosevic, Jovan; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Alan James; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Sordini, Viola; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sahin, Ozge; Sengul, Ozden; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Hill, Christopher; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Petyt, David; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Zennamo, Joseph; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dutta, Suchandra; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$~TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is obtained by counting the number of reconstructed hits, hit-pairs, and fully reconstructed charged-particle tracks. The combination of the three methods gives a charged-particle multiplicity per unit of pseudorapidity \\dnchdeta$|_{|\\eta| < 0.5} = 5.78\\pm 0.01\\stat\\pm 0.23\\syst$ for non-single-diffractive events, higher than predicted by commonly used models. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ to 7~TeV is $66.1\\%\\pm 1.0\\%\\stat\\pm 4.2\\%\\syst$. The mean transverse momentum is measured to be $0.545\\pm 0.005\\stat\\pm 0.015\\syst\\GeVc$. The results are compared with similar measurements at lower energies.

  12. Numerical studies of emittance exchange in 2-D charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    We describe results obtained from a two-dimensional particle-following computer code that simulates a continuous, nonrelativistic, elliptical charged-particle beam with linear continuous focusing. Emittances and focusing strengths can be different in the two transverse directions. The results can be applied, for example, for a quadrupole transport system in a smooth approximation to a real beam with unequal emittances in the two planes. The code was used to study emittance changes caused by kinetic-energy exchange between transverse directions and by shifts in charge distributions. Simulation results for space-charge-dominated beams agree well with analytic formulas. From simulation results, an empirical formula was developed for a ''partition parameter'' (the ratio of kinetic energies in the two directions) as a function of initial conditions and beamline length. Quantitative emittance changes for each transverse direction can be predicted by using this parameter. Simulation results also agree with Hofmann's generalized differential equation relating emittance and field energy

  13. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in XeXe collisions at $\\sqrt{\\smash[b]{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}} = 5.44\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons produced in xenon-xenon collisions at $\\sqrt{\\smash[b]{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}} = 5.44\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ are presented. The measurements are based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged hadrons produced in non-single-diffractive xenon-xenon collisions in the pseudorapidity range $\\left|\\eta\\right|<3.2$ is determined using the silicon pixel detector in the CMS tracking system. For events with the largest overlap between the colliding nuclei, the charged-hadron pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is found to be $1187 \\pm 36$ (syst.). The rapidity distribution of charged hadrons is also presented and is found to be independent of rapidity around midrapidity, a feature that is not predicted by Monte Carlo event generators. Comparisons of per-participant charged-particle multiplicities between xenon-xenon and lead-lead collisions at similar energies show that particle production is driven by the collisi...

  14. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-09-14

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  15. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  16. Quantum-well charge and voltage distribution in a metal–insulator–semiconductor structure upon resonant electron Tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexler, M. I., E-mail: vexler@mail.ioffe.ru; Illarionov, Yu. Yu.; Grekhov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The prerequisites for electron storage in the quantum well of a metal–oxide–p{sup +}-Si resonant-tunneling structure and the effect of the stored charge on the voltage distribution are theoretically investigated. Systems with SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} insulators are studied. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of a charge in the well in the case of resonant transport can be expected in structures on substrates with an acceptor concentration from (5–6) × 10{sup 18} to (2–3) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3} in the range of oxide thicknesses dependent on this concentration. In particular, the oxide layer thickness in the structures with SiO{sub 2}/p{sup +}-Si(10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) should exceed ~3 nm. The electron density in the well can reach ~10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} and higher. However, the effect of this charge on the electrostatics of the structure becomes noticeable only at relatively high voltages far above the activation of resonant transport through the first subband.

  17. Study of the multiple ionization in the ion-atom collisions with highly charged sulfur as well as with neutral and lowly charged fluorine projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, J.

    1986-01-01

    With the collisional systems 115 MeV S +Q (Q=+13, +15, +16) on He, Ne, Ar, and Kr as well as 4 MeV F +Q (Q=-1, 0, +1) on Ne the multiple ionization in the ion-atom collision was studied. With the collisional system 4 MeV F +Q on Ne the multiple ionization of target and projectile was studied by coincidence measurement between the recoil ions and projectiles with the charge state Q' after the collision (Q'=-1 to +3). In the pure ionization (no change of the projectile charge) the measured ionization cross sections for the single positive and negative charged projectile are equally large, those of the neutral F projectiles are lower. The comparison with the point particles protons and electrons resulted that the ionization cross sections of the F projectiles are larger and more strongly higher charged recoil ions are produced. The measured ionization cross sections of the F projectile are larger than those of the Ne target atom which is to be reduced to the lower ionization energies of the F projectile. With the highly charged S projectiles the multiple ionization with capture into the projectile was studied. By the measurement of triple coincidcences between recoil ions, projectiles, and SKX-radiation the cases with and without capture into the K shell can be discriminated. The charge distribution with is shifted against that without capture into the K shell to higher charges. This shift is to be reduced to the decay of autoionization states which arise by the capture into the K shell. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Density and energy distribution of epithermal secondary electrons in a plasma with fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The production of intermediate energy secondary electrons in plasmas through collisions with fast charged particles is investigated. The density and the distribution of the secondary electrons are obtained by calculating the generation, slow down and diffusion rates, using basic Rutherford collision cross sections. It is shown that the total density of secondaries is much smaller than the fast particle density and that the energy distribution has roughly a 1/√E dependence. The higher generation secondary populations are also obtained. (orig.)

  19. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  20. The effect of polymer charge density and charge distribution on the formation of multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Voigt, U; Tauer, K; Hahn, M; Jäger, W; Klitzing, K V

    2003-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers which are built up by alternating adsorption of polyanions and polycations from aqueous solutions at a solid interface are investigated by reflectometry and ellipsometry. Below a degree of charge of about 70% the adsorption stops after a certain number of dipping cycles and no multilayer formation occurs. This indicates an electrostatically driven adsorption process. Below a charge density of 70% an adsorption can take place if the charged segments are combined as a block of the polymer.

  1. Description of charged particle multiplicity distribution in high energy strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Keyu

    1994-01-01

    With the assumption that the probability for n-charged particles production in hadron-hadron collision is Pn and proper choice of 1 , 2 , k and x in Pn, the true multiplicity distribution in full phase space can be described successfully at the centre of mass energy √S GeV. Using the experimental data of non singe-diffractive collisions between proton and antiproton at centre of mass energies of 200 and 900 GeV, the supposition has been examined and confirmed: it is very good to describe the facts. The theoretical bases of supposition were discussed

  2. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldini, A; Polenta, L; Canali, C; Nava, F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  3. Ion distributions, exclusion coefficients, and separation factors of electrolytes in a charged cylindrical nanopore: a partially perturbative density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Yu, Yang-Xin

    2009-10-07

    The structural and thermodynamic properties for charge symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes as well as mixed electrolyte system inside a charged cylindrical nanopore are investigated using a partially perturbative density functional theory. The electrolytes are treated in the restricted primitive model and the internal surface of the cylindrical nanopore is considered to have a uniform charge density. The proposed theory is directly applicable to the arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution containing ions with the equal diameter and different valences. Large amount of simulation data for ion density distributions, separation factors, and exclusion coefficients are used to determine the range of validity of the partially perturbative density functional theory for monovalent and multivalent counterion systems. The proposed theory is found to be in good agreement with the simulations for both mono- and multivalent counterion systems. In contrast, the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation only provides reasonable descriptions of monovalent counterion system at low bulk density, and is qualitatively and quantitatively wrong in the prediction for the multivalent counterion systems due to its neglect of the strong interionic correlations in these systems. The proposed density functional theory has also been applied to an electrolyte absorbed into a pore that is a model of the filter of a physiological calcium channel.

  4. The surface chemistry of divalent metal carbonate minerals; a critical assessment of surface charge and potential data using the charge distribution multi-site ion complexation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Charlet, L.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Charge Distribution MUltiSite Ion Complexation or CD–MUSIC modeling approach is used to describe the chemical structure of carbonate mineralaqueous solution interfaces. The new model extends existing surface complexation models of carbonate minerals, by including atomic scale information on

  5. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  6. Self-charging of 198Au-labeled monodisperse gold aerosols studied with a miniature electrical mobility spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Newton, G.J.; Raabe, O.G.; Boor, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the electrostatic character of an aerosol may be essential in assessing its potential inhalation hazard. In inhalation studies with radioactive aerosols, the aerosol charge state may change in the course of transport due to the emission of α, β or γ radiations. This paper describes an experimental study of the self-charging of 198 Au-labeled aerosols of monodisperse gold spheres by β emission. A miniature aerosol electrical mobility spectrometer, suitable for use in inhalation studies with radioactive aerosols, was developed and used in this study. This device is relatively inexpensive, easy to manufacture and its contamination by radioactive material has been minimized. Using polystyrene latex spheres, ranging in diameter from 0.176 to 1.18 μm, the spectrometer was calibrated with flow rates ranging from 400 to 4800 ml/min. Experiments with two sizes of 198 Au-labeled monodisperse gold aerosols were performed. Results indicate that the radioactivity of an aerosol can cause self-charging and affect the charge distribution. (author)

  7. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3He + natAg, 197Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1995-01-01

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3 He + nat Ag, l97 Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/p o ∼ 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses

  8. Charge-transfer modified embedded atom method dynamic charge potential for Li-Co-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fantai; Longo, Roberto C; Liang, Chaoping; Nie, Yifan; Zheng, Yongping; Zhang, Chenxi; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-11-29

    To overcome the limitation of conventional fixed charge potential methods for the study of Li-ion battery cathode materials, a dynamic charge potential method, charge-transfer modified embedded atom method (CT-MEAM), has been developed and applied to the Li-Co-O ternary system. The accuracy of the potential has been tested and validated by reproducing a variety of structural and electrochemical properties of LiCoO 2 . A detailed analysis on the local charge distribution confirmed the capability of this potential for dynamic charge modeling. The transferability of the potential is also demonstrated by its reliability in describing Li-rich Li 2 CoO 2 and Li-deficient LiCo 2 O 4 compounds, including their phase stability, equilibrium volume, charge states and cathode voltages. These results demonstrate that the CT-MEAM dynamic charge potential could help to overcome the challenge of modeling complex ternary transition metal oxides. This work can promote molecular dynamics studies of Li ion cathode materials and other important transition metal oxides systems that involve complex electrochemical and catalytic reactions.

  9. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning and Economic Analysis for Electric Bus Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ceng Leou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The battery capacity of electric buses (EB used for public transportation is greater than that of electric cars, and the charging power is also several times greater than that used in electric cars; this can result in high energy consumption and negatively impact power distribution networks. This paper proposes a framework to determine the optimal contracted power capacity and charging schedule of an EB charging station in such a way that energy costs can be reduced. A mathematical model of controlled charging, which includes the capacity and energy charges of the station, was developed to minimize costs. The constraints of the model include the charging characteristics of an EB and the operational guidelines of the bus company. A practical EB charging station was used to verify the proposed model. The financial viability of this EB charging station is also studied in this paper. The economic analysis model for this charging station considers investment and operational costs, and the operational revenue. Sensitivity analyses with respect to some key parameters are also performed in this paper. Based on actual operational routes and EB charging schemes, test results indicate that the EB charging station investment is feasible, and the planning model proposed can be used to determine optimal station power capacity and minimize energy costs.

  10. A study of correlations between identified charged hadrons in hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Abe, T.

