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Sample records for charge collection efficiency

  1. Charge collection efficiency studies with irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Casse, G; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Turner, P R

    2003-01-01

    Small area (1x1 cm sup 2) microstrip detectors, made with a p sup + -n diode structure on FZ silicon substrates, both with and without oxygen enrichment, have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons to fluences of 1.9, 2.9 and 5.1x10 sup 1 sup 4 p/cm sup 2. Their charge collection properties have been studied using a sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Ru beta-source with a wide bandwidth current amplifier and compared with those for a non-irradiated device. The integrated charge collected at different times (10, 25, 40 and 80 ns) has been used to estimate the effect of ballistic deficit. Predictions for the reduction in charge collection efficiency expected at fluences as high as 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2 are presented using a parameterization described in earlier work which also fits this data well.

  2. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  3. Charge collection efficiency of standard and oxygenated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavitski, I; Bisello, D; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Kaminski, A; Wyss, J

    2002-01-01

    Two silicon microstrip detectors, one fabricated from a standard and the second from a highly oxygenated substrate, were non-uniformly irradiated by 24 GeV protons to fluences ranging between 2.3 and 6.3 * 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/. Charge collection efficiency measurements, performed by pulsing the detectors with a 1060 mu m wavelength laser, show that the beneficial effect of the oxygenation remains, although reduced with respect to that observed by C-V measurements on diodes fabricated with the detectors. (10 refs).

  4. Improving Charge-Collection Efficiency of Kyoto's SOI Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Ito, Makoto; Ohmura, Syunichi; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takenaka, Ryota; Kohmura, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing X-ray SOIPIXs for next-generation satellites for X-ray astronomy. Their high time resolution ($\\sim10~\\mu$s) and event-trigger-output function enable us to read out without pile-ups and to use anti-coincidence systems. Their performance in imaging spectroscopy is comparable to that in the CCDs. A problem in our previous model was degradation of charge-collection efficiency (CCE) at pixel borders. We measured the response in the sub-pixel scale, using finely collimated X-ray beams at $10~\\mu$m\\Phi$ at SPring-8, and investigated the non-uniformity of the CCE within a pixel. We found that the X-ray detection efficiency and CCE degrade in the sensor region under the pixel circuitry placed outside the buried p-wells (BPW). A 2D simulation of the electric fields shows that the isolated pixel-circuitry outside the BPW creates local minimums in the electric potentials at the interface between the sensor and buried oxide layers. Thus, a part of signal charge is trapped there and is not collecte...

  5. Charge collection efficiency mapping of interdigitated 4H-SiC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Vittone, E; Pastuovic, Z; Olivero, P; Jaksic, M

    2016-01-01

    The Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBIC) technique was used to map the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of a 4H-SiC photodetector with coplanar interdigitated Schottky barrier electrodes and a common ohmic contact on the back side. IBIC maps were obtained using focused proton beams with energies of 0.9 MeV and 1.5 MeV, at different bias voltages and different sensitive electrode configurations (charge collection at the top Schottky or at the back Ohmic contact). These different experimental conditions have been modeled using a two dimensional finite element code to solve the adjoint carrier continuity equations and the results obtained have been compared with experimental results. The excellent consistency between the simulated and experimental CCE maps allows an exhaustive interpretation of the charge collection mechanisms occurring in pixellated or strip detectors.

  6. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  7. A 3-dimensional interdigitated electrode geometry for the enhancement of charge collection efficiency in diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, J; Olivero, P; Picollo, F; Re, A; Marinelli, M; Pompili, F; Verona, C; Rinati, G Verona; Benetti, M; Cannata, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a single crystal CVD diamond film with a novel three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated electrode geometry has been fabricated with the Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) technique in order to increase the charge collection efficiency (CCE) with respect to that obtained by standard superficial electrodes. The geometrical arrangement of the electric field lines due to the 3D patterning of the electrodes results in a shorter travel path for the excess charge carriers, thus contributing to a more efficient charge collection mech-anism. The CCE of the device was mapped by means of the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique. A 1 MeV proton micro-beam was raster scanned over the active area of the diamond detector under different bias voltage conditions, enabling to probe the charge transport properties of the detector up to a depth of 8 {\\mu}m below the sample surface. The experimental results, supported by the numerical simulations, show a significant improvement in the 3D-detector performance (i.e. CCE, ene...

  8. Charge collection efficiency and space charge formation in CdTe gamma and X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, R.; Weidner, M.

    1998-02-01

    A new extended model for the charge collection efficiency in CdTe gamma and X ray detectors is presented which allows to derive from apparent experimental gamma spectra of a quasi-monochromatic source, an 241Am source in the present case, not only the μρ products of electrons and holes individually but also the sign, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of the net space charge accumulated in the detector. Resistive CdTe and CdZnTe as well as CdTe Schottky detectors are studied. While the resistive type is stable in time and exhibits higher μτ products, the Schottky type shows space charge accumulation which approaches saturation after about 1 h at several 10 11 cm -3. This is attributed to efficient majority carrier depletion, Fermi level shift, and trap filling. Resistive detectors thus appear optimized to the needs of gamma spectroscopy even at low bias voltage, while Schottky types need higher bias to overcome the space charge. They are suited to both, gamma spectroscopy and X-ray detection in analog current mode, where they operate more stably due ρo the higher bias. From the point of view of materials characterization, gamma spectroscopy with Schottky detectors probes and reveals the trap density near the Fermi level (several 10 12 cm -3 eV -1). We find a basically homogeneous spatial distribution suggesting the trap origin being in crystal growth rather than surface processing. Capture of photogenerated charges in traps is detrimental for current-mode operation under high X-ray flux because delayed emission from traps limits the detector's ability to respond to fast signal changes.

  9. Charge collection efficiency and space charge formation in CdTe gamma and X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new extended model for the charge collection efficiency in CdTe gamma and X ray detectors is presented which allows to derive from apparent experimental gamma spectra of a quasi-monochromatic source, an 241Am source in the present case, not only the μτ products of electrons and holes individually but also the sign, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of the net space charge accumulated in the detector. Resistive CdTe and CdZnTe as well as CdTe Schottky detectors are studied. While the resistive type is stable in time and exhibits higher μτ products, the Schottky type shows space charge accumulation which approaches saturation after about 1 h at several 1011 cm-3. This is attributed to efficient majority carrier depletion, Fermi level shift, and trap filling. Resistive detectors thus appear optimized to the needs of gamma spectroscopy even at low bias voltage, while Schottky types need higher bias to overcome the space charge. They are suited to both, gamma spectroscopy and X-ray detection in analog current mode, where they operate more stably due to the higher bias. From the point of view of materials characterization, gamma spectroscopy with Schottky detectors probes and reveals the trap density near the Fermi level (several 1012 cm-3 eV-1). We find a basically homogeneous spatial distribution suggesting the trap origin being in crystal growth rather than surface processing. Capture of photogenerated charges in traps is detrimental for current-mode operation under high X-ray flux because delayed emission from traps limits the detector''s ability to respond to fast signal changes. (orig.)

  10. Charge collection efficiency of irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, K; Palmieri, V G; Dezillie, B; Li, Z; Collins, P; Niinikoski, T O; Lourenço, C; Sonderegger, P; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Pirollo, S; Granata, V; Pagano, S; Chapuy, S; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; Grigoriev, E; Bell, W; Devine, S R H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K; Berglund, P; de Boer, Wim; Hauler, F; Heising, S; Jungermann, L; Casagrande, L; Cindro, V; Mikuz, M; Zavrtanik, M; Da Vià, C; Esposito, A P; Konorov, I; Paul, S; Schmitt, L; Buontempo, S; D'Ambrosio, N; Ruggiero, G; Eremin, V V; Verbitskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of heavily irradiated silicon diode detectors was investigated at temperatures between 77 and 200 K. The CCE was found to depend on the radiation dose, bias voltage value and history, temperature, and bias current generated by light. The detector irradiated to the highest fluence 2·1015 n/cm2 yields a MIP signal of at least 15000 e- both at 250 V forward bias voltage, and at 250 V reverse bias voltage in the presence of a light-generated current. The "Lazarus effect" was thus shown to extend to fluences at least ten times higher than was previously studied.

  11. Charge collection efficiency of an irradiated cryogenic double-p silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Li, Z.; Dezillie, B.; Da Via, C.; Granata, V.; Casagrande, L. E-mail: luca.casagrande@cern.ch; Boer, R.W.I. de; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Palmieri, V.G.; Chapuy, S.; Dimcovski, Z.; Grigoriev, E.; Bell, W.; Devine, S.R.H.; Ruggiero, G.; O' Shea, V.; Smith, K.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Jungermann, L.; Abreu, M.; Rato, P.; Sousa, P.; Cindro, V.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M.; Esposito, A.; Paul, S.; Buontempo, S.; D' Ambrosio, N.; Pagano, S.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E

    2001-04-21

    We present results on the measurement of the charge collection efficiency of a p{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon detector irradiated to 1x10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}, operated in the temperature range between 80 and 200 K. For comparison, measurements obtained with a standard silicon diode (p{sup +}/n/n{sup +}), irradiated to the same fluence, are also presented. Both detectors show a dramatic increase of the CCE when operated at temperatures around 130 K. The double-p detector shows a higher CCE regardless of the applied bias and temperature, besides being symmetric with respect to the polarity of the bias voltage. At 130 K and 500 V applied bias the double-p detector shows a CCE of 80%, an unprecedented result for a silicon detector irradiated to such a high dose.

  12. Charge collection efficiency of irradiated silicon detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Palmieri, V.G. E-mail: vittorio.palmieri@cern.ch; Dezillie, B.; Li, Z.; Collins, P.; Niinikoski, T.O. E-mail: tapio.niinikoski@cern.ch; Lourenco, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Pirollo, S.; Granata, V.; Pagano, S.; Chapuy, S.; Dimcovski, Z.; Grigoriev, E.; Bell, W.; Devine, S.R.H.; O' Shea, V.; Smith, K.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Jungermann, L.; Casagrande, L.; Cindro, V.; Mikuz, M.; Zavartanik, M.; Via, C. da; Esposito, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Buontempo, S.; D' Ambrosio, N.; Ruggiero, G.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E

    2000-01-21

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of heavily irradiated silicon diode detectors was investigated at temperatures between 77 and 200 K. The CCE was found to depend on the radiation dose, bias voltage value and history, temperature, and bias current generated by light. The detector irradiated to the highest fluence 2x10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} yields a MIP signal of at least 15000 e{sup -} both at 250 V forward bias voltage, and at 250 V reverse bias voltage in the presence of a light-generated current. The 'Lazarus effect' was thus shown to extend to fluences at least ten times higher than was previously studied.

  13. Charge collection efficiency recovery in heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Vià, C; Berglund, P; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, Mara; Buontempo, S; Casagrande, L; Chapuy, S; Cindro, V; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; D'Ambrosio, N; de Boer, Wim; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A P; Granat, V; Grigoriev, E; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Janos, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Konotov, I; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Mikuz, M; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Paul, S; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ropotar, I; Ruggiero, G; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Valtonen, M J; Zavrtanik, M

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of high resistivity silicon detectors, previously neutron irradiated up to 2*10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/, was measured at different cryogenic temperatures and different bias voltages. In order to $9 study reverse annealing (RA) effects, a few samples were heated to 80 degrees C and kept at room temperature for several months after irradiation. For comparison other samples (NRA) where kept at -10 C after irradiation. The RA and $9 NRA samples, measured at 250 V forward and reverse bias voltage, present a common temperature threshold at 150 K. Below 120 K the CCE is constant and ranges between 55and 65 0.000000or the RA and NRA sample respectively. Similar CCE $9 was measured for a device processed with low resistivity contacts (OHMIC), opening the prospect for a consistent reduction of the cost of large area particle tracking. (7 refs).

  14. Radiation hardness and charge collection efficiency of lithium irradiated thin silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, Maurizio; Bruzzi, Mara; Candelori, Andrea; Focardi, Ettore; Khomenkov, Volodymyr P; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, S; Tosi, C; Zorzi, N

    2005-01-01

    Due to their low depletion voltage, even after high particle fluences, improved tracking precision and momentum resolution, and reduced material budget, thin substrates are one of the possible choices to provide radiation hard detectors for future high energy physics experiments. In the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration, we have developed PIN diode detectors on membranes obtained by locally thinning the silicon substrate by means of TMAH etching from the wafer backside. Diodes of different shapes and sizes have been fabricated on 50- mu m and 100- mu m thick membranes and tested, showing a low leakage current (of 300 nA/cm/sup 3/) and a very low depletion voltage (in the order of 1 V for the 50 mu m membrane) before irradiation. Radiation damage tests have been performed with 58 MeV lithium (Li) ions up to the fluence of 10/sup 14/ Li/cm/sup 2/ in order to determine the depletion voltage and leakage current density increase after irradiation. Charge collection efficiency tests carried out with a beta /...

  15. Investigation of charge-collection efficiency of Kyoto's X-ray astronomical SOI pixel sensors, XRPIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Hideaki, E-mail: matumura@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Ryu, Syukyo G. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeda, Ayaki [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Graduate School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    We are developing a monolithic active pixel sensor referred to as XRPIX for X-ray astronomy on the basis of silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. A crucial issue in our recent development is the impact of incomplete charge collection on the spectroscopic performance. In this paper, we report the spectral responses of several devices having different intra-pixel structures or produced from different wafers. We found that an emission line spectrum exhibits large low-energy tails when the size of the buried p-well, which acts as the charge-collection node, is small. Moreover, in charge sharing events, the peak channels of the emission lines shift toward channels lower than those without charge sharing. This peak shift is more pronounced as the distance between the pixel center and the position of incident photon increases. This suggests that the charge-collection efficiency is degraded at the pixel boundary. We also found that the charge-collection efficiency depends on the strength of the electric field at the interface of the depletion and insulator layers.

  16. Charge-collection efficiency of GaAs field effect transistors fabricated with a low temperature grown buffer layer: dependence on charge deposition profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented here reveal a surprising dependence of the charge-collection efficiency of LT GaAs FETs (field effect transistors) on the depth profile of the deposited charge. Investigation of the temporal dependence of the signal amplitude, carrier density contours, and potential contours reveals different mechanisms for charge collection arising from carriers deposited above and below the LT GaAs buffer layer, respectively. In particular, carriers deposited below the LT GaAs buffer layer dissipate slowly and give rise to a persistent charge collection that is associated with a bipolar-like gain process. These results may be of significance in understanding the occurrence of single-event upsets from protons, neutrons, and large-angle, glancing heavy-ion strikes. (authors)

  17. Collection efficiency and charge transfer optimization for a 4-T pixel with multi n-type implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Weiping; Xu Jiangtao; Xu Chao; Li Binqiao; Yao Suying

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase collection efficiency and eliminate image lag,multi n-type implants were introduced into the process of a pinned-photodiode.For the purpose of improving the collection efficiency,multi n-type implants with different implant energies were proposed,which expanded the vertical collection region.To reduce the image lag,a horizontal gradient doping concentration eliminating the potential barrier was also formed by multi n-type implants.The simulation result shows that the collection efficiency can be improved by about 10% in the long wavelength range and the density of the residual charge is reduced from 2.59 × 109 to 2.62 × 107 cm-3.

  18. New measurement of the Fano factor of mercuric iodide. [astronomical x-ray detector charge collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Vallerga, J. V.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Entine, G.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that mercuric iodide (HgI2) shows great promise as a high-resolution X-ray detector for use in X-ray astronomy. Development of mercuric iodide for astronomical work has required investigation of the temperature dependence of the HgI2 crystal parameters such as leakage current, resolution, and mobility of the charge carriers. The first studies in connection with these investigations have led to a new value of the Fano factor of 0.19 + or - 0.03. The best value previously reported was 0.27 measured at room temperature. The new upper limit of 0.19 for the HgI2 Fano factor was determined by cooling the HgI2 crystal and preamp to -20 C. It is concluded that room-temperature energy resolution of HgI2 is not limited by charge generation statistics but rather by collection efficiency.

  19. Roughening Conjugated Polymer Surface for Enhancing the Charge Collection Efficiency of Sequentially Deposited Polymer/Fullerene Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhee Jang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A method that enables the formation of a rough nano-scale surface for conjugated polymers is developed through the utilization of a polymer chain ordering agent (OA. 1-Chloronaphthalene (1-CN is used as the OA for the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT layer. The addition of 1-CN to the P3HT solution improves the chain ordering of the P3HT during the film formation process and increases the surface roughness of the P3HT film compared to the film prepared without 1-CN. The roughened surface of the P3HT film is utilized to construct a P3HT/fullerene bilayer organic photovoltaic (OPV by sequential solution deposition (SqSD without thermal annealing process. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the SqSD-processed OPV utilizing roughened P3HT layer is 25% higher than that utilizing a plain P3HT layer. It is revealed that the roughened surface of the P3HT increases the heterojunction area at the P3HT/fullerene interface and this resulted in improved internal charge collection efficiency, as well as light absorption efficiency. This method proposes a novel way to improve the PCE of the SqSD-processed OPV, which can be applied for OPV utilizing low band gap polymers. In addition, this method allows for the reassessment of polymers, which have shown insufficient performance in the BSD process.

  20. First results on charge collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip sensors fabricated on oxygenated p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Lozano, M.; Turner, P.R

    2004-02-01

    Heavy hadron irradiation leads to type inversion of n-type silicon detectors. After type inversion, the charge collected at low bias voltages by silicon microstrip detectors is higher when read out from the n-side compared to p-side read out. The n-side read out has been successfully used in combination with oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrate to maximise the radiation hardness of microstrip detectors. Alternatively, the n-side read out can be implemented on p-type substrates reducing the complexity of fabrication. Miniature silicon microstrip detectors made on standard and oxygen-enriched p-type substrate have been produced. The charge collection properties of such detectors with and without oxygenation are here compared for the first time after severe charged hadron irradiation.

  1. Correlation of electrical and optical properties with charge collection efficiency of In-doped and In+Si co-doped CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Si co-doping on electrical, optical and spectroscopic properties of In-doped CdTe was investigated. The concentration of Si atoms in the charge was 1x1017 cm-3. All Si co-doped samples were n-types, with the resistivity higher than 1x109 Ω cm. The dominant deep level ED=0.67 eV was determined by temperature dependence of the Hall effect measurement and compared with the low-temperature photoluminescence. Cd-rich or Te-rich annealing was used to eliminate this deep level, which strongly affects the charge collection efficiency of samples. The deep level together with a poor charge collection efficiency were found in both as-grown or annealed Si co-doped samples contrary to samples with only In doping, where the detector quality improvement was observed after Te-rich annealing

  2. Charge collection efficiency in SI GaAs grown from melts with variable composition as a material for solar neutrino detection

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, E; Ivanov, A; Strokan, N; Vasilev, V; Markov, A; Polyakov, A; Gavrin, V; Kozlova, Y; Veretenkin, E; Bowles, T J

    2000-01-01

    The results on electrical characteristics and charge collection efficiency in the detectors from bulk SI GaAs developed as a material for solar neutrino spectroscopy are presented. SI GaAs crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The changes in the stoichiometric components are permanently controlled. It is shown that the performance of GaAs p sup + -i-n sup + structures provided the range of operational reverse voltage up to 1 kV. Measurement of deep level spectra and their analysis reveal the dominant deep levels - hole traps E sub v +0.51 and +0.075 eV in GaAs grown from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts, respectively. Investigation of carrier transport properties and bulk homogeneity evinced in charge collection efficiency has shown advantageous results for SI GaAs grown from stoichiometric melt. The reduction of carrier transport parameters and charge collection efficiency in GaAs grown from nonstoichiometric melt is analyzed taking into consideration formation of the hole trap E sub v +0....

  3. Degradation of the charge collection efficiency of an n-type Fz silicon diode subjected to MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Nicolò; Forneris, Jacopo [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy); Grilj, Veljko; Jakšić, Milko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Räisänen, Jyrki [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Simon, Aliz [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Skukan, Natko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vittone, Ettore, E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: •Study of charge collection efficiency degradation (CCE) in Si diode due to MeV H irradiation. •CCE evaluated by micro-IBIC using 4.5 MeV Li ions to probe the damaged region. •Generation of H-donors, which perturb the electrostatic properties of the diode. -- Abstract: We present the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation of float zone grown n-type silicon detectors irradiated with 1.3, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV protons. The analysis was carried out by irradiating small regions (50 × 50 μm{sup 2}) with a proton microbeam at fluences ranging from 10{sup 11} to 4·10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} and probing the effect of irradiation by measuring the 4.5 MeV Li ion induced charge in full depletion conditions. The CCE degradation as function of the proton fluence shows an unexpected deviation from the linear behavior predicted by the Shockley–Read–Hall model of carrier recombination. The build-up of excess hydrogen related donors due to proton irradiations is suggested to be the cause of a significant perturbation of the electrostatic properties of the diode, which drastically change the electron trajectories and hence the induced charge mechanism.

  4. Calcium carbonate electronic-insulating layers improve the charge collection efficiency of tin oxide photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a surface passivation layer has been employed on the tin oxide (SnO2) photoanodes to enhance the charge collection efficiency, and thus the power conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate that the electronic-insulating layering of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) can improve the charge collection efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells designed with photoanodes. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO3 layering, both layered and pristine SnO2 photoanodes are characterized with regard to their structures, morphologies, and photo-electrochemical measurements. The SnO2-6L CaCO3 photoanode has demonstrated as high as 3.5% power conversion efficiency; 3.5-fold greater than that of the pristine SnO2 photoanode. The enhancement in the power conversion efficiency is corroborated with the number of the dye molecules, the passivation of surface states, a negative shift in the conduction band position, and the reduced electron recombination rate of photoelectrons following the coating of the CaCO3 surface layer

  5. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Oh, A; Steuerer, J; Wagner, A; Zeuner, W; Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observed, which is attributed to polarisation effects inside the diamond. Spatially resolved measurements with protons show a large variation of the charge collection efficiency, whereas for photons and minimum ionising particles the response is much more uniform and in the order of 18%. These results indicate that the applicability of CVD diamond as a position sensitive particle detector depends on the ionisation type and appears to be promising for homogeneous ionisation densities as provided by relativistic charged particles.

  6. Charge collection kinetics on ferroelectric polymer surface using charge gradient microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Tong, Sheng; Ducharme, Stephen; Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2016-05-01

    A charge gradient microscopy (CGM) probe was used to collect surface screening charges on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] thin films. These charges are naturally formed on unscreened ferroelectric domains in ambient condition. The CGM data were used to map the local electric current originating from the collected surface charges on the poled ferroelectric domains in the P(VDF-TrFE) thin films. Both the direction and amount of the collected current were controlled by changing the polarity and area of the poled domains. The endurance of charge collection by rubbing the CGM tip on the polymer film was limited to 20 scan cycles, after which the current reduced to almost zero. This degradation was attributed to the increase of the chemical bonding strength between the external screening charges and the polarization charges. Once this degradation mechanism is mitigated, the CGM technique can be applied to efficient energy harvesting devices using polymer ferroelectrics.

  7. Charge collection kinetics on ferroelectric polymer surface using charge gradient microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Tong, Sheng; Ducharme, Stephen; Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    A charge gradient microscopy (CGM) probe was used to collect surface screening charges on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] thin films. These charges are naturally formed on unscreened ferroelectric domains in ambient condition. The CGM data were used to map the local electric current originating from the collected surface charges on the poled ferroelectric domains in the P(VDF-TrFE) thin films. Both the direction and amount of the collected current were controlled by changing the polarity and area of the poled domains. The endurance of charge collection by rubbing the CGM tip on the polymer film was limited to 20 scan cycles, after which the current reduced to almost zero. This degradation was attributed to the increase of the chemical bonding strength between the external screening charges and the polarization charges. Once this degradation mechanism is mitigated, the CGM technique can be applied to efficient energy harvesting devices using polymer ferroelectrics. PMID:27138943

  8. Charge collection in an external proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from the measurement of the stability of charge collected from the target and exit foil, or as alternatives, the γ-ray or backscattered proton counts from the exit foil and the Ar X-ray counts from the air path in an external proton beam are presented. These results show that comparative analysis of material mounted in air is reliable, using either the collected charge or the γ-ray counts as the normalizing factor, if there are no earthed objects in close geometry. The backscattered proton counts can also be used, but not the Ar X-ray counts, unless the current is stabilized. The electrical or thermal conductivity of the target and the target to exit foil separation do not affect the proportionality of the collected charge and the γ-ray counts to the charge incident on the target

  9. Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).

  10. Collection efficiency of charges in ionization chambers in presence of constant or variable radiation intensity; Efficacite de la collection des charges dans les chambres d'ionisation en presence d'une intensite de rayonnement ionisant constante ou variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decuyper, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The theoretical and experimental study of the collection of carriers built up by ionization in standard chambers, is made by varying the value of different acting parameters. In the presence of constant ionization intensity and under a D.C. and A.C. voltage, the effect of geometry, recombination, diffusion and attachment is analyzed. The compensation of thermal neutron D.C. chambers is equally considered. Under a time dependent ionization intensity and D.C. voltage, is then studied the effect of recombination on current response, and on the collection efficiency of all formed charges. (author) [French] L'etude theorique et experimentale de la collection des porteurs crees par ionisation dans les chambres couramment utilisees est entreprise en fonction de la valeur des differents parametres agissants. En presence d'une ionisation constante et sous une tension d'alimentation d'abord continue puis alternative, on analyse l'influence de la geometrie, de la recombinaison, de la diffusion et de l'attachement. La compensation des chambres a courant continu de mesure neutronique est egalement examinee. Ensuite, sous une intensite d'ionisation variable dans le temps et en alimentation continue, on etudie l'effet de la recombinaison sur la reponse en courant et sur l'efficacite de la collection de la charge totale liberee. (auteur)

  11. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observe...

  12. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College London (United Kingdom). Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1998-06-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used.

  13. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  14. Classification of solar cells according to mechanisms of charge separation and charge collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Bisquert, Juan; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2015-02-14

    In the last decade, photovoltaics (PV) has experienced an important transformation. Traditional solar cells formed by compact semiconductor layers have been joined by new kinds of cells that are constituted by a complex mixture of organic, inorganic and solid or liquid electrolyte materials, and rely on charge separation at the nanoscale. Recently, metal organic halide perovskites have appeared in the photovoltaic landscape showing large conversion efficiencies, and they may share characteristics of the two former types. In this paper we provide a general description of the photovoltaic mechanisms of the single absorber solar cell types, combining all-inorganic, hybrid and organic cells into a single framework. The operation of the solar cell relies on a number of internal processes that exploit internal charge separation and overall charge collection minimizing recombination. There are two main effects to achieve the required efficiency, first to exploit kinetics at interfaces, favouring the required forward process, and second to take advantage of internal electrical fields caused by a built-in voltage and by the distribution of photogenerated charges. These principles represented by selective contacts, interfaces and the main energy diagram, form a solid base for the discussion of the operation of future types of solar cells. Additional effects based on ferroelectric polarization and ionic drift provide interesting prospects for investigating new PV effects mainly in the perovskite materials.

  15. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated Silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal to noise ratio of 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the inter-strip and the guard ring region and crosstalk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance.

  16. An annealing study of charge collection efficiency on Float-Zone p-on-n ministrip sensors irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons and 20 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Float-Zone n-bulk p-readout silicon sensors are currently operated in the tracking layers of many High Energy Physics experiments, where they are exposed to moderate to high fluences of hadrons. Though n-readout sensors, either with p or n bulk, are available and are offering an improved radiation hardness, p-on-n sensors are still widely used and are e.g. installed in the present ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN. Their radiation hardness and long-term performance are therefore of high interest to the detector community. We present here a study performed on these sensors after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons and 20 MeV neutrons to fluences ranging from 1⋅1014 to 1⋅1015 neq/cm2. The sensors were then investigated for charge collection efficiency after different isothermal annealing steps in order to understand the performance evolution of the sensor with annealing time. Additional measurements were performed for the highest neutron fluence by means of the Edge-TCT technique, to assess the electric field configuration within the sensor. The irradiation and the annealing scenarios were chosen to represent the radiation damage scenario over the expected lifetime of the LHC detectors (and even further) and to assess the effect of unplanned annealing due to potentially longer warm shutdowns or cooling problems

  17. Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R

    2007-01-01

    In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.