    1998-06-01

    The authors present a preliminary study of correlations in rapidity between pairs of identified pions, kaons and protons in hadronic Z 0 decays into light flavors. Short range charge correlations are observed between all combinations of these hadron species, confirming that charge, strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally in the jet fragmentation process. The range of this effect is found to be independent of momentum. A strong long-range correlation is observed for high-momentum charged kaon pairs, and weaker long-range π + -π - , π + -K - and p-K - correlations are observed. The SLC electron beam polarization is used to tag the quark hemisphere in each event, allowing the first study of rapidities signed such that positive rapidity is along the quark rather than antiquark direction. Distributions of signed rapidities and of ordered differences between signed rapidities provide new insights into leading particle production and several new tests of fragmentation models

  11. Interaction of current filaments in dielectric barrier discharges with relation to surface charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, L

    2009-01-01

    In a planar, laterally extended dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system operated in glow mode, a filamentary discharge is observed. The filaments tend to move laterally and hence tend to cause collisions. Thereby, usually one collision partner becomes destroyed. In this paper, the collision process and especially the preceding time period is investigated. Beside the luminescence density of the filaments, the surface charge density accumulated between the single breakdowns of the DBD is observed via an optical measurement technique based on the linear electro-optical effect (pockels effect). A ring-like substructure of the surface charge distribution of a single filament is found, which correlates to the filament interaction behaviour. Furthermore, a preferred filament distance is found, suggesting the formation of a filamentary quasi-molecule.

  12. Study of isovector resonances with pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.; Bolton, R.; Bowman, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies with the pion charge exchange reactions (π/sup +-/,π 0 ) at 164 MeV using the LAMPF π 0 spectrometer are yielding new results on the existence and systematic features of isovector resonances in nuclei. These experiments possess an unusually high signal/background ratio for isovector resonances of low-multipolarity. Results obtained to date are: (1) observation and angular disribution measurement of the giant dipole resonance in nuclei 12 C, 40 Ca, 90 Zr, and 120 Sn; and (2) observation and angular distribution measurements in the (π - ,π 0 ) reaction on 90 Zr and 120 Sn of large signals possessing the expected angular distribution shapes and magnitudes for the isovector monopole resonance. Excitation energies are near the hydrodynamical model values 170 A - /sup 1/3/ MeV. Differential cross sections are approximately 0.7 J 1 2 (qR) mb/sr. An overview of this experimental program, with emphasis on new results and how they correlate with existing knowledge on the isovector resonances, is presented

  13. Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions measured with the PHOBOS detector in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kotuła, J.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2011-02-01

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions over a wide energy range have been measured using the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of both the charged particle distributions and the multiplicity at midrapidity were measured. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted with |η|<5.4, which account for between 95% and 99% of the total charged-particle emission associated with collision participants, are presented for different collision centralities. Both the midrapidity density dNch/dη and the total charged-particle multiplicity Nch are found to factorize into a product of independent functions of collision energy, sNN, and centrality given in terms of the number of nucleons participating in the collision, Npart. The total charged particle multiplicity, observed in these experiments and those at lower energies, assumes a linear dependence of (lnsNN)2 over the full range of collision energy of sNN=2.7-200 GeV.

  14. Study of the action of blast deck charge in rocky soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko V.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting (B in the industry, including the mining extraction of minerals, are carried out mostly with the use of blasthole charges that systematically distributed on the block that is undermined, by individual groups. The latter are blasted according to the scheme of short-delay firing (SDF through the intervals that are accepted not less than 20 Ms. Thus, the seismic effect of group charge explosion, consisting of individual blasthole charges and that actually is a group located charge determined by the formula of concentrated charge. Blast deck charges are effectively used in the driving of the trenches in the mining, formation of screens and cracks near the security objects. Only this method of performing blasting allows to define seismic effect in the transition from one diameter of a charge to another, as well as to determine the actual number of detonated charges in one group, which may differ from the calculated in drilling and blasting project. The work analyzes the physical essence of processes happened while blasting of blast deck charges. The effect of the orientation of the seismic action of blasting of blast deck charges towards the allocation line of charges is investigated. The results of generalized dependence of the speed of the displacement of the ground by the blast parameters and epicentral distance are obtained. We demonstrate with specific examples that blast deck charges that blasting simultaneously make a major chain of the career massive explosions at mining. Keywords: seismic fluctuations; the number of charges; the interaction of charges; the distance between the charges; the coefficients of the seismicity and the attenuation of the intensity of the waves; the unit charge; blast deck and blasthole charges; phase shifting; effective charge.

  15. Nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao

    1992-02-01

    The nonlinear space charge effect due to the nonuniform particle density distribution in bunched beam of a linac is discussed. The formulae of nonlinear space charge effect and nonlinear focusing forces were derived for the bunched beam with Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution, waterbag (WB) distribution, parabolic (PA) distribution, and Gauss (GA) distribution in both of the space charge disk model and space charge cylinder model in the waveguide of a linac

  16. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  17. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  18. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-12-26

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  19. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in proton-lead collisions at √{s_{NN}}=5.02 and 8.16 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Drag-icevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Croce, D.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dorney, B.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Seva, T.; Starling, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Salva, S.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caputo, C.; Caudron, A.; David, P.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Saggio, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Zobec, J.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Coelho, E.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Melo De Almeida, M.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Sanchez Rosas, L. J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Thiel, M.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Misheva, M.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Yuan, L.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liao, H.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Segura Delgado, M. A.; Courbon, B.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Starodumov, A.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Salama, E.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Leloup, C.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Negro, G.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Amendola, C.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Charlot, C.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Lobanov, A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Jansová, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Tonon, N.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Finco, L.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Feld, L.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Zhukov, V.; Albert, A.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bermúdez Martínez, A.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Botta, V.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Grohsjean, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Guthoff, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Lenz, T.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Savitskyi, M.; Saxena, P.; Shevchenko, R.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wen, Y.; Wichmann, K.; Wissing, C.; Zenaiev, O.; Aggleton, R.; Bein, S.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Karavdina, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kurz, S.; Lapsien, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baselga, M.; Baur, S.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Faltermann, N.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Harrendorf, M. A.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Karathanasis, G.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Kousouris, K.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Mallios, S.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Triantis, F. A.; Csanad, M.; Filipovic, N.; Pasztor, G.; Surányi, O.; Veres, G. I.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Horvath, D.; Hunyadi, Á.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Bahinipati, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Dhingra, N.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, S.; Kumar, R.; Kumari, P.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, A.; Chauhan, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Bhardwaj, R.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhawandeep, U.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, P.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Pandey, S.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Errico, F.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lezki, S.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Borgonovi, L.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Chatterjee, K.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; Beschi, A.; Brianza, L.; Brivio, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pauwels, K.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Fienga, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Khan, W. A.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Rossin, R.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Ressegotti, M.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Rossi, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giannini, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Manca, E.; Mandorli, G.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; Daci, N.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Marzocchi, B.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Monteno, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. 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M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Hiltbrand, J.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Wadud, M. A.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Qiu, H.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Freed, S.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Shi, W.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Zhang, A.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Mengke, T.; Muthumuni, S.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Padeken, K.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Joyce, M.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Poudyal, N.; Sturdy, J.; Thapa, P.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2018-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in proton-lead collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies √{s_{NN}}=5.02 and 8.16 TeV are presented. The measurements are based on data samples collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The number of primary charged hadrons produced in non-single-diffractive proton-lead collisions is determined in the pseudorapidity range | η lab| < 2 .4. The charged-hadron multiplicity distributions are compared to the predictions from theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo event generators. In the center-of-mass pseudorapidity range | η cm| < 0 .5, the average charged-hadron multiplicity densities 〈d N ch/d η cm〉| ηcm| < 0.5 are 17 .31 ± 0 .01 (stat) ± 0 .59 (syst) and 20 .10 ± 0 .01 (stat) ± 0 .85(syst) at √{s_{NN}}=5.02 and 8.16 TeV, respectively. The particle densities per participant nucleon are compared to similar measurements in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by inducing energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electric utility customer charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Harris, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the increased greenhouse gas emissions and negative effect on energy conservation (or 'efficiency penalty') due to electric rate structures that employ an unavoidable customer charge. First, the extent of customer charges was determined from a nationwide survey of US electric tariffs. To eliminate the customer charge nationally while maintaining a fixed sum for electric companies for a given amount of electricity, an increase of 7.12% in the residential electrical rate was found to be necessary. If enacted, this increase in the electric rate would result in a 6.4% reduction in overall electricity consumption, conserving 73 billion kW h, eliminating 44.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, and saving the entire US residential sector over $8 billion per year. As shown here, these reductions would come from increased avoidable costs, thus leveraging an increased rate of return on investments in energy efficiency, energy conservation behavior, distributed energy generation, and fuel choices. Finally, limitations of this study and analysis are discussed and conclusions are drawn for proposed energy policy changes

  1. Mapping Charge Carrier Density in Organic Thin-Film Transistors by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Lifetime Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    The device performance of organic transistors is strongly influenced by the charge carrier distribution. A range of factors effect this distribution, including injection barriers at the metal-semiconductor interface, the morphology of the organic film, and charge traps at the dielectric/organic...... interface or at grain boundaries. In our comprehensive experimental and analytical work we demonstrate a method to characterize the charge carrier density in organic thin-film transistors using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. We developed a numerical model that describes the electrical...... and optical responses consistently. We determined the densities of free and trapped holes at the interface between the organic layer and the SiO2 gate dielectric by comparison to electrical measurements. Furthermore by applying fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy we determine the local charge carrier...

  2. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  3. Electron energy distribution function, effective electron temperature, and dust charge in the temporal afterglow of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denysenko, I. B.; Azarenkov, N. A.; Kersten, H.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions describing the variation of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an afterglow of a plasma are obtained. Especially, the case when the electron energy loss is mainly due to momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is considered. The study is carried out for different EEDFs in the steady state, including Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions. The analytical results are not only obtained for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy but also for the case when the collisions are a power function of electron energy. Using analytical expressions for the EEDF, the effective electron temperature and charge of the dust particles, which are assumed to be present in plasma, are calculated for different afterglow durations. An analytical expression for the rate describing collection of electrons by dust particles for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy is also derived. The EEDF profile and, as a result, the effective electron temperature and dust charge are sufficiently different in the cases when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy and when the rate is a power function of electron energy.

  4. Impact of Distribution Feeders that do not have Voltage Regulators on the number of Charged Electric Vehicles using IEEE 34 Bus Test Feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allehyani, Ahmed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Voltage regulators help maintain an acceptable voltage profile for the system. This paper discusses the effect of installing voltage regulators to the system to fix the voltage drop resulting from the electrical vehicles loading increase when they are being charged. The effect will be studied in the afternoon, when the peak load occurs, using the IEEE 34 bus test feeder. First, only one spot node is used to charge the electric vehicles while a voltage regulator is present. Second, five spot nodes are loaded at the same time to charge the electric vehicles while voltage regulators are installed at each node. After that, the impact of electric vehicles on distribution feeders that do not have voltage regulators will appear.

  5. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  6. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  7. Investigation of mass and nuclear charge distributions in a fission induced by 3 MeV neutrons for some fissile nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelin, Christiane

    1983-01-01

    After a presentation of the phenomenon of fission (liquid droplet model, microscopic model, Strutinski model, static approach to the scission point with the Fong statistical model and with the Wilkins thermodynamic model), this research thesis presents an experimental installation with its irradiation systems, its measurement assembly, its measurement process (rare gas emission). The author then describes the methods used to determine efficiencies: charge distributions within an isobaric chain, efficiency determination principle, choice of experimental parameters, test with Uranium 235. Experimental results are then presented and discussed in terms of mass distribution and of charge distribution for various uranium isotopes (235, 238 and 232). They are discussed with respect to the Wilkins model, to the pair breakage model, and to the calculation of the average number of neutrons emitted by different fissile systems

  8. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. The dipole moment of a wall-charged void in a bulk dielectric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The dipole moment of a wall-charged void is examined with reference to the spatial extent of the surface charge density σ and the distribution of this charge. The salient factors influencing the void dipole moment are also examined. From a study of spherical voids, it is shown that, although the σ......-distribution influences the dipole moment, the spatial extent of σ has a greater influence. This behavior is not unexpected. For a void of fixed dimensions, the smaller the charged surface area, the greater is the charges, and thus the greater the dipole moment...