  18. Efficiency of Pm-147 direct charge radioisotope battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavetskiy, A.; Yakubova, G.; Yousaf, S.M. [TRACE Photonics Inc, 1680 West Polk Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Bower, K., E-mail: kbower@tracephotonics.co [TRACE Photonics Inc, 1680 West Polk Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Robertson, J.D.; Garnov, A. [Department of Chemistry and University of Missouri Research Reactor, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented here of the efficiency of direct charge radioisotope batteries based on the efficiency of the radioactive source, the system geometry, electrostatic repulsion of beta particles from the collector, the secondary electron emission, and backscattered beta particles from the collector. Efficiency of various design batteries using Pm-147 sources was experimentally measured and found to be in good agreement with calculations. The present approach can be used for predicting the efficiency for different designs of direct charge radioisotope batteries.

  19. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  20. Simple Analytic Description of Collection Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Brett M; Movaghar, Bijan; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    The collection of charge carriers is a fundamental step in the photovoltaic conversion process. In disordered organic films, low mobility and disorder can make collection the performance-limiting step in energy conversion. We derive two analytic relationships for carrier collection efficiency in organic photovoltaics that account for the presence or absence of carrier-selective electrodes. These equations directly include drift and diffusive carrier transport in the device active layers and account for possible losses from Langevin and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination mechanisms. General relationships among carrier mobility, contact selectivity, recombination processes, and organic photovoltaic figures of merit are established. Our results suggest that device collection efficiency remains mobility-limited for many materials systems, and a renewed emphasis should be placed on materials' purity.

  1. Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-04-01

    Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.

  2. Advantages of efficiency-aware smart charging strategies for PEVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyze smart variable-rate-based charging strategies for electric vehicles. ► We consider the impact of the charging rate on the charging efficiency. ► Accounting for charging efficiency variations allows improving system performance. ► The study defines useful guidelines to develop smart battery chargers. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) diffusion is expected to grow considerably over the next few years. Aiming to overcome severe grid overload problems caused by a large PEV penetration, utilities and vehicle manufactures are involved in the effort of developing ad hoc charging systems interacting in real-time with smart grids in order to implement smart energy dispatching strategies for PEVs. Strategies which take advantage of varying the charging rate during the charging process appear the most effective solution to guarantee both a full exploitation of the grid capacity and suitable degrees of user satisfaction. This work demonstrates that the actual effectiveness of variable-rate-based dispatching strategies significantly depends on the energy efficiency of the battery charging process, which is in turn strongly related to the charging rate used. Simulation results for a realistic situation show that smart efficiency-aware dispatching strategies, which take into account the actual dependence between the charging efficiency and the charging rate, allow significant improvements in both the user satisfaction and the utility profit compared with non-efficiency-aware strategies. The results of the analysis performed give useful guidelines for the development of smart-grid management policies and for the design of next-generation PEVs battery chargers and charging stations.

  3. Bipolar charged aerosol agglomeration and collection by a two zone agglomerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In older to collect fine particles more efficiently, a new-type electrostatic agglomerator with two sones was developed. The distinguishing feature of this electrostatic agglomerator is that the particles are bipolarly charged and coagulated in the same alternating electric field simultaneously. The silica flour with 2 μm mass median diameter and the smoke from burning wood powder were used as test aerosol. The comparison experimental results have shown that when the mean electric field is 4 kV/cm the collection efficiency of the new electrostatic agglomerator was 98.2% for silica flour and 67.4% for wood powder smoke. Under the same experimental condition, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator with three zones was 97.4% for collecting silica flour and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator was 56.3% for wood powder smoke.

  4. Charge collection and charge pulse formation in highly irradiated silicon planar detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezillie, B.; Li, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Eremin, V. [Academy of Science of Russia, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.

    1998-06-01

    The interpretation of experimental data and predictions for future experiments for high-energy physics have been based on conventional methods like capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements. Experiments carried out on highly irradiated detectors show that the kinetics of the charge collection and the dependence of the charge pulse amplitude on the applied bias are deviated too far from those predicted by the conventional methods. The described results show that in highly irradiated detectors, at a bias lower than the real full depletion voltage (V{sub fd}), the kinetics of the charge collection (Q) contains a fast and a slow component. At V = V{sub fd}*, which is the full depletion voltage traditionally determined by the extrapolation of the fast comopnent amplitude of q versus bias to the maximum value or from the standard C-V measurements, the pulse has a slow component with significant amplitude. This slow component can only be eliminated by applying additional bias that amounts to the real full depletion voltage (V{sub fd}) or more. The above mentioned regularities are explained in this paper in terms of a model of an irradiated detector with multiple regions. This model allows one to use C-V, in a modified way, as well as TChT (transient charge technique) measurements to determine the V{sub fd} for highly irradiated detectors.

  5. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) Studies of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride is an emerging material for room temperature radiation detectors. In order to optimize the performance of these detectors, it is important to determine how the electronic properties of CZT are related to the presence of impurities and defects that are introduced during the crystal growth and detector fabrication. At the Sandia microbeam facility IBICC and Time Resolved IBICC (TRIBICC) were used to image electronic properties of various CZT detectors. Two-dimensional areal maps of charge collection efficiency were deduced from the measurements. In order to determine radiation damage to the detectors, we measured the deterioration of the IBICC signal as the function of dose. A model to explain quantitatively the pattern observed in the charge collection efficiency maps of the damaged detectors has been developed and will be discussed in the paper

  6. What Controls the Rate of Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Charge Separation Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaic Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowetz, Andreas C; Böhm, Marcus L; Zhang, Jiangbin; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Bakulin, Artem A; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2016-09-14

    In solar energy harvesting devices based on molecular semiconductors, such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems, Frenkel excitons must be dissociated via charge transfer at heterojunctions to yield free charges. What controls the rate and efficiency of charge transfer and charge separation is an important question, as it determines the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these systems. In bulk heterojunctions between polymer donor and fullerene acceptors, which provide a model system to understand the fundamental dynamics of electron transfer in molecular systems, it has been established that the first step of photoinduced electron transfer can be fast, of order 100 fs. But here we report the first study which correlates differences in the electron transfer rate with electronic structure and morphology, achieved with sub-20 fs time resolution pump-probe spectroscopy. We vary both the fullerene substitution and donor/fullerene ratio which allow us to control both aggregate size and the energetic driving force for charge transfer. We observe a range of electron transfer times from polymer to fullerene, from 240 fs to as short as 37 fs. Using ultrafast electro-optical pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we find the yield of free versus bound charges to be weakly dependent on the energetic driving force, but to be very strongly dependent on fullerene aggregate size and packing. Our results point toward the importance of state accessibility and charge delocalization and suggest that energetic offsets between donor and acceptor levels are not an important criterion for efficient charge generation. This provides design rules for next-generation materials to minimize losses related to driving energy and boost PCE.

  7. What Controls the Rate of Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Charge Separation Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaic Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowetz, Andreas C; Böhm, Marcus L; Zhang, Jiangbin; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Bakulin, Artem A; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2016-09-14

    In solar energy harvesting devices based on molecular semiconductors, such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems, Frenkel excitons must be dissociated via charge transfer at heterojunctions to yield free charges. What controls the rate and efficiency of charge transfer and charge separation is an important question, as it determines the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these systems. In bulk heterojunctions between polymer donor and fullerene acceptors, which provide a model system to understand the fundamental dynamics of electron transfer in molecular systems, it has been established that the first step of photoinduced electron transfer can be fast, of order 100 fs. But here we report the first study which correlates differences in the electron transfer rate with electronic structure and morphology, achieved with sub-20 fs time resolution pump-probe spectroscopy. We vary both the fullerene substitution and donor/fullerene ratio which allow us to control both aggregate size and the energetic driving force for charge transfer. We observe a range of electron transfer times from polymer to fullerene, from 240 fs to as short as 37 fs. Using ultrafast electro-optical pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we find the yield of free versus bound charges to be weakly dependent on the energetic driving force, but to be very strongly dependent on fullerene aggregate size and packing. Our results point toward the importance of state accessibility and charge delocalization and suggest that energetic offsets between donor and acceptor levels are not an important criterion for efficient charge generation. This provides design rules for next-generation materials to minimize losses related to driving energy and boost PCE. PMID:27538341

  8. Measurements of Charge Transfer Efficiency in a Proton-irradiated Swept Charge Device

    CERN Document Server

    YuSa, Wang; XiaoYan, Liu; WeiWei, Cui; YuPeng, Xu; ChengKui, Li; MaoShun, Li; DaWei, Han; TianXiang, Chen; Jia, Huo; Juan, Wang; Wei, Li; Wei, Hu; Yi, Zhang; Bo, Lu; GuoHe, Yin; Yue, Zhu; ZiLiang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) have been successfully used in several low energy X-ray astronomical satellite over the past two decades. Their high energy resolution and high spatial resolution make them an perfect tool for low energy astronomy, such as formation of galaxy clusters and environment of black holes. The Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE) group is developing Swept Charge Device (SCD) for the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) satellite. SCD is a special low energy X-ray CCD, which could be read out a thousand times faster than traditional CCDs, simultaneously keeping excellent energy resolution. A test method for measuring the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of a prototype SCD has been set up. Studies of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) have been performed at a temperature range of operation, with a proton-irradiated SCD.

  9. High collection efficiency thin film diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Diamond is a resilient material with rather extreme electronic properties. As such it is an interesting candidate for the fabrication of high performance solid state particle detectors. However, the commercially accessible form of diamond, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, is polycrystalline in nature and often displays rather poor electrical characteristics. This paper considers ways in which this material may be used to form alpha particle detectors with useful performance levels. One approach adopted has been to reduce the impurity levels within the feed-stock gases that are used to grow the diamond films. This has enabled significant improvements to be achieved in the mean carrier drift distance within the films leading to alpha detectors with up to 40% collection efficiencies. An alternative approach explored is the use of planar device geometries whereby charge collection is limited to the top surface of the diamond which comprises higher quality material than the bulk of the film. This has lead to collection efficiencies of 70%, the highest yet reported for polycrystalline CVD diamond based detectors. Techniques for improving the characteristics of these devices further are discussed.

  10. High collection efficiency thin film diamond particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond is a resilient material with rather extreme electronic properties. As such it is an interesting candidate for the fabrication of high performance solid state particle detectors. However, the commercially accessible form of diamond, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, is polycrystalline in nature and often displays rather poor electrical characteristics. This paper considers ways in which this material may be used to form alpha particle detectors with useful performance levels. One approach adopted has been to reduce the impurity levels within the feed-stock gases that are used to grow the diamond films. This has enabled significant improvements to be achieved in the mean carrier drift distance within the films leading to alpha detectors with up to 40% collection efficiencies. An alternative approach explored is the use of planar device geometries whereby charge collection is limited to the top surface of the diamond which comprises higher quality material than the bulk of the film. This has lead to collection efficiencies of 70%, the highest yet reported for polycrystalline CVD diamond based detectors. Techniques for improving the characteristics of these devices further are discussed

  11. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  12. Study on High Efficient Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Liu, Z. Z.; Zeng, H.; Qu, X. D.; Hou, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electric and unmanned is a new trend in the development of automobile, cable charging pile can not meet the demand of unmanned electric vehicle. Wireless charging system for electric vehicle has a high level of automation, which can be realized by unmanned operation, and the wireless charging technology has been paid more and more attention. This paper first analyses the differences in S-S (series-series) and S-P (series-parallel) type resonant wireless power supply system, combined with the load characteristics of electric vehicle, S-S type resonant structure was used in this system. This paper analyses the coupling coefficient of several common coil structure changes with the moving distance of Maxwell Ansys software, the performance of disc type coil structure is better. Then the simulation model is established by Simulink toolbox in Matlab, to analyse the power and efficiency characteristics of the whole system. Finally, the experiment platform is set up to verify the feasibility of the whole system and optimize the system. Based on the theoretical and simulation analysis, the higher charging efficiency is obtained by optimizing the magnetic coupling mechanism.

  13. Effect of temperature on carbon nanoparticle collection efficiency using photoelectric ESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woojin; Jung, Jae Hee; Song, Dong Keun; Kim, Hakjoon; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-03-01

    The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technique is a promising method for enhancing the particulate matter (PM) emission reduction efficiency of diesel engines, and is much better than the diesel particulate filter (DPF) technique. However, the ESP's low efficiency in collecting PM with diameters less than several tens of nanometers remains a problem because the particle charging efficiency decreases as the size of the nanoparticles decreases. To improve the collection efficiency of nanosized PM, we used a photoelectric charger to increase the charging efficiency of nanoparticles ahead of the ESP system. Carbon nanoparticles produced using a spark discharge generator were used to evaluate the collection efficiency of the combined photoelectric charger and ESP system. The particle sizes were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer system at various experimental temperatures similar to the temperature of DPF systems commonly used in diesel engines. We succeeded in obtaining improved collection efficiencies at increased inner temperatures of the photoelectric charging chamber. As the temperature increased from 694 degrees C to 839 degrees C at the inlet of the photoelectric chamber, the efficiency of PM collection improved significantly to 28.5% for a particle diameter of 18.4 nm.

  14. Charge collection and charge sharing in heavily irradiated n-side read-out silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Biagi, S.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Greenall, A.; Turner, P.R

    2003-09-21

    Hadron radiation damage of n-bulk silicon detectors leads to a change in the effective space charge from positive to negative. This effect is called type inversion. Type inversion occurs after exposure to a fluence of a few 10{sup 13} proton cm{sup -2} and is characterized by migration of the diode junction to the n{sup +} implanted side (n-side) of the detector. After inversion the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of segmented detectors at low voltage is higher when the n-side, rather than the p-side, is read out. A p-side read out (p-in-n) and an n-side read out (n-in-n) strip detector with identical strip geometry and a wafer thickness of 200 {mu}m were simultaneously and inhomogenously irradiated to a maximum fluence of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2} with 24 GeV c{sup -1} protons. A comparison of the CCE at very high irradiation doses is shown with these two read out geometries. The inhomogeneous irradiation induces an inhomogenous distribution of the effective space charge with a transverse component of the electric field that could in principle affect the resolution properties of the microstrip detector. The inter-strip charge sharing properties, as a function of dose, for the n-in-n detector have been measured. No systematic distortion of the reconstructed cluster position was detected within the limits of the measurement accuracy. The detectors were manufactured using oxygen enriched silicon substrates to limit the degradation of the full depletion voltage under charged hadron irradiation. The measured CCE confirms that the use of oxygenated n-in-n detectors is viable up to fluences of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2}.

  15. A technique to improve crystal channeling efficiency of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a narrow plane cut near the crystal surface considerably increases the probability of capture into the stable channeling motion of positively charged particles entering a crystal at angles smaller than a quarter of the critical channeling angle with respect to the crystal planes. At smallest incidence angles the capture probability reaches 99 percent. A pair of crystals bent in orthogonal planes and provided with the cuts allows to reach a 99.9 percent efficiency of single-pass deflection of a proton beam with an ultra small divergence. Conditions necessary for efficient single-pass deflection of protons from the LHC beam halo are also discussed.

  16. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) from Integrated Circuit Test Structures Using a 10 MeV Carbon Microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aton, T.J.; Doyle, B.L.; Duggan, J.L.; El Bouanani, M.; Guo, B.N.; McDaniel, F.D.; Renfrow, S.N.; Walsh, D.S.

    1998-11-18

    As future sizes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) continue to shrink the sensitivity of these devices, particularly SRAMs and DRAMs, to natural radiation is increasing. In this paper, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate neutron-induced Si recoil effects in ICS. The IBICC measurements, conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories employed a 10 MeV carbon microbeam with 1pm diameter spot to scan test structures on specifically designed ICS. With the aid of layout information, an analysis of the charge collection efficiency from different test areas is presented. In the present work a 10 MeV Carbon high-resolution microbeam was used to demonstrate the differential charge collection efficiency in ICS with the aid of the IC design Information. When ions strike outside the FET, the charge was only measured on the outer ring, and decreased with strike distance from this diode. When ions directly strike the inner and ring diodes, the collected charge was localized to these diodes. The charge for ions striking the gate region was shared between the inner and ring diodes. I The IBICC measurements directly confirmed the interpretations made in the earlier work.

  17. Modeling and simulation of charge collection properties for 3D-trench electrode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Hao; Chen, Jianwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Yan, Shaoan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2015-10-01

    3D-trench electrode detectors were simulated in this paper. Charge collection of 3D-trench electrode detector was simulated using the full 3D device simulation. The induced current and collected charge caused by drifting carriers, generated by a minimum ionizing particle (MIP) incident through the detector, have been modeled and calculated. The results indicate that the total collected charge in irradiated detector change with particle incident position and radiation fluence. In addition, we have estimated the average total collected charge generated by a MIP incident in 3D-trench electrode detector.

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  19. Radiation detection. Chapter 4. Effects of tellurium precipitates on charge collection in CZT (CdZnTe) nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recently demonstrated that individual Tellurium (Te) precipitates identified with infrared (IR) transmission microscopes in radiation detector-grade CdZnTe (CZT) crystals correlate precisely with poor charge collection. This indicates that Te precipitates adversely affect the electron charge collection efficiency and thus the performance of nuclear radiation detectors produced from the crystals. By employing different techniques it is investigated how Te precipitates affect different CZT devices. These measurements indicate that Te precipitates put limits on the size, electrode configurations and spectral performance of CZT detectors. These limits can be relaxed by lowering the size and density of Te precipitates in the detectors

  20. Ion beam induced charge collection (IBICC) from integrated circuit test structures using a 10 MeV carbon microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.N.; Bouanani, M.E.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Doyle, B.L.; Walsh, D.S. [Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1056, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] Aton, T.J. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments Inc., PO Box 650311, MS 3704, Dallas, Texas 75265 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    As feature sizes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) continue to shrink, the sensitivity of these devices, particularly SRAMs and DRAMs, to natural radiation is increasing. In this paper, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate neutron-induced Si recoil effects in ICs. The IBICC measurements, conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories, employed a 10 MeV carbon microbeam with 1{mu}m diameter spot to scan test structures on specifically designed ICs. With the aid of IC layout information, an analysis of the charge collection efficiency from different test areas is presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  2. Charge collection properties of a CdTe Schottky diode for x- and γ-rays detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical characteristics of x-ray and γ-ray detectors with Schottky diodes on the basis of CdTe crystals of n-type conductivity with a resistivity of 102–103 Ω cm (300 K) are investigated. The necessary parameters of the diode structures are determined to interpret the detection characteristics of the detectors. The dependences of the charge-collection efficiency in the detectors on the carrier lifetime and concentration of uncompensated donors are obtained and the conditions for the total collection of charges generated by the photon absorption are established. Taking into account drift and diffusion photocurrent components, the spectral distribution of the quantum detection efficiency is calculated. The comparative analysis of the detection efficiency of Schottky diodes based on low-resistivity p-CdTe and n-CdTe shows the advantages of the latter, especially in a low x-ray energy region

  3. Characterization of charge collection in CdTe and CZT using the transient current technique

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, J; Lodomez, P; Wermes, N; Fink, Johannes; Krueger, Hans; Lodomez, Philipp; Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The charge collection properties in different particle sensor materials with respect to the shape of the generated signals, the electric field within the detector, the charge carrier mobility and the carrier lifetime are studied with the transient current technique (TCT). Using the well-known properties of Si as a reference, the focus is laid on Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), which are currently considered as promising candidates for the efficient detection of X-rays. All measurements are based on a transient-current technique (TCT) setup, which allows the recording of current pulses generated by an 241Am alpha-source. These signals will be interpreted with respect to the build-up of space-charges inside the detector material and the subsequent deformation of the electric field. Additionally the influence of different electrode materials (i.e. ohmic or Schottky contacts) on the current pulse shapes will be treated in the case of CdTe. Finally, the effects of polarization, i.e. the ...

  4. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-31

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well

  5. The dual role of multiple-transistor charge sharing collection in single-event transients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yang; Chen Jian-Jun; He Yi-Bai; Liang Bin; Liu Bi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As technologies scale down in size,multiple-transistors being affected by a single ion has become a universal phenomenon,and some new effects are present in single event transients (SETs) due to the charge sharing collection of the adjacent multiple-transistors.In this paper,not only the off-state p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOS FET),but also the on-state PMOS is struck by a heavy-ion in the two-transistor inverter chain,due to the charge sharing collection and the electrical interaction.The SET induced by striking the off-state PMOS is efficiently mitigated by the pulse quenching effect,but the SET induced by striking the on-state PMOS becomes dominant.It is indicated in this study that in the advanced technologies,the SET will no longer just be induced by an ion striking the off-state transistor,and the SET sensitive region will no longer just surround the off-state transistor either,as it is in the older technologies.We also discuss this issue in a three-transistor inverter in depth,and the study illustrates that the three-transistor inverter is still a better replacement for spacebome integrated circuit design in advanced technologies.

  6. Simple Methods to Approximate CPC Shape to Preserve Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC is the most efficient reflective geometry to collect light to an exit port. Anyway, to allow its actual use in solar plants or photovoltaic concentration systems, a tradeoff between system efficiency and cost reduction, the two key issues for sunlight exploitation, must be found. In this work, we analyze various methods to model an approximated CPC aimed to be simpler and more cost-effective than the ideal one, as well as to preserve the system efficiency. The manufacturing easiness arises from the use of truncated conic surfaces only, which can be realized by cheap machining techniques. We compare different configurations on the basis of their collection efficiency, evaluated by means of nonsequential ray-tracing software. Moreover, due to the fact that some configurations are beam dependent and for a closer approximation of a real case, the input beam is simulated as nonsymmetric, with a nonconstant irradiance on the CPC internal surface.

  7. Longitudinal spin-charge responses and collective modes in spin-polarized quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, K S; Bae, Y N; Quinn, J J

    1999-01-01

    The generalized longitudinal charge-spin susceptibility functions and the collective excitations of spin-polarized quantum structures are investigated within the framework of spin-dependent linear response theory. We evaluate the charge response and the longitudinal spin response to a general external disturbance. Exchange-correlation effects between electrons of spin sigma and sigma' are included by using spin-polarization dependent generalized local field factors. Both collective charge-density and spin-density excitations are examined. The present results are compared with the case of a spin-unpolarized system. In contrast to the result for an unpolarized system, the mixing of charge and spin responses results in coupled charge-spin excitations in the spin polarized system.

  8. Critical Points of the Electric Field from a Collection of Point Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Weinkauf, T

    2007-02-16

    The electric field around a molecule is generated by the charge distribution of its constituents: positively charged atomic nuclei, which are well approximated by point charges, and negatively charged electrons, whose probability density distribution can be computed from quantum mechanics. For the purposes of molecular mechanics or dynamics, the charge distribution is often approximated by a collection of point charges, with either a single partial charge at each atomic nucleus position, representing both the nucleus and the electrons near it, or as several different point charges per atom. The critical points in the electric field are useful in visualizing its geometrical and topological structure, and can help in understanding the forces and motion it induces on a charged ion or neutral dipole. Most visualization tools for vector fields use only samples of the field on the vertices of a regular grid, and some sort of interpolation, for example, trilinear, on the grid cells. There is less risk of missing or misinterpreting topological features if they can be derived directly from the analytic formula for the field, rather than from its samples. This work presents a method which is guaranteed to find all the critical points of the electric field from a finite set of point charges. To visualize the field topology, we have modified the saddle connector method to use the analytic formula for the field.

  9. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm(2) of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%.

  10. A turbulent bed contactor: energetic efficiency for particle collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gimenes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle collection experiments were conducted in a fluidizing irrigated bed to evaluate the performance of mobile packings: 38 x 50 mm plain oblate spheroids 38 mm ID plain spheres and alternative perforated spheres with a 38 mm ID and 10% and 25% free areas were used as fluidizing media in a 0.264 m diameter and 1.20 m high turbulent bed contactor (TBC. Particle collection experiments were carried out above the minimum fluidization velocity, using as particulate test powder polysized alumina (size 1.5 to 5.5 mm. Experimental results demonstrated that the perforated spheres performed better in collecting particles than the other packings tested. The efficiency of particle collection was analysed based on energy consumption in the TBC, using the energetic efficiency concept. It was verified that not much more energy was consumed per unit of gas flow in fluidized beds of perforated packings than in those of conventional plain sphere packings, since the perforated spheres were more energetically efficient for particle collection than plain spheres and oblate spheroid packings.

  11. Time-resolved ion beam induced charge collection (TRIBICC) in micro-electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entire current transient induced by single 12 MeV Carbon ions was measured at a 5GHz analog bandwidth. A focused ion micro-beam was used to acquire multiple single ion transients at multiple locations of a single CMOS transistor. The current transients reveal clear and discernible contributions of drift and diffusive charge collection. Transients measured for drain and off-drain ion strikes compare well to 3D DAVINCI calculations. Estimates are presented for the drift assisted funneling charge collection depth

  12. Time-resolved ion beam induced charge collection (TRIBICC) in micro-electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Air Force Research Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walsh, D.S.; Sexton, F.W.; Doyle, B.L.; Aurand, J.F.; Dodd, P.E.; Flores, R.S.; Wing, N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The entire current transient induced by single 12 MeV Carbon ions was measured at a 5GHz analog bandwidth. A focused ion micro-beam was used to acquire multiple single ion transients at multiple locations of a single CMOS transistor. The current transients reveal clear and discernible contributions of drift and diffusive charge collection. Transients measured for drain and off-drain ion strikes compare well to 3D DAVINCI calculations. Estimates are presented for the drift assisted funneling charge collection depth.

  13. Improving Remote Species Identification through Efficient Training Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Baldeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant species identification and mapping based on remotely-sensed spectral signatures is a challenging task with the potential to contribute enormously to ecological studies. Success in this task rests upon the appropriate collection and use of costly field-based training data, and researchers are in need of ways to improve collection efficiency based on quantitative evidence. Using imaging spectrometer data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory for hundreds of field-identified tree crowns in Kruger National Park, South Africa, we developed woody plant species classification models and evaluated how classification accuracy increases with increasing numbers of training crowns. First, we show that classification accuracy must be estimated while respecting the crown as the basic unit of data; otherwise, accuracy will be overestimated and the amount of training data needed to perform successful classification will be underestimated. We found that classification accuracy and the number of training crowns needed to perform successful classification varied depending on the number and spectral separability of species in the model. We also used a modified Michaelis-Menten function to describe the empirical relationship between training crowns and model accuracy, and show how this function may be useful for predicting accuracy. This framework can assist researchers in designing field campaigns to maximize the efficiency of field data collection, and thus the amount of biodiversity information gained from remote species identification models.

  14. Highly confined ions store charge more efficiently in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, C; Péan, C; Rotenberg, B; Madden, P A; Daffos, B; Taberna, P-L; Simon, P; Salanne, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquids exhibit specific properties when they are adsorbed in nanoporous structures. This is particularly true in the context of supercapacitors, for which an anomalous increase in performance has been observed for nanoporous electrodes. This enhancement has been traditionally attributed in experimental studies to the effect of confinement of the ions from the electrolyte inside sub-nanometre pores, which is accompanied by their partial desolvation. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations of realistic supercapacitors and show that this picture is correct at the microscopic scale. We provide a detailed analysis of the various environments experienced by the ions. We pick out four different adsorption types, and we, respectively, label them as edge, planar, hollow and pocket sites upon increase of the coordination of the molecular species by carbon atoms from the electrode. We show that both the desolvation and the local charge stored on the electrode increase with the degree of confinement.

  15. Numerical calculation of particle collection efficiency in an electrostatic precipitator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Gajbhiye; V Eswaran; A K Saha; Anoop Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The present numerical study involves the finding of the collection efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) using a finite volume (ANUPRAVAHA) solver for the Navier–Stokes and continuity equations, along with the Poisson’s equation for electric potential and current continuity. The particle movement is simulated using a Lagrangian approach to predict the trajectory of single particles in a fluid as the result of various forces acting on the particle. The ESP model consists of three wires and three collecting plates of combined length of L placed one after another. The calculations are carried out for a wire-to-plate spacing $H$ = 0.175 m, length of ESP $L$ = 2.210 m and wire-to-wire spacing of 0.725 m with radius of wire $R$wire = 10 mm and inlet air-particle velocity of 1.2 m/s. Different electrical potentials ($\\varphi$ = 15–30 kV) are applied to the three discharge electrodes wires. It is seen that the particle collection efficiency of the ESP increases with increasing particle diameter, electrical potential and plate length for a given inlet velocity.