  10. A study of correlations between identified charged hadrons in hadronic Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Aomori Univ. (Japan); Abe, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Abe, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] [and others; SLD Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The authors present a preliminary study of correlations in rapidity between pairs of identified pions, kaons and protons in hadronic Z{sup 0} decays into light flavors. Short range charge correlations are observed between all combinations of these hadron species, confirming that charge, strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally in the jet fragmentation process. The range of this effect is found to be independent of momentum. A strong long-range correlation is observed for high-momentum charged kaon pairs, and weaker long-range {pi}{sup +}-{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup +}-K{sup -} and p-K{sup -} correlations are observed. The SLC electron beam polarization is used to tag the quark hemisphere in each event, allowing the first study of rapidities signed such that positive rapidity is along the quark rather than antiquark direction. Distributions of signed rapidities and of ordered differences between signed rapidities provide new insights into leading particle production and several new tests of fragmentation models.

  11. Charge orders in organic charge-transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Valentí, Roser; Tocchio, Luca F; Becca, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental suggestions of charge-order-driven ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer salts, such as κ -(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Cl, we investigate magnetic and charge-ordered phases that emerge in an extended two-orbital Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice at 3/4 filling. This model takes into account the presence of two organic BEDT-TTF molecules, which form a dimer on each site of the lattice, and includes short-range intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and hoppings. By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we find two polar states with charge disproportionation inside the dimer, hinting to ferroelectricity. These charge-ordered insulating phases are stabilized in the strongly correlated limit and their actual charge pattern is determined by the relative strength of intradimer to interdimer couplings. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity is not driven by magnetism, since these polar phases can be stabilized also without antiferromagnetic order and provide a possible microscopic explanation of the experimental observations. In addition, a conventional dimer-Mott state (with uniform density and antiferromagnetic order) and a nonpolar charge-ordered state (with charge-rich and charge-poor dimers forming a checkerboard pattern) can be stabilized in the strong-coupling regime. Finally, when electron–electron interactions are weak, metallic states appear, with either uniform charge distribution or a peculiar 12-site periodicity that generates honeycomb-like charge order. (paper)

  12. Measurement of charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event in √s=13 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco); Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, United States of America (United States); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others

    2017-03-29

    We present charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event, measured by the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, in low-luminosity Large Hadron Collider fills corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.6 nb{sup −1}. The distributions were constructed using charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5 and with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV, in events with at least one such charged particle with transverse momentum above 1 GeV. These distributions characterise the angular distribution of energy and particle flows with respect to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum, as a function of both that momentum and of charged-particle multiplicity. The results have been corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators, experimentally establishing the level of underlying-event activity at LHC Run 2 energies and providing inputs for the development of event generator modelling. The current models in use for UE modelling typically describe this data to 5% accuracy, compared with data uncertainties of less than 1%.

  13. Effects of Discrete Charge Clustering in Simulations of Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, John M A; Khan, Malek O

    2010-10-12

    A system of counterions between charged surfaces is investigated, with the surfaces represented by uniform charged planes and three different arrangements of discrete surface charges - an equispaced grid and two different clustered arrangements. The behaviors of a series of systems with identical net surface charge density are examined, with particular emphasis placed on the long ranged corrections via the method of "charged slabs" and the effects of the simulation cell size. Marked differences are observed in counterion distributions and the osmotic pressure dependent on the particular representation of the charged surfaces; the uniformly charged surfaces and equispaced grids of discrete charge behave in a broadly similar manner, but the clustered systems display a pronounced decrease in osmotic pressure as the simulation size is increased. The influence of the long ranged correction is shown to be minimal for all but the very smallest of system sizes.

  14. Analysis of Turbulent Combustion in Simplified Stratified Charge Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Morikawa, Hideaki; Komatsu, Eiji

    The stratified charge combustion system has been widely studied due to the significant potentials for low fuel consumption rate and low exhaust gas emissions. The fuel-air mixture formation process in a direct-injection stratified charge engine is influenced by various parameters, such as atomization, evaporation, and in-cylinder gas motion at high temperature and high pressure conditions. It is difficult to observe the in-cylinder phenomena in such conditions and also challenging to analyze the following stratified charge combustion. Therefore, the combustion phenomena in simplified stratified charge conditions aiming to analyze the fundamental stratified charge combustion are examined. That is, an experimental apparatus which can control the mixture distribution and the gas motion at ignition timing was developed, and the effects of turbulence intensity, mixture concentration distribution, and mixture composition on stratified charge combustion were examined. As a result, the effects of fuel, charge stratification, and turbulence on combustion characteristics were clarified.

  15. Isotopic and velocity distributions of {sub 83}Bi produced in charge-pickup reactions of {sup 208}{sub 82}PB at 1 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Isotopically resolved cross sections and velocity distributions have been measured in charge-pickup reactions of 1 A GeV {sup 208}Pb with proton, deuterium and titanium target. The total and partial charge-pickup cross sections in the reactions {sup 208}Pb + {sup 1}H and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 2}H are measured to be the same in the limits of the error bars. A weak increase in the total charge-pickup cross section is seen in the reaction of {sup 208}Pb with the titanium target. The measured velocity distributions show different contributions - quasi-elastic scattering and {delta}-resonance excitation - to the charge-pickup production. Data on total and partial charge-pickup cross sections from these three reactions are compared with other existing data and also with model calculations based on the coupling of different intra-nuclear cascade codes and an evaporation code. (orig.)

  16. Single-Bunch Stability With Direct Space Charge

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the suppressing effect of direct space charge on impedance-driven head-tail instabilities. The present work investigates transverse stability for the HL-LHC scenario based on our macro-particle simulation tool PyHEADTAIL using realistic bunch distributions. The impact of selfconsistent modelling is briefly discussed for non-linear space charge forces. We study how space charge pushes the instability threshold for the transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI) occurring between mode 0 and -1. Next we consider finite chromaticity: in absence of space charge, the impedance model predicts head-tail instabilities. For a selected case below TMCI threshold at Q0 = 5, we demonstrate the stabilising effect of space charge. Finally, we compare simulation results to past LHC measurements.

  17. Charge-sign-clustering observed in high-multiplicity, high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Charge-sign distribution in 200 GeV/amu heavy-ion collisions is studied with the Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) for central collision events in 16 O + Pb and 32 S + Pb interactions. Charge-sign clustering is observed in most of the fully-analyzed events. A statistical 'run-test' is performed for each measured event, which shows significant deviation from a Gaussian distribution (0,1) expected for random-charge distribution. Candidates of charge clusters have 5 - 10 multiplicity of like-sign particles, and are often accompanied by opposite-sign clusters. Observed clustering of identical charges is more significant in the fragmentation region than in the central region. Two-particle Bose-Einstein interference and other effects are discussed for the run-test examination. (author)

  18. A heterogeneous CPU+GPU Poisson solver for space charge calculations in beam dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dawei; Rienen, Ursula van [University of Rostock, Institute of General Electrical Engineering (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In beam dynamics studies in accelerator physics, space charge plays a central role in the low energy regime of an accelerator. Numerical space charge calculations are required, both, in the design phase and in the operation of the machines as well. Due to its efficiency, mostly the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is chosen for the space charge calculation. Then, the solution of Poisson's equation for the charge distribution in the rest frame is the most prominent part within the solution process. The Poisson solver directly affects the accuracy of the self-field applied on the charged particles when the equation of motion is solved in the laboratory frame. As the Poisson solver consumes the major part of the computing time in most simulations it has to be as fast as possible since it has to be carried out once per time step. In this work, we demonstrate a novel heterogeneous CPU+GPU routine for the Poisson solver. The novel solver also benefits from our new research results on the utilization of a discrete cosine transform within the classical Hockney and Eastwood's convolution routine.

  19. High-resolution study of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the light nuclei 9B and 13N using the (3He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 420 MeV beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Excited states in the light nuclei 9 B and 13 C were studied using the ( 3 He,t) charge-exchange reaction on 9 Be and 13 C targets. The measurements were performed at the research center for nuclear physics (RCNP) in Osaka, Japan, using the magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden and the dispersive WS course. The 3 He beam with an energy of 420 MeV was accelerated by the RCNP Ring Cyclotron. The Grand Raiden spectrometer and the WS course allow to study the ( 3 He,t) charge-exchange reaction with an energy resolution of around 30 keV, which is one order of magnitude better than measurements with the (p,n) charge-exchange reaction. The high resolution allows to better separate individual states and to determine weak excitation strengths because of low background in the spectra. A total of 19 states in 13 N were studied, and a total of 20 states were observed in 9 B. Of these, 9 states in 13 C and 10 states in 9 B were identified as being excited by a Gamow-Teller transition. Charge-exchange reactions are related to beta-decay, and at zero momentum transfer a simple proportionality exists between the cross-section of the charge-exchange experiment and the Fermi (F) or Gamow-Teller (GT) beta-decay strength. While the Fermi strength B(F) is concentrated in the transition to the isobaric analog state, the Gamow-Teller strength B(GT) is scattered among the excited states. The main aim of the present study is to determine the B(GT) strengths in the nuclei 9 B and 13 N. The only charge-exchange study of 9 B was made 30 years ago with the (p,n) reaction and a resolution of around 300-400 keV. Many states, especially at high excitation energy, could not be resolved by that study. The present work was able to separate many weakly excited states with small decay width at high excitation energies (12-19 MeV) in 9 B and determine the B(GT) strength distribution by using recent high-precision beta-decay data. The results point to a strong difference in spatial structure between the

  20. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in 16O-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunier, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4π calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on 16 O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for 16 O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs

  1. Impact of spot charge inaccuracies in IMPT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke C; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2017-08-01

    Spot charge is one parameter of pencil-beam scanning dose delivery system whose accuracy is typically high but whose required value has not been investigated. In this work we quantify the dose impact of spot charge inaccuracies on the dose distribution in patients. Knowing the effect of charge errors is relevant for conventional proton machines, as well as for new generation proton machines, where ensuring accurate charge may be challenging. Through perturbation of spot charge in treatment plans for seven patients and a phantom, we evaluated the dose impact of absolute (up to 5× 10 6 protons) and relative (up to 30%) charge errors. We investigated the dependence on beam width by studying scenarios with small, medium and large beam sizes. Treatment plan statistics included the Γ passing rate, dose-volume-histograms and dose differences. The allowable absolute charge error for small spot plans was about 2× 10 6 protons. Larger limits would be allowed if larger spots were used. For relative errors, the maximum allowable error size for small, medium and large spots was about 13%, 8% and 6% for small, medium and large spots, respectively. Dose distributions turned out to be surprisingly robust against random spot charge perturbation. Our study suggests that ensuring spot charge errors as small as 1-2% as is commonly aimed at in conventional proton therapy machines, is clinically not strictly needed. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at square root of s = 7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Olaiya, E; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Cutajar, M; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Guneratne Bryer, A; Hall, G; Hatherell, Z; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Marrouche, J; Nandi, R; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sparrow, A; Stoye, M; Tapper, A; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Barrett, M; Chadwick, M; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Reid, I D; Teodorescu, L; Bose, T; Clough, A; Heister, A; St John, J; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Heintz, U; Jabeen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Borgia, M A; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Schwarz, T; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Deisher, A; Erhan, S; Farrell, C; Felcini, M; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Babb, J; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sumowidagdo, S; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Andrews, W; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Padhi, S; Palmer, C; Petrucciani, G; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Barge, D; Blume, M; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Shin, K; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Eggert, N; Fields, L J; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Kaufman, G Nicolas; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Biselli, A; Cirino, G; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Bakken, J A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Demarteau, M; Eartly, D P; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Green, D; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Khatiwada, R; Kilminster, B; Klima, B; Kousouris, K; Kunori, S; Kwan, S; Limon, P; Lipton, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; McCauley, T; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Popescu, S; Pordes, R; Prokofyev, O; Saoulidou, N; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Tan, P; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Sellers, P; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Mesa, D; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Veeraraghavan, V; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Lacroix, F; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Strom, D; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Cankocak, K; Clarida, W; Duru, F; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J-P; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Eskew, C; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Hu, G; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Mignerey, A; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y-J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Cole, P; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dudero, P R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Zennamo, J; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Boeriu, O; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Ziegler, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Lopes Pegna, D; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Zatzerklyaniy, A; Alagoz, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Borrello, L; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Potamianos, K; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Morales, J; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gotra, Y; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Bardak, C; Damgov, J; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Mane, P; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Appelt, E; Brownson, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Gabella, W; Johns, W; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sheldon, P; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Milstène, C; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Lomidze, D; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M

    2010-07-09

    Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at square root of s = 7  TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is obtained by counting the number of reconstructed hits, hit pairs, and fully reconstructed charged-particle tracks. The combination of the three methods gives a charged-particle multiplicity per unit of pseudorapidity dN(ch)/dη|(|η|<0.5) = 5.78 ± 0.01(stat) ± 0.23(syst) for non-single-diffractive events, higher than predicted by commonly used models. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from square root of s = 0.9 to 7 TeV is [66.1 ± 1.0(stat) ± 4.2(syst)]%. The mean transverse momentum is measured to be 0.545 ± 0.005(stat) ± 0.015(syst)  GeV/c. The results are compared with similar measurements at lower energies.

  3. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au +46 ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV 197 Au +17 from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV 197 Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au/sup +46/ ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au/sup +17/ from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV in centrality classes measured by ALICE. The measurement covers a wide pseudorapidity range from −3.5 to 5, which is sufficient for reliable estimates of the total number of charged particles produced in the collisions. For the most central (0–5% collisions we find 21400±1300, while for the most peripheral (80–90% we find 230±38. This corresponds to an increase of (27±4% over the results at sNN=2.76 TeV previously reported by ALICE. The energy dependence of the total number of charged particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is found to obey a modified power-law like behaviour. The charged-particle pseudorapidity density of the most central collisions is compared to model calculations — none of which fully describes the measured distribution. We also present an estimate of the rapidity density of charged particles. The width of that distribution is found to exhibit a remarkable proportionality to the beam rapidity, independent of the collision energy from the top SPS to LHC energies.

  6. Charge distributions of barium isotopes from muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.; Wohlfahrt, H.D.; Hoehn, M.V.; Tanaka, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a muonic X-ray study of the charge radii of stable barium isotopes are presented and compared with optical isotope shifts. The isotope shifts Δ 2 > of a wide range of barium isotopes are found to be in good agreement with the droplet model and with IBA calculations. (orig.)

  7. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  8. Self-consistent study of space-charge-dominated beams in a misaligned transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method is developed to investigate the dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams through a misaligned solenoid based transport system. Evolution of beam centroid, beam envelope and emittance is studied as a function of misalignment parameters for various types of beam distributions. Simulation results performed up to 40 mA of proton beam indicate that centroid oscillations induced by the displacement and rotational misalignments of solenoids do not depend of the beam distribution. It is shown that the beam envelope around the centroid is independent of the centroid motion for small centroid oscillation. In addition, we have estimated the loss of beam during the transport caused by the misalignment for various beam distributions

  9. Game-theoretic control of PHEV charging with power flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to an ever-increasing market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs, the charging demand is expected to become a main determinant of the load in future distribution systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of controlling in-home charging of PHEVs to accomplish peak load shifting while maximizing the revenue of the distribution service provider (DSP and PHEV owners. A leader-follower game model is proposed to characterize the preference and revenue expectation of PHEV owners and DSP, respectively. The follower (PHEV owner decides when to start charging based on the pricing schedule provided by the leader (DSP. The DSP can incentivize the charging of PHEV owners to avoid system peak load. The costs associated with power distribution, line loss, and voltage regulation are incorporated in the game model via power flow analysis. Based on a linear approximation of the power flow equations, the solution of sub-game perfect Nash equilibrium (SPNE is obtained. A case study is performed based on the IEEE 13-bus test feeder and realistic PHEV charging statistics, and the results demonstrate that our proposed PHEV charging control scheme can significantly improve the power quality in distribution systems by reducing the peak load and voltage fluctuations.

  10. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  11. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  12. Study on Charged Top-Pion Decay Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-Lei; XU Wen-Na; DU Lin-Lin

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of top-color assisted technicolor (TC2) theory, we study the four decay processes of charged top-pion, i.e., П+t → t-b, П+t → c-b, П+t → W+γ П+t → W+ Z0. The decay branching ratio of these modes are calculated. The results show that the main decay channels of charged top-pion are the tree level modes: П+t → t-b and П+t → c-b. Light П+t is easier to be detected than heavy one at future coliders. So, the study provides us with some useful informations to search for charged top-pion.

  13. Nonadiabatic charged spherical evolution in the postquasistatic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, L.; Barreto, W.; Peralta, C.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.

    2010-01-01

    We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of dissipative and electrically charged distributions in general relativity. The numerical implementation of our approach leads to a solver which is globally second-order convergent. We evolve nonadiabatic distributions assuming an equation of state that accounts for the anisotropy induced by the electric charge. Dissipation is described by streaming-out or diffusion approximations. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya-Reissner-Nordstroem exterior solution. Two models are considered: (i) a Schwarzschild-like shell in the diffusion limit; and (ii) a Schwarzschild-like interior in the free-streaming limit. These toy models tell us something about the nature of the dissipative and electrically charged collapse. Diffusion stabilizes the gravitational collapse producing a spherical shell whose contraction is halted in a short characteristic hydrodynamic time. The streaming-out radiation provides a more efficient mechanism for emission of energy, redistributing the electric charge on the whole sphere, while the distribution collapses indefinitely with a longer hydrodynamic time scale.

  14. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of free radical products among the bases of x-irradiated DNA model systems: an ESR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalletta, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of solid state DNA to ionizing radiation results in an ESR spectrum that has been attributed to a nonstoichiometric distribution of free radicals among the bases. At low temperatures radical cations appear to be stabilized on the purines while radical anions are stabilized on the pyrimidines. This distribution could arise from at least two different mechanisms. The first, charge transfer, involves the transfer of electrons and/or holes between stacked bases. In the second, saturation asymmetry, the free radical distribution arises from differences in the dose saturation characteristics of individual bases. The present study addresses the relative importance of charge transfer versus saturation asymmetry in the production of these population differences. Radicals formed by dissolving irradiated polycrystalline pyrimidines in aqueous solutions containing NtB or PBN spin traps were analyzed using ESR. The relative importance of the two free radical production and distribution mechanisms was assessed using DNA model systems. Saturation asymmetry plays a significant role in determining the free radical population while charge transfer was unambiguously observed in only one, the complex of dAMP and TMP. The results demonstrate that any quantitative analysis of charge transfer must take saturation asymmetry into account

  16. Impact of charging electric-powered vehicles on the management of power distribution systems at volatile wind energy input; Einfluss gesteuerten Ladens von Elektrofahrzeugen auf die Netzbetriebsfuehrung bei volatiler Windeinspeisung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agsten, Michael

    2011-10-10

    This work summarizes findings obtained by controlled charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs) regarding volatile wind power generation. Based on the state of the art of the negotiation of the charging process between the EV and the charging point two approaches will be explained. The Wind-2-Vehicle method (W2V) is an example for using controlled EV charging in order to create a renewable supply following demand by optimizing the energy supply quota wind in each charging process. The Local Load Management (LLM) method is an example of using information from distribution grids to limit the charging power of EVs over time. In this work, two case studies are carried out to quantify the controlled/uncontrolled charging of EVs and their impact on electric power systems. The first case study describes charging of fifty EVs by a reduced W2V approach. The charging process has been analyzed from different point of views. Controlled/Uncontrolled charging results in peak demand (of EV fleets), due to synchronized charging. This may result in violation of preassigned operation limits. The utilization of the developed LLM method in the second case study shows that a small reduction of the achievable W2V quality results in an improved charging performance for small as well as large fleets. Therefore applying LLM can avoid violations of operation limits.

  17. Forward charge distributions associated with hadronically produced J/psi particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the forward charge as a function of x/sub F/ of the psi for events produced by 225 Gev/c π-Be interactions. The forward charge is the average difference between the number of positive hadrons and negative hadrons produced in the forward hemisphere. The standard Drell-Yan model predicts that the forward charge should become less negative as the x/sub F/ of the J/psi increases. The measured forward charge becomes more negative as the x/sub F/ of the J/psi increases although it is consistent with being flat as a function of x/sub F/. Hence the data is not consistent with any Drell-Yan type model which assumes the forward charge is not strongly dependent on the hadronic energy left over after the J/psi is formed. 45 references

  18. Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveiro, Iván [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Javier García de Abajo, F., E-mail: javier.garciadeabajo@icfo.es [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-31

    We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.

  19. Electronic structure, dielectric response, and surface charge distribution of RGD (1FUV) peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puja; Wen, Amy M; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Podgornik, Rudolf; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-07-08

    Long and short range molecular interactions govern molecular recognition and self-assembly of biological macromolecules. Microscopic parameters in the theories of these molecular interactions are either phenomenological or need to be calculated within a microscopic theory. We report a unified methodology for the ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculation that yields all the microscopic parameters, namely the partial charges as well as the frequency-dependent dielectric response function, that can then be taken as input for macroscopic theories of electrostatic, polar, and van der Waals-London dispersion intermolecular forces. We apply this methodology to obtain the electronic structure of the cyclic tripeptide RGD-4C (1FUV). This ab initio unified methodology yields the relevant parameters entering the long range interactions of biological macromolecules, providing accurate data for the partial charge distribution and the frequency-dependent dielectric response function of this peptide. These microscopic parameters determine the range and strength of the intricate intermolecular interactions between potential docking sites of the RGD-4C ligand and its integrin receptor.

  20. Distributed parameter modeling to prevent charge cancellation for discrete thickness piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, M.; Qian, Feng; Zuo, Lei; Lenka, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    The charge cancellation due to the change of strain along single continuous piezoelectric layer can remarkably affect the performance of a cantilever based harvester. In this paper, analytical models using distributed parameters are developed with some extent of averting the charge cancellation in cantilever piezoelectric transducer where the piezoelectric layers are segmented at strain nodes of concerned vibration mode. The electrode of piezoelectric segments are parallelly connected with a single external resistive load in the 1st model (Model 1). While each bimorph piezoelectric layers are connected in parallel to a resistor to form an independent circuit in the 2nd model (Model 2). The analytical expressions of the closed-form electromechanical coupling responses in frequency domain under harmonic base excitation are derived based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption for both models. The developed analytical models are validated by COMSOL and experimental results. The results demonstrate that the energy harvesting performance of the developed segmented piezoelectric layer models is better than the traditional model of continuous piezoelectric layer.

  1. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  2. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyar, V.A.; Eremin, A.V.; Eremin, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well [ru

  3. Development of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Shirkov, G.D.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Barbarino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the widespread model for the calculation of ion charge-state distributions (CSD) in electron cyclotron-resonance ion source based on the set of balance equations is given. The modification of this model that allows one to describe the confinement and accumulation processes of highly charged ions in ECR plasma for gas mixing case more precisely is discussed. The new approach for the time confinement calculation (ions and electrons) based on the theory of Pastukhov is offered, viz. - calculation of confinement times during two step minimization of special type functionals. The results obtained by this approach have been compared with available experimental data

  4. Emittance control of a beam by shaping the transverse charge distribution, using a tomography diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimenko, V.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.J.