  16. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei; Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Egorov, Nicolai; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2015-10-01

    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×1016 p/cm2. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment.

  17. Relation between the charge efficiency of activated carbon fiber and its desalination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Ming; Wang, Lei; Kang, Feiyu

    2012-03-20

    Four types of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with different specific surface areas (SSA) were used as electrode materials for water desalination using capacitive deionization (CDI). The carbon fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and N(2) adsorption at 77 K, and the CDI process was investigated by studying the salt adsorption, charge transfer, and also the charge efficiency of the electric double layers that are formed within the micropores inside the carbon electrodes. It is found that the physical adsorption capacity of NaCl by the ACFs increases with increasing Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the fibers. However, the two ACF materials with the highest BET surface area have the lowest electrosorptive capability. Experiments indicate that the charge efficiency of the double layers is a key property of the ACF-based electrodes because the ACF material which has the maximum charge efficiency also shows the highest salt adsorption capacity for CDI. PMID:22372914

  18. Relation between the charge efficiency of activated carbon fiber and its desalination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Ming; Wang, Lei; Kang, Feiyu

    2012-03-20

    Four types of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with different specific surface areas (SSA) were used as electrode materials for water desalination using capacitive deionization (CDI). The carbon fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and N(2) adsorption at 77 K, and the CDI process was investigated by studying the salt adsorption, charge transfer, and also the charge efficiency of the electric double layers that are formed within the micropores inside the carbon electrodes. It is found that the physical adsorption capacity of NaCl by the ACFs increases with increasing Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the fibers. However, the two ACF materials with the highest BET surface area have the lowest electrosorptive capability. Experiments indicate that the charge efficiency of the double layers is a key property of the ACF-based electrodes because the ACF material which has the maximum charge efficiency also shows the highest salt adsorption capacity for CDI.

  19. An efficient image compressor for charge coupled devices camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT-) based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD) camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS) compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the l p -norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000. PMID:25114977

  20. Dithiapyrannylidenes as efficient hole collection interfacial layers in organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Stéphane; Tortech, Ludovic; Véber, Michelle; Fichou, Denis

    2010-11-01

    One inherent limitation to the efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells based on polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) is the accumulation of positive charges at the anodic interface. The unsymmetrical charge collection of holes and electrons dramatically decreases the short-circuit current. Interfacial layers (IFLs) such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) have no effect on the unbalanced electron/hole transport across the BHJ. We report here on the use of dithiapyrannylidenes (DITPY), a new class of planar quinoid compounds, as efficient hole-transporting/electron-blocking layers in organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) BHJs. Inserting a 15-nm-thick IFL of 4,4'-bis(diphenyl-2,6-thiapyrannylidene) (DITPY-Ph(4)) between the indium-tin oxide electrode and the P3HT:PCBM BHJ prevents detrimental space-charge effects and favors recombination-limited currents. Current-sensing atomic force microscopy reveals a drastic increase of the hole-carrying pathways in DITPY-Ph(4) compared to PEDOT:PSS. In ambient conditions, photovoltaic cells using DITPY-Ph(4) exhibit an 8% increase in the current density, although the conversion efficiency remains slightly lower compared to PEDOT:PSS-based devices. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the photocurrent generation, showing that DITPY-Ph(4) IFLs induce a transition from unproductive space-charge-limited currents to recombination-limited currents. PMID:21028838

  1. Ionization Efficiency of Doubly Charged Ions Formed from Polyprotic Acids in Electrospray Negative Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liigand, Piia; Kaupmees, Karl; Kruve, Anneli

    2016-07-01

    The ability of polyprotic acids to give doubly charged ions in negative mode electrospray was studied and related to physicochemical properties of the acids via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was discovered that the compound has to be strongly acidic (low p K a1 and p K a2) and to have high hydrophobicity (log P ow) to become multiply charged. Ability to give multiply charged ions in ESI/MS cannot be directly predicted from the solution phase acidities. Therefore, for the first time, a quantitative model to predict the charge state of the analyte in ESI/MS is proposed and validated for small anions. Also, a model to predict ionization efficiencies of these analytes was developed. Results indicate that acidity of the analyte, its octanol-water partition coefficient, and charge delocalization are important factors that influence ionization efficiencies as well as charge states of the analytes. The pH of the solvent was also found to be an important factor influencing the ionization efficiency of doubly charged ions.

  2. Production, collection and utilization of very long-lived heavy charged leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Goity, J L; Sher, M; Sher, Marc

    1993-01-01

    If a fourth generation of leptons exists, both the neutrino and its charged partner must be heavier than 45 GeV. We suppose that the neutrino is the heavier of the two, and that a global or discrete symmetry prohibits intergenerational mixing. In that case, non-renormalizable Planck scale interactions will induce a very small mixing; dimension five interactions will lead to a lifetime for the heavy charged lepton of $O(1-100)$ years. Production of such particles is discussed, and it is shown that a few thousands can be produced and collected at a linear collider. The possible uses of these heavy leptons is also briefly discussed.

  3. A high efficiency all-PMOS charge pump for 3D NAND flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyin, Fu; Yu, Wang; Qi, Wang; Zongliang, Huo

    2016-07-01

    For 3D vertical NAND flash memory, the charge pump output load is much larger than that of the planar NAND, resulting in the performance degradation of the conventional Dickson charge pump. Therefore, a novel all PMOS charge pump with high voltage boosting efficiency, large driving capability and high power efficiency for 3D V-NAND has been proposed. In this circuit, the Pelliconi structure is used to enhance the driving capability, two auxiliary substrate bias PMOS transistors are added to mitigate the body effect, and the degradation of the output voltage and boost efficiency caused by the threshold voltage drop is eliminated by dynamic gate control structure. Simulated results show that the proposed charge pump circuit can achieve the maximum boost efficiency of 86% and power efficiency of 50%. The output voltage of the proposed 9 stages charge pump can exceed 2 V under 2 MHz clock frequency in 2X nm 3D V-NAND technology. Our results provide guidance for the peripheral circuit design of high density 3D V-NAND integration.

  4. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, Elena, E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Egorov, Nicolai [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, 4 Passage 4806, Moscow, Zelenograd 124460 (Russian Federation); Härkönen, Jaakko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 64 (Gustaf Hallströmin katu 2) FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2}. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment. - Highlights: • Si detectors irradiated in situ at 1.9 K by 23 GeV protons are further studied. • Trapping parameters are derived from the fits of collected charge vs. fluence data. • Acceptor-type defects are likely to be induced along with donor-type ones. • Trapping of holes has a dominating effect on the collected charge degradation. • New tests are planned to gain deeper insight

  5. A simulation of a CdTe gamma ray detector based on collection efficiency profiles as determined by lateral IBIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittone, E.; Fizzotti, F.; Lo Giudice, A.; Polesello, P.; Manfredotti, C.

    1999-06-01

    Collection efficiency profiles as determined by the ion beam-induced charge (IBIC) technique have been considered to evaluate the spectroscopic performance of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear radiation detector. The dependence of such profiles on the applied bias voltage and the shaping time are presented and discussed on the basis of a theoretical model, which is also used to evaluate the electron/hole collection lengths profiles. Experimental collection efficiency profiles were used as input data of the "ISIDE" Monte Carlo programme to simulate the CdTe response to gamma rays produced by 57Co. A systematic investigation of such spectra obtained under different detection conditions shows the effects of non constant collection efficiency profiles and ballistic deficit on the energy resolution of the detector.

  6. A simulation of a CdTe gamma ray detector based on collection efficiency profiles as determined by lateral IBIC

    CERN Document Server

    Vittone, E; Lo Giudice, A; Polesello, P; Manfredotti, C

    1999-01-01

    Collection efficiency profiles as determined by the ion beam-induced charge (IBIC) technique have been considered to evaluate the spectroscopic performance of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear radiation detector. The dependence of such profiles on the applied bias voltage and the shaping time are presented and discussed on the basis of a theoretical model, which is also used to evaluate the electron/hole collection lengths profiles. Experimental collection efficiency profiles were used as input data of the 'ISIDE' Monte Carlo programme to simulate the CdTe response to gamma rays produced by sup 5 sup 7 Co. A systematic investigation of such spectra obtained under different detection conditions shows the effects of non constant collection efficiency profiles and ballistic deficit on the energy resolution of the detector.

  7. A simulation of a CdTe gamma ray detector based on collection efficiency profiles as determined by lateral IBIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection efficiency profiles as determined by the ion beam-induced charge (IBIC) technique have been considered to evaluate the spectroscopic performance of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear radiation detector. The dependence of such profiles on the applied bias voltage and the shaping time are presented and discussed on the basis of a theoretical model, which is also used to evaluate the electron/hole collection lengths profiles. Experimental collection efficiency profiles were used as input data of the 'ISIDE' Monte Carlo programme to simulate the CdTe response to gamma rays produced by 57Co. A systematic investigation of such spectra obtained under different detection conditions shows the effects of non constant collection efficiency profiles and ballistic deficit on the energy resolution of the detector

  8. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ∼2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles

  9. CHANTI: a Fast and Efficient Charged Particle Veto Detector for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Di Filippo, D; Massarotti, P; Mirra, M; Napolitano, M; Palladino, V; Saracino, G; Roscilli, L; Vanzanella, A; Corradi, G; Tagnani, D; Paglia, U

    2016-01-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  10. Improved charge collection of the buried p-i-n a-Si:H radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge collection in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) radiation detectors is improved for high LET particle detection by adding thin intrinsic layers to the usual p-i-n structure. This buried p-i-n structure enables us to apply higher bias and the electric field is enhanced. When irradiated by 5.8 MeV α particles, the 5.7 μm thick buried p-i-n detector with bias 300V gives a signal size of 60,000 electrons, compared to about 20,000 electrons with the simple p-i-n detectors. The improved charge collection in the new structure is discussed. The capability of tailoring the field profile by doping a-Si:H opens a way to some interesting device structures. 17 refs., 7 figs

  11. Radiation detector device for rejecting and excluding incomplete charge collection events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Vernon, Emerson; Yang, Ge; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B.

    2016-05-10

    A radiation detector device is provided that is capable of distinguishing between full charge collection (FCC) events and incomplete charge collection (ICC) events based upon a correlation value comparison algorithm that compares correlation values calculated for individually sensed radiation detection events with a calibrated FCC event correlation function. The calibrated FCC event correlation function serves as a reference curve utilized by a correlation value comparison algorithm to determine whether a sensed radiation detection event fits the profile of the FCC event correlation function within the noise tolerances of the radiation detector device. If the radiation detection event is determined to be an ICC event, then the spectrum for the ICC event is rejected and excluded from inclusion in the radiation detector device spectral analyses. The radiation detector device also can calculate a performance factor to determine the efficacy of distinguishing between FCC and ICC events.

  12. A stochastic model for the semiclassical collective dynamics of charged beams in particle accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    A recent proposal (see quant-ph/9803068) to simulate semiclassical corrections to classical dynamics by suitable classical stochastic fluctuations is applied to the specific instance of charged beam dynamics in particle accelerators. The resulting picture is that the collective beam dynamics, at the leading semiclassical order in Planck constant can be described by a particular diffusion process, the Nelson process, which is time-reversal invariant. Its diffusion coefficient $\\sqrt{N}\\lambda_...

  13. Investigation of spatial variations in collection efficiency of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltner, Jason Fredrick

    2001-11-01

    In an effort to investigate spatial variations in solar cells, an apparatus which is capable of mapping collection efficiency with micron resolution and near- solar intensity has been developed. Local reductions in collection are observed in CdTe- and Cu(In1- xGax)Se2- based devices, and are characterized by measuring the response as a function of cell bias and incident laser intensity. By modeling this data with an equivalent circuit, it is clear that the majority of local variations in the response are due to series resistance variations. Further, direct evidence is given for bandgap variations in CdTe solar cells, which are correlated with high resistance regions in some devices. The bandgap variation is attributed to diffusion of S into CdTe, forming the lower bandgap CdTe1- xSx, during the post-deposition CdCl2 treatment commonly used to improve performance. Investigation of the impact of CdCl2 on a CdTe solar cell indicates that the treatment reduces the number of variations seen with above-bandgap photon energies, but also increases local variations in bandgap. The latter effect has been attributed to non-uniform penetration of CdCl2 to the device interface. Finally, elevated-temperature stress on CdTe devices is shown to preferentially degrade regions which exhibit decreases in bandgap, and hence increased S alloying.

  14. Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Pennicard, David; Sarajlic, Milija; Graafsma, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ~10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The mode...

  15. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Dykstra, J E; Porada, S; van der Wal, A; Yoon, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, Λ, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for Λ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less than the theoretical maximum of unity, due to the fact that not only counterions are adsorbed into the pores of the carbon electrodes, but at the same time coions are released. To enhance Λ, ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can be implemented. With membranes, Λ can be close to unity because the membranes only allow passage for the counterions. Enhancing the value of Λ is advantageous as this implies a lower electrical current and (at a fixed charging voltage) a reduced energy use. We demonstrate how, without the need to include IEMs, the charge efficiency can be increased to values close to the theoretical maximum of unity, by increasing the cell voltage during discharge, with only a small loss of salt adsorption capacity per cycle. In separate constant-current CDI experiments, where after some time the effluent salt concentration reaches a stable value, this value is reached earlier with increased discharge voltage. We compare the experimental results with predictions of porous electrode theory which includes an equilibrium Donnan electrical double layer model for salt adsorption in carbon micropores. Our results highlight the potential of modified operational schemes in CDI to increase charge efficiency and reduce energy use of water desalination. PMID:25278271

  16. Charge Transfer and Triplet States in High Efficiency OPV Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The advantage of using polymers and molecules in electronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LED), field-effect transistors (FET) and, more recently, solar cells (SC) is justified by the unique combination of high device performance and processing of the semiconductors used. Power conversion efficiency of nanostructured polymer SC is in the range of 10% on lab scale, making them ready for up-scaling. Efficient charge carrier generation and recombination in SC are strongly related to dissociation of the primary singlet excitons. The dissociation (or charge transfer) process should be very efficient in photovoltaics. The mechanisms governing charge carrier generation, recombination and transport in SC based on the so-called bulk-heterojunctions, i.e. blends of two or more semiconductors with different electron affinities, appear to be very complex, as they imply the presence of the intermediate excited states, neutral and charged ones. Charge transfer states, or polaron pairs, are the intermediate states between free electrons/holes and strongly bound excitons. Interestingly, the mostly efficient OLEDs to date are based on the so-called triplet emitters, which utilize the triplet-triplet annihilation process. In SC, recent investigations indicated that on illumination of the device active layer, not only mobile charges but also triplet states were formed. With respect to triplets, it is unclear how these excited states are generated, via inter-system crossing or via back transfer of the electron from acceptor to donor. Triplet formation may be considered as charge carrier loss channel; however, the fusion of two triplets may lead to a formation of singlet excitons instead. In such case, a generation of charges by utilizing of the so far unused photons will be possible. The fundamental understanding of the processes involving the charge transfer and triplet states and their relation to nanoscale morphology and/or energetics of blends is essential for the

  17. A comprehensive approach for computation and implementation of efficient electricity transmission network charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, Luis; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J. [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive design of electricity transmission charges that are meant to recover regulated network costs. In addition, these charges must be able to meet a set of inter-related objectives. Most importantly, they should encourage potential network users to internalize transmission costs in their location decisions, while interfering as least as possible with the short-term behaviour of the agents in the power system, since this should be left to regulatory instruments in the operation time range. The paper also addresses all those implementation issues that are essential for the sound design of a system of transmission network charges: stability and predictability of the charges; fair and efficient split between generation and demand charges; temporary measures to account for the low loading of most new lines; number and definition of the scenarios to be employed for the calculation and format of the final charges to be adopted: capacity, energy or per customer charges. The application of the proposed method is illustrated with a realistic numerical example that is based on a single scenario of the 2006 winter peak in the Spanish power system. (author)

  18. A comprehensive approach for computation and implementation of efficient electricity transmission network charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comprehensive design of electricity transmission charges that are meant to recover regulated network costs. In addition, these charges must be able to meet a set of inter-related objectives. Most importantly, they should encourage potential network users to internalize transmission costs in their location decisions, while interfering as least as possible with the short-term behaviour of the agents in the power system, since this should be left to regulatory instruments in the operation time range. The paper also addresses all those implementation issues that are essential for the sound design of a system of transmission network charges: stability and predictability of the charges; fair and efficient split between generation and demand charges; temporary measures to account for the low loading of most new lines; number and definition of the scenarios to be employed for the calculation and format of the final charges to be adopted: capacity, energy or per customer charges. The application of the proposed method is illustrated with a realistic numerical example that is based on a single scenario of the 2006 winter peak in the Spanish power system.

  19. Generating free charges by carrier multiplication in quantum dots for highly efficient photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Sybren; Sandeep, C S Suchand; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Kinge, Sachin; Houtepen, Arjan J; Schins, Juleon M; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: In a conventional photovoltaic device (solar cell or photodiode) photons are absorbed in a bulk semiconductor layer, leading to excitation of an electron from a valence band to a conduction band. Directly after photoexcitation, the hole in the valence band and the electron in the conduction band have excess energy given by the difference between the photon energy and the semiconductor band gap. In a bulk semiconductor, the initially hot charges rapidly lose their excess energy as heat. This heat loss is the main reason that the theoretical efficiency of a conventional solar cell is limited to the Shockley-Queisser limit of ∼33%. The efficiency of a photovoltaic device can be increased if the excess energy is utilized to excite additional electrons across the band gap. A sufficiently hot charge can produce an electron-hole pair by Coulomb scattering on a valence electron. This process of carrier multiplication (CM) leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs for the absorption of one photon. In bulk semiconductors such as silicon, the energetic threshold for CM is too high to be of practical use. However, CM in nanometer sized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) offers prospects for exploitation in photovoltaics. CM leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs that are initially in close proximity. For photovoltaic applications, these charges must escape from recombination. This Account outlines our recent progress in the generation of free mobile charges that result from CM in QDs. Studies of charge carrier photogeneration and mobility were carried out using (ultrafast) time-resolved laser techniques with optical or ac conductivity detection. We found that charges can be extracted from photoexcited PbS QDs by bringing them into contact with organic electron and hole accepting materials. However, charge localization on the QD produces a strong Coulomb attraction to its counter charge in the organic material. This limits the production

  20. Characteristics of high efficiency current charging system for HTS magnet with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Wook; Yoon, Yong-Soo; Chung, Yoon-Do; Jo, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Ho-Min; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Oh, Jae-Gi; Ko, Tae-Kuk

    In terms of electrical energy, the technical fusion with solar energy system is promisingly applied in order to improve the efficiency in the power applications, since the solar energy system can convert an eternal electric energy in all-year-around. As one of such power applications, we proposed a current charging system for HTS magnet combined with solar energy (CHS). As this system can operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy, the operating efficiency is practically improved. The power converter, which is interfaced with solar energy and HTS magnet systems, plays an important role to transfer the stable electric energy and thus, the stabilized performance of the converter with solar energy system is one of essential factors. In this study, we investigated various charging performances under different operating conditions of the converter. In addition, operating characteristics have been analyzed by solving solar cell equivalent equations based on circuit simulation program.

  1. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that are frequen...

  2. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-04-28

    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  3. Reading a GEM with a VLSI pixel ASIC used as a direct charge collecting anode

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, R; Baldini, L; Bitti, F; Brez, A; Latronico, L; Massai, M M; Minuti, M; Omodei, N; Razzano, M; Sgro, C; Spandre, G; Costa, E; Soffitta, P

    2004-01-01

    In MicroPattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) when the pixel size is below 100 micron and the number of pixels is large (above 1000) it is virtually impossible to use the conventional PCB read-out approach to bring the signal charge from the individual pixel to the external electronics chain. For this reason a custom CMOS array of 2101 active pixels with 80 micron pitch, directly used as the charge collecting anode of a GEM amplifying structure, has been developed and built. Each charge collecting pad, hexagonally shaped, realized using the top metal layer of a deep submicron VLSI technology is individually connected to a full electronics chain (pre-amplifier, shaping-amplifier, sample and hold, multiplexer) which is built immediately below it by using the remaining five active layers. The GEM and the drift electrode window are assembled directly over the chip so the ASIC itself becomes the pixelized anode of a MicroPattern Gas Detector. With this approach, for the first time, gas detectors have reached the level of i...

  4. Charging operation with high energy efficiency for electric vehicle valve-regulated lead-acid battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae Res. Lab., Lithium Battery Project, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power Co., Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    A new, high-energy-efficiency charging operation with as little amount of overcharge as possible is proposed to improve the energy efficiency and the cycle life for an EV valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Under this operation, the EV battery system is charged with 105% of amount of the preceding discharge five out of six times and once with 115% in order that it is fully charged. The cycle lives were estimated using a valve-regulated lead-acid battery system of 12 modules connected in series, by SFUDS79 pattern discharging and measurement of the amount of discharge every 50 cycles. Three-step constant current charging with 115% of amount of the preceding discharge required more than 5 h with the final charging step of more than 210 min, with coulomb efficiency of only 87% and energy efficiency of 74%. On the other hand, under the high-energy-efficiency charging operation, three-step charging with 105% shortens the final charging time to 132 min. It was completed in less than 4 h with coulomb and energy efficiency of 95% and 84%, respectively. This operation increased the energy efficiency from 74% to 83% on average in six charging, and extended the cycle life by about 30% to more than 400 cycles. Decreasing the amount of charge by as much as possible suppressed the corrosion of the grids in the positive plate and the heat evolution in batteries due to shortening of the final charging step. Although the high-energy-efficiency charging operation led to the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} at the upper part of the negative plate, possibly due to the decreasing amount of overcharge, this operation could prolong the cycle life. Full charging once every six times is though to be effective in suppressing degradation caused by the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} in the negative plate due to the shortage of charge. (orig.)

  5. Ab initio investigation of collective charge excitations in MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Wei; Pickett, W E; Scalettar, R T; Eguiluz, A G

    2002-02-01

    A sharp collective charge excitation is predicted in MgB2 at approximately 2.5 eV for q perpendicular to the boron layers, based on an all-electron analysis of the dynamical density response within time-dependent density functional theory. This novel excitation, consisting of coherent charge fluctuation between Mg and B sheets, induces an abrupt plasma edge in the experimentally observable reflectivity. The existence of this mode reflects the unique electronic structure of MgB2 that is also responsible for strong electron-phonon coupling. By contrast, the acoustic plasmon, recently suggested to explain the high T(c), is not realized when realistic transition strengths are incorporated.

  6. Importance of separated efficiencies between positively and negatively charged particles for cumulant calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Esumi, ShinIchi; Masui, Hiroshi; Luo, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We show the importance of separated efficiency corrections between positively and negatively charged particles for cumulant calculations by Monte Carlo toy models and analytical calculations. Our results indicate that S{\\sigma} in published net-proton results from the STAR experiment will be suppressed about 5 to 10% in central collisions, and 10 to 20% in peripheral collisions at the beam energy of \\sqrt s_{NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV if the separated efficiencies are used to efficiency correction.

  7. 78 FR 72874 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block... information and reporting guidance concerning the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG...: ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Status Report''; (3) Type of...

  8. Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaics: Charge-Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-19

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices that harvest the energy provided by the sun have great potential as renewable energy sources, yet uptake has been hampered by the increased cost of solar electricity compared with fossil fuels. Hybrid metal halide perovskites have recently emerged as low-cost active materials in PV cells with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 20%. Rapid progress has been achieved over only a few years through improvements in materials processing and device design. In addition, hybrid perovskites appear to be good light emitters under certain conditions, raising the prospect of applications in low-cost light-emitting diodes and lasers. Further optimization of such hybrid perovskite devices now needs to be supported by a better understanding of how light is converted into electrical currents and vice versa. This Account provides an overview of charge-carrier recombination and mobility mechanisms encountered in such materials. Optical-pump-terahertz-probe (OPTP) photoconductivity spectroscopy is an ideal tool here, because it allows the dynamics of mobile charge carriers inside the perovskite to be monitored following excitation with a short laser pulse whose photon energy falls into the range of the solar spectrum. We first review our insights gained from transient OPTP and photoluminescence spectroscopy on the mechanisms dominating charge-carrier recombination in these materials. We discuss that mono-molecular charge-recombination predominantly originates from trapping of charges, with trap depths being relatively shallow (tens of millielectronvolts) for hybrid lead iodide perovskites. Bimolecular recombination arises from direct band-to-band electron-hole recombination and is found to be in significant violation of the simple Langevin model. Auger recombination exhibits links with electronic band structure, in accordance with its requirement for energy and momentum conservation for all charges involved. We further discuss charge-carrier mobility

  9. 24 CFR 2002.13 - Charges for interest and for unsuccessful searches; utilization of Debt Collection Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... charged in a timely fashion (i.e., within 30 days of the date of the billing), HUD may, under the authority of the Debt Collection Act and part 17, subpart C of this title, use consumer reporting...

  10. Nonlinear delta f Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hong Qi

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, ...

  11. Localization-dependent charge separation efficiency at an organic/inorganic hybrid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Laura; Bogner, Lea; Wolf, Martin; Stähler, Julia

    2016-02-01

    By combining complementary optical techniques, photoluminescence and time-resolved excited state absorption, we achieve a comprehensive picture of the relaxation processes in the organic/inorganic hybrid system SP6/ZnO. We identify two long-lived excited states of the organic molecules of which only the lowest energy one, localized on the sexiphenyl backbone of the molecule, is found to efficiently charge separate to the ZnO conduction band or radiatively recombine. The other state, most likely localized on the spiro-linked biphenyl, relaxes only by intersystem crossing to a long-lived, probably triplet state, thus acting as a sink of the excitation and limiting the charge separation efficiency.

  12. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  13. The Tracer Gas Method of Determining the Charging Efficiency of Two-stroke-cycle Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, P H; Deluca, Frank, Jr

    1942-01-01

    A convenient method has been developed for determining the scavenging efficiency or the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle engines. The method consists of introducing a suitable tracer gas into the inlet air of the running engine and measuring chemically its concentration both in the inlet and exhaust gas. Monomethylamine CH(sub 3)NH(sub 2) was found suitable for the purpose as it burns almost completely during combustion, whereas the "short-circuited" portion does not burn at all and can be determined quantitatively in the exhaust. The method was tested both on four-stroke and on two-stroke engines and is considered accurate within 1 percent.

  14. The effect of charge collection recovery in silicon p-n junction detectors irradiated by different particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E. E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@pop.ioffe.rssi.ru; Abreu, M.; Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T.; D' Ambrosio, N.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Cindro, V.; Dezillie, B.; Dierlamm, A.; Eremin, V.; Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Grohmann, S.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Haerkoenen, J.; Ilyashenko, I.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Kalesinskas, V.; Kapturauskas, J.; Laiho, R.; Li, Z.; Mandic, I.; De Masi, Rita; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Militaru, O.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O' Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Perea Solano, B.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato Mendes, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Tuominen, E.; Vaitkus, J.; Da Via, C.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M

    2003-11-21

    The recovery of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at low temperatures, the so-called 'Lazarus effect', was studied in Si detectors irradiated by fast reactor neutrons, by protons of medium and high energy, by pions and by gamma-rays. The experimental results show that the Lazarus effect is observed: (a) after all types of irradiation; (b) before and after space charge sign inversion; (c) only in detectors that are biased at voltages resulting in partial depletion at room temperature. The experimental temperature dependence of the CCE for proton-irradiated detectors shows non-monotonic behaviour with a maximum at a temperature defined as the CCE recovery temperature. The model of the effect for proton-irradiated detectors agrees well with that developed earlier for detectors irradiated by neutrons. The same midgap acceptor-type and donor-type levels are responsible for the Lazarus effect in detectors irradiated by neutrons and by protons. A new, abnormal 'zigzag'-shaped temperature dependence of the CCE was observed for detectors irradiated by all particles (neutrons, protons and pions) and by an ultra-high dose of {gamma}-rays, when operating at low bias voltages. This effect is explained in the framework of the double-peak electric field distribution model for heavily irradiated detectors. The redistribution of the space charge region depth between the depleted regions adjacent to p{sup +} and n{sup +} contacts is responsible for the 'zigzag'- shaped curves. It is shown that the CCE recovery temperature increases with reverse bias in all detectors, regardless of the type of radiation.