    1998-06-01

    A high-brightness beam is very important for many applications. A diagnostic that measures the multi-dimensional phase-space density-distribution of the electron bunch is a must for obtaining such beams. Measurement of a slice emittance has been achieved. Tomographic reconstruction of phase space was suggested and implemented using a single quadrupole scan. In the present work the authors give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This diagnostic, coupled with control of the radial charge distribution of presents an opportunity to improve the beam brightness. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics lead to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections

  5. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  6. Charge calculation studies done on a single walled carbon nanotube using MOPAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, S.; Bhartiya, Vivek Kumar; Chaturvedi, S.

    2018-04-01

    Dipole symmetry of induced charges on DWNTs are required for their application as a nanomotor. Earlier a molecular dynamics analysis was performed for a double-walled carbon-nanotube based motor driven by an externally applied sinusoidally varying electric field. One of the ways to get such a system is chemical or end functionalization, which promises to accomplish this specific and rare configuration of the induced charges on the surface of the carbon nanotube (CNT). CNTs are also a promising system for attaching biomolecules for bio-related applications. In an earlier work, ab initio calculations were done to study the electronic and structural properties of the groups -COOH, -OH, -NH2 and -CONH2 functionalized to an (8, 0) SWNT. The systems were shown to have a very stable interaction with the CNTs. The exterior surface of the SWNT is found to be reactive to NH2 (amidogen). In this work, charge calculations are done on a CNT using MOPAC, which is a semi empirical quantum chemistry software package. As a first step, we calculate the effect of NH2 functionalization to a (5,0) SWNT of infinite length. The symmetric charge distribution of the bare SWNT is observed to be disturbed on addition of a single NH2 in the close proximity of the SWNT. A net positive and opposite charge is observed to be induced on the opposite sides of the nanotube circumference, which is, in turn, imperative for the nanomotor applications. The minimum and maximum value of the charge on any atom is observed to increase from - 0.3 to 0.6 and from - 0.3 to - 1.8 electronic charge as compared to the bare SWNT. This fluctuation of the surface charge to larger values than bare CNT, can be attributed to the coulomb repulsion between NH2 and the rest of the charge on the surface which results into minimizing the total energy of the system. No such opposite polarity of charges are observed on adding NH2 to each ring of the SWNT implying addition of a single amidogen to be the most appropriate

  7. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  8. Guided transmission of highly charged ions through nanocapillaries in PET. Study of the energy dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helhammer, R.; Pesic, Z.D.; Sobocinski, P.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Stolterfoht, N.; Sulik, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently we reported experiments in which slow highly charged ions are transmitted through nanocapillaries of 100nm diameter in an insulating PET foil of 10μm thickness [1]. The results of this work differ significantly from previous studies, which have been focused on capillaries in metals [2]. We measured the transmission of 3 keV Ne 7+ ions through the capillaries and focused the attention on ions whose charge has not changed during the passage through the capillary. The observation that the angular distribution for PET has a peak maximum whose position is equal to the tilt angle indicates a guiding of the Ne 7+ ion within the capillary. This guiding shows that the inner walls of the capillaries are charged up in a self-organizing process and collisions with the surface are finally prevented. We studied the time evolution of the capillary guiding as well as dependencies on the tilt angle [3]. Our most recent measurements were focussed on the investigation of the energy dependency for the guiding of Ne 7+ through capillaries. The measurements were done in an energy range from 2 keV up to 10 keV.We measured higher guiding efficiency for lower energies consistent with a previously developed model, which predicted an increase of the guiding efficiency with decreasing projectile energy [3]. In addition we found the effect of a narrower width of the angular distribution of transmitted ions. This effect is also well described by the model. However, further work is needed to explain the amount of charges to build up the deflection field at the end of the capillaries

  9. Charge-transport simulations in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Falk

    2012-07-06

    In this thesis we have extended the methods for microscopic charge-transport simulations for organic semiconductors, where weak intermolecular interactions lead to spatially localized charge carriers, and the charge transport occurs as an activated hopping process between diabatic states. In addition to weak electronic couplings between these states, different electrostatic environments in the organic material lead to a broadening of the density of states for the charge energies which limits carrier mobilities. The contributions to the method development include (i) the derivation of a bimolecular charge-transfer rate, (ii) the efficient evaluation of intermolecular (outer-sphere) reorganization energies, (iii) the investigation of effects of conformational disorder on intramolecular reorganization energies or internal site energies and (iv) the inclusion of self-consistent polarization interactions for calculation of charge energies. These methods were applied to study charge transport in amorphous phases of small molecules used in the emission layer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED). When bulky substituents are attached to an aromatic core in order to adjust energy levels or prevent crystallization, a small amount of delocalization of the frontier orbital to the substituents can increase electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. This leads to improved charge-transfer rates and, hence, larger charge-mobility. We therefore suggest using the mesomeric effect (as opposed to the inductive effect) when attaching substituents to aromatic cores, which is necessary for example in deep blue OLEDs, where the energy levels of a host molecule have to be adjusted to those of the emitter. Furthermore, the energy landscape for charges in an amorphous phase cannot be predicted by mesoscopic models because they approximate the realistic morphology by a lattice and represent molecular charge distributions in a multipole expansion. The microscopic approach shows that

  10. Charge exchange in a planetary corona - Its effect on the distribution and escape of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The theory for a spherical collisionless planetary corona is extended to include charge-exchange collisions between H(+) and H, which are assumed to constitute intermingled gases with different kinetic temperatures. The treatment is based on the conventional concept of a critical level (or exobase) above which the only collisions considered in the Boltzmann equation are those that resonantly exchange charge. Although the geometry treated is an oversimplification for a real planet, numerical examples are given for an idealized earth and Venus. For earth, an ion temperature of 4 times the neutral temperature, an ion density at the exobase of 14,000 per cu cm, and a plasmapause at 1.5 earth radii will raise the escape flux of H by a factor of 6. The total H above the exobase is changed by less than 1%. For Venus, conditions are examined that would account for the peculiar H distribution observed from Mariner 5. The plasma conditions required are not obviously outrageous by terrestrial standards, but the Mariner 5 ionosphere measurements did not show a high plasmapause at, say, 1.25 or 1.5 planetary radii, a fact that might argue against a charge-exchange model.

  11. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in restricted rapidity intervals in Z0 hadronic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.

    1991-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of charged particles in restricted rapidity intervals in Z 0 hadronic decays measured by the DELPHI detector are presented. The data reveal a shoulder structure, best visible for intervals of intermediate size, i.e. for rapidity limits around ±1.5. The whole set of distributions including the shoulder structure is reproduced by the Lund Parton Shower model. The structure is found to be due to important contributions from 3- and 4-jet events with a hard gluon jet. A different model, based on the concept of independently produced groups of particles, 'clans', fluctuating both in number per event and particle content per clan, has also been used to analyse the present data. The results show that for each interval of rapidity the average number of clans per event is approximately the same as at lower energies. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. Study of fast operating readout electronics and charge interpolation technique for micro cathode strip chambers (MCSC)

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A; Sagidova, Nailia

    1998-01-01

    Study of the factors limiting the spatial resolution of the MCSC caused by nonlinearity of the cathode-charge interpolation technique has been carried out using a special test arrangement that imitates the charge distribution on the cathode strips as a real MCSC and allows high precision comparison of the coordinates determined by the charge interpolation technique with the known values. We considered a MCSC with a 0.6 mm gap between the anode and the cathode strip planes and with the strip pitch of 0.9 mm. Various charge interpolation algorithms have been tested. It was demonstrated that the systematics errors in the coordinate measurements as low as 5 microns can be achieved, after applying some simple corrections, even with rather coarse sampling, when the coordinates is determined only by 2 or 3 adjacent strips. These results have been obtained with the readout electronics specially designed for fast operation of the MCSCs with the signal peaking time of 20 ns. The equivalent noise charge ss 1600e (r.m.s....

  13. STUDY OF STATIC ELECTRICITY CHARGE ACCUMULATION ON SURFACE OF FLUOROPOLYMER-4 PRODUCTS USING VIBRATING CAPACITOR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. А. Vershina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations of processes pertaining to surface charge accumulation and running of fluoropolymer-4 products using vibrating capacitor method. Modification of a measurement technique allowing to register distribution of dielectric surface potential without disturbance of the surface charged state has been described in the paper. The paper contains graphics of spatial distribution of surface potential of fluoropolymer-4 products after various treatments. The paper reveals that thermal treatment (tempering reduces static characteristics of fluoropolymer-4.

  14. Charge structure of K-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettgens, R.; Ransone, G.; Sixel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The charge transfer distribution, its average, dispersion and skewness are studied in K - p interactions at 110 GeV/c and lower energies. The ratio of dispersion squared to rapidity plateau height is found to be energy independent as suggested by the neutral cluster models. The short range charge correlations in rapidity are observed at all energies; at 110 GeV/c there is also evidence for a long range component. (author)

  15. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this paper shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Design of Magnetic Charged Particle Lens Using Analytical Potential Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batat, A. H.; Yaseen, M. J.; Abbas, S. R.; Al-Amshani, M. S.; Hasan, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the current research was to benefit from the potential of the two cylindrical electric lenses to be used in the product a mathematical model from which, one can determine the magnetic field distribution of the charged particle objective lens. With aid of simulink in matlab environment, some simulink models have been building to determine the distribution of the target function and their related axial functions along the optical axis of the charged particle lens. The present study showed that the physical parameters (i.e., the maximum value, Bmax, and the half width W of the field distribution) and the objective properties of the charged particle lens have been affected by varying the main geometrical parameter of the lens named the bore radius R.

  17. Formulation of charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in Au-Au collisions at the maximum RHIC energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu-Hu, Liu; Dong-Hai, Zhang; Mai-Ying, Duan

    2003-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collider experiment are analyzed by the thermalized two-cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of Au-Au collisions at the maximum RHIC energy (the energy in the center-of-mass reference frame is √s = 200 A GeV) which is the maximum energy in the present accelerator energy region. (authors)

  18. Electron holography study of the charging effect in microfibrils of sciatic nerve tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Akase, Zentaro; Shindo, Daisuke; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Terada, Nobuo; Ohno, Shinichi

    2013-08-01

    The charging effects of microfibrils of sciatic nerve tissues due to electron irradiation are investigated using electron holography. The phenomenon that the charging effects are enhanced with an increase of electron intensity is visualized through direct observations of the electric potential distribution around the specimen. The electric potential at the surface of the specimen could be quantitatively evaluated by simulation, which takes into account the reference wave modulation due to the long-range electric field.

  19. Magnetic charge and non-associative algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, M.; Zumino, B.

    1985-02-01

    We consider the possibility that the quantum mechanics of a nonrelativistic electron in the magnetic field of a magnetic charge distribution can be described in terms of a non-associative algebra of observables. It appears that the case of a point monopole is excluded, while that of a constant charge distribution is acceptable. 21 references

  20. KNO type scaling of secondary charged particles produced in 4.5 a GeV 12C-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushnood, H.; Singh, Prithipal; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Saleem Khan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Study of the secondary charged particles produced in heavy ion collisions is attracting a great deal of attention during the recent years. It is reported that the multiplicity distribution of secondary charged particles produced in high energy hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions Obey Koba, Nielson and Olesen (KNO) scaling. However, no attention has been paid to study the nature of the multiplicity distribution of secondary charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ions reactions. Thus, an attempt has been made to study the multiplicity distribution of secondary charged particles produced in 4.5 A GeV 12 C-nucleus interactions

  1. A study of charge state approach to the stopping power of MeV B, N, and O ions in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.; Timmers, H.; Dastoor, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    The charge state approach has been applied to treat the electronic stopping powers of swift O, N and B ions in carbon foil. According to the charge state model, the contributions to the electronic stopping power of energetic projectiles passing through solid targets are due to collisional interactions and from the charge exchange process. The definition of fractional effective charge from Brandt and Kitagawa has been combined into the current charge state model. Extensive applications of this approach require data of the equilibrium charge state distributions and knowledge of charge-exchange cross sections-involving electronic capture and loss processes. Both measured data and empirical calculations of the equilibrium charge state fraction are used in the study, and the electronic capture cross sections are obtained with the eikonal Brinkman-Kramers approximation (EBK). By comparing the numerical results with the latest experimental data as well as empirical values, it is shown that the present approach slightly overestimates the energy loss at the intermediate velocity region

  2. Charge exchange in slow collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.; Janev, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Single-electron charge exchange between ions having a charge Z>6 and atoms is considered at relative velocities v< Z/sup 1/2/. An analytic method is developed for the solution of a multilevel problem that is a generalization of the decay model and of the approximation of nonadiabatic coupling between two states. Expressions are obtained for the reaction-product distributions in the principal and angular quantum numbers. The calculated total cross sections agree well with the experimental data on charge exchange of hydrogen atoms and molecules with nuclei. The theory describes the oscillations of the total cross section against the background of a monotonic growth as the charge is increased

  3. Planar screening by charge polydisperse counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, M.; Trizac, E.; Šamaj, L.

    2018-01-01

    We study how a neutralising cloud of counterions screens the electric field of a uniformly charged planar membrane (plate), when the counterions are characterised by a distribution of charges (or valence), n(q) . We work out analytically the one-plate and two-plate cases, at the level of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The (essentially asymptotic) predictions are successfully compared to numerical solutions of the full Poisson-Boltzmann theory, but also to Monte Carlo simulations. The counterions with smallest valence control the long-distance features of interactions, and may qualitatively change the results pertaining to the classic monodisperse case where all counterions have the same charge. Emphasis is put on continuous distributions n(q) , for which new power-laws can be evidenced, be it for the ionic density or the pressure, in the one- and two-plates situations respectively. We show that for discrete distributions, more relevant for experiments, these scaling laws persist in an intermediate but yet observable range. Furthermore, it appears that from a practical point of view, hallmarks of the continuous n(q) behaviour are already featured by discrete mixtures with a relatively small number of constituents.

  4. Penetration of Hydrogen clusters from 10 to 120 kev/u in carbon foils. Study of their slowing-down and charge distribution of emerging fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, E.M.

    1991-06-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental study of the interaction between fast (10 to 120 keV/p) hydrogen clusters with thin solid targets. First, we have studied the slowing-down of H n + (2≤n≤21) clusters through carbon foils. Up to date this had been made only with molecular ions. We obtain evidence for vicinage effects on the energy loss of proton-clusters. We show that for projectile energies larger than 50 keV/p, the energy loss of a proton in a cluster is enhanced when compared to that of an isolated proton of the same velocity. At lower incident energies, it is a decrease of the energy loss which is observed. The same effect is also observed in the energy lost in the entrance window of a surface barrier detector bombarded by clusters. This phenomenon is interpreted in terms of interferences between individual polarisation wakes induced by each proton of the cluster. In the second part, we propose an accurate method to study the charge state of the atomic fragments resulting from the dissociation of fast H n + (2≤n≤15) clusters through a carbon foil. This method gives also the distribution of the neutral atoms among the emerging fragments. These distributions are finally compared with binomial laws expected from independent particles

  5. Charge-state correlated cross sections for the production of low-velocity highly charged Ne ions by heavy-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.J.; Cocke, C.L.; Justiniano, E.

    1980-01-01

    We report measured cross sections for the collisional production of highly charged low-velocity Ne recoil ions resulting from the bombardment of a thin Ne gas target by highly charged 1-MeV/amu C, N, O, and F projectiles. The measurements were made using time-of-flight techniques which allowed the simultaneous identification of the final charge state of both the low-velocity recoil ion and the high-velocity projectile for each collision event. For a given incident-projectile charge state, the recoil charge-state distribution is very dependent upon the final charge state of the projectile. Single- and double-electron capture events by incident bare nuclei and projectile K-shell ionization during the collision cause large shifts in the recoil charge-state distributions toward higher charge states. A previously proposed energy-deposition model is modified to include the effects of projectile charge-changing collisions during the collision for bare and hydrogenlike projectiles and is used to discuss the present experimental results

  6. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...

  7. Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Ehab; Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Das, Debasish; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanuel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Ramni; Gupta, Anik; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Han, Byounghee; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Pier Giorgio; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kaidalov, Alexei; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Kamal Hussain; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Mimae; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kompaniets, Mikhail; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kvaerno, Henning; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Ke; Ma, Rongrong; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Mangotra, Lalit Kumar; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mizuno, Sanshiro; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pocheptsov, Timur; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polak, Karel; Polichtchouk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schuster, Tim; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Rohni; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Tlusty, David; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Toscano, Luca; Trubnikov, Victor; Truesdale, David Christopher; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Yury; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Alexander; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Shiming; Yang, Ping; Yang, Hongyan; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-11-04

    We present the first wide-range measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density distribution, for different centralities (the 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, and 20-30% most central events) in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed using the full coverage of the ALICE detectors, -5.0 < $\\eta$ < 5.5, and employing a special analysis technique based on collisions arising from LHC ' satellite' bunches. We present the pseudorapidity density as a function of the number of participating nucleons as well as an extrapolation to the total number of produced charged particles ($N_{ch}$ = 17165 +/- 772 for the 0-5% most central collisions). From the measured d$N_{ch}$/d$\\eta$ distribution we derive the rapidity density distribution, d$N_{ch}$/dy, under simple assumptions. The rapidity density distribution is found to be significantly wider than the predictions of the Landau model, which reproduce data well at RHIC energies. We assess the validity of longitudinal sca...

  8. Optimal placement, sizing, and daily charge/discharge of battery energy storage in low voltage distribution network with high photovoltaic penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jannesar, Mohammad Rasol; Sedighi, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    when photovoltaic penetration is increased in low voltage distribution network. Local battery energy storage system can mitigate these disadvantages and as a result, improve the system operation. For this purpose, battery energy storage system is charged when production of photovoltaic is more than...... consumers’ demands and discharged when consumers’ demands are increased. Since the price of battery energy storage system is high, economic, environmental, and technical objectives should be considered together for its placement and sizing. In this paper, optimal placement, sizing, and daily (24 h) charge......Proper installation of rooftop photovoltaic generation in distribution networks can improve voltage profile, reduce energy losses, and enhance the reliability. But, on the other hand, some problems regarding harmonic distortion, voltage magnitude, reverse power flow, and energy losses can arise...

  9. Measurement of the spatial specific impulse distribution due to buried high explosive charge detonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Denefeld

    2017-06-01

    The momentum transfer to a vehicle depends on a number of influencing factors such as: charge mass, embedding material (e.g. sand, gravel, clay, density, water content, saturation, depth of burial, ground clearance and vehicle shape. The presented technology is applied to quantify the influence of the embedding material (alluvial sand, quartz sand, the burial depth and the water content on the local specific impulse distribution. The obtained data can be used as initial condition for the numerical simulation of occupant safety assessment and as input for empirical modeling of momentum transfer on structures.

  10. Study on charge transfer reaction of several organic molecules with accelerated rare gas ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahasi, Makoto; Okuda, Sachiko; Arai, Eiichi; Ichinose, Akira; Takakubo, Masaaki.

    1984-01-01

    Observing the charge transfer mass spectra of ethylbenzene, cyclobutane and methanol in Ar and Xe ion impacts, we investigated the dependence of the secondary ion peak intensities (normalized to primary ion current and target pressure) on the translational energy of primary ions (0-3500 eV).In the case of ethylbenzene, several maxima of the secondary i on peak intensities were observed in Ar and Xe ion impacts. The correlation between the maxima and the primary ion energy was examined in terms of near adiabatic theory of Massey. Supplementary studies on the energy distribution of primary ion, charge transfer cross section between methanol and Xe ion, and final product analysis in rare gas ion irradiation on cyclobutane were described. (author)

  11. Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Motoaki; Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of monodisperse ultrafine particles of 4 - 100 nm in diameter has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The particles were charged by unipolar and bipolar ions generated by α-ray irradiation and the charge distribution of particles was directly observed in the electric field after the growth of them by condensation of di-butyl phthalate vapor. In both cases of unipolar and bipolar charging, the experimental results have been found in good agreement with the solution of basic equations where Fuchs' formula is used as the combination probability of an ion with a particle. (author)

  12. Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta potential of spherical electric double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli

    2012-07-21

    We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta potentials of electric double layers.

  13. $\\beta$- decay of $^{58}$Zn. A critical test for the charge-exchange reaction as a probe for the $\\beta$- decay strength distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS353 \\\\ \\\\ Due to its importance in fundamental physics and astrophysics, a great effort both theoretically and experimentally is devoted to study Gamow Teller (GT)-strength. The GT-strength and its distribution play a key role in late stellar evolution. During the pre-supernova core-collapse of massive stars, the electron capture and nuclear $\\beta$ -decay determine the electron-to-baryon ratio, which influences the infall dynamics and the mass of the final core. The cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction at forward angles with energies above 100~MeV is expected to be proportional to the squares of Fermi and GT matrix elements. This proportionality should provide a Q-value free method to probe the weak interaction strength and renormalization effects in nuclei. Thus charge-exchange reactions are often used to determine the experimental GT-strength. However, the connection between the GT-strength and the cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction is partially model-dependent and the question aris...

  14. Mechanism of the free charge carrier generation in the dielectric breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, N. A. A.; Ranom, R.; Zainuddin, H.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of environmental, mechanical and electrical stresses on insulator. However, studies on physical process of discharge phenomenon, leading to the breakdown of the insulator surface are lacking and difficult to comprehend. Therefore, this paper analysed charge carrier generation mechanism that can cause free charge carrier generation, leading toward surface discharge development. Besides, this paper developed a model of surface discharge based on the charge generation mechanism on the outdoor insulator. Nernst’s Planck theory was used in order to model the behaviour of the charge carriers while Poisson’s equation was used to determine the distribution of electric field on insulator surface. In the modelling of surface discharge on the outdoor insulator, electric field dependent molecular ionization was used as the charge generation mechanism. A mathematical model of the surface discharge was solved using method of line technique (MOL). The result from the mathematical model showed that the behaviour of net space charge density was correlated with the electric field distribution.

  15. Experimental Study of Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, Richard H.; Mian, Abbas M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the charging mechanisms of micron size dust grains are presented. Individual dust grains are electrodynamically suspended and exposed to an electron beam of known energy and flux, and to far ultraviolet radiation of known wavelength and intensity. Changes in the charge-to-mass ratio of the grain are directly measured as a function of incident beam (electron and/or photon), grain size and composition. Comparisons of our results to theoretical models that predict the grain response are presented.

  16. Charged Hadron Multiplicity Distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews facts and problems concerning charge hadron production in high energy collisions. Main emphasis is laid on the qualitative and quantitative description of general characteristics and properties observed for charged hadrons produced in such high energy collisions. Various features of available experimental data, for example, the variations of charged hadron multiplicity and pseudorapidity density with the mass number of colliding nuclei, center-of-mass energies, and the collision centrality obtained from heavy-ion collider experiments, are interpreted in the context of various theoretical concepts and their implications. Finally, several important scaling features observed in the measurements mainly at RHIC and LHC experiments are highlighted in the view of these models to draw some insight regarding the particle production mechanism in heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Azimuthal angle dependence of the charge imbalance from charge conservation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    BoŻek, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    The experimental search for the chiral magnetic effect in heavy-ion collisions is based on charge-dependent correlations between emitted particles. Recently, a sensitive observable comparing event-by-event distributions of the charge splitting projected on the directions along and perpendicular to the direction of the elliptic flow has been proposed. The results of a (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model show that the preliminary experimental data of the STAR Collaboration can be explained as due to background effects, such as resonance decays and local charge conservation in the particle production. A related observable based on the third-order harmonic flow is proposed to further investigate such background effects in charge-dependent correlations.

  18. Inclusive charged and neutral pion photoproduction at 20 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman O'Dell, V.