  15. 78 FR 49736 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block... information and reporting guidance concerning the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG... information collection request contains: (1) 1910-5150; (2) ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  16. Photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy probing the traps in field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Seongil; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materia...

  17. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  18. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  19. Collectivity Embedded in Complex Spectra Example of Nuclear Double-Charge Exchange Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdz, S; Speth, J; Wójcik, M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of collectivity coexisting with chaos is investigated on the quantum level. The complex spectra are represented in the basis of two-particle two-hole states describing the nuclear double-charge exchange modes in $^{48}$Ca. An example of $J^{\\pi}=0^-$ excitations shows that the residual interaction, which generically implies chaotic behavior, under certain specific and well identified conditions may create transitions stronger than those corresponding to the pure mean-field picture. Therefore, for this type of excitations such an effect is not generic and in most cases the strength of transitions is likely to take much lower values, even close to the Porter-Thomas distributed.

  20. Depletion voltage and charge collection for highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors with various initial resistivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannara, R.; Dezillie, B.; Dubbs, T. [and others

    1999-12-01

    The authors have irradiated p-on-n silicon microstrip detectors of initial bulk resistivity between 0.2 and 2.7 k{Omega}-cm with 55MeV protons to fluences of 0.7, 2 and 11 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2} (equivalent to twice the fluence in high energy protons), and have measured the depletion voltage before and after irradiation using C-V methods. In addition, they have measured the charge collection of minimum ionization on a single strip with a fast amplifier as a function of bias voltage. They compare the depletion voltage deduced from both methods for samples with different initial resistivities.

  1. A stochastic model for the semiclassical collective dynamics of charged beams in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    A recent proposal (see quant-ph/9803068) to simulate semiclassical corrections to classical dynamics by suitable classical stochastic fluctuations is applied to the specific instance of charged beam dynamics in particle accelerators. The resulting picture is that the collective beam dynamics, at the leading semiclassical order in Planck constant can be described by a particular diffusion process, the Nelson process, which is time-reversal invariant. Its diffusion coefficient $\\sqrt{N}\\lambda_{c}$ represents a semiclassical unit of emittance (here $N$ is the number of particles in the beam, and $\\lambda_{c}$ is the Compton wavelength). The stochastic dynamics of the Nelson type can be easily recast in the form of a Schroedinger equation, with the semiclassical unit of emittance replacing Planck constant. Therefore we provide a physical foundation to the several quantum-like models of beam dynamics proposed in recent years. We also briefly touch upon applications of the Nelson and Schroedinger formalisms to inc...

  2. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  3. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN6)/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN6 and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m2. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN6 and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency

  4. Tailoring Membrane Nanostructure and Charge Density for High Electrokinetic Energy Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldrup, Sofie; Catalano, Jacopo; Hinge, Mogens; Jensen, Grethe V; Pedersen, Jan S; Bentien, Anders

    2016-02-23

    The electrokinetic energy conversion (EKEC) of hydraulic work directly into electrical energy has been investigated in charged polymeric membranes with different pore charge densities and characteristic diameters of the nanoporous network. The membranes were synthesized from blends of nitrocellulose and sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and were comprehensively characterized with respect to structure, composition, and transport properties. It is shown that the SPS can be used as a sacrificial pore generation medium to tune the pore size and membrane porosity, which in turn highly affects the transport properties of the membranes. Furthermore, it is shown that very high EKEC efficiencies (>35%) are encountered in a rather narrow window of the properties of the nanoporous membrane network, that is, with pore diameters of ca. 10 nm and pore charge densities of 4.6 × 10(2) to 1.5 × 10(3) mol SO3(-) m(-3) for dilute solutions (0.03 M LiCl). The high absolute value of the efficiency combined with the determination of the optimal membrane morphology makes membrane-based EKEC devices a step closer to practical applications and high-performance membrane design less empirical.

  5. Nonlinear δf Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles

  6. A study of signal generation and charge collection in a-Si:H diodes for radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Its high radiation resistivity and large-area capability are the expected advantages of this material together with its ability to provide a front-end readout electronics in the vicinity of the sensor element. Electrons and holes created by incoming charged particles, X-rays, γ rays, are drifted by the electric field inside a-Si:H diodes and this carrier movement induces signal charges on electrodes. Charge collection and signal generation process are analyzed in terms of carrier mobilities, lifetimes and electric field. Charge collection in thick a-Si:H diodes is often limited by deep-level trapping of carriers during transit and a finite charge integration time required for single particle counting in some applications and sometimes by volume recombination of carriers for detecting heavily-ionizing particles such as α particles. The charge collection process is also strongly affected by the non-uniform electric field profiles in a-Si:H diodes caused by the fixed space charges inside the material under reverse-bias. Signal generation due to a weak light pulse irradiating each end of a thick diode is measured as a function of a reverse-bias and it gives a valuable information about the fixed space charges. Field profiles can be manipulated by either doping, electrode geometry, or combination of both to improve the charge collection process. One can apply a higher reverse-bias on a diode with an equivalent thickness by providing buffer layers at each end of the diode and thus suppressing soft breakdown phenomena. X-ray detection with a good sensitivity is demonstrated by an a-Si:H photodiode coupled to an evaporated CsI scintillator. The scintillation quality of evaporated CsI layers can be made almost identical to its single crystal counterpart. Fields of a-Si:H radiation detector application include high energy physics, medical imaging, materials science and life science. 78 refs., 68 figs., 11 tabs

  7. The study of capacitive deionization behavior of a carbon nanotube electrode from the perspective of charge efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Liang, Sen; Gao, Mangmang; Li, Guolong; Li, Jin; He, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the capacitive deionization (CDI) performance of a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode has been studied from the point view of charge efficiency theory. It is revealed here that the charge efficiency of a CNT electrode is strongly dependent upon the cell voltage and solution concentration. Either the high cell voltage or the low ionic strength results in a high charge efficiency, implying that CDI is expected to be a promising technique for an aqueous solution with low ionic strength. Additionally, it is found that the high decay constant and high electrical double-layer capacity are beneficial to enhance electrosorption performance. PMID:25607673

  8. Photoconductive response in organic charge transfer interfaces with high quantum efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Helena; Pinto, Rui M; Maçôas, Ermelinda S

    2013-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have unique optical, mechanical and electronic properties that can be combined with customized chemical functionality. In the crystalline form, determinant features for electronic applications, such as molecular purity, the charge mobility or the exciton diffusion length, reveal a superior improved performance when compared with materials in a more disordered form. However, the use of organic single crystals in devices is still limited to a few applications, such as field-effect transistors. Here we report the first example of photoconductive behaviour of single-crystal charge-transfer interfaces. The system composed of rubrene and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane presents a responsivity reaching 1 AW(-1), corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This result opens the possibility of using organic single-crystal interfaces in photonic applications. PMID:23673627

  9. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.......A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding...

  10. ANALYSIS ON CYCLONE COLLECTION EFFICIENCIES AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyi Chen; Mingxian Shi

    2003-01-01

    In order to predict the influence of operating temperature on cyclone performance, an experimental investigation on particle separation was conducted in a 300 mm diameter, tangential volute-inlet and reverse flow cyclone separator with air heated up to 973 K. The test powder silica has a mean mass diameter of 10 microns and the measured as a function of the inlet velocity and operating temperature. It is shown that at the same inlet velocity both the overall efficiency and fractional efficiency decrease with an increase of temperature. An analysis of our own data and published results has shown that the fractional efficiency of a cyclone is a definite function of such dimensionless numbers as Stokes number, Reynolds number, Froude number and dimensionless cyclone inlet area and dimensionless outlet diameter. A nondimensional experimental correlation of the cyclone performance, including the influence of the temperature, was obtained on the basis of our own previous work. The prediction of the influence of temperature on separation efficiencies is in fairly good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Charge reversible gold nanoparticles for high efficient absorption and desorption of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercaptoundecylamine and mercaptoundecanoic acid co-modified Au nanoparticles were prepared by two-step ligand exchange of 6-mercaptohexanoic acid modified gold nanoparticles. Such particles terminated by appropriate ratios of the amine and carboxyl groups (RN/C) were identified to show reversible charge on their surface, which were switchable by pH of the solution. The isoelectric point (IEP) of the particles is tunable by changing the ratios of the amine and carboxyl groups on the particle surfaces. The particles can absorb DNA effectively at pH lower than the IEP driven by the direct electrostatic interactions between DNA and the particle surface. When pH of the solutions was elevated to be higher than the IEP, the absorbed DNA can be released almost completely due to the electrostatic repulsion between the particle surface and DNA. With appropriate RN/C ratios of 0.8, the absorption and desorption efficiencies of DNA were 97 and 98%, respectively, corresponding an extraction efficiency of 95 %. Such particles with reversible surface charges allow the high efficient extraction of DNA by simply changing pH instead of by changing salt concentration in the conventional salt bridge method.Graphical Abstract

  12. Surface Charge Density Determines the Efficiency of Cationic Gemini Surfactant Based Lipofection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhänen, Samppa J.; Säily, Matti J.; Paukku, Tommi; Borocci, Stefano; Mancini, Giovanna; Holopainen, Juha M.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiencies of the binary liposomes composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cationic gemini surfactant, (2S,3R)-2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium)butane dibromide as transfection vectors, were measured using the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding plasmid and COS-1 cells. Strong correlation between the transfection efficiency and lipid stoichiometry was observed. Accordingly, liposomes with XSR−1 ≥ 0.50 conveyed the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding plasmid effectively into cells. The condensation of DNA by liposomes with XSR−1 > 0.50 was indicated by static light scattering and ethidium bromide intercalation assay, whereas differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene revealed stoichiometry dependent reorganization in the headgroup region of the liposome bilayer, in alignment with our previous Langmuir-balance study. Surface charge density and the organization of positive charges appear to determine the mode of interaction of DNA with (2S,3R)-2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium)butane dibromide/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, only resulting in DNA condensation when XSR−1 > 0.50. Condensation of DNA in turn seems to be required for efficient transfection. PMID:12524311

  13. Stochastic collective dynamics of charged-particle beams in the stability regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, N C; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a description of the collective transverse dynamics of charged (proton) beams in the stability regime by suitable classical stochastic fluctuations. In this scheme, the collective beam dynamics is described by time-reversal invariant diffusion processes deduced by stochastic variational principles (Nelson processes). By general arguments, we show that the diffusion coefficient, expressed in units of length, is given by lambda(c)sqrt[N], where N is the number of particles in the beam and lambda(c) the Compton wavelength of a single constituent. This diffusion coefficient represents an effective unit of beam emittance. The hydrodynamic equations of the stochastic dynamics can be easily recast in the form of a Schrödinger equation, with the unit of emittance replacing the Planck action constant. This fact provides a natural connection to the so-called "quantum-like approaches" to beam dynamics. The transition probabilities associated to Nelson processes can be exploited to model evolutions suitable to control the transverse beam dynamics. In particular we show how to control, in the quadrupole approximation to the beam-field interaction, both the focusing and the transverse oscillations of the beam, either together or independently. PMID:11304370

  14. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; de Keizer, Marlies; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2014-04-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of other waste, although plastic is different than other waste in terms of volume to weight ratio. This paper aims for redesigning the collection routes and compares the collection options of plastic waste using eco-efficiency as performance indicator. Eco-efficiency concerns the trade-off between environmental impacts, social issues and costs. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Collection alternatives are compared by a scenario study approach. Real distances between locations are calculated with MapPoint. The scenario study is conducted based on real case data of the Dutch municipality Wageningen. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency and collection points, etc. Results show that the current collection routes can be improved in terms of eco-efficiency performance by using our method. The source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner. The model also shows to be an efficient decision support tool to investigate the impacts of future changes such as alternative vehicle type and different response rates.

  15. Design of super-efficient mixer based on induced charge electroosmotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The super-efficient sample mixing induced by the induced-charge electrokinetic flow around conducting/Janus cylinder was numerically studied in a confined |U-shaped microchannel with suddenly applied DC weak electric filed. It’s found that there are four large circulations around the conducting cylinder and two smaller circulations around the Janus cylinder. The results show that samples can still be well mixed with high flux due to the induced electroosmosis. It is demonstrated that the local flow circulations provide effective means to enhance the flow mixing between different solutions. The dependence of the degree of mixing enhancement on the electric field is also predicted.

  16. Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer based on nanobamboo array architecture for efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotian; Liow, Chihao; Bisht, Ankit; Liu, Xinfeng; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-04-01

    Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer for highly synergistic photocatalysis is successfully realized based on nanobamboo array architecture. Programmable assemblies of various components and heterogeneous interfaces, and, in turn, engineering of the energy band structure along the charge transport pathways, play a critical role in generating excellent synergistic effects of multiple components for promoting photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:25704499

  17. Influence of charge ratio of liposome/DNA complexes on their size after extrusion and transfection efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brgles M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marija Brgles, Maja Šantak, Beata Halassy, Dubravko Forcic, Jelka TomašicInstitute of Immunology, Research and Development Department, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: Physicochemical characteristics of liposome/DNA complexes influence transfection efficiency and affect each other in a very intricate way. The result of this is discrepancies in conclusions drawn about the individual influence of each one.Methods: Aiming to elucidate the influence of liposome/DNA charge ratio and size on transfection efficiency and on each other, we used liposome/DNA complexes with charge ratio (+/- in the range of 1–50 and extruded through membranes of 400, 200, and 100 nm. Plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein was used to measure transfection efficiency by flow cytometry. Sizes of liposome/DNA complexes were measured by dynamic light scattering.Results: Liposome size was reduced after extrusion but this was mainly driven by the charge ratio and not by the size of the membrane pores. Reduction of complex size at each charge ratio positively correlated with transfection efficiency. When the size of the complexes was approximately constant, increasing the charge ratio was found to promote transfection efficiency. Cationic lipid N-(1-(2,3-dioleoyloxypropylN,N,N trimethylammonium chloride was used for modulation of positive charge and a cytotoxicity test showed that increasing its amount increases cytotoxicity.Conclusion: It can be concluded that charge ratio dictates the size of the complex whereas overall size reduction and higher charge ratios promote transfection efficiency in vitro.Keywords: transfection efficiency, liposome charge, liposome size

  18. Estimation of Collection Efficiency Depended on Feed Particle Concentration for Axial Flow Cyclone Dust Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AkiraOgawa

    1999-01-01

    A cyclone dust collector is applied in many industries.Especially the axial flow cyclone is the most simple construction and if keeps high reliability for maintenance.On the other hand,the collection efficiency of the cyclone depends not only on the inlet gas velocity but also on the feed particle concentration.The collection efficiency increases with increasing feed particle concentration.However until now the problem of how to estimate the collection efficiency depended on the feed particle concentration is remained except the investigation by Muschelknautz & Brunner[6],Therefore in this paper one of the estimate method for the collection efficiency of the axial flow cyclones is proposed .The application to the geometrically similar type of cyclone of the body diameters D1=30,50,69and 99mm showed in good agreement with the experimental results of the collection efficiencies which were described in detail in the paper by ogawa & Sugiyama[8].

  19. Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots for efficient cellular uptake by charge mediation and monitoring cell membrane permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Suhua; Song Haipeng; Huang Dejian [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Ong Weiyi [Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Han Mingyong, E-mail: chmhdj@nus.edu.s [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)

    2009-10-21

    Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots (Tren-QDs) were achieved by surface functionalization with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (Tren) derivatives, which are attached to the inorganic cores of QDs through bidentate chelating of dithiocarbamates. The Tren-QDs exhibit pH buffering capability by absorbing or releasing protons due to the surface polyamine groups as the surrounding pH fluctuates. Such self-buffering capability stabilizes the photoluminescence of the Tren-QDs against acid. The Tren-QDs bear positive charges through protonation of the surface polyamine groups under physiological conditions and the surface positive charges improve their cellular uptake efficiency by charge mediation, which has been demonstrated by BV-2 microglia cells. The photoluminescence of Tren-QDs shows a selective Stern-Volmer response to copper ions and this property has been preliminarily evaluated for investigating the BV-2 cell membrane structure by monitoring the photoluminescence of intracellular Tren-QDs.

  20. Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots for efficient cellular uptake by charge mediation and monitoring cell membrane permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suhua; Song, Haipeng; Ong, Wei Yi; Han, Ming Yong; Huang, Dejian

    2009-10-01

    Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots (Tren-QDs) were achieved by surface functionalization with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (Tren) derivatives, which are attached to the inorganic cores of QDs through bidentate chelating of dithiocarbamates. The Tren-QDs exhibit pH buffering capability by absorbing or releasing protons due to the surface polyamine groups as the surrounding pH fluctuates. Such self-buffering capability stabilizes the photoluminescence of the Tren-QDs against acid. The Tren-QDs bear positive charges through protonation of the surface polyamine groups under physiological conditions and the surface positive charges improve their cellular uptake efficiency by charge mediation, which has been demonstrated by BV-2 microglia cells. The photoluminescence of Tren-QDs shows a selective Stern-Volmer response to copper ions and this property has been preliminarily evaluated for investigating the BV-2 cell membrane structure by monitoring the photoluminescence of intracellular Tren-QDs.

  1. Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots for efficient cellular uptake by charge mediation and monitoring cell membrane permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots (Tren-QDs) were achieved by surface functionalization with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (Tren) derivatives, which are attached to the inorganic cores of QDs through bidentate chelating of dithiocarbamates. The Tren-QDs exhibit pH buffering capability by absorbing or releasing protons due to the surface polyamine groups as the surrounding pH fluctuates. Such self-buffering capability stabilizes the photoluminescence of the Tren-QDs against acid. The Tren-QDs bear positive charges through protonation of the surface polyamine groups under physiological conditions and the surface positive charges improve their cellular uptake efficiency by charge mediation, which has been demonstrated by BV-2 microglia cells. The photoluminescence of Tren-QDs shows a selective Stern-Volmer response to copper ions and this property has been preliminarily evaluated for investigating the BV-2 cell membrane structure by monitoring the photoluminescence of intracellular Tren-QDs.

  2. Simulations for Light Collection Efficiency (Jlab Hall C 12 GeV Kaon Aerogel Detector)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Studying the additional flavor degree of freedom in charged kaon production allows for an unexampled insight into the transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom in exclusive processes and specifically the reaction mechanism underlying strangeness production. This unique opportunity has gone greatly unexplored, however, because of the challenges posed by the experimental factors. One of these challenges is determining a method of separation for kaons from pion and proton backgrounds at high momenta. The simplest and most cost-effective solution is the implementation of a kaon aerogel Cherenkov detector. At the Catholic University of America, we are building such a detector for use in the 12GeV Hall C Super High Momentum Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. The detector will use photo multiplier tubes to collect the Cherenkov radiation given off by the aerogel and convert that signal into analyzable data that will be used to determine the form factor of the kaon, which will yield a greater understanding of the internal structure of the proton. In this presentation I will present the results from the simulations carried out to optimize the aerogel coverage and study the effect of light guides on the efficiency of the detector. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY 1019521 and 1039446.

  3. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Submission for Office of... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  4. 78 FR 34089 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Status Report AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENT DATA COLLECTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhini B

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network has wide range of applications in the field of networks. The sink nodes need to communicate effectively with other sensor nodes, for effective communication. The facts such as cluster size, energy and lifetime of the nodes should be considered to make the communication effective. While transmitting, the nodes are grouped in clusters with one head per cluster. The cluster, nearer to the sink nodes may run out of energy due to continuous utilization. So an intermediate node for communication is used, called as AGM node. The sensor nodes in the clusters, first send the information to their cluster head (chosen on the basis higher residual energy, the cluster head in turn sends the information to the AGM node whereas the AGM transmits it to the respective sensor node and vice versa. Selection of AGM among many nodes and the entire process is carried out on the basis of the maneuver algorithm, which has 6 phases like compact clustering, AGM selection, Interclustering, Load balancing and data distribution, Communication and replenishment and Reconcile algorithm. In this process the CH transmits data after eliminating redundancy in it. In case of massive damage, Reconcile algorithm is used for the efficient usage of available AGM nodes to regain from the relapsed network.

  6. Charge collection properties of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor using a HV-SOI process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Perez, S.; Backhaus, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Gallrapp, C.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Krueger, H.; Moll, M.; Padilla, C.; Pernegger, H.

    2016-01-01

    New pixel detector concepts, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity CMOS processes, are being investigated as a possible candidate to the inner and outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker in the HL-LHC upgrade. A depleted monolithic active pixel sensor on thick film SOI technology is being extensively investigated for that purpose. This particular technology provides a double well structure, which shields the thin gate oxide transistors from the Buried Oxide (BOX). In addition, the distance between transistors and BOX is one order of magnitude bigger than conventional SOI technologies, making the technology promising against its main limitations, as radiation hardness or back gate effects. Its radiation hardness to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and the absence of back gate effect up to 700 Mrad has been measured and published [1]. The process allows the use of high voltages (up to 300V) which are used to partially deplete the substrate. The process allows fabrication in higher resistivity, therefore a fully depleted substrate could be achieved after thinning. This article shows the results on charge collection properties of the silicon bulk below the BOX by different techniques, in a laboratory with radioactive sources and by edge Transient Current Technique, for unirradiated and irradiated samples.

  7. Study of charge collection and noise in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, C. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada); Bates, S. [CERN, ECP, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Dezillie, B. [CERN, ECP, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Glaser, M. [CERN, ECP, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Lemeilleur, F. [CERN, ECP, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Trigger, I. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    Charge collection and noise were studied in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors as a function of temperature (T), shaping time ({theta}) and fluence ({Phi}), up to about 1.2 x 10{sup 14} protons cm{sup -2}, for minimum ionizing electrons yielded by a {sup 106}Ru source. The noise of irradiated detectors is found dominated for short shaping times ({theta}{<=}50 ns) by a series noise component while for longer shaping time ({theta}{>=}80 ns) a parallel noise component (correlated with the reverse current) prevails. For non-irradiated detectors, where the reverse current is three orders of magnitude smaller compared with irradiated detectors, the series noise dominates over the whole range of shaping times investigated (20-150 ns). A signal degradation is observed for irradiated detectors. However, the signal can be distinguished from noise, even after a fluence of about 1.2 x 10{sup 14} protons cm{sup -2}, at a temperature of 6 C and with a shaping time typical of LHC inter-bunch crossing time (20-30 ns). The measurement of the signal as a function of voltage shows that irradiated detectors depleted at 50% of the full depletion voltage can still provide a measurable signal-to-noise ratio. (orig.).

  8. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamousis, RL; Chang, LL; Watterson, WJ; Montgomery, RD; Taylor, RP; Moule, AJ; Shaheen, SE; Ilan, B; van de Lagemaat, J; Osterloh, FE

    2014-08-21

    Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm x 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm(-2) are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10-20 mW cm(-2)) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. The low IPCE values (0.3-0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal-polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.

  9. Improving the efficiency of phytoremediation using electrically charged plant and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2016-02-01

    The low efficiency of phytoremediation is a considerable problem that limits the application of this environmentally friendly method on heavy metal-polluted soils. The combination of chelate-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation could offer new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The current experiment aims to investigate the effects of electrical fields and chelating agents on phytoremediation efficiency. In a pot experiment using mine soil, poultry manure extract (PME), cow manure extract (CME), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were applied to soil as chelating agents (2 g kg(-1)) at the beginning of the flowering stage. A week later, Helianthus annuus (sunflower) was negatively charged by inserting a stainless steel needle with 10 and 30 V DC electricity in the lowest part of the stems for 1 h each day for a 14-day period. At the end of the experiment, the shoot and root dry weight, lead (Pb) concentration in plant organs, translocation factor (TF), metal uptake index (UI), and soil available Pb (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) were detected. Results indicated that the application of electrical fields had no significant impact on the shoot and root dry weights, while Pb concentration and UI increased in the 10-V EDTA treatment by 500 % compared to control. There was no significant difference between UI in 30- and 10-V EDTA treatments. Soil available Pb significantly increased in the 30-V treated soil. A positive correlation was observed between the available Pb in soil near the root and Pb concentration in shoot, its TF, and UI. In conclusion, a negatively charged plant along with the application of EDTA significantly increased the phytoremediation efficiency.

  10. Improving the efficiency of phytoremediation using electrically charged plant and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2016-02-01

    The low efficiency of phytoremediation is a considerable problem that limits the application of this environmentally friendly method on heavy metal-polluted soils. The combination of chelate-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation could offer new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The current experiment aims to investigate the effects of electrical fields and chelating agents on phytoremediation efficiency. In a pot experiment using mine soil, poultry manure extract (PME), cow manure extract (CME), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were applied to soil as chelating agents (2 g kg(-1)) at the beginning of the flowering stage. A week later, Helianthus annuus (sunflower) was negatively charged by inserting a stainless steel needle with 10 and 30 V DC electricity in the lowest part of the stems for 1 h each day for a 14-day period. At the end of the experiment, the shoot and root dry weight, lead (Pb) concentration in plant organs, translocation factor (TF), metal uptake index (UI), and soil available Pb (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) were detected. Results indicated that the application of electrical fields had no significant impact on the shoot and root dry weights, while Pb concentration and UI increased in the 10-V EDTA treatment by 500 % compared to control. There was no significant difference between UI in 30- and 10-V EDTA treatments. Soil available Pb significantly increased in the 30-V treated soil. A positive correlation was observed between the available Pb in soil near the root and Pb concentration in shoot, its TF, and UI. In conclusion, a negatively charged plant along with the application of EDTA significantly increased the phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26423283

  11. Light trapping in a 30-nm organic photovoltaic cell for efficient carrier collection and light absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Banerjee, Ashish; Osgood, Richard M; Englund, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We describe surface patterning strategies that permit high photon-collection efficiency together with high carrier-collection efficiency in an ultra-thin planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell. Optimized designs reach up to 50% photon collection efficiency in a P3HT layer of only 30 nm, representing a 3- to 5-fold improvement over an unpatterned cell of the same thickness. We compare the enhancement of light confinement in the active layer with an ITO top layer for TE and TM polarized light, and demonstrate that the light absorption can increase by a factor of 2 due to a gap-plasmon mode in the active layer.

  12. Study of the Efficiency of Charge Matching Methods to Solve Ambiguous Tracks in 2-Sided Silicon Track Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    A GEANT-based simulation has been performed of the response of a layer of silicon micro-strips, located at 50 cm of radial distance from the LHC beam axis, in presence of a solenoidal magnetic field of 0.2 Tesla. Double-sided detectors have been considered, in which a charge signal is collected on the two sides of a silicon wafer, segmented in strips, the strips on one side being oriented at a small stereo angle relative to the strips of the other side. Then, a study was performed of the occurrence of ambiguous tracks in Pb-Pb events at the LHC energies, and of the efficiency of a method to resolve ambiguities based on the matching of the signals recorded on the two sides of the silicon detector. Results have shown that 84% of the tracks are not ambiguous, 7% are ambiguous (73% of them occurring in pairs, 16% in triples), 9% are joined together into a single cluster. Ambiguous pairs are resolved successfully by our algorithm with an average efficiency of 93%, and also the resolution for ambiguous triples apea...

  13. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-02-12

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  15. Charge collection in semi-insulator radiation detectors in the presence of a linear decreasing electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1932 Hecht obtained his famous equation concerning the charge induced on the plates of a planar radiation detector in the presence of a uniform electric field. It is well known that in many cases, due to non-ohmic contacts or, in any case, in the presence of spatial charge, the internal electric field is no longer constant, so this formula could lead to wrong conclusions. In this article the authors examine the common case of an electric field decreasing linearly along the detector thickness. This is a very interesting case because this shape of field is fairly widespread in the presence of diffused spatial charge and the functional dependence of the collected charge on varying the applied bias, in some cases, is similar to the Hecht equation. The authors believe that this model could be an important instrument for interpreting the data arising from pulsed photocurrent measures. Starting from Ramo–Shockley theorem and under the same Hecht's hypotheses (except for the uniform field), we calculate the new relation between the collected charge and the applied bias. (paper)

  16. Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 615–624. doi: 10.1002/acp.1730.

  17. Efficient Charge Extraction and Slow Recombination in Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Capped with Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihly, Rachelle; Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Yang, Mengjin; Schulz, Philip; Stanton, Noah J.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Zhu, Kai; Berry, Joseph J.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    2016-04-01

    Metal-halide based perovskite solar cells have rapidly emerged as a promising alternative to traditional inorganic and thin-film photovoltaics. Although charge transport layers are used on either side of perovskite absorber layers to extract photogenerated electrons and holes, the time scales for charge extraction and recombination are poorly understood. Ideal charge transport layers should facilitate large discrepancies between charge extraction and recombination rates. Here, we demonstrate that highly enriched semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films enable rapid (sub-picosecond) hole extraction from a prototypical perovskite absorber layer and extremely slow back-transfer and recombination (hundreds of microseconds). The energetically narrow and distinct spectroscopic signatures for charges within these SWCNT thin films enables the unambiguous temporal tracking of each charge carrier with time-resolved spectroscopies covering many decades of time. The efficient hole extraction by the SWCNT layer also improves electron extraction by the compact titanium dioxide electron transport layer, which should reduce charge accumulation at each critical interface. Finally, we demonstrate that the use of thin interface layers of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes between the perovskite absorber layer and a prototypical hole transport layer improves device efficiency and stability, and reduces hysteresis.

  18. Increasing the Efficiency of Data Collection with a Research Participation Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Angela; Herzig, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Data collection can be a frustrating experience for student researchers due to difficulty in scheduling appointments with participants. To increase the efficiency of research project data collection, we organized a Research Participation Night in which volunteers were incentivized to participate in as many experiments as time allowed. By offering…

  19. Towards a collective knowledge for a smart electric vehicle charging strategy

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; João L Afonso

    2011-01-01

    In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures, based on intelligent process. Due to the electrical power distribution network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed in a balanced way, taking into account past experience (spread in a social network). In order to allow information exchange and to help user mobility, it was also created a mobile applicatio...

  20. Free-space to single-mode collection efficiency enhancement using photonic lanterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdur, Ibrahim; Toliver, Paul; Agarwal, Anjali; Woodward, T K

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate single-mode collection efficiency enhancement for free space optical systems using a photonic lantern to collect scattered infrared light from diffuse objects at far- and near-field distances. A single-mode collection efficiency improvement of ∼8  dB is demonstrated in the near-field region relative to standard single-mode fiber. The insertion loss properties of the photonic lantern are also analyzed, and an additional insertion loss penalty is observed for near-field distances when the transmitted beam is collimated. The photonic lantern can be used for coherent detection systems such as light detection and ranging and free-space optical communication with improved collection efficiency and nearly perfect mode matching.

  1. Electrode configurations inside an electrostatic precipitator and their impact on collection efficiency and flow pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Lu; Shen, Xinjun; Li, Shuran; Yan, Keping

    2016-06-01

    Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) units have wide application in lots industries processes as gas filtration devices. Regarding their high efficiency, further improvement is still required. Wide ESP (plate-to-plate distance greater than 400 mm) is one of a promising way to improve existing ESP due to its ability to reduce equipment investment significantly. However, its large-scale application has been limited because it may potentially lead to collection efficiency reduction. This article focuses on the study of two major effects when several different electrode configurations are applied. The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow pattern inside ESP and particle collection efficiency were investigated by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) respectively. Results suggested that the collection efficiency of wide ESP is rather complicated and highly related to inner gas flow pattern.

  2. 49 CFR 375.705 - If a shipment is transported on more than one vehicle, what charges may I collect at delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle, what charges may I collect at delivery? 375.705 Section 375.705 Transportation Other Regulations...; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Delivery of Shipments § 375.705 If a shipment is transported on more than one vehicle, what charges may I collect at delivery? (a) At your discretion, you may do one of...

  3. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.

    2013-12-27

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Graphene quantum dots as a highly efficient solution-processed charge trapping medium for organic nano-floating gate memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongsung; Kim, Juhan; Cha, An-Na; Lee, Sang-A; Lee, Myung Woo; Suh, Jung Sang; Bae, Sukang; Moon, Byung Joon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Dong Su; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2016-04-01

    A highly efficient solution-processible charge trapping medium is a prerequisite to developing high-performance organic nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices. Although several candidates for the charge trapping layer have been proposed for organic memory, a method for significantly increasing the density of stored charges in nanoscale layers remains a considerable challenge. Here, solution-processible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared by a modified thermal plasma jet method; the GQDs were mostly composed of carbon without any serious oxidation, which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These GQDs have multiple energy levels because of their size distribution, and they can be effectively utilized as charge trapping media for organic NFGM applications. The NFGM device exhibited excellent reversible switching characteristics, with an on/off current ratio greater than 10(6), a stable retention time of 10(4) s and reliable cycling endurance over 100 cycles. In particular, we estimated that the GQDs layer trapped ∼7.2 × 10(12) cm(-2) charges per unit area, which is a much higher density than those of other solution-processible nanomaterials, suggesting that the GQDs layer holds promise as a highly efficient nanoscale charge trapping material. PMID:26905768

  5. Textured Nanoporous Mo:BiVO4 Photoanodes with High Charge Transport and Charge Transfer Quantum Efficiencies for Oxygen Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Vineet; Perkins, Craig L.; Lin, Qiyin; Law, Matt

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a simple spin coating method to make high-quality nanoporous photoelectrodes of monoclinic BiVO4 and studied the ability of these electrodes to transport photogenerated carriers to oxidize sulfite and water. Samples containing molybdenum and featuring [001] out-of-plane crystallographic texture show a photocurrent and external quantum efficiency (EQE) for sulfite oxidation as high as 3.1 mA cm-2 and 60%, respectively, at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode. By using an optical model of the electrode stack to accurately determine the fraction of electrode absorptance due to the BiVO4 active layer, we estimate that on average 70 +/- 5% of all photogenerated carriers escape recombination. A comparison of internal quantum efficiency as a function of film processing, illumination direction, and film thickness shows that electron transport is efficient and hole transport limits the photocurrent (hole diffusion length <40 nm). We find that Mo addition primarily improves electron transport and texturing mostly improves hole transport. Mo enhances electron transport by thinning the surface depletion layer or passivating traps and recombination centers at grain boundaries and interfaces, while improved hole transport in textured films may result from more efficient lateral hole extraction due to the texturing itself or the reduced density of deep gap states observed in photoemission measurements. Photoemission data also reveal that the films have bismuth-rich, vanadium- and oxygen-deficient surface layers, while ion scattering spectroscopy indicates a Bi-V-O surface termination. Without added catalysts, the plain BiVO4 electrodes oxidized water with an initial photocurrent and peak EQE of 1.7 mA cm-2 and 30%, respectively, which equates to a hole transfer efficiency to water of >64% at 1.23 V. The electrodes quickly photocorrode during water oxidation but show good stability during sulfite oxidation and indefinite stability in the dark. By improving

  6. Collection Efficiency for Filters with Staggered Parallel Y and Triple Y Fibers: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaning Zhu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is performed to determine the collection efficiency of filters composed of staggered parallel Y and triple Y fibers. By employing the Lattice Boltzmann method, the Navier–Stokes equations are solved for flow fields in a two-dimensional domain with periodic boundary conditions. Trajectories of particles with different diameters arranging from 0.02 μm to 5 μm are then computed by solving the particle motion equation hence obtaining the collection efficiency of single Y and triple Y fibers. The effects of fiber orientation, Brownian motion, particulate size and Reynolds number on the collection efficiency of these two types of fibers are also evaluated numerically.Y and triple Y fibers have low packing density and relatively large area to volume ratio, and the latter property helps enhance the Brownian diffusion collection mechanism for smaller particles. The large void zone of these fibers can accommodate more particles, which improves the particle loading capacity. It is also found out that the flow field and collection efficiency of triple Y fiber is less susceptible to different fiber orientations due to its geometric symmetry. The numerical results obtained in this work provide helpful information in designing high efficiency filters.

  7. 19 CFR 24.1 - Collection of Customs duties, taxes, fees, interest, and other charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 24.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... other obligation by check and more than one check is returned dishonored by the debtor's financial... negotiable papers covering duties, taxes, fees, interest, and other Customs charges shall be made payable...

  8. An experiment to measure raindrop collection efficiencies: influence of rear capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Quérel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of radioactive aerosol scavenged by rain after the Chernobyl accident highlights certain differences between the modelling studies and the environmental measurements. Part of these discrepancies can probably be attributed to uncertainties in the efficiencies used to calculate aerosol particle collection by raindrops, particularly drops with a diameter larger than one millimetre. In order to improve the issue of these uncertainties, an experimental study was performed to close the gaps still existing for this key microphysical parameter. In the present article, attention is first focused on the efficiency with which aerosol particles, in the accumulation mode are collected by raindrops with a diameter of 2 mm. The collections efficiencies measured for aerosol particle in the sub-micron range are quantitatively consistent with previous theoretical model developed by Beard (1974 and thus highlight the major role of rear capture in the submicron range.

  9. A trapped ion source with improved ionizing efficiency for the production of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrahigh vacuum 'trapped ion source' has been developed following closely Redhead's basic design. Positive ions have been trapped within the space charge of a magnetically confined electron beam with potential barriers at either end of the ionization region, resulting in the production of multiply charged ions. These highly stripped ions are formed by the successive collisions with low energy (0 mass spectrometer. The results obtained in the production of multiply charged ions of Au are presented. (auth.)

  10. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion.

  11. Stray-light suppression with high-collection efficiency in laser light-scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilamian, K.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Kelleher, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An optical system is described for collecting a large fraction of fluorescent light emitted isotropically from a cylindrical interaction region. While maintaining an overall detection efficiency of 9 percent, the system rejects, by more than 12 orders of magnitude, incident laser light along a single axis that intersects the interaction region. Such a system is useful for a wide variety of light-scattering experiments in which high-collection efficiency is desirable, but in which light from an incident laser beam must be rejected without resorting to spectral filters.

  12. The efficiency of refuse collection services in Spanish municipalities: do non-controllable variables matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Núria Bosch; Francisco Pedraja; Javier Suárez-Pandiello

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the technical efficiency and cost-efficiency of the refuse collection services in 73 municipalities located in Catalonia, Spain. The analysis has been carried out using a modification of the DEA model in three stages developed by Fried and Lovell (1996), that allows to take into account the influence of those factors that the producer cannot control (non-controllable variables). The results seem to back the hypothesis that non-controllable variables do no...

  13. Classical gluon fields and collective dynamics of color-charge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of color fields that arise in collisions of relativistic heavy ions reveals that, in the non-Abelian case, a change in the color charge leads to the appearance of an extra term that generates a sizable contribution of color-charge glow in chromoelectric and chromomagnetic fields. The possibility of the appearance of a color echo in the scattering of composite color particles belonging to the dipole type is discussed. Arguments are adduced in support of the statement that such effects are of importance in simulating the first stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions,where the initial parton state is determined by a high nonequilibrium parton density and by strong local color fluctuations

  14. Highly efficient bioinspired molecular Ru water oxidation catalysts with negatively charged backbone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Li, Fusheng; Li, Fei; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-21

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven

  15. Remarkable Charge Separation and Photocatalytic Efficiency Enhancement through Interconnection of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yusuke; Inami, Nozomu; Hattori, Hideya; Saito, Kanji; Sohmiya, Minoru; Tsunoji, Nao; Komaguchi, Kenji; Sano, Tsuneji; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Although tremendous effort has been directed to synthesizing advanced TiO2 , it remains difficult to obtain TiO2 exhibiting a photocatalytic efficiency higher than that of P25, a benchmark photocatalyst. P25 is composed of anatase, rutile, and amorphous TiO2 particles, and photoexcited electron transfer and subsequent charge separation at the anatase-rutile particle interfaces explain its high photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we report on a facile and rational hydrothermal treatment of P25 to selectively convert the amorphous component into crystalline TiO2 , which is deposited between the original anatase and rutile particles to increase the particle interfaces and thus enhance charge separation. This process produces a new TiO2 exhibiting a considerably enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. This method of synthesizing this TiO2 , inspired by a recently burgeoning zeolite design, promises to make TiO2 applications more feasible and effective. PMID:26891152

  16. Remarkable Charge Separation and Photocatalytic Efficiency Enhancement through Interconnection of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yusuke; Inami, Nozomu; Hattori, Hideya; Saito, Kanji; Sohmiya, Minoru; Tsunoji, Nao; Komaguchi, Kenji; Sano, Tsuneji; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Although tremendous effort has been directed to synthesizing advanced TiO2 , it remains difficult to obtain TiO2 exhibiting a photocatalytic efficiency higher than that of P25, a benchmark photocatalyst. P25 is composed of anatase, rutile, and amorphous TiO2 particles, and photoexcited electron transfer and subsequent charge separation at the anatase-rutile particle interfaces explain its high photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we report on a facile and rational hydrothermal treatment of P25 to selectively convert the amorphous component into crystalline TiO2 , which is deposited between the original anatase and rutile particles to increase the particle interfaces and thus enhance charge separation. This process produces a new TiO2 exhibiting a considerably enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. This method of synthesizing this TiO2 , inspired by a recently burgeoning zeolite design, promises to make TiO2 applications more feasible and effective.

  17. Characterization of root architecture in an applied core collection for phosphorus efficiency of soybean germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; FU Jiabing; LIAO Hong; HE Yong; NIAN Hai; HU Yueming; QIU Linjuan; DONG Yinsan; YAN Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we constructed an "applied core collection" for phosphorus (P) efficiency of soybean germplasm using a GIS-assisted approach. Systematic characterization and comparative analysis of root architecture were conducted to evaluate the relationship between mot architecture and P efficiency and its possible evolutionary pattern. Our results found that: I) root architecture was closely related to P efficiency in soybean. Shallow root architecture had better spatial configuration in the P-rich cultivated soil layer hence higher P efficiency and soybean yield;ii) there was a possible co-evolutionary pattern among shoot type, root architecture and P efficiency. The bush cultivated soybean had a shallow root architecture and high P efficiency,the climbing wild soybean had a deep root architecture and low P efficiency, while the root architecture and P efficiency of semi-wild soybean were intermediate between cultivated and wild soybean; iii) P availability regulated root architecture. Soybean roots became shallower with P addition to the topsoil, indicating that the co-evolutionary relationship between root architecture and P efficiency might be attributed to the long-term effects of topsoil fertilization. Our results could provide important theoretical basis for improving soybean root traits and P efficiency.

  18. The Effect of Organic Modifiers on Electrospray Ionization Charge-State Distribution and Desorption Efficiency for Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buyun; Mason, Sadie F.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition of the solution has a critical impact on the electrospray desorption efficiency of oligonucleotides. Several physiochemical properties of various organic modifiers were investigated with respect to their role in the desorption process of oligonucleotides. The Henry's Law Constant, which reflects the volatility of alkylamines, was found to have a prominent effect on both the electrospray charge state distribution and desorption efficiency of oligonucleotides. Alkylamines with higher k_{H,cc}( {aq/gas} ) values such as hexylamine, piperidine, and imidazole reduced the charge state distribution by forming complexes with the oligonucleotide and dissociating from it in the gas phase, while alkylamines with extremely low k_{H,cc}( {aq/gas} ) values reduced the electrospray charge state distribution by facilitating ion emission at an earlier stage of the electrospray desorption process. Ion-pairing agents with moderate k_{H,cc}( {aq/gas} ) values do not alter the electrospray charge state distribution of oligonucleotides and their ability to enhance oligonucleotide ionization followed the order of decreasing k_{H,cc}( {aq/gas} ) values. The Henry's Law Constant also correlated to the impact of the acidic modifiers on oligonucleotide ionization efficiency. Ionization enhancement effects were observed with hexafluoroisopropanol, and this effect was attributed to its low k_{H,cc}( {aq/gas} ) and moderate acidity. The comprehensive effects of both alkylamine and hexafluoroisoproapnol on the electrospray ionization desorption of oligonucleotides were also evaluated, and acid-base equilibrium was found to play a critical role in determining these effects.

  19. Hybrid engineered materials with high water-collecting efficiency inspired by Namib Desert beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-05-21

    Inspired by Namib Desert beetles, a hybrid superhydrophobic surface was fabricated, showing highly efficient fog harvesting with a water collection rate (WCR) of 1309.9 mg h(-1) cm(-2). And, the surface possessed an excellent robustness and self-cleaning property. PMID:27125658

  20. 77 FR 8273 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Capture Energy Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. HUD is creating the Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH (CEEMP) data system to track the amount and types of Energy Conservation......

  1. 76 FR 70831 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Veteran Enrollees (Quality and Efficiency of VA Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ..., 810 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20420; or email: cynthia.harvey-pryor@va.gov . Please refer to... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Veteran Enrollees (Quality and Efficiency of VA Health.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Department of Veterans Affairs...

  2. Simulation of Fluid Flow and Collection Efficiency for an SEA Multi-element Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, David L.; Struk, Peter M.; Bidwell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of fluid flow and collection efficiency for a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) multi-element probe are presented. Simulation of the flow field was produced using the Glenn-HT Navier-Stokes solver. Three-dimensional unsteady results were produced and then time averaged for the heat transfer and collection efficiency results. Three grid densities were investigated to enable an assessment of grid dependence. Simulations were completed for free stream velocities ranging from 85-135 meters per second, and free stream total pressure of 44.8 and 93.1 kilopascals (6.5 and 13.5 pounds per square inch absolute). In addition, the effect of angle of attack and yaw were investigated by including 5 degree deviations from straight for one of the flow conditions. All but one of the cases simulated a probe in isolation (i.e. in a very large domain without any support strut). One case is included which represents a probe mounted on a support strut within a finite sized wind tunnel. Collection efficiencies were generated, using the LEWICE3D code, for four spherical particle sizes, 100, 50, 20, and 5 micron in diameter. It was observed that a reduction in velocity of about 20% occurred, for all cases, as the flow entered the shroud of the probe. The reduction in velocity within the shroud is not indicative of any error in the probe measurement accuracy. Heat transfer results are presented which agree quite well with a correlation for the circular cross section heated elements. Collection efficiency results indicate a reduction in collection efficiency as particle size is reduced. The reduction with particle size is expected, however, the results tended to be lower than the previous results generated for isolated two-dimensional elements. The deviation from the two-dimensional results is more pronounced for the smaller particles and is likely due to the reduced flow within the protective shroud. As particle size increases differences between the two

  3. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system.

  4. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system. PMID:26613351

  5. Methods of optimising ion beam induced charge collection of polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witham, L.C.G.; Jamieson, D.N.; Bardos, R.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre

    1998-06-01

    Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) is a valuable method for the mapping of charge carrier transport and recombination in silicon solar cells. However performing IBIC analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cells is problematic in a manner unlike previous uses of IBIC on silicon-based electronic devices. Typical solar cells have a surface area of several square centimeters and a p-n junction thickness of only few microns. This means the cell has a large junction capacitance in the many nanoFarads range which leads to a large amount of noise on the preamplifier inputs which typically swamps the transient IBIC signal. The normal method of improving the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio by biasing the junction is impractical for these cells as the low-quality silicon used leads to a large leakage current across the device. We present several experimental techniques which improve the S/N ratio which when used together should make IBIC analysis of many low crystalline quality devices a viable and reliable procedure. (authors). Extended abstract. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Modeling the efficiency of a magnetic needle for collecting magnetic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kimberly S; Adolphi, Natalie L; Bryant, H C; Lovato, Debbie M; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    As new magnetic nanoparticle-based technologies are developed and new target cells are identified, there is a critical need to understand the features important for magnetic isolation of specific cells in fluids, an increasingly important tool in disease research and diagnosis. To investigate magnetic cell collection, cell-sized spherical microparticles, coated with superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were suspended in (1) glycerine-water solutions, chosen to approximate the range of viscosities of bone marrow, and (2) water in which 3, 5, 10 and 100% of the total suspended microspheres are coated with magnetic nanoparticles, to model collection of rare magnetic nanoparticle-coated cells from a mixture of cells in a fluid. The magnetic microspheres were collected on a magnetic needle, and we demonstrate that the collection efficiency versus time can be modeled using a simple, heuristically-derived function, with three physically-significant parameters. The function enables experimentally-obtained collection efficiencies to be scaled to extract the effective drag of the suspending medium. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the effective drag scales linearly with fluid viscosity, as expected. Surprisingly, increasing the number of non-magnetic microspheres in the suspending fluid results increases the collection of magnetic microspheres, corresponding to a decrease in the effective drag of the medium. PMID:24874577

  7. High-Q Tunable Filters and High Efficiency Charge Pumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The supply voltages of modern baseband digital integrated circuits are well below the required actuation voltages for the MEMS tunable filters. Therefore, a charge...

  8. Variational charge relaxation in ionic crystals: An efficient treatment of statics and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizmeshya, A. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho Inc., P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)); Zimmermann, F.M. (Physics Department, Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)); LaViolette, R.A. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho Inc., P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)); Wolf, G.H. (Department of Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Spherical charge deformation within the ionic description is responsible for a considerable improvement over rigid-ion elastic constants and bulk moduli, but some of the remaining discrepancies cannot in principle be eliminated within a spherical-ion model. In particular, the effect of spherical breathing on the optical vibrational frequencies is not dramatic and further improvement (e.g., reduction of LO-TO splitting) will require the inclusion of nonspherical charge relaxation (polarizability).

  9. Charge collection and depth sensing investigation on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Caroli, E.;

    2010-01-01

    CZT drift strip detectors with Planar Transverse Field (PTF) configuration are suitable for high energy astrophysics instrumentation, where high efficiency, high energy and position resolution are required from the sensors. We report on experimental investigations on the DTU Space developed CZT...... drift detector operated in PTF configuration with the purpose of demonstrating that the good energy resolution of the CZT drift detector can be combined with the high efficiency of the PTF configuration. A CZT drift strip detector (10 mm x 10 mm x 2.5 mm) was characterized in PTF configuration....... With these measurements, we demonstrated to achieve high efficiency due to large effective thickness, high energy resolution due to small electron drift lengths and sub mm position resolution using depth information using CZT drift strip detectors with N+1 readout channels in PTF configuration....

  10. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  11. Enhancing Crystalline Structural Orders of Polymer Semiconductors for Efficient Charge Transport via Polymer-Matrix-Mediated Molecular Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanlian; Deng, Ping; Lin, Ming; Zheng, Xuelin; Zhu, Furong; Ong, Beng S

    2016-08-01

    A facile polymer-matrix-mediated molecular self-assembly of polymer semiconductors into highly crystalline orders for efficient charge transport in organic thin-film transistors is demonstrated. Phenomenal enhancements in field-effect mobility of about one order of magnitude and current on/off ratio of two to three orders of magnitude are realized with polyacrylonitrile-incorporated polymer semiconductor compositions via solution deposition. PMID:27168128

  12. Efficiency of cellular delivery of antisense peptide nucleic acid by electroporation depends on charge and electroporation geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette; Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit; Nielsen, Peter E;

    2011-01-01

    Electroporation is potentially a very powerful technique for both in vitro cellular and in vivo drug delivery, particularly relating to oligonucleotides and their analogs for genetic therapy. Using a sensitive and quantitative HeLa cell luciferase RNA interference mRNA splice correction assay wit......, polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, we have found that the charge of PNA and electroporation system combination greatly influences the transfer efficiency, thereby illustrating the complexity of the electroporation mechanism....

  13. Charge collection and field profile studies of heavily irradiated strip sensors for the ATLAS inner tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Arratia, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Trofimov, A.; Yildirim, E.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i. Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS group has evaluated the charge collection in silicon microstrip sensors irradiated up to a fluence of 1 ×1016 neq/cm2, exceeding the maximum of 1.6 ×1015 neq/cm2 expected for the strip tracker during the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) period including a safety factor of 2. The ATLAS12, n+-on-p type sensor, which is fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK) on float zone (FZ) substrates, is the latest barrel sensor prototype. The charge collection from the irradiated 1×1 cm2 barrel test sensors has been evaluated systematically using penetrating β-rays and an Alibava readout system. The data obtained at different measurement sites are compared with each other and with the results obtained from the previous ATLAS07 design. The results are very consistent, in particular, when the deposit charge is normalized by the sensor's active thickness derived from the edge transient current technique (edge-TCT) measurements. The measurements obtained using β-rays are verified to be consistent with the measurements using an electron beam. The edge-TCT is also effective for evaluating the field profiles across the depth. The differences between the irradiated ATLAS07 and ATLAS12 samples have been examined along with the differences among the samples irradiated with different radiation sources: neutrons, protons, and pions. The studies of the bulk properties of the devices show that the devices can yield a sufficiently large signal for the expected fluence range in the HL-LHC, thereby acting as precision tracking sensors.

  14. Large fog collectors: New strategies for collection efficiency and structural response to wind pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert; Rivera, Juan de Dios; de la Jara, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of large fog collectors (LFC) have focused on the collection efficiency, the amount of water collected, or economic and social aspects, but have not addressed the effects of strong winds on the system. Wind pressure is directly related to fog water collection efficiency but on the other hand may cause serious damage on the structure of LFCs. This study focuses in the effects of wind pressure on the components of the LFC as an integral system, and the ways to face strong winds with no significant damage. For this purpose we analysed cases of mechanical failure of LFCs both in our experimental station at Peña Blanca in Chile and elsewhere. The effects of wind pressure can be described as a sequence of physical processes, starting with the mesh deformation as a way of adapting to the induced stresses. For a big enough pressure, local stress concentrations generate a progressive rupture of the mesh. In cases where the mesh is sufficiently strong the wind force causes the partial or total collapse of the structure. Usually the weakest part is the mesh, especially close to where it is attached to the structure. The way the mesh is attached to the frame or cable of the structure is particularly important since it can induce significant stress concentrations. Mesh failure before the structure failure may be considered as a mechanical fuse, since it is cheaper to repair. However, more practical mechanical fuses can be conceived. In relation to structural performance and water collection efficiency, we propose a new design strategy that considers a three-dimensional spatial display of the collection screen, oblique incidence angle of wind on mesh and small mesh area between the supporting frame. The proposed design strategies consider both the wind pressure on mesh and structure and the collection efficiency as an integral solution for the LFC. These new design strategies are the final output of this research. Applying these strategies a multi-funnel LFC is

  15. The effect of nocturnal sampling on semen quality and the efficiency of collection in bovine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer H; Chandler, John E; Canal, Anita L; Braden Paul, J

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluated night and day semen collection regimes in Holstein and Brahman bulls (four bulls of each breed) that were collected weekly, each during a morning and a night collection. Ejaculates (n=64) were obtained via artificial vagina over 4 weeks. The first collection of each week alternated between night and day. Two collection teams were employed. Bull behavior parameters included reaction time to first mount, time to ejaculation, a refractory period test, and a thrust intensity test. The numbers of interruptions were counted as a managerial parameter. Pre-freeze semen parameters included total volume, initial motility and concentration. Post-freeze semen parameters measured were: 0- and 3-h post-thaw motility; percent intact acrosomes; and percent sperm abnormalities. Data were analyzed by least squares methods. The bull within breed effect differed (P<0.05) for behavior parameters. The bull within breed effect for total motile sperm harvested was not significant. The bull within breed response was mixed for post-freeze semen viability parameters. Bull within breed was not significant for sperm abnormalities. The night versus day treatment was significant for the managerial parameter (P=0.002). Although a different collection schedule for Bos indicus cattle was not warranted, the efficiency of the collection process was affected by extraneous environmental conditions. PMID:14580649

  16. Optimization of the electron collection efficiency of a large area MCP-PMT for the JUNO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Yifang; Zhao, Tianchi; Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu; Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui; Liu, Shulin; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jingkai; Yan, Baojun; Zhu, Na; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang; Li, Dong; Wang, Xingchao; Huang, Guorui; Qi, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A novel large-area (20-inch) photomultiplier tube based on microchannel plate (MCP-PMTs) is proposed for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) experiment. Its photoelectron collection efficiency Ce is limited by the MCP open area fraction (Aopen). This efficiency is studied as a function of the angular (θ), energy (E) distributions of electrons in the input charge cloud and the potential difference (U) between the PMT photocathode and the MCP input surface, considering secondary electron emission from the MCP input electrode. In CST Studio Suite, Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method are combined to investigate the dependence of Ce on θ, E and U. Results predict that Ce can exceed Aopen, and are applied to optimize the structure and operational parameters of the 20-inch MCP-PMT prototype. Ce of the optimized MCP-PMT is expected to reach 81.2%. Finally, the reduction of the penetration depth of the MCP input electrode layer and the deposition of a high secondary electron yield material on the MCP are proposed to further optimize Ce.