    1987-05-01

    The inclusive charged and neutral pion distributions from the interactions of 20 GeV photons on protons have been measured. The assumptions and analysis done to obtain these distributions are described, and the pion distributions are found to agree with general predictions of the quark-parton model. The quark-quark fusion model and the recombination model were compared to the inclusive pion distributions assuming the photon could be approximated by a superposition of rho and omega vector meson states - an assumption prompted by the Vector Meson Dominance Model of photon structure. Quark models applied to the difference in the charged pion cross sections are examined. The inclusive charge structure of the photoproduced charged pions and that of electroproduced and hadroproduced charged pions were compared

  19. Asymmetry of mass and charge division in spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, P.P.; Iyer, M.R.; Ganguly, A.K.

    The order-disorder model (ODM) has been used to explain asymmetry of mass and charge division and related phenomena in fission. According to this model the fission process involves two steps consisting of charge polarisation into two impending fragments with beta stable neutron numbers and subsequent distribution of the balance neutrons between the two. The statistics developed on the principle of equal a priori probability of all charge polarisation is used. The shell effects comes into play only in deciding stable neutron number for the charges. The total isotopic yield distribution for a number of fission reactions are presented. These show asymmetry in the actinide region which reduces with increasing mass/charge of the fissioning nuclide and bunching of the higher z peaks. The mass yields obtained therefrom for a number of fission reactions are compared with experimental results. Though there is general agreement with experimental data, the peaks of the distributions are slightly shifted away from the symmetric point and the distributions are somewhat narrower. Charge distribution parameters obtained from these results are also presented. The model predicts preference of asymmetric division for super heavy nuclides. (author)

  20. Application of activation technique for mass and nuclear charge distributions studies of 3 Mev and 14 Mev neutrons induced 238-U(n,f) and 232-Th(n,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embarch, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fission product cumulative and independent yields were determined for 238-U(n,f) and 232-Th(n,f) reactions with essentially monoenergetic neutrons of 3 and 14 Mev. Fission product activities were measured by Ge(Li)γ-ray spectrometry of irradiated 238-U and 232-Th foils. These experiments allowed us to measure a great number of cumulative yields and to obtain the fission product mass distributions corresponding to the studied reactions mentioned above. The mass distributions were completely interpreted by nucleon shell effects and proton even-odd effects. The independent yield measurements are sometimes not possible using the activation technique because of the fission fragment decay data. The values which can not be measured were determined using the measured mass yields and a prediction systematic of fractional independent yield. The results allowed us to obtain the nuclear charge distributions and to estimate proton even-odd effect corresponding values. This effect decreases when the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus increases, this shows the importance of this parameter in the viscosity study of the nuclear matter. In conclusion, the shell effects observed in the mass distributions show that the static aspect of the fission mechanism plays a great role during the fission process, and observed proton even-odd effects act for a weak nuclear viscosity. 54 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs

  1. Design of asymmetric particles containing a charged interior and a neutral surface charge: comparative study on in vivo circulation of polyelectrolyte microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Jing; Luft, J Christopher; Tian, Shaomin; Raval, Jay S; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-07-16

    Lowering the modulus of hydrogel particles could enable them to bypass in vivo physical barriers that would otherwise filter particles with similar size but higher modulus. Incorporation of electrolyte moieties into the polymer network of hydrogel particles to increase the swelling ratio is a straightforward and quite efficient way to decrease the modulus. In addition, charged groups in hydrogel particles can also help secure cargoes. However, the distribution of charged groups on the surface of a particle can accelerate the clearance of particles. Herein, we developed a method to synthesize highly swollen microgels of precise size with near-neutral surface charge while retaining interior charged groups. A strategy was employed to enable a particle to be highly cross-linked with very small mesh size, and subsequently PEGylated to quench the exterior amines only without affecting the internal amines. Acidic degradation of the cross-linker allows for swelling of the particles to microgels with a desired size and deformability. The microgels fabricated demonstrated extended circulation in vivo compared to their counterparts with a charged surface, and could potentially be utilized in in vivo applications including as oxygen carriers or nucleic acid scavengers.

  2. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  3. Random distribution of background charge density for numerical simulation of discharge inception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, F.; Loiseau, J.F.; Spyrou, N.

    1998-01-01

    The models of electric streamers based on a uniform background density of electrons may appear not to be physical, as the number of electrons in the small active region located in the vicinity of the electrode tip under regular conditions can be less than one. To avoid this, the electron background is modelled by a random density distribution such that, after a certain time lag, at least one electron is present in the grid close to the point electrode. The modelling performed shows that the streamer inception is not very sensitive to the initial location of the charged particles; the ionizing front, however, may be delayed by several tens of nanoseconds, depending on the way the electron has to drift before reaching the anode. (J.U.)

  4. Study of space--charge effect by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The space--charge effect in high density electron beams (beam current approx.2 μA) focused by a uniform magnetic field is studied computationally. On an approximation of averaged space-- charge force, a theory of trajectory displacements of beam electrons is developed. The theory shows that the effect of the averaged space--charge force appears as a focal length stretch. The theory is confirmed not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by simulations. Empirical formulas for the trajectory displacement and the energy spread are presented. A comparison between the empirical formulas and some theoretical formulas is made, leading to a severe criticism on the theories of energy spreads

  5. Spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the exotic Newcastle outbreak in 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberano, Gustavo; Carpenter, A Tim E; Cardona, Carol; Charlton, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    After the 1971-1973 outbreak of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in California, a free-of-charge diagnostic submission program was created for backyard poultry flocks. This program was implemented to improve disease surveillance in small poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the END outbreak in 2002-2003. Cases and controls were selected from within a 100-mile (161-km) radius of each of three laboratories, and their geographic distributions were evaluated. Global clustering of cases was significant around all three laboratories, with mixed results at the local clustering level and the only significant clustering at the focal level around the Davis laboratory with an observed to expected ratio of approximately 5. The area of influence for all three laboratories was about 20 miles (32 km). The significant clustering of cases around the laboratories indicates that more public information about the free-of-charge program could result in coverage of a larger portion of the population; however, the value of the information resulting from increased sampling should be considered relative to the additional cost of obtaining it.

  6. Investigation of space charge distribution of low-density polyethylene/GO-GNF (graphene oxide from graphite nanofiber) nanocomposite for HVDC application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jin; Ha, Son-Tung; Lee, Gun Joo; Nam, Jin Ho; Ryu, Ik Hyun; Nam, Su Hyun; Park, Cheol Min; In, Insik; Kim, Jiwan; Han, Chul Jong

    2013-05-01

    This paper reported a research on space charge distribution in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with different types of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) at low filler content (0.05 wt%) under high DC electric field. Effect of addition of graphene oxide or graphene, its dispersion in LDPE polymer matrix on the ability to suppress space charge generation will be investigated and compared with MgO/LDPE nanocomposite at the same filler concentration. At an applied electric field of 80 kV/mm, a positive packet-like charge was observed in both neat LDPE, MgO/LDPE, and graphene/LDPE nanocomposites, whereas only little homogenous space charge was observed in GO/LDPE nanocomposites, especially with GO synthesized from graphite nano fiber (GNF) which is only -100 nm in diameter. Our research also suggests that dispersion of graphene oxide particles on the polymer matrix plays a significant role to the performance of nanocomposites on suppressing packet-like space charge. From these results, it is expected that nano-sized GO synthesized from GNF can be a promising filler material to LDPE composite for HVDC applications.

  7. Measurement of Inclusive Momentum Spectra and Multiplicity Distributions of Charged Particles at {radical}s {approx} 2-5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoodie, William

    2003-08-06

    Inclusive momentum spectra and multiplicity distributions of charged particles measured with the BESII detector at center of mass energies of 2.2, 2.6, 3.0, 3.2, 4.6 and 4.8 GeV are presented. Values of the second binomial moment, R{sub 2}, obtained from the multiplicity distributions are reported. These results are compared with both experimental data from high energy e{sup +}e{sup -}, ep and p{bar p} experiments and QCD calculations.

  8. Technique for measuring charged particle distribution in a pulsed beam. Sposob izmereniya raspredeleniya zaryazhennykh chastits v impul'snom puchke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakutin, V V; Shenderovich, A M

    1988-11-07

    Technique for measuring charged particle distribution in a pulsed beam by producing beam imprint on a target is described. In order to measure beam particle distribution in longitudinal direction, all beam particles are deflected simultaneously to the target, located in parallel with initial direction of beam motion, by transverse pulse magnetic field, homogeneous in the field of trajectories of beam particle motion in the field. The invention enables to conduct measurements of longitudinal distribution of particle density in beams of 10{sup -9}-10{sup -11}s duration, this corresponds to longitudinal beam dimensions from 30 cm down to 3 mm. 1 fig.

  9. Introducing Membrane Charge and Membrane Potential to T Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While membrane models now include the heterogeneous distribution of lipids, the impact of membrane charges on regulating the association of proteins with the plasma membrane is often overlooked. Charged lipids are asymmetrically distributed between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane, resulting in the inner leaflet being negatively charged and a surface potential that attracts and binds positively charged ions, proteins, and peptide motifs. These interactions not only create a transmembrane potential but they can also facilitate the formation of charged membrane domains. Here, we reference fields outside of immunology in which consequences of membrane charge are better characterized to highlight important mechanisms. We then focus on T cell receptor (TCR signaling, reviewing the evidence that membrane charges and membrane-associated calcium regulate phosphorylation of the TCR–CD3 complex and discuss how the immunological synapse exhibits distinct patterns of membrane charge distribution. We propose that charged lipids, ions in solution, and transient protein interactions form a dynamic equilibrium during T cell activation.

  10. Discrete element simulation of charging and mixed layer formation in the ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Saxén, Henrik

    2016-11-01

    The burden distribution in the ironmaking blast furnace plays an important role for the operation as it affects the gas flow distribution, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions in the shaft. This work studies certain aspects of burden distribution by small-scale experiments and numerical simulation by the discrete element method (DEM). Particular attention is focused on the complex layer-formation process and the problems associated with estimating the burden layer distribution by burden profile measurements. The formation of mixed layers is studied, and a computational method for estimating the extent of the mixed layer, as well as its voidage, is proposed and applied on the results of the DEM simulations. In studying a charging program and its resulting burden distribution, the mixed layers of coke and pellets were found to show lower voidage than the individual burden layers. The dynamic evolution of the mixed layer during the charging process is also analyzed. The results of the study can be used to gain deeper insight into the complex charging process of the blast furnace, which is useful in the design of new charging programs and for mathematical models that do not consider the full behavior of the particles in the burden layers.

  11. Droplet-model predictions of charge moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions

  12. A new technique for the study of charge transfer in multiply charged ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpaugh, J.L.; Meyer, F.W.; Datz, S.

    1994-01-01

    While large cross sections (>10 -16 cm 2 ) have been predicted for resonant charge transfer in ion-ion collisions, no experimental data exist for multiply charged systems. A novel technique is being developed at the ORNL ECR facility to allow study of symmetric charge exchange in multiply charged ion-ion collisions using a single ion source. Specific intra-beam charge transfer collisions occurring in a well-defined interaction region labeled by negative high voltage are identified and analyzed by electrostatic analysis in combination with ion time-of-flight coincidence detection of the collision products. Center-of-mass collision energies from 400 to 1000 eV are obtained by varying source and labeling-cell voltages. In addition, by the introduction of a target gas into the high-voltage cell, this labeling-voltage method allows measurement of electron-capture and -loss cross sections for ion-atom collisions. Consequently, higher collision energies can be investigated without the requirement of placing the ECR source on a high-voltage platform

  13. Experimental study of ion stopping power in warm dense matter: charge-state distribution measurements of ions leaving warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-01

    The determination if the ion slowing down process (or stopping power) in warm dense matter is essential especially in the frame of inertial confinement fusion. During my thesis, our interest was driven by the modification of the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter, this quantity playing a major role in ion stopping power calculation. We took advantage of the properties exhibited by ion beams produced by high intensity short pulse lasers to study during two experiments performed at ELFIE and TITAN facilities, the charge state modification of a carbon and helium ion beams emerging from an aluminum foil isochorically heated by an energetic proton beam. In the first two chapters are presented the major challenges regarding the subject from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. Here are exposed the different simulation tools used during the thesis. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the property of laser-produced ion beams in the scope of our experiments aiming at studying the stopping power. We have studied in particular ion beams generated using lower-than-solid density targets during two experiments: helium gas jet and laser-exploded target. In the last chapter are presented the set-ups and results of the two experiments on the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter. The data we measured in solid-density cold aluminum are successfully compared with the results already obtained in conventional accelerators. (author) [fr

  14. A data driven method to measure electron charge mis-identification rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhshiansohi, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    Electron charge mis-measurement is an important challenge in analyses which depend on the charge of electron. To estimate the probability of {\\it electron charge mis-measurement} a data driven method is introduced and a good agreement with MC based methods is achieved.\\\\ The third moment of $\\phi$ distribution of hits in electron SuperCluster is studied. The correlation between this variable and the electron charge is also investigated. Using this `new' variable and some other variables the electron charge measurement is improved by two different approaches.