  17. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series f...

  18. Phylogeography and Characteristics of Phosphorus Efficiency of Secondary Core Collection for Rice Landraces in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to explore the causes of phosphorus (P) efficiency of rice in Yunnan Province, andto provide strategy for ecological and environmental protection.[Method]Using 703 accessions of secondary core collections from 16 prefectures of five regions in Yunnan Province, two treatments of iow available P (6.26mg/kg) versus normal P (available P 40mg/kg), and invalid P (available P 0.02 mg/kg) versus normal P (available P 70 mg/kg) were set, and zonal characteristics of phosphorus efficiency and the activation characteristics of invalid P of rice landraces were investigated.[Result]Phosphorus efficiency and the activation characteristics of invalid P in soils from rice landraces of Yunnan Province had the similar identification indexes, viz.the relative indexes of four traits ( tillering ability or effective panicle, root weight, biomass, and straw weight) could be the screening indexes of gene type of secondary core collection with phosphorus efficiency, which also reflected the zonal characteristics of phosphorus efficiency and the activation characteristics of invalid P in soils of 16 prefectures among five regions.On the contrary, the relative panicle length, node length under panicle, leaf length, leaf width and plant height could only be the assistant indexes of identification for phosphorus efficiency.There were similar zonal characteristics between phosphorus efficiency and the activation characteristics of invalid Pin soils of dcs landraces in Yunnan Province.[Conclusion]The study had great importance to the conservation and utilization of biological diversity, which would make contribution to second green revolution of "less input, multiple output, promote health, and protect the environment"

  19. Evaluation of the efficiency of direct tax collection to the state budget.

    OpenAIRE

    Syslová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on evaluation of the efficiency of direct tax collection to the state budget. The theoretical part describes the basic terms related to this issue, the taxpayer, subject, base and tax rate on which the tax is determined. This work deals with the tax role and their classification. The following chapters explain the tax procedure and applied principles. Then the tax system and direct taxes are characterized. At first the practical part provides basic data of the Cze...

  20. An Efficient Quantum Private Comparison of Equality over Collective-Noise Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta

    2016-04-01

    This article proposes a collective-noise resistant QPC protocol with the help of an almostdishonest third party (TP) who may try to perform any sort of attacks to derive participants' private secrets except colluding with any participant. The proposed scheme has some considerable advantages over the state-of-the-art QPC protocols over collective-noise channels, where it does not require any pre-shared key between the participants (Alice and Bob). Nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist Trojan horse attacks without consuming half of the transmitted qubits and any additional equipment (wavelength filter and PNS) support. As a consequence, the proposed QPC protocol can guarantee higher qubit efficiency as compared to the others over collective noise channels.

  1. Development of molten salt electrorefining for separating transuranium elements. Plutonium collection efficiency lowered by neodymium reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt electrorefining using a solid cathode has been studied for collecting plutonium with rare-earth elements remaining in the salt. Scandium, a surrogate for plutonium, and neodymium were used for the experiments. The difference in the standard potential between the Sc/Sc(3) and the Pu/Pu(3) couples was no more than 0.025 volts at soot, and the diffusion coefficient of Sc (3) ions appeared to be nearly equal to that of Pu (3) ions. Neodymium could decrease the current efficiency of plutonium collection due to the reduction of Nd (3) to Nd (2) at the cathode. The electrodeposition tests for collecting scandium metal onto solid cathodes were carried out in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing ScCl3and NdCl3. The current efficiency was more than 70% when the concentration of ScCl3 was higher, and then decreased to less than 5% as the concentration decreased. The separation factor of scandium from neodymium varied between 102 and 104. The experimental results were consistent with the calculated results obtained by using the data for a stationary current and the Nernst equation. Preliminary estimations of the electrowinning process to collect plutonium and uranium was carried out based on the Sc/Nd separation studies. (author)

  2. Requirements for Forming Efficient 3-D Charge Transport Pathway in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Copolymers: Film Morphology vs Molecular Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang-Young; Han, A-Reum; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak; Park, Taiho

    2016-05-18

    To achieve extremely high planarity and processability simultaneously, we have newly designed and synthesized copolymers composed of donor units of 2,2'-(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenylene)dithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT-P-TT) and acceptor units of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). These copolymers consist of a highly planar backbone due to intramolecular interactions. We have systematically investigated the effects of intermolecular interactions by controlling the side chain bulkiness on the polymer thin-film morphologies, packing structures, and charge transport. The thin-film microstructures of the copolymers are found to be critically dependent upon subtle changes in the intermolecular interactions, and charge transport dynamics of the copolymer based field-effect transistors (FETs) has been investigated by in-depth structure-property relationship study. Although the size of the fibrillar structures increases as the bulkiness of the side chains in the copolymer increases, the copolymer with the smallest side chain shows remarkably high charge carrier mobility. Our findings reveal the requirement for forming efficient 3-D charge transport pathway and highlight the importance of the molecular packing and interdomain connectivity, rather than the crystalline domain size. The results obtained herein demonstrate the importance of tailoring the side chain bulkiness and provide new insights into the molecular design for high-performance polymer semiconductors. PMID:27117671

  3. Correlating emissive non-geminate charge recombination with photocurrent generation efficiency in polymer/perylene diimide organic photovoltaic blend films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keivanidis, Panagiotis E.; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Nelson, Jenny [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Kamm, Valentin; Laquai, Frederic [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Max Planck Research Group for Organic Optoelectronics, Ackermannweg 10, 55128, Mainz (Germany); Zhang, Weimin; McCulloch, Iain [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Floudas, George [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 451 10 Ioannina, Greece, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH-BRI) (Greece)

    2012-06-06

    Evidence for a correlation between the dynamics of emissive non-geminate charge recombination within organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend films and the photocurrent generation efficiency of the corresponding blend-based solar cells is presented. Two model OPV systems that consist of binary blends of electron acceptor N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxy diimide (PDI) with either poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) or poly(9,9-dioctylindenofluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (PIF8BT) as electron donor are studied. For the F8BT:PDI and PIF8BT:PDI devices photocurrent generation efficiency is shown to be related to the PDI crystallinity. In contrast to the F8BT:PDI system, thermal annealing of the PIF8BT:PDI layer at 90 C has a positive impact on the photocurrent generation efficiency and yields a corresponding increase in PL quenching. The devices of both blends have a strongly reduced photocurrent on higher temperature annealing at 120 C. Delayed luminescence spectroscopy suggests that the improved efficiency of photocurrent generation for the 90 C annealed PIF8BT:PDI layer is a result of optimized transport of the photogenerated charge-carriers as well as of enhanced PL quenching due to the maintenance of optimized polymer/PDI interfaces. The studies propose that charge transport in the blend films can be indirectly monitored from the recombination dynamics of free carriers that cause the delayed luminescence. For the F8BT:PDI and PIF8BT:PDI blend films these dynamics are best described by a power-law decay function and are found to be temperature dependent. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. High-density grids for efficient data collection from multiple crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Bonagura, Christopher A.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Degrado, William F.; Fraser, James S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kern, Jan; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Larsson, Karl M.; Lemke, Heinrik T.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; McPhillips, Scott E.; Norgren, Erik; Pang, Siew S.; Soltis, S. M.; Song, Jinhu; Thomaston, Jessica; Tsai, Yingssu; Weis, William I.; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Zouni, Athina; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher throughput methods to mount and collect data from multiple small and radiation-sensitive crystals are important to support challenging structural investigations using microfocus synchrotron beamlines. Furthermore, efficient sample-delivery methods are essential to carry out productive femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). To address these needs, a high-density sample grid useful as a scaffold for both crystal growth and diffraction data collection has been developed and utilized for efficient goniometer-based sample delivery at synchrotron and XFEL sources. A single grid contains 75 mounting ports and fits inside an SSRL cassette or uni-puck storage container. The use of grids with an SSRL cassette expands the cassette capacity up to 7200 samples. Grids may also be covered with a polymer film or sleeve for efficient room-temperature data collection from multiple samples. New automated routines have been incorporated into theBlu-Ice/DCSSexperimental control system to support grids, including semi-automated grid alignment, fully automated positioning of grid ports, rastering and automated data collection. Specialized tools have been developed to support crystallization experiments on grids, including a universal adaptor, which allows grids to be filled by commercial liquid-handling robots, as well as incubation chambers, which support vapor-diffusion and lipidic cubic phase crystallization experiments. Experiments in which crystals were loaded into grids or grown on grids using liquid-handling robots and incubation chambers are described. Crystals were screened at LCLS-XPP and SSRL BL12-2 at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  5. Raman scattering evidence for a cascade-like evolution of the charge-density-wave collective amplitude mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results of Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature on the charge-density-wave (CDW) systems DyTe3 and on LaTe3 at 6 GPa applied pressure. We clearly identify the unidirectional collective CDW amplitude excitation and follow their temperature dependence in the range from 6 K to 311 K. Surprisingly, we discover that the amplitude mode develops as a succession of two mean-field, BCS-like transitions at two different temperatures. Tri-tellurides with heavier rare-earth atoms (i.e. Tm, Er, Ho, Dy) undergo another phase transition to a bidirectional CDW at low temperatures. In DyTe3 we find spectroscopic evidence for the amplitude mode excitation associated with the bidirectional CDW occuring below 50 K.

  6. Effect of collective response on electron capture and excitation in collisions of highly charged ions with fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2003-03-01

    Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions.

  7. Effect of collective response on electron capture and excitation in collisions of highly charged ions with fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2003-03-01

    Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions. PMID:12689221

  8. Study of charge collection and noise in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Dezillie, B; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Trigger, I

    1996-01-01

    The large collection and noise were studied in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors as a function of temperature (T), shaping time (0) and fluence , up to about 1,2 x 10(14) protons per cm2 for minimum-ionizing electrons yielded by a 106 Ru source. The noise of irradiated detectors is found to be dominted for short shaping times (¾50ns) by a series noise compo- nent, while for longer shaping times („80ns) a parallel noise component (correlated with the reverse current) prevails. For non-irradiated detectors, where the reverse current is three orders of magnetude smaller compared with irradiated detectors, the series noises dominates over the whole range of shaping times investigated (20-150ns). A signal degradation is observed for irradiated detectors. However, the signal ca be distinguished from noise, even after a fluence of about 1.2 x10(14) protons per cm2, at a temperature of 6øC and with a shaping time tipical of rge LHC inter-bunch crossing time (20-30ns). The measurements of the signal a...

  9. Impact of charge transport on current–voltage characteristics and power-conversion efficiency of organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würfel, Uli; Neher, Dieter; Spies, Annika; Albrecht, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This work elucidates the impact of charge transport on the photovoltaic properties of organic solar cells. Here we show that the analysis of current–voltage curves of organic solar cells under illumination with the Shockley equation results in values for ideality factor, photocurrent and parallel resistance, which lack physical meaning. Drift-diffusion simulations for a wide range of charge-carrier mobilities and illumination intensities reveal significant carrier accumulation caused by poor transport properties, which is not included in the Shockley equation. As a consequence, the separation of the quasi Fermi levels in the organic photoactive layer (internal voltage) differs substantially from the external voltage for almost all conditions. We present a new analytical model, which considers carrier transport explicitly. The model shows excellent agreement with full drift-diffusion simulations over a wide range of mobilities and illumination intensities, making it suitable for realistic efficiency predictions for organic solar cells. PMID:25907581

  10. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters, radiation hardness, charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly two decades now hydrogenated amorphous silicon has generated considerable interest for its potential use in various device applications namely, solar cells, electrolithography, large-area electronics etc. The development of efficient and economic solar cells has been on the forefront of this research. This interest in hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been motivated by the fact that amorphous silicon can be deposited over a large area at relatively low cost compared to crystalline silicon. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon, frequently abbreviated as a-Si:H, used in solar-cell applications is a micron or less thick. The basic device structure is a p-i-n diode where the i layer is the active layer for radiation to interact. This is so because intrinsic a-Si:H has superior electrical properties in comparison to doped a-Si:H which serves the purpose of forming a potential barrier on either end of the i layer. The research presented in this dissertation was undertaken to study the properties of a-Si:H for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes act as charge transport channel to boost the efficiency of hole transport material free perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nian; Liu, Pei; Qi, Fei; Xiao, Yuqin; Yu, Wenjing; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The two-step spin coating process produces rough perovskite surfaces in ambient condition with high humidity, which are unfavorable for the contact between the perovskite film and the low temperature carbon electrode. To tackle this problem, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are embedded into the perovskite layer. The MWCNTs can act as charge transport high way between individual perovskite nanoparticles and facilitate the collection of the photo-generated holes by the carbon electrode. Longer carrier lifetime is confirmed in the perovskite solar cells with addition of MWCNTs using open circuit voltage decay measurement. Under optimized concentration of MWCNT, average power conversion efficiency of 11.6% is obtained in hole transport material free perovskite solar cells, which is boosted by ∼15% compared to solar cells without MWCNT.

  12. Typical household vacuum cleaners: the collection efficiency and emissions characteristics for fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, P J; Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Goldsmith, S

    1999-02-01

    The issue of fine particle (PM2.5) exposures and their potential health effects is a focus of scientific research because of the recently promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5. Before final implementation, the health and exposure basis for the standard will be reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the next five years. As part of this process, it is necessary to understand total particle exposure issues and to determine the relative importance of the origin of PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments. The results presented in this study examine emissions of fine particles from a previously uncharacterized indoor source: the residential vacuum cleaner. Eleven standard vacuum cleaners were tested for the emission rate of fine particles by their individual motors and for their efficiency in collecting laboratory-generated fine particles. An aerosol generator was used to introduce fine potassium chloride (KCl) particles into the vacuum cleaner inlet for the collection efficiency tests. Measurements of the motor emissions, which include carbon, and the KCl aerosol were made using a continuous HIAC/Royco 5130 A light-scattering particle detector. All tests were conducted in a metal chamber specifically designed to completely contain the vacuum cleaner and operate it in a stationary position. For the tested vacuum cleaners, fine particle motor emissions ranged from 9.6 x 10(4) to 3.34 x 10(8) particles/min, which were estimated to be 0.028 to 176 micrograms/min for mass emissions, respectively. The vast majority of particles released were in the range of 0.3-0.5 micron in diameter. The lowest particle emission rate was obtained for a vacuum cleaner that had a high efficiency (HEPA) filter placed after the vacuum cleaner bag and the motor within a sealed exhaust system. This vacuum cleaner removed the KCl particles that escaped the vacuum cleaner bag and the particles emitted by the motor. Results obtained for the KCl

  13. Study of Total Detection Efficiency (η) of Charge Exchange Analyzer (CXA) in TVD Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, M.; Habibi, M.; Tafreshi, M.

    2013-02-01

    Diagnostic devices detection efficiency consist of many parameters. Contribution of each part in main detection efficiency need to study all aspect of devices and experimentally researches. In this paper experimental results and theoretical study merged to figure out the total detection efficiency of CXA. Most important primary parameters has been recognized (stripping foil thickness, incident energy, etc.) and effect of these parameters in related part studied. For CXA of TVD tokamak total detection efficiency presented and shown for 3 keV this parameter equal to .09 and stripping efficiency is equal 1.1 approximately. Choosing appropriate system for stripping of neutral beam is the most important factor in CXA diagnostic devices specially for high energy beams.

  14. Laser-based directed release of array elements for efficient collection into targeted microwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, Nicholas C; Dhopeshwarkar, Rahul; Henley, W Hampton; Ramsey, J Michael; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2013-02-21

    A cell separation strategy capable of the systematic isolation and collection of moderate to large numbers (25-400) of single cells into a targeted microwell is demonstrated. An array of microfabricated, releasable, transparent micron-scale pedestals termed pallets and an array of microwells in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were mated to enable selective release and retrieval of individual cells. Cells cultured on a pallet array mounted on a custom designed stage permitted the array to be positioned independently of the microwell locations. Individual pallets containing cells were detached in a targeted fashion using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The location of the laser focal point was optimized to transfer individual pallets to designated microwells. In a large-scale sort (n = 401), the accuracy, defined as placing a pallet in the intended well, was 94% and the collection efficiency was 100%. Multiple pallets were observed in only 4% of the targeted wells. In cell sorting experiments, the technique provided a yield and purity of target cells identified by their fluorescence signature of 91% and 93%, respectively. Cell viability based on single-cell cloning efficiency at 72 h post collection was 77%.

  15. Triplet harvesting with 100% efficiency by way of thermally activated delayed fluorescence in charge transfer OLED emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando B; Bourdakos, Konstantinos N; Jankus, Vygintas; Moss, Kathryn C; Kamtekar, Kiran T; Bhalla, Vandana; Santos, José; Bryce, Martin R; Monkman, Andrew P

    2013-07-19

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have their performance limited by the number of emissive singlet states created upon charge recombination (25%). Recently, a novel strategy has been proposed, based on thermally activated up-conversion of triplet to singlet states, yielding delayed fluorescence (TADF), which greatly enhances electroluminescence. The energy barrier for this reverse intersystem crossing mechanism is proportional to the exchange energy (ΔEST ) between the singlet and triplet states; therefore, materials with intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states, where it is known that the exchange energy is small, are perfect candidates. However, here it is shown that triplet states can be harvested with 100% efficiency via TADF, even in materials with ΔEST of more than 20 kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature) at room temperature. The key role played by lone pair electrons in achieving this high efficiency in a series of ICT molecules is elucidated. The results show the complex photophysics of efficient TADF materials and give clear guidelines for designing new emitters. PMID:23703877

  16. Control of Collection Efficiency for Axial Flow Cyclone Dust Collectors with Fixed Guide Vanes and with Funnel Shaped Exit Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Ogawa; Masaru Arakawa

    2006-01-01

    The experimental result of the collection efficiency of the axial flow cyclone with the fixed guide vanes is lower than that with the tangential inlet pipe to the cyclone body due to the weak angular momentum transfer given by flowing through the guide vanes. However, one of the interesting points is the control of the collection efficiency depended on the funnel shaped exit pipes. The collection efficiencies for these funnel shaped exit pipes are depended on the Froude number. Then, in this paper, the experimental results of the pressure drop and also the collection efficiency using the fly-ash particles and also the comparison of the calculated results of the collection efficiency with the experimental results are described in detail.

  17. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  18. On the Human Capital Factors to Evaluate the Efficiency of Tax Collection Using Data Envelopment Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the investigation of the influence of human capital factors on the tax collection efficiency. Literature review indicated that although the efficiency evaluation of tax collection has been discussed in previous study, the influence of human capital factors on the tax collection efficiency has seldom been addressed. Hence, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method has been employed to address this issue in this study. The innovation of this study lays on that the human capital factors have been taken into account in the efficiency evaluation of tax collection. To measure performance of the human capital factors in the tax collection, a case study in Wuhan city, China has been carried out. The DEA analysis results demonstrate that the tax collection efficiency increases with the increase of the number and higher education level of the tax officers and the higher education level of the tax officers still has a large room to improve. Then, relative improvement strategies have been proposed to strengthen tax collection efficiency. Hence, the findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the efficiency evaluation of tax collection and its improvement measurement, which can be referred by other cities over the world.

  19. Lessons from a pilot deployment of energy efficient data collection protocols in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports results of, as well as experiences and engineering challenges encountered, during a pilot deployment of a Dual Prediction and Probabilistic Scheduler (DPPS) for energy efficient data collection (EEDC). The deployment was motivated by sensor network supplier, Senceive Ltd., whose researchers wanted to incorporate more intelligence into their firmware to facilitate more cost effective remote asset management. The process of embedding and deploying DPPS, highlighted the importance of re-evaluating the assumptions typically overlooked in computer simulations and emphasises the need for sensor network researchers as a whole to reconsider the usefulness of EEDC protocols through real-life experimental deployment.

  20. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective states in dilute samples

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. Detecting incoherent observables and imparting lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon transitions in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances up to fourth order are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time. Our approach provides new perspectives for coherent experiments in the deep UV and novel multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  1. Inverted Ultrathin Organic Solar Cells with a Quasi-Grating Structure for Efficient Carrier Collection and Dip-less Visible Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    in, Sungjun; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a metallic-particle-based two-dimensional quasi-grating structure for application to an organic solar cell. With the use of oblate spheroidal nanoparticles in contact with an anode of inverted, ultrathin organic solar cells (OSCs), the quasi-grating structure offers strong hybridization between localized surface plasmons and plasmonic gap modes leading to broadband (300~800 nm) and uniform (average ~90%) optical absorption spectra. Both strong optical enhancement in extreme confinement within the active layer (90 nm) and improved hole collection are thus realized. A coupled optical-electrical multi-physics optimization shows a large (~33%) enhancement in the optical absorption (corresponding to an absorption efficiency of ~47%, AM1.5G weighted, visible) when compared to a control OSC without the quasi-grating structure. That translates into a significant electrical performance gain of ~22% in short circuit current and ~15% in the power conversion efficiency (PCE), leading to an energy conversion efficiency (~6%) which is comparable to that of optically-thick inverted OSCs (3-7%). Detailed analysis on the influences of mode hybridization to optical field distributions, exciton generation rate, charge carrier collection efficiency and electrical conversion efficiency is provided, to offer an integrated understanding on the coupled optical-electrical optimization of ultrathin OSCs.

  2. Evaluation of gun propelling charge performance during the life cycle by statistical utilization of data collected in test and troop gun firings

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Heli

    2009-01-01

    The dissertation was intended to improve the quality and safety of gun propelling charges during their life cycle. The approach in three case studies was the evaluation of gun propelling charge performance by the statistical utilization of the results collected in artillery gun test firings and conscript practice troop firings. The interior ballistics branch needs to adjust to the new demands for weapon systems. The literature review shows that the actual interdisciplinary challenges ent...

  3. Efficient charge balance in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by two types of mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung Jin; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Song Eun; Sun, Yong; Hwang, Kyo Min; Yoo, Han Kyu; Lee, Sung Kyu [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young, E-mail: wykim@hoseo.edu [Department of Green Energy & Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    The authors have demonstrated a highly efficient and long-lifetime blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) that uses two types of mixed layers. The mixed layers play the role of carrier injection control and exciton generation zone extension. One of the layers is applied for mixing the hole transport layer (HTL) and host material at the HTL side for carrier injection control. The other works as a mixed electron transporting layer (ETL) and host material at the ETL side. The optimized blue PHOLED has been shown to achieve high performance owing to the mixed layer effects. It gave a maximum luminous efficiency of 25.55 cd/A, maximum external quantum efficiency of 13.05%, and lifetime of 7.24 h under 500 cd/m{sup 2}. These results indicate that applying mixed layers is a simple and efficient method that does not require significant structural change. - Highlights: • Highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLEDs) • Hole transporting layer consists with mixed layer for delayed hole injection • The blue PHOLEDs with long lifetime due to suppression of quenching process.

  4. Collection Efficiency of Cylindrical and Elliptic Dust Collectors with Vortex Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AkiraOgawa; Tatuyaugai

    2000-01-01

    The cyclone dust collector is applied to many kinds of industries and also there are many types of cyclones which are selected for the application and the placement of the establishment.Howerver the cross section of these cyclones is the circular cylindrical section for the optimum condition of the turbulent rotational flow.However from the energy consumption and the collection efficiency points of view,the circular cross section of the cyclone is not always recommended but the elliptic cross section is recommended.Therefore in this paper,the detailed experimental results of the collection efficiency for the circular cross section and for the elliptic cross sections of the eccentricity ε=0.5 0.6 and 0.7 are reported.The test dust for these experiments is fly-ash of the mean diameter Xpm=18.0μm and 18.3μm.The feed particle concentration is Co=1.0-50g/m3.

  5. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  6. Performance studies for the new CMS Outer Tracker module concept at HL-LHC based on measurements of charge collection properties in irradiated silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nürnberg, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.nuernberg@kit.edu

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase the discovery potential of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver a total of 3000 fb{sup −1} integrated luminosity. The instantaneous luminosity will be increased by a factor of five compared to the LHC design luminosity. This results in an intensified track density and radiation level especially in the tracking systems, requiring new radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Outer Tracker. To cope with the increased track density and trigger rates, a new module concept based on the coincidence of hits in two closely stacked sensors is pursued for the new tracker, allowing the use of tracking and transverse momentum information already at the first trigger level. The performance of the new trigger module concept has been studied using a parametrization of the charge drift in the electric and magnetic field in the sensor. From that, the phase-space of efficient operation for this module concept and the binary readout in terms of collected charge and noise has been explored. - Highlights: • A module concept for the use in the upgraded CMS tracker at the HL-LHC is investigated. • The module provides track momentum information to the first trigger level of CMS. • p{sub T}-information is obtained by correlation of hits in two closely stacked sensors. • The performance is studied using a parametrization of the sensor response. • The possible phase-space of noise and clustering threshold is evaluated.

  7. High Efficiency Inverted Organic Solar Cells with a Neutral Fulleropyrrolidine Electron-Collecting Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Yan, Congfei; Kan, Zhipeng; Wang, Yang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A novel fulleropyrrolidine derivative, named FPNOH, was designed, synthesized, and utilized as an efficient electron-collecting (EC) layer for inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs). The grafted diethanolamino-polar moieties can not only trigger its function as an EC interlayer, but also induce orthogonal solubility that guarantees subsequent multilayer processing without interfacial mixing. A higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 8.34% was achieved for i-OSC devices with ITO/FPNOH EC electrode, compared to that of the sol-gel ZnO based reference devices with an optimized PCE value of 7.92%. High efficiency exceeding 7.7% was still achieved even for the devices with a relatively thick FPNOH film (16.9 nm). It is worthwhile to mention that this kind of material exhibits less thickness dependent performance, in contrast to widely utilized p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as well as the nonconjugated polyelectrolytes (NCPEs). Further investigation on illuminating intensity dependent parameters revealed the role of FPNOH in reducing interfacial trap-induced recombination at the ITO/active layer interface. PMID:27197741

  8. High Efficiency Inverted Organic Solar Cells with a Neutral Fulleropyrrolidine Electron Collecting Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Weidong

    2016-05-20

    A novel fulleropyrrolidine derivative, named as FPNOH, was designed, synthesized and utilized as an efficient electron-collecting (EC) layer for inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs). The grafted diethanolamino-polar moieties can not only trigger its function as an EC interlayer, but also induce orthogonal solubility that guarantees subsequent multi-layer processing without interfacial mixing. A higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 8.34% was achieved for i-OSC devices with ITO/FPNOH EC electrode, compared to that of the sol-gel ZnO based reference devices with an optimized PCE value of 7.92%. High efficiency exceeding 7.7% was still achieved even for the devices with a relatively thick PFNOH film (16.9 nm). It is worthwhile to mention that this kind of material exhibits less thickness dependent performance, in contrast to widely utilized p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as well as the non-conjugated polyelectrolytes (NCPEs). Further investigation on illuminating intensity dependent parameters revealed the role of FPNOH in reducing interfacial traps-induced recombination at ITO/active layer interface.

  9. A hybrid superconducting quantum dot acting as an efficient charge and spin Seebeck diode

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sanchez, David; Lopez, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We propose a highly efficient thermoelectric diode device built from the coupling of a quantum dot with a normal or ferromagnetic electrode and a superconducting reservoir. The current shows a strongly nonlinear behavior in the forward direction (positive thermal gradients) while it almost vanishes in the backward direction (negative thermal gradients). Our discussion is supported by a gauge-invariant current-conserving transport theory accounting for electron-electron interactions inside the...

  10. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  11. Hydrogen Bond Acceptors and Additional Cationic Charges in Methylene Blue Derivatives: Photophysics and Antimicrobial Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Felgenträger

    2013-01-01

    ca. 600–680 nm,  L mol−1 cm−1, their low toxicity, and their attachment/penetration abilities. Except simple substituents like alkyl or hydroxyalkyl residues, nearly no modifications of the phenothiaziniums have been pursued at the auxochromic sites. By this, the properties of methylene blue derivatives and their fields of application are limited; it remains unclear if their potential antimicrobial efficacy may be enhanced, also to compete with porphyrins. We prepared a set of six mainly novel methylene blue derivatives with the ability of additional hydrogen bonding and/or additional cationic charges to study the substituents’ effect on their activity/toxicity profiles and photophysical properties. Direct detection of singlet oxygen was performed at 1270 nm and the singlet oxygen quantum yields were determined. In suspensions with both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some derivatives were highly active upon illumination to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli up to 7 log10 steps (99.99999% without inherent toxicities in the nonirradiated state.

  12. Vlasov's kinetic theory of the collective charged particle beam transport through a magnetized plasma in the strongly nonlocal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-based accelerator schemes represent the first step of the research-development of the future accelerator machines. Within the Vlasov's kinetic theory, describing the plasma wake field interaction, the collective transport of a warm non-laminar relativistic charged particle beam is analyzed in the strongly nonlocal regime, where the beam spot-size is much less than the plasma wavelength. This is done in the overdense regime, i.e., the beam density is much less than the plasma density. The beam is supposed to be sufficiently long to experience the adiabatic shielding by the plasma. In these conditions, we neglect the longitudinal beam dynamics and focus on the transverse one only. We derive the virial description (envelope description) from the 2D Vlasov-Poisson-type system of equations that governs the transverse self-consistent plasma wake field excitation. The resulting envelope equation is then reduced, in the aberration-less approximation, to a differential equation for the beam spot size, where the role of the ambient magnetic field is evaluated in both laboratory and astrophysical environments. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are found. (authors)

  13. Characterisation of charging kinetics of dielectrics under continuous electron irradiation through real time electron emission collecting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerch, Kévin, E-mail: kevin.guerch@onera.fr [ONERA, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); CIRIMAT – Institut Carnot (CNRS) Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Paulmier, Thierry [ONERA, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie; Lenormand, Pascal [CIRIMAT – Institut Carnot (CNRS) Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France)

    2015-04-15

    Dielectric materials used for spacecraft applications are often characterised under electron irradiation in order to study their physical and electrical mechanisms. For surface potential measurement, a small removable flat device based on the secondary electron spectrometer method has been developed and installed in the CEDRE irradiation test facility at ONERA (Toulouse, France). This technique was developed to get rid off specific issues inherent to the Kelvin Probe technique. This experimental device named REPA (Repulsive Electron Potential Analyser) allows in situ and real time assessment of the surface potential built up on dielectric materials under continuous electron irradiation. A calibration has been performed in order to validate this experimental setup. Furthermore, to optimise its efficiency, the physical behaviour of this device has been modelled and numerically simulated using Particle In Cell (PIC) model and a dedicated numerical code called SPIS (Spacecraft Plasma Interactions System). In a final step, electrical characterisations of a charged dielectric have been carried out under continuous electron irradiation with this new method. These results have been compared with measurements performed in same experimental conditions with conventional Kelvin Probe method. The experimental results have been discussed in this paper. To conclude, advantages of this experimental setup in regard of this application will be emphasised.

  14. A hybrid superconducting quantum dot acting as an efficient charge and spin Seebeck diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa

    2016-09-01

    We propose a highly efficient thermoelectric diode device built from the coupling of a quantum dot with a normal or ferromagnetic electrode and a superconducting reservoir. The current shows a strongly nonlinear behavior in the forward direction (positive thermal gradients) while it almost vanishes in the backward direction (negative thermal gradients). Our discussion is supported by a gauge-invariant current-conserving transport theory accounting for electron-electron interactions inside the dot. We find that the diode behavior is greatly tuned with external gate potentials, Zeeman splittings or lead magnetizations. Our results are thus relevant for the search of novel thermoelectric devices with enhanced functionalities.

  15. Adiabatic Improved Efficient Charge Recovery Logic for Low Power CMOS Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Mukesh Tiwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Power dissipation becoming a limiting factor in VLSI circuits and systems. Due to relatively high complexity of VLSI systems used in various applications, the power dissipation in CMOS inverter, arises from its switching activity, which is mainly influenced by the supply voltage and effective capacitance. The low-power requirements of present electronic systems have challenged the scientific research towards the study of technological, architectural and circuital solutions that allow a reduction of the energy dissipated by an electronic circuit. One of the main causes of energy dissipation in CMOS circuits is due to the charging and discharging of the node capacitances of the circuits, present both as a load and as parasitic. Such part of the total power dissipated by a circuit is called dynamic power. In order to reduce the dynamic power, an alternative approach to the traditional techniques of power consumption reduction, named adiabatic switching technique is use. Adiabatic switching is an approach to low-power digital circuits that differs fundamentally from other practical low-power techniques. The term adiabatic comes from thermodynamics, used to describe a process in which there is no exchange of heat with the environment. When adiabatic switching is used, the signal energies stored on circuit capacitances may be recycled instead of dissipated as heat. The adiabatic switching technique can achieve very low power dissipation, but at the expense of circuit complexity. Adiabatic logic offers a way to reuse the energy stored in the load capacitors rather than the traditional way of discharging the load capacitors to the ground and wasting this energy. Power reduction is achieved by recovering the energy in the recover phase of the supply clock.

  16. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  17. Plasmon-mediated emergence of collective emission and enhanced quantum efficiency in quantum dot films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, M.; Mukherjee, Arnab; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Basu, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results on monolayer colloidal cadmium selenide quantum dot films embedded with tiny gold nanoparticles. By varying the density of the embedded gold nanoparticles, we were able to engineer a plasmon-mediated crossover from emission quenching to enhancement regime at interparticle distances for which only quenching of emission is expected. This crossover and a nonmonotonic variation of photoluminescence intensity and decay rate, in experiments, is explained in terms of a model for plasmon-mediated collective emission of quantum emitters which points to the emergence of a new regime in plasmon-exciton interactions. The presented methodology to achieve enhancement in optical quantum efficiency for optimal doping of gold nanoparticles in such ultrathin high-density quantum dot films can be beneficial for new-generation displays and photodetectors.

  18. Study on collection efficiency of fission products by spray: Experimental device and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Roblot, D.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Billarand, Y. [ECCO Pharmacie et Chimie, Neuilly (France)

    1997-08-01

    Consequences of an hypothetical overheating reactor accident in nuclear power plants can be limited by spraying cold water drops into containment building. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam and leads to the washout of fission products (aerosols and gaseous iodine). The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. An experimental device (named CARAIDAS) was designed and built in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols and iodine absorption by drops with representative conditions of post-accident atmosphere. This experimental device is presented in the paper and more particularly: (1) the experimental enclosure in which representative thermodynamic conditions can be achieved, (2) the monosized drops generator, the drops diameter measurement and the drops collector, (3) the cesium iodide aerosols generator and the aerosols measurements. Modelling of steam condensation on drops aerosols collection and iodine absorption are described. First experimental and code results on drops and aerosols behaviour are compared. 8 refs., 18 figs.

  19. DETERMINATION OF COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC IONS BY THE SYSTEMS OF PARALLEL CONDUCTIVE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floran Vila

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory that describes the scenarios of equations of motion of clustered air ions entering into specific systems. The system analyzed here is composed by two or three conductive parallel plates. In the first case (system of two parallel plates one plate collects air ions which enter into the area between these plates. In the second case (system of three parallel plates the collector plate is the middle one.Air ions usually are classified into several categories according to their electrical mobility (size. The main categories are: cluster ions (mobility 0.5-3.2 cm2/V.s, intermediate ions (mobility 0.034-0.5 cm2/V.s, and large ions (mobility 0.0042-0.034 cm2/V.s.This theory has an important application on ion counter operations. Usually the apparatus measures the concentrations of only cluster air ions (mobility > 0.5 cm2/V.s. Air ions are deflected by the electric field established by a potential difference of polarized plates. Air ion concentrations are derived from measurement of electrical current caused in the system.Based on this theory, we can determine analytically the efficiency of the collection of air ions of different electrical mobility by above mentioned systems.

  20. Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taminiau, T H; Stefani, F D; Van Hulst, N F [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: tim.taminiau@icfo.es

    2008-10-15

    We study the angular emission of a single emitter near a metallic nanoparticle by experiments and numerical calculations. In the experiments, a single fluorescent molecule is controllably scanned near an optical monopole antenna. Large changes in the angular emission of the molecule occur due to the coupling to the particle. Both the polarization and intensity of the angular emission show a distinct dependence on the particle plasmon resonance and on the relative positions and orientations of the emitter and particle. These changes strongly modify the collection efficiency, particularly for objectives of limited numerical aperture; it is important to take the collection system into account fully in the interpretation of enhanced fluorescence and when comparing measurements on ensembles to reference situations. Unlike for ensembles, by addressing a single emitter of well-defined orientation the angular emission is naturally separated from absolute intensities. By dynamically controlling the emitter position a clean reference is then established. This allows all results to be interpreted directly as the coupling of an emitter dipole moment to the dipolar plasmon mode of the antenna. The emitter couples to the antenna mode, which in turn couples to the radiation field, thus determining the angular emission.

  1. Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the angular emission of a single emitter near a metallic nanoparticle by experiments and numerical calculations. In the experiments, a single fluorescent molecule is controllably scanned near an optical monopole antenna. Large changes in the angular emission of the molecule occur due to the coupling to the particle. Both the polarization and intensity of the angular emission show a distinct dependence on the particle plasmon resonance and on the relative positions and orientations of the emitter and particle. These changes strongly modify the collection efficiency, particularly for objectives of limited numerical aperture; it is important to take the collection system into account fully in the interpretation of enhanced fluorescence and when comparing measurements on ensembles to reference situations. Unlike for ensembles, by addressing a single emitter of well-defined orientation the angular emission is naturally separated from absolute intensities. By dynamically controlling the emitter position a clean reference is then established. This allows all results to be interpreted directly as the coupling of an emitter dipole moment to the dipolar plasmon mode of the antenna. The emitter couples to the antenna mode, which in turn couples to the radiation field, thus determining the angular emission.

  2. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146 of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160 on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc. challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.. Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures.

  3. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes, Miguel; Blázquez, María del Carmen; Soriano, Laura; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146) of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160) on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc.) challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.). Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures. PMID:22216244

  4. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Collection and Analysis of S&T Open Source Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While looking for information in scientific database, we are overwhelmed by the amount of information that we encounter. In this big data collection, getting information with added-value could be strategic for nuclear verification. In our study, we have worked about ''best practices'' in collecting, processing and analyzing open source scientific and technical information. First, we were insistent on working with information authenticated by referees such as scientific publications (structured information). Analysis of this structured data is made with bibliometric tools. Several steps are carried out: collecting data related to the paradigm, creating a database to store data generated by bibliographic research, analyzing data with selected tools. With analysis of bibliographic data only, we are able to get: · a panoramic view of countries that publish in the paradigm, · co-publication networks, · organizations that contribute to scientific publications, · countries with which a country collaborates, · areas of interest of a country, . . . So we are able to identify a target. On a second phase, we can focus on a target (countries for example). Working with non-structured data (i.e., press release, social networks, full text analysis of publications) is in progress and needs other tools to be added to the process, as we will discuss in this paper. In information analysis, methodology and expert analysis are important. Software analysis is just a tool to achieve our goal. This presentation deals with concrete measures that improve the efficiency and effectiveness in the use of open source S&T information and in the management of that information over time. Examples are shown. (author)

  5. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y [Irfu, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A, E-mail: tomoko.muranaka@cea.f [Institut fuer TelichenPhysik, ETHZ, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5{center_dot}10{sup 11} per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  6. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, T.; Debu, P.; Dupré, P.; Liszkay, L.; Mansoulie, B.; Pérez, P.; Rey, J. M.; Ruiz, N.; Sacquin, Y.; Crivelli, P.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·1011 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  7. The impact of an efficient collection sites location on the zoning phase in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study the problems of locating collection areas and zoning the service territory in a municipal waste management system. • We investigate the impact that an efficient collection sites location has on the subsequent zoning phase. • On a real-world test case, we show that the proposed approach could allow achieving significant monetary savings. - Abstract: In this paper, we study two decisional problems arising when planning the collection of solid waste, namely the location of collection sites (together with bin allocation) and the zoning of the service territory, and we assess the potential impact that an efficient location has on the subsequent zoning phase. We first propose both an exact and a heuristic approach to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, and to decide the capacities and characteristics of the bins to be located at each collection site. A peculiar aspect we consider is that of taking into account the compatibility between the different types of bins when allocating them to collection areas. Moreover, we propose a fast and effective heuristic approach to identify homogeneous zones that can be served by a single collection vehicle. Computational results on data related to a real-life instance show that an efficient location is fundamental in achieving consistent monetary savings, as well as a reduced environmental impact. These reductions are the result of one vehicle less needed to perform the waste collection operations, and an overall traveled distance reduced by about 25% on the average

  8. Estimation of the collection efficiency of the axial flow cyclone dust collector with the fixed guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akira; Iwanami, Tetzuya; Shono, Hideki

    1997-03-01

    In order to estimate the cut-size Xc and the mechanically balanced particles in the axial flow cyclone with the slit-separation method, the tangential velocity distributions were calculated by the finite difference method. In comparison of the calculated results of the total collection efficiency with the experimental results, the calculated results showed a little higher than the experimental results due to the re-entrainment of the collected particles by turbulence. The effect of the slit for promoting the collection efficiency was not recognized.

  9. Inverted polymer fullerene solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency with poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) nanodots on electron-collecting buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Woo, Sungho; Kim, Wook Hyun; Kim, Hwajeong; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2015-12-01

    Polymer solar cells have been spotlighted due to their potential for low-cost manufacturing but their efficiency is still less than required for commercial application as lightweight/flexible modules. Forming a dipole layer at the electron-collecting interface has been suggested as one of the more attractive approaches for efficiency enhancement. However, only a few dipole layer material types have been reported so far, including only one non-ionic (charge neutral) polymer. Here we show that a further neutral polymer, namely poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) can be successfully used as a dipole layer. Inclusion of a PEOz layer, in particular with a nanodot morphology, increases the effective work function at the electron-collecting interface within inverted solar cells and thermal annealing of PEOz layer leads to a state-of-the-art 10.74% efficiency for single-stack bulk heterojunction blend structures comprising poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate] as donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor.

  10. Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.S.

    1993-09-01

    Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with {sup 241}Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He{sup +} or 10-MeV Si{sup 3+}. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair ({epsilon}{sub di}) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

  11. The modulation effect of substrate doping on multi-node charge collection and single-event transient propagation in 90-nm bulk complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun-Rui; Chen Shu-Ming; Liu Bi-Wei; Liu Zheng; Liang Bin; Du Yan-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Variation of substrate background doping will affect the charge collection of active and passive MOSFETs in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies,which are significant for charge sharing,thus affecting the propagated single event transient pulsewidths in circuits.The trends of charge collected by the drain of a positive channel metal-oxide semiconductor (PMOS) and an N metal-oxide semiconductor (NMOS) are opposite as the substrate doping increases.The PMOS source will inject carriers after strike and the amount of charge injected will increase as the substrate doping increases,whereas the source of the NMOS will mainly collect carriers and the source of the NMOS can also inject electrons when the substrate doping is light enough.Additionally,it indicates that substrate doping mainly affects the bipolar amplification component of a single-event transient current,and has little effect on the drift and diffusion.The change in substrate doping has a much greater effect on PMOS than on NMOS.

  12. An efficient and portable SIMD algorithm for charge/current deposition in Particle-In-Cell codes

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenti, H; Sasanka, R; Vay, J-L

    2016-01-01

    In current computer architectures, data movement (from die to network) is by far the most energy consuming part of an algorithm (10pJ/word on-die to 10,000pJ/word on the network). To increase memory locality at the hardware level and reduce energy consumption related to data movement, future exascale computers tend to use more and more cores on each compute nodes ("fat nodes") that will have a reduced clock speed to allow for efficient cooling. To compensate for frequency decrease, machine vendors are making use of long SIMD instruction registers that are able to process multiple data with one arithmetic operator in one clock cycle. SIMD register length is expected to double every four years. As a consequence, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes will have to achieve good vectorization to fully take advantage of these upcoming architectures. In this paper, we present a new algorithm that allows for efficient and portable SIMD vectorization of current/charge deposition routines that are, along with the field gathering...

  13. Ultrafast Charge Separation Dynamics of Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer State (TICT in Coumarin Dye Sensitized TiO2 Film: A New Route to Achieve Higher Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Hirendra N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast transient spectroscopy of 7-diethyl amino coumarin 3-carboxylic acid (D-1421 sensitized TiO2 film reveals that TICT states facilitate higher charge separation and slow recombination and proved to be new route to design higher efficient solar cell.

  14. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsino, Antonino; Araniti, Giuseppe; Militano, Leonardo; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Molinaro, Antonella; Iera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of “smart” objects disseminated from the largest “Smart City” to the smallest “Smart Home”. In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in “smart” environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection. PMID:27338385

  15. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsino, Antonino; Araniti, Giuseppe; Militano, Leonardo; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Molinaro, Antonella; Iera, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of "smart" objects disseminated from the largest "Smart City" to the smallest "Smart Home". In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in "smart" environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.

  16. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Orsino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifth Generation (5G wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of “smart” objects disseminated from the largest “Smart City” to the smallest “Smart Home”. In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in “smart” environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.

  17. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsino, Antonino; Araniti, Giuseppe; Militano, Leonardo; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Molinaro, Antonella; Iera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of "smart" objects disseminated from the largest "Smart City" to the smallest "Smart Home". In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in "smart" environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection. PMID:27338385

  18. Particle Characterization and Ice Nucleation Efficiency of Field-Collected Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.; Moffet, R.; Nizkorodov, S.; Roedel, T.; Sterckx, L.; Tivanski, A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation by heterogeneous nucleation is one of the least understood processes resulting in cirrus and mixed-phase clouds which affect the global radiation budget, the hydrological cycle, and water vapor distribution. In particular, how organic aerosol affect ice nucleation is not well understood. Here we report on heterogeneous ice nucleation from particles collected during the CalNex campaign at the Caltech campus site, Pasadena, on May 19, 2010 at 6am-12pm (A2) and 12pm-6pm (A3) and May 23 at 6am-12pm (B2) and 6pm-12am (B4). The ice nucleation onsets and water uptake were determined as a function of temperature (200-273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice). The ice nucleation efficiency was related to the particle chemical composition. Single particle characterization was provided by using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The STXM/NEXAFS analysis indicates that the morning sample (A2) constitutes organic particles and organic particles with soot and inorganic inclusions. The afternoon sample (A3) is dominated by organic particles with a potentially higher degree of oxidation associated with soot. The B2 sample shows a higher number fraction of magnesium-containing particle indicative of a marine source and ~93% of the particles contained sulfur besides oxygen and carbon as derived from CCSEM/EDX analysis. The B4 sample lacks the strong marine influence and shows higher organic content. Above 230 K, we observed water uptake followed by condensation freezing at mean RH of 93-100% and 89-95% for A2 and A3, respectively. This indicates that the aged A3 particles are efficient ice nuclei (IN) for condensation freezing. Below 230 K A2 and A3 induced deposition ice nucleation between 125-155% RHice (at mean values of 134-150% RHice). The B2 and B4

  19. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2 and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+ cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant.

  20. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material.

  1. Experimental study of elementary collection efficiency of aerosols by spray: Design of the experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Vendel, J.; Garrec. S.L.

    1995-02-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant containment building, in which pressure and temperature could increase because of a overheating reactor accident, can be achieved by spraying water drops. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam on cold water drops. The more stringent thermodynamic conditions are a pressure of 5.10{sup 5} Pa (due to steam emission) and a temperature of 413 K. Moreover its energy dissipation function, the spray leads to the washout of fission product particles emitted in the reactor building atmosphere. The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. The aim of this work is to develop experiments in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols by a single drop. To do this, the experimental device has to be designed with fundamental criteria:-Thermodynamic conditions have to be representative of post-accident atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium has to be attained between the water drops and the gaseous phase. Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and mechanical effects have to be studied independently. Operating conditions have to be homogenous and constant during each experiment. This paper presents the design of the experimental device. In practice, the consequences on the design of each of the criteria given previously and the necessity of being representative of the real conditions will be described.

  2. Tracking efficiency and charge sharing of 3D silicon sensors at different angles in a 1.4T magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Gjersdal, H; Slaviec, T; Sandaker, H; Tsung, J; Bolle, E; Da Via, C; Wermes, N; Borri, M; Grinstein, S; Nordahl, P; Hugging, F; Dorholt, O; Rohne, O; La Rosa, A; Sjobaek, K; Tsybychev, D; Mastroberardino, A; Fazio, S; Su, D; Young, C; Hasi, J; Grenier, P; Hansson, P; Jackson, P; Kenney, C; Kocian, M

    2011-01-01

    A 3D silicon sensor fabricated at Stanford with electrodes penetrating throughout the entire silicon wafer and with active edges was tested in a 1.4 T magnetic field with a 180 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN SPS in May 2009. The device under test was bump-bonded to the ATLAS pixel FE-I3 readout electronics chip. Three readout electrodes were used to cover the 400 pm long pixel side, this resulting in a p-n inter-electrode distance of similar to 71 mu m. Its behavior was confronted with a planar sensor of the type presently installed in the ATLAS inner tracker. Time over threshold, charge sharing and tracking efficiency data were collected at zero and 15 angles with and without magnetic field. The latest is the angular configuration expected for the modules of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) currently under study for the LHC phase 1 upgrade expected in 2014. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Mechanical Similarity Laws to the Collection Efficiencies of Geometrically Types of Uni—Flow Cyclone Dust Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AkiraOGAWA; KazuyaSUGIYAMA; 等

    1993-01-01

    From the mechanical similarity point of view,the centrifugal effect,Ar,and the Stokes number,St,as well as the Reynolds number,Rec for the motion of solid particles in the cyclone are the relevant parameters.In order to apply these similarty laws for the prediction of the Characteristics of the collection efficiency,ηc,geometrically similar types of uni-flow cyclones were used.The body diameters of the cyclones were D1=30,50,69 and 99mm,respectively.The feed particle concentration of the fly-ash particles was up to Co=60 g/m3,from the experimental results:(1) the pressure drop,ΔPc,in the cyclones was a function of not only the Reynods number,Rec.but also the body diameter,D1;(2)the collection efficiency,ηc,did not always increase with decreasing body diameter but there existed an optimal body size;(3)application of the mechanical similarity laws to the collection efficiency was not always sufficient for estimating the collection efficiency,since the feed particle concentration was an additional important factor;(4)a new parameter which was the ratio,Epf,of the apparent separation energy,Wp,of the solid particles to the energy loss,Ee,of the gas flow in the cyclone was introduced for discussing the collection efficiency;(5) Fuchs theory,used to estimate the collection efficiency,was examined.Fuchs theory may be applied for high feed particle concentration.

  4. Efficient Collection of Methane from Extremely Large Volumes of Water for Natural Radiocarbon Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, K. J.; Kessler, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Collecting sufficient amounts of natural methane sample for a high precision radiocarbon (14C-CH4) analysis was previously unfeasible when sampling from low methane concentration waters like the open ocean. A new method incorporating dissolved gas extraction technology (Liqui-Cel® membrane contactors) has been developed to circumvent the challenges that natural 14C-CH4 sampling presents. With this method, adequate amounts of methane-carbon for a traditional 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis can be cleanly and efficiently extracted from 1000s L water in a few hours. This technique is currently being improved to enable sampling from > 11,000 L water in less than 1 hr. For transport from the field to the laboratory, each extracted gas sample is compressed into a small (1.68 L) high-pressure aluminum cylinder using an oil-free compressor pump. Due to the small size and portability of the sample cylinders, high resolution sampling plans composed of 30+ samples are possible even in remote locations. The laboratory preparation of these methane samples for 14C-AMS analyses is carried out on a new flow-through vacuum line. While the bulk water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2) are removed before the sample is compressed in the field, the residual trace amounts of these constituents are cryogenically removed from the sample in the initial phase of the vacuum line. Carbon monoxide in the sample is quantitatively oxidized at 290°C to CO2 and cryogenically removed. Finally, the sample methane is quantitatively oxidized at 950°C to products CO2 and water and then cryogenically isolated. The new vacuum line technique achieves low blanks and purifies and oxidizes the methane contained in the extracted gas sample with high efficiency. At an AMS facility, an aliquot of the methane-produced CO2 is graphitized and analyzed for radiocarbon content using traditional 14C-AMS. Supporting dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements are conducted to determine both

  5. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Keizer, de M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of

  6. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material. PMID:26628150

  7. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed an adjusted “shared-input” version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall efficiency but also estimates of the munici...

  8. Estimation of the Collection Efficiency of the Axial FLow Cyclone Dust Collector with the Fixed Guide Vanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AkiraOGAWA; TetzuyaIWANAMI; 等

    1997-01-01

    In order to estimate the cut-size Xc and the mechanically balanced particles in the axial flow cyclone with the slit-separation method,the tangential velocity distributions were calculated by the finite difference method.In comparison of the calculated results of the total collection effciency with the experimental results,the calculated results showed a little higher than the experimental results due to the re-entrainment of the collected particles by turbulence.The effect of the slit for promoting the collection efficiency was not recognized.

  9. Increased downconversion efficiency and improved near infrared emission by different charge compensations in CaMoO4:Yb3+ powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xueqin; WEI Tao; CHEN Yonghu; YIN Min; GUO Changxin; ZHANG Weiping

    2011-01-01

    All of the samples were synthesized by sol-gel methods.Two approaches to charge compensation,(i) 2Ca2+→yb3++M+,where M+ is an alkali ion like Li+,Na+ and K+,and (ii) indirect charge compensation:3Ca2+→2Yb3++vacancy,were studied in detail.It was found that charge compensation would be very beneficial for the growth of the grains,especially in Li+ ions added samples.All the grains were homogeneously spherical with less boundaries; in addition,a great variety of the absorption ability in different charge compensation samples were observed:in comparison with the phosphors without charge compensation,indirectly charge compensated and Li+ ions added phosphors showed much stronger absorption strength in the ultraviolet (UV) region whereas that of Na+ and K+ ions added samples was much weaker;moreover,measurements of the emission intensities showed that:in comparison with the phosphors without charge compensation,the visible emission intensity from MoO42- decreased a lot in indirectly charge compensated and Li+ ions added phosphors,whereas there was a remarkable increase of the near infrared (NIR) emission intensity from Yb3+ ions in the two types of samples under 266 nm excitation,implying more efficient energy transfer (ET) from MoO42-toYb3+ ions; at last,measurements and analysis of the decay curves of the visible 495 nm emission were carried out,and it was found that the energy transfer from MoO42- to Yb3+ ions were more efficient in the two above types of phosphors.The theoretical quantum cutting (QC) efficiency was also improved greatly.Overall,the addition ofLi+ ions would be very beneficial for the morphology of the powders in addition to the growth of the grains.It was advantageous to increase the downconversion (DC)quantum efficiency; however,indirect charge compensation would enhance the NIR emission intensity to the most for its strongest absorption ability in the UV region.

  10. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. ► Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. ► Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted “shared-input” version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities’ cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  11. Remarkable charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device with (TiO2)0.8(Al2O3)0.1 composite charge-storage dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, K.; Ou, X.; Lan, X. X.; Cao, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Lu, W.; Gong, C. J.; Xu, B.; Li, A. D.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.

    2014-06-01

    A memory device p-Si/SiO2/(TiO2)0.8(Al2O3)0.1(TAO-81)/Al2O3/Pt was fabricated, in which a composite of two high-k dielectrics with a thickness of 1 nm was employed as the charge-trapping layer to enhance the charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device. At an applied gate voltage of ±9 V, TAO-81 memory device shows a memory window of 8.83 V in its C-V curve. It also shows a fast response to a short voltage pulse of 10-5 s. The charge-trapping capability, the endurance, and retention characteristics of TAO-81 memory device can be improved by introducing double TAO-81 charge-trapping layers intercalated by an Al2O3 layer. The charge-trapping mechanism in the memory device is mainly ascribed to the generation of the electron-occupied defect level in the band gap of Al2O3 induced by the inter-diffusion between TiO2 and Al2O3.