  15. Simulation study of charged nanoparticles confined in a rectangular tube with discrete wall charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet, Pak K

    2006-03-28

    The development of novel nanomaterials has been a subject of intense interest in recent years. An interesting structure among these materials is the so-called "pea pods" (i.e., nanoparticles confined in nanotubes). To facilitate the development and commercialization of these materials, it is important that we have an in-depth understanding of their behavior. The study of confined charged particles is particularly challenging because of the long-ranged nature of electrostatic interaction, and both interparticle and particle-confinement interactions are likely to play a role in determining the system behavior. The primary objective of this study is to develop a better understanding of the behavior of charged nanoparticles in a charged tubular confinement using Monte Carlo simulation, with particular focus on the effect of electrostatic interactions on the structure of the particles. Simulation results have shown that (i) the structuring of confined particles is associated with the asymmetry of the long-ranged interaction and (ii) factors such as confinement geometry and particle charge and size asymmetry can be manipulated to produce different particle structures. The present study represents the first step in an attempt to gain further insight into the behavior of confined nanosystems, with the ultimate objective of exploiting these characteristics, particularly the interactions between the confined particles and their external environment, in developing novel nanomaterials.

  16. Structural Arrangement of Water Molecules around Highly Charged Nanoparticles: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunae; Yeom, Min Sun

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to understand the structural arrangement of water molecules around highly charged nanoparticles under aqueous conditions. The effect of two highly charged nanoparticles on the solvation charge asymmetry has been examined. We calculated the radial distribution functions of the components of water molecules around nanoparticles which have four charge types at two different salt concentrations. Even though the distributions of water molecules surrounding a sodium ion and a chloride ion are hardly affected by the charges of nanoparticles and the salt concentrations, those around highly charged nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the charges of nanoparticles, but hardly by the charges of nanoparticles and salt concentrations. We find that the distributions of hydrogen atoms in water molecules around one highly charged nanoparticle are dependent on the magnitude of the nanoparticle charge

  17. Mass and Charge Measurements on Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between mass and charge has been a crucial topic in mass spectrometry (MS) because the mass itself is typically evaluated based on the m/z ratio. Despite the fact that this measurement is indirect, a precise mass can be obtained from the m/z value with a high m/z resolution up to 105 for samples in the low mass and low charge region under 10,000 Da and 20 e, respectively. However, the target of MS has recently been expanded to the very heavy region of Mega or Giga Da, which includes large particles and biocomplexes, with very large and widely distributed charge from kilo to Mega range. In this region, it is necessary to evaluate charge and mass simultaneously. Recent studies for simultaneous mass and charge observation and related phenomena are discussed in this review. PMID:29302406

  18. The charging security study of electric vehicle charging spot based on automatic testing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulan; Yang, Zhangli; Zhu, Bin; Ran, Shengyi

    2018-03-01

    With the increasing of charging spots, the testing of charging security and interoperability becomes more and more urgent and important. In this paper, an interface simulator for ac charging test is designed, the automatic testing platform for electric vehicle charging spots is set up and used to test and analyze the abnormal state during the charging process. On the platform, the charging security and interoperability of ac charging spots and IC-CPD can be checked efficiently, the test report can be generated automatically with No artificial reading error. From the test results, the main reason why the charging spot is not qualified is that the power supply cannot be cut off in the prescribed time when the charging anomaly occurs.

  19. The charge imbalance in ultracold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua; Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold plasmas are regarded as quasineutral but not strictly neutral. The results of charge imbalance in the expansion of ultracold plasmas are reported. The calculations are performed by a full molecular-dynamics simulation. The details of the electron velocity distributions are calculated without the assumption of electron global thermal equilibrium and Boltzmann distribution. Spontaneous evolutions of the charge imbalance from the initial states with perfect neutrality are given in the simulations. The expansion of outer plasma slows down with the charge imbalance. The influences of plasma size and parameters on the charge imbalance are discussed. The radial profiles of electron temperature are given for the first time, and the self-similar expansion can still occur even if there is no global thermal equilibrium. The electron disorder induced heating is also found in the simulation.

  20. The charge imbalance in ultracold plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua, E-mail: lurh@siom.ac.cn; Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics and Center for Cold Atom Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Ultracold plasmas are regarded as quasineutral but not strictly neutral. The results of charge imbalance in the expansion of ultracold plasmas are reported. The calculations are performed by a full molecular-dynamics simulation. The details of the electron velocity distributions are calculated without the assumption of electron global thermal equilibrium and Boltzmann distribution. Spontaneous evolutions of the charge imbalance from the initial states with perfect neutrality are given in the simulations. The expansion of outer plasma slows down with the charge imbalance. The influences of plasma size and parameters on the charge imbalance are discussed. The radial profiles of electron temperature are given for the first time, and the self-similar expansion can still occur even if there is no global thermal equilibrium. The electron disorder induced heating is also found in the simulation.

  1. Technique of studying the interaction of charges of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefremov, E.I.; Kravtsov, V.S.; Myachina, N.I.; Rodak, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for studying the interaction of explosive charges which includes recording of the velocity of detonation of the studied charges, measurement of mechanical stresses developing in this case in the medium and determination of granulometric composition of the model with simultaneous and diverse initiation.

  2. Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino-lead interactions in the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakirianova, I. [INR - Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Tioukov, V.; Voevodina, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU - Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Mizutani, F.; Ozaki, K.; Shibayama, E.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kyushu University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Pupilli, F.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bodnarchuk, I.; Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Sotnikov, A.; Vasina, S. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno (Italy); ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Laudisio, F.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Chernyavskiy, M.; Gorbunov, S.; Okateva, N.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Paparella, L.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H. [LAPP, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Fini, R.A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fornari, F.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Gentile, V. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Guler, A.M.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gustavino, C.; Loverre, P.; Monacelli, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Jakovcic, K.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kamiscioglu, C. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Kim, S.H.; Park, B.D.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Klicek, B.; Stipcevic, M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Polukhina, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physical Institute Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terranova, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the direct observation of tau neutrinos in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper, we report a study of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in charged-current neutrino interactions in lead. We present charged hadron average multiplicities, their dispersion and investigate the KNO scaling in different kinematical regions. The results are presented in detail in the form of tables that can be used in the validation of Monte Carlo generators of neutrino-lead interactions. (orig.)

  3. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet (∼45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to other

  4. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  5. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at super proton synchrotron energies from the NA50 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Idzik, M; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; MacCormick, M; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2003-01-01

    We present the measurements of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions dN/sub ch//d eta performed by the NA50 experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Measurements were done at incident energies of 40 GeV ( square root s = 8.77 GeV) and 158 GeV ( square root s = 17.3 GeV) per nucleon over a broad impact parameter range. The multiplicity distributions are studied as a function of centrality using the number of participating nucleons (N/sub part/), or the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (N/sub coll/). Their values at midrapidity exhibit a linear scaling with N/sub part/ at both energies. Particle yield increases approximately by a factor of 2 between square root s = 8.77 GeV and square root s = 17.3 GeV. (5 refs).

  6. Experimental validation of calculated atomic charges in ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Richard M.; Matthews, Richard P.; Ashworth, Claire R.; Brandt-Talbot, Agnieszka; Palgrave, Robert G.; Bourne, Richard A.; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A.; Lovelock, Kevin R. J.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to provide an experimental measure of nitrogen atomic charges in nine ionic liquids (ILs). These experimental results are used to validate charges calculated with three computational methods: charges from electrostatic potentials using a grid-based method (ChelpG), natural bond orbital population analysis, and the atoms in molecules approach. By combining these results with those from a previous study on sulfur, we find that ChelpG charges provide the best description of the charge distribution in ILs. However, we find that ChelpG charges can lead to significant conformational dependence and therefore advise that small differences in ChelpG charges (<0.3 e) should be interpreted with care. We use these validated charges to provide physical insight into nitrogen atomic charges for the ILs probed.

  7. Charge diffusion in CCD X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, George G.; Nousek, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Critical to the detection of X-rays by CCDs, is the detailed process of charge diffusion and drift within the device. We reexamine the prescriptions currently used in the modeling of X-ray CCD detectors to provide analytic expressions for the charge distribution over the CCD pixels which are suitable for use in numerical simulations of CCD response. Our treatment results in models which predict charge distributions which are more centrally peaked and have flatter wings than the Gaussian shapes predicted by previous work and adopted in current CCD modeling codes

  8. Stochastic-hydrodynamic model of halo formation in charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cufaro Petroni

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the beam halo in charged particle accelerators is studied in the framework of a stochastic-hydrodynamic model for the collective motion of the particle beam. In such a stochastic-hydrodynamic theory the density and the phase of the charged beam obey a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations with explicit time-reversal invariance. This leads to a linearized theory that describes the collective dynamics of the beam in terms of a classical Schrödinger equation. Taking into account space-charge effects, we derive a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. These equations define a collective dynamics of self-interacting systems much in the same spirit as in the Gross-Pitaevskii and Landau-Ginzburg theories of the collective dynamics for interacting quantum many-body systems. Self-consistent solutions of the dynamical equations lead to quasistationary beam configurations with enhanced transverse dispersion and transverse emittance growth. In the limit of a frozen space-charge core it is then possible to determine and study the properties of stationary, stable core-plus-halo beam distributions. In this scheme the possible reproduction of the halo after its elimination is a consequence of the stationarity of the transverse distribution which plays the role of an attractor for every other distribution.

  9. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  10. A Study of Correlations Between Identified Charged Hadrons in Hadronic Z0 Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, Phil

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a preliminary study of correlations in rapidity between pairs of identified charged pions, kaons and protons using the entire SLD data sample of 550,000 hadronic Z 0 decays. Short range charge correlations are observed between all combinations of these hadron species, indicating local conservation of quantum numbers and charge ordering in the jet fragmentation process. The rapidity range of this effect is found to be independent of particle momentum. A strong long-range K + -K - correlation is observed at high-momentum and weaker long-range pi + -pi - , pi + -K - p-K - and p anti-p correlations are observed in light flavor events, providing new information on leading particle production in u, d and s jets. The long-range correlations observed in c anti-c and b anti-b events are markedly different and consistent with expectations based on known decay properties of the leading heavy hadrons. In addition, the SLC electron beam polarization is used to tag the quark hemisphere in each event, allowing the first study of rapidities signed such that positive rapidity is along the quark rather than antiquark direction. Distributions of ordered differences in signed rapidity between pairs of particles provide a direct probe of quantum number ordering along the quark-antiquark axis and other new insights into the fragmentation process

  11. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Due to higher power quality, lower conversion loss, and more DC loads, there has been an increasing awareness on DC microgrid. Previous emphasis has been on equal power sharing among different units in the DC microgrid, while overlooking the coordinati