  12. 76 FR 6488 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Conversion of Efficiency Units to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Conversion of... and forms to permit the conversion of efficiencies to one-bedrooms provided it can be demonstrated that the conversion is warranted by local demands and results in the long- term financial and...

  13. Co(II)–grafted Ag3PO4 photocatalysts with unexpected photocatalytic ability: Enhanced photogenerated charge separation efficiency, photocatalytic mechanism and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Co–Ag3PO4 with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH was the main active species in the oxidation of MO. • The synergy of Co(II) and Ag3PO4 greatly enhanced the separation efficiency. - Abstract: Since the photocatalytic capability is determined by the separation and transmission efficiency of photoinduced charges, its improvement remains a challenge for development of efficient photocatalysts. Here, we made large improvement on the surface of Ag3PO4 using Co(II)–grafted Ag3PO4 by a hydrothermal method. During the photocatalytic process, Co(II) was oxidized to Co(III) by the photogenerated holes under visible light radiation, which enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated charges. Meanwhile, the Co(III) as-formed could oxidize dye molecules, which recovered the Co(II). The synergy of Co(II) and Ag3PO4 greatly promoted the separation and transmission efficiency of the photogenerated charges, and severely improved the photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4. The surface grafted Co(II) on Ag3PO4 is responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity

  14. Co(II)–grafted Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalysts with unexpected photocatalytic ability: Enhanced photogenerated charge separation efficiency, photocatalytic mechanism and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuna [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhang, Shujuan, E-mail: zhangshujuan@tust.edu.cn [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Co–Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH was the main active species in the oxidation of MO. • The synergy of Co(II) and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} greatly enhanced the separation efficiency. - Abstract: Since the photocatalytic capability is determined by the separation and transmission efficiency of photoinduced charges, its improvement remains a challenge for development of efficient photocatalysts. Here, we made large improvement on the surface of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} using Co(II)–grafted Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} by a hydrothermal method. During the photocatalytic process, Co(II) was oxidized to Co(III) by the photogenerated holes under visible light radiation, which enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated charges. Meanwhile, the Co(III) as-formed could oxidize dye molecules, which recovered the Co(II). The synergy of Co(II) and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} greatly promoted the separation and transmission efficiency of the photogenerated charges, and severely improved the photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The surface grafted Co(II) on Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  15. Development and application of VISAR probe with higher signal-collecting efficiency and adjusted depth of field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Jian Heng; Sun Cheng Wei

    2001-01-01

    The new design of optical fiber VISAR probes has been described. It consists of optical fibers and two lenses, and has simpler structure and lower cost than others. If the size of the image near the end face of collecting fiber is larger than the diameter of the core fiber, the distance between the probe and the target can be decreased. Requirement for the precision in the design is lower in this way, and is easier to build up. At the same time, the signal-collecting efficiency is improved in some degree. During the process of designing the probe, the technique for manufacturing the lens of plexiglass is developed. The lens of plexiglass is used to replace the lens of glass, which can reduce the cost of the probe. The factors affecting the collecting efficiency are analyzed

  16. Efficiency of extrinsic and intrinsic charge-carrier photogeneration processes obtained from the steady-state photocurrent action spectra of poly( p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazati, T.; Santos, L. F.; Reis, F. T.; Faria, R. M.

    2012-09-01

    The efficiency of the charge-carrier photogeneration processes in poly(2,5-bis(3',7'-dimethyl-octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (OC1OC10-PPV) has been analyzed by the spectral response of the photocurrent of devices in ITO/polymer/Al structures. The symbatic response of the photocurrent action spectra of the OC1OC10-PPV devices, obtained for light-excitation through the ITO electrode and for forward bias, has been fitted using a phenomenological model which considers that the predominant transport mechanism under external applied electric field is the drift of photogenerated charge-carriers, neglecting charge-carrier diffusion. The proposed model takes into account that charge-carrier photogeneration occurs via intermediate stages of bounded pairs (excitonic states), followed by dissociation processes. Such processes result in two different contributions to the photoconductivity: The first one, associated to direct creation of unbound polaron pairs due to intrinsic photoionization; and the second one is associated to secondary processes like extrinsic photoinjection at the metallic electrodes. The results obtained from the model have shown that the intrinsic component of the photoconductivity at higher excitation energies has a considerably higher efficiency than the extrinsic one, suggesting a dependence on the photon energy for the efficiency of the photogeneration process.

  17. Use of pixelated detectors for the identification of defects and charge collection effects in mercuric iodide (HgI2) single crystal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical structure of pixelated detectors provides a unique tool to evaluate the effects of different types of defects in the semiconductor material that is used to fabricate the detectors. The spectroscopic performance measured for individual pixels or groups of pixels can be used to correlate point defects or fields of inhomogeneities within the material with the charge collected from photoelectric events. A block of single crystal mercuric iodide of approximately 18x18 mm2 area and between 6 and 10 mm thick is prepared. The homogeneity of this material is then investigated with light in the transparent region for HgI2 using an optical microscope. Several types of defects can be identified in this way by the scattering of light, for example, single large inclusions or voids and areas of haziness consisting of fields of small inclusions. Standard procedures are used to fabricate from this block a pixelated detector with a 121-pixel anode structure. The performance of each pixel is measured, and differences in charge collection are correlated with the optical data. Measurement data are presented, and possible mechanisms of the interactions between the defects and the charge carriers are discussed.

  18. Study of organic photovoltaics by localized concentrated sunlight: towards optimization of charge collection in large-area solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manor, A.; Katz, E.A.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Galagan, Y.O.

    2011-01-01

    Large-area organic solar cells are known to suffer from a major efficiency decrease which originates from the combination of a voltage drop across the front electrode and the voltage-dependent photocurrent. In this letter, we demonstrate this efficiency loss on large area, indium tin oxide free cell

  19. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in highly boosted top-quark pair production in √{ s} = 8 TeVpp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    In the pp → t t bar process the angular distributions of top and anti-top quarks are expected to present a subtle difference, which could be enhanced by processes not included in the Standard Model. This Letter presents a measurement of the charge asymmetry in events where the top-quark pair is produced with a large invariant mass. The analysis is performed on 20.3 fb-1 of pp collision data at √{ s} = 8TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, using reconstruction techniques specifically designed for the decay topology of highly boosted top quarks. The charge asymmetry in a fiducial region with large invariant mass of the top-quark pair (mttbar > 0.75 TeV) and an absolute rapidity difference of the top and anti-top quark candidates within - 2 differential measurement in three t t bar mass bins is also presented.

  20. Core Collection Based Backcrossing: An Efficient Approach for Breeding,Germplasm Enhacement and Gene Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Z. Jia; R.H. Zhou; X.Y. Zhang; L. Zhang; Y.L. Li; J. Wang; X.Z. Liu; L.F. Gao; S.B. Liu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Plant germplasm underpins much of crop development. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource.

  1. Pseudorapidity and Centrality Dependence of the Collective Flow of Charged Particles in Au+Au Collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the measurement of collective flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The measured azimuthal hit anisotropy is presented over a wide range of pseudorapidity (-5.0<η<5.3) for the first time at this energy. The result, averaged over momenta and particle species, is observed to reach 7% for peripheral collisions at midrapidity, falling off with centrality and increasing |η|. These results call into question the common assumption of longitudinal boost invariance over a large region of rapidity in RHIC collisions.

  2. Efficiency Effects of Unit-based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Gradus, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in Environmental and Resource Economics . Much attention has been paid to the influence of the institutional form of waste collection on costs. We extend this literature in three directions by including the unit-based pricing system. First, we show that unit-based pricing systems are more important from a cost-minimizing point of view than the institutional mode of waste collection. In particular, the bag-based and frequency-based pricing systems are...

  3. Fiscal impact of electronic fee collection system on long-run efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž KRAMBERGER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure is extremely important for economic development and the labour mobility and competitiveness of European economy. However it is becoming increasingly difficult for government to publicly fund transport infrastructures. Therefore the decision to implement toll roads in Europe as a transport-policy instrument is an important shift in the funding of infrastructure. Adoption of appropriate technology has implications on the efficiency of the system. The mathematical model developed upon and simulations were carried out on several scenarios given the different types of technology. The results suggest that DSRC technology employed on motorways to be the most efficient.

  4. Cost effective node deployment strategy for energy-balanced and delay-efficient data collection in wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Doudou, Messaoud; Djenouri, Djamel; Barceló Ordinas, José María; Badache, Nadjib

    2014-01-01

    The real-world node deployment aspect is investigated, while considering cost minimization for resolving the energy hole around the sink, which represents a serious problem in typical sensor networks with uniform distribution. A novel strategy is proposed that is based on the use of two sinks and a few extra relay nodes close to the sinks' areas. The traffic is then alternatively sent to the sinks in every other cycle. As a second contribution, an efficient data collection mechanism has been ...

  5. Efficiency Effects of Unit-based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Much attention has been paid to the influence of the institutional form of waste collection on costs. We extend this literature in three directions by including the unit-based pricing system. First, we show that unit-based pricing systems are more important from a cost-

  6. Evaluation of Efficiency of Schoenly Trap for Collecting Adult Sarcosaprophagous Dipterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordonez Gloria, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Communities of adult sarcosaprophagous dipterans were evaluated using both Schoenly traps (BST) baited with rabbit carcasses and the traditional forensic methodology (TradC) in the Sabana de Bogota ́ , Colombia. During 42 sampling days, 2,726 adult dipterans were collected (2,291 by BST and 435 b...

  7. Low-energy charge-density excitations in MgB2: Striking interplay between single-particle and collective behavior for large momenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y Q; Chow, P C; Restrepo, O D; Takano, Y; Togano, K; Kito, H; Ishii, H; Chen, C C; Liang, K S; Chen, C T; Tsuda, S; Shin, S; Kao, C C; Ku, W; Eguiluz, A G

    2006-10-27

    A sharp feature in the charge-density excitation spectra of single-crystal MgB2, displaying a remarkable cosinelike, periodic energy dispersion with momentum transfer (q) along the c* axis, has been observed for the first time by high-resolution nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS). Time-dependent density-functional theory calculations show that the physics underlying the NIXS data is strong coupling between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom, mediated by large crystal local-field effects. As a result, the small-q collective mode residing in the single-particle excitation gap of the B pi bands reappears periodically in higher Brillouin zones. The NIXS data thus embody a novel signature of the layered electronic structure of MgB2.

  8. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinellu Angelo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December – March using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9% and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05. No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 μl, spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9% among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p

  9. A novel position and time sensing active pixel sensor with field-assisted electron collection for charged particle tracking and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, G.; Deptuch, G.; Dragone, A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Castoldi, A.; Fazzi, A.; Gatti, E.; Guazzoni, C.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Dulinski, W.; Besson, A.; Deveaux, M.; Winter, M.

    2006-11-01

    A new type of active pixel sensors (APSs) to track charged particles for particle physics experiments or to count number of electrons that cross any pixel at the focal plane of electron microscopes is described. The electric field of desirable shape is created inside the active volume of the pixel introducing the drift component in the movement of the signal electrons towards charge collecting electrodes. The electric field results from the flow of ˜100 mA/cm 2 hole currents within individual pixels of the sensor. The proposed sensor is produced using a standard industrially available complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) process. There are two main advantages of the proposed detectors when compared to the present (February 2005) state-of-the-art, i.e. field-free APS sensors. The first advantage of a field-assisted transport mechanism is the reduction of the charge collection time and of the sharing of the signal electrons between adjacent pixels by diffusion. The second advantage is the freedom to use both kinds of MOS transistors within each pixel of the sensor. Thus, the full functional power of CMOS circuits can be embedded in situ. As an example, 16-bit scalers will be implemented in each pixel of the sensor for electron microscopy. The reduced collection time combined with the state-of-the-art electronics within each pixel provides the most complete information about the position and the timing of incident charged particles for particle physics experiments. Position resolution of new sensors was computationally simulated to be a few microns, that is, the same as the resolution of standard APSs. Moreover, the active depth of the sensor and the associate electronics is less than about 20 μm and a thinned down sensor together with its beryllium backing can have a total thickness of less than 0.1% of one radiation length. The reduction of the thickness of the detector reduces the amount of multiple scattering within the detector. The determination of the

  10. Efficient Excitation of a Symmetric Collective Atomic State with a Single-Photon Through Dipole Blockade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Fang-Yu; XIONG Shi-Jie; FU Jing-Li; ZHU Zhi-Yan

    2013-01-01

    In the famous quantum communication scheme developed by Duan et al.[L.M.Duan,M.D.Lukin,J.L.Cirac,and P.Zoller,Nature (London) 414 (2001) 413],the probability of successful generating a symmetric collective atomic state with a single-photon emitted have to be far smaller than 1 to obtain an acceptable entangled state.Based on strong dipole-dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms,two simultaneous excitations in an atomic ensemble are greatly suppressed,which makes it possible to excite a mesoscopic cold atomic ensemble into a near-ideal singly-excited symmetric collective state accompanied by a signal-photon with near unity success probability.

  11. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    OpenAIRE

    Smajo Sulejmanovic; Suad Kunosic; Ema Hankic

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to r...

  12. Laser-Based Directed Release of Array Elements for Efficient Collection into Targeted Microwells

    OpenAIRE

    Dobes, Nicholas C.; Dhopeshwarkar, Rahul; Henley, W. Hampton; Ramsey, J. Michael; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    A cell separation strategy capable of the systematic isolation and collection of moderate to large numbers (25–400) of single cells into a targeted microwell is demonstrated. An array of microfabricated, releasable, transparent micron-scale pedestals termed pallets and an array of microwells in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were mated to enable selective release and retrieval of individual cells. Cells cultured on a pallet array mounted on a custom designed stage permitted the array to be pos...

  13. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  14. Experimental investigation on atomization and collecting efficiency of wind-spray dust controller and its parameters optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇保福; 刘邱祖; 曹世宸; 胡晓禾; 李延峰; 王毅然; 赵波慧

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the atomization efficiency of atomizer, a new type of wind-spray dust controller combining the rotary-atomization and colliding broken of droplets was designed by the method of opening the water circulation within the blades. The experiment test for dust controller was conducted by adjusting the following parameters: rotating speed, diversion hole-exit diameter, and colliding tooth angle. Results show that the atomization efficiency increases firstly then decreases with them. And the optimal parameters are obtained with rotating speed 1500-2200 r/min, diversion hole-exit diameter 2-2.5 mm and colliding tooth angle 30°-40°, and under these conditions the corresponding atomization efficiency tops to 95%. Then, the atomization situation under the optimal parameters is held from the aspect of simulation internal flow field and the results of droplet size(30-80 μm) are got, which indicates that the conclusion on the optimized parameters of dust controller is reasonable. The collecting efficiencies of different dust concentrations are determined, ranging from 85% to 98.4%, which shows that the designed dust controller can obtain a good atomizing effect and achieve well dustfall efficiency for the wetting dust control of coal mine.

  15. Highly-Efficient Charge Separation and Polaron Delocalization in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunctions: A Comparative Multi-Frequency EPR & DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L.; Banks, Brian P.; Grooms, Gregory M.; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing depletion of fossil fuels has led to an intensive search for additional renewable energy sources. Solar-based technologies could provide sufficient energy to satisfy the global economic demands in the near future. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the most promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization. Understanding the charge separation and charge transport in PV materials at a molecular level is crucial for improving the efficiency of the solar cells. Here, we use light-induced EPR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations to study the electronic structure of charge separated states in blends of polymers (P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7) and fullerene derivatives (C60-PCBM and C70-PCBM). Solar cells made with the same composites as active layers show power conversion efficiencies of 3.3% (P3HT), 6.1% (PCDTBT), and 7.3% (PTB7), respectively. Under illumination of these composites, two paramagnetic species are formed due to photo-induced electron transfer between the conjugated polymer and the fullerene. They are the positive, P+, and negative, P-, polarons on the polymer backbone and fullerene cage, respectively, and correspond to radical cations and radical anions. Using the high spectral resolution of high-frequency EPR (130 GHz), the EPR spectra of these species were resolved and principal components of the g-tensors were assigned. Light-induced pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy allowed the determination of 1H hyperfine coupling constants of photogenerated positive and negative polarons. The experimental results obtained for the different polymer-fullerene composites have been compared with DFT calculations, revealing that in all three systems the positive polaron is distributed over distances of 40 - 60 Å on the polymer chain. This corresponds to about 15 thiophene units for P3HT, approximately three units PCDTBT, and about three to four units for PTB7. No spin density delocalization between neighboring fullerene molecules was detected by EPR. Strong

  16. Highly-efficient charge separation and polaron delocalization in polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunctions: a comparative multi-frequency EPR and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L; Banks, Brian P; Grooms, Gregory M; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G

    2013-06-28

    The ongoing depletion of fossil fuels has led to an intensive search for additional renewable energy sources. Solar-based technologies could provide sufficient energy to satisfy the global economic demands in the near future. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the most promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization. Understanding the charge separation and charge transport in PV materials at a molecular level is crucial for improving the efficiency of the solar cells. Here, we use light-induced EPR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations to study the electronic structure of charge separated states in blends of polymers (P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7) and fullerene derivatives (C60-PCBM and C70-PCBM). Solar cells made with the same composites as active layers show power conversion efficiencies of 3.3% (P3HT), 6.1% (PCDTBT), and 7.3% (PTB7), respectively. Upon illumination of these composites, two paramagnetic species are formed due to photo-induced electron transfer between the conjugated polymer and the fullerene. They are the positive, P(+), and negative, P(-), polarons on the polymer backbone and fullerene cage, respectively, and correspond to radical cations and radical anions. Using the high spectral resolution of high-frequency EPR (130 GHz), the EPR spectra of these species were resolved and principal components of the g-tensors were assigned. Light-induced pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy allowed the determination of (1)H hyperfine coupling constants of photogenerated positive and negative polarons. The experimental results obtained for the different polymer-fullerene composites have been compared with DFT calculations, revealing that in all three systems the positive polaron is distributed over distances of 40-60 Å on the polymer chain. This corresponds to about 15 thiophene units for P3HT, approximately three units for PCDTBT, and about three to four units for PTB7. No spin density delocalization between neighboring fullerene molecules was detected by EPR

  17. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. PMID:27098910

  18. Simultaneously promoting charge separation and photoabsorption of BiOX (X = Cl, Br) for efficient visible-light photocatalysis and photosensitization by compositing low-cost biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Huang, Hongwei; Yu, Shixin; Tian, Na; Dong, Fan; Du, Xin; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-11-01

    Exploration of novel and efficient composite photocatalysts is of great significance for advancing the practical application of photocatalysis. BiOX (X = Cl, Br) is a kind of promising photocatalysts, but the charge separation efficiency and photoabsorption need to be ameliorated. In this work, we first employ a low-cost and easily accessable carbon material biochar to modify BiOX (X = Cl, Br) and develop biochar/BiOX (X = Cl, Br) composite photocatalysts via a facile in-situ deposition method. The as-prepared composites are detailedly characterized by SEM, SEM-mapping, TEM, XRD and XPS, and DRS result demonstrates that the visible-light absorption of BiOX (X = Cl, Br) catalysts can be exceedingly enhanced by biochar. The biochar/BiOX (X = Cl, Br) composites are found to unfold remarkably enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MO and photocurrent generation. The strengthened photocatalytic performance mainly stems from the profoundly improved charge separation and delivery efficiency, as evidenced by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved PL decay spectra. Additionally, the biochar exerts importance in enhancing the two different types of photochemical reactions of BiOBr and BiOCl, in which the photocatalytic mechanisms are found to be photocatalysis and photosensitization process, respectively. The present work may open up a new avenue for framing economic and efficient photocatalytic materials and new composite materials for photoelectric application.

  19. Analytical modeling of relative luminescence efficiency of Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detectors exposed to high-energy heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to test analytical models to calculate the luminescence efficiency of Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) exposed to heavy charged particles with energies relevant to space dosimetry and particle therapy. We used the track structure model to obtain an analytical expression for the relative luminescence efficiency based on the average radial dose distribution produced by the heavy charged particle. We compared the relative luminescence efficiency calculated using seven different radial dose distribution models, including a modified model introduced in this work, with experimental data. The results obtained using the modified radial dose distribution function agreed within 20% with experimental data from Al2O3:C OSLDs relative luminescence efficiency for particles with atomic number ranging from 1 to 54 and linear energy transfer in water from 0.2 up to 1368 keV µm−1. In spite of the significant improvement over other radial dose distribution models, understanding of the underlying physical processes associated with these radial dose distribution models remain elusive and may represent a limitation of the track structure model. (paper)

  20. Charge transfer efficiency measurements at low signal levels on STIS/SOHO TK1024 CCD's. [Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph / Solar Heliocentric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbock, J. D.; Murata-Seawalt, D.; Delamere, W. A.; Blouke, Morley M.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer efficiency (CTE) test methods are reviewed, and the results and conclusions of the tests are given. The test methods have been utilized to describe the CTE characteristics of the Tektronix 1024 by 1024 CCD to optimize low dark current, low readout noise, and high CTE at low signal levels. CTE modelling is described, and three test methods are set forth and compared. The Fe-55 X-ray response method utilizes the response of a CCD to X-ray photons from the radioactive source Fe-55. The extended pixel edge response method employs the measurement of the charge lost to successive pixels by a known initial signal as it is shifted through the array. The charge injection method consists of charge injection through the output amplifier reset transistor. These measurements were performed on several devices with known CTEs. The CTEs are found to be in agreement for the three methods, making application and test requirements the principal criteria for their use.

  1. Simulation of the charge collection and signal response of a HPGe double sided strip detector using MGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu, I., E-mail: isidre.mateu@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Medina, P., E-mail: patrice.medina@aero.obs-mip.fr [IPHC, IN2P3 – CNRS/Université Louis Pasteur, 23 rue du Loess, PB28, Strasbourg Cedex 2, F67037 (France); Roques, J.P., E-mail: jean-pierre.roques@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Jourdain, E., E-mail: elisabeth.jourdain@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2014-01-21

    This paper aims to present Multi geometry Simulation (MGS), a software intended for the characterization of the signal response of solid state detectors. Its main feature is the calculation of the pulse shapes induced at the electrodes of the detector by a photon–semiconductor interaction occurring at a specific position inside the detector volume. The program uses numerical methods to simulate the drift of the charge carriers generated by the interaction, as the movement of these particles induces the useful signal for detection to the electrodes. After the description of the tool fundamentals, an example of application is presented where MGS was used for simulating a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) double sided strip detector conceived for hard X-ray astronomy. Simulated and measured pulse shapes are compared for interactions occurring at different depths in the detector volume. The comparison focuses on the difference in time of arrival between the anode and cathode pulses, as this measure allows, together with the X/Y information retrieved from the strips, a 3D determination of the photon interaction point, which is an important feature of the detector. A good matching between simulations and measurements is obtained, with a discrepancy less than 0.5 mm between the measured and the simulated depth of the interaction, for an 11 mm thick detector. -- Highlights: • Description of MGS, a tool for the synthesis of the signal response of solid state detectors. • Validation of the simulator through comparison with measurements on a DSSD prototype. • Discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and possible evolutions of MGS.

  2. A Quasi-Solid State DSSC with 10.1% Efficiency through Molecular Design of the Charge-Separation and -Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuka, Michio; Hayashi, Naoki; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Sumioka, Kouichi; Takata, Masakazu; Hayo, Noriko; Ikeda, Hiroki; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Organic-based solar cells potentially offer a photovoltaic module with low production costs and low hazard risk of the components. We report organic dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated with molecular designed indoline dyes in conjunction with highly reactive but robust nitroxide radical molecules as redox mediator in a quasi-solid gel form of the electrolyte. The cells achieve conversion efficiencies of 10.1% at 1 sun, and maintain the output performance even under interior lighting. The indoline dyes, customized by introducing long alkyl chains, specifically interact with the radical mediator to suppress a charge-recombination process at the dye interface. The radical mediator also facilitates the charge-transport with remarkably high electron self-exchange rate even in the quasi-solid state electrolyte to lead to a high fill factor.

  3. Efficient and Robust Data Collection Using Compact Micro Hardware, Distributed Bus Architectures and Optimizing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio; Vatan, Farrokh; Randolph, Vincent; Baroth, Edmund C.

    2006-01-01

    Future In-Space propulsion systems for exploration programs will invariably require data collection from a large number of sensors. Consider the sensors needed for monitoring several vehicle systems states of health, including the collection of structural health data, over a large area. This would include the fuel tanks, habitat structure, and science containment of systems required for Lunar, Mars, or deep space exploration. Such a system would consist of several hundred or even thousands of sensors. Conventional avionics system design will require these sensors to be connected to a few Remote Health Units (RHU), which are connected to robust, micro flight computers through a serial bus. This results in a large mass of cabling and unacceptable weight. This paper first gives a survey of several techniques that may reduce the cabling mass for sensors. These techniques can be categorized into four classes: power line communication, serial sensor buses, compound serial buses, and wireless network. The power line communication approach uses the power line to carry both power and data, so that the conventional data lines can be eliminated. The serial sensor bus approach reduces most of the cabling by connecting all the sensors with a single (or redundant) serial bus. Many standard buses for industrial control and sensor buses can support several hundreds of nodes, however, have not been space qualified. Conventional avionics serial buses such as the Mil-Std-1553B bus and IEEE 1394a are space qualified but can support only a limited number of nodes. The third approach is to combine avionics buses to increase their addressability. The reliability, EMI/EMC, and flight qualification issues of wireless networks have to be addressed. Several wireless networks such as the IEEE 802.11 and Ultra Wide Band are surveyed in this paper. The placement of sensors can also affect cable mass. Excessive sensors increase the number of cables unnecessarily. Insufficient number of sensors

  4. Data Collection Framework for Energy Efficient Privacy Preservation in Wireless Sensor Networks Having Many-to-Many Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayretdin Bahsi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs generally have a many-to-one structure so that event information flows from sensors to a unique sink. In recent WSN applications, many-to-many structures evolved due to the need for conveying collected event information to multiple sinks. Privacy preserved data collection models in the literature do not solve the problems of WSN applications in which network has multiple un-trusted sinks with different level of privacy requirements. This study proposes a data collection framework bases on k-anonymity for preventing record disclosure of collected event information in WSNs. Proposed method takes the anonymity requirements of multiple sinks into consideration by providing different levels of privacy for each destination sink. Attributes, which may identify an event owner, are generalized or encrypted in order to meet the different anonymity requirements of sinks at the same anonymized output. If the same output is formed, it can be multicasted to all sinks. The other trivial solution is to produce different anonymized outputs for each sink and send them to related sinks. Multicasting is an energy efficient data sending alternative for some sensor nodes. Since minimization of energy consumption is an important design criteria for WSNs, multicasting the same event information to multiple sinks reduces the energy consumption of overall network.

  5. Experimental investigation on atomization and collecting efficiency of wind-spray dust controller and its parameters optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇保福; 刘邱祖; 曹世宸; 胡晓禾; 李延峰; 王毅然; 赵波慧

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the atomization efficiency of atomizer, a new type of wind-spray dust controller combining the rotary-atomization and colliding broken of droplets was designed by the method of opening the water circulation within the blades. The experiment test for dust controller was conducted by adjusting the following parameters: rotating speed, diversion hole-exit diameter, and colliding tooth angle. Results show that the atomization efficiency increases firstly then decreases with them. And the optimal parameters are obtained with rotating speed 1500−2200 r/min, diversion hole-exit diameter 2−2.5 mm and colliding tooth angle 30°−40°, and under these conditions the corresponding atomization efficiencytops to 95%. Then, the atomization situation under the optimal parameters is held from the aspect of simulation internal flow field and the results of droplet size (30−80μm) are got, which indicates that the conclusion on the optimized parameters of dust controller is reasonable. The collecting efficiencies of different dust concentrations are determined, ranging from 85% to 98.4%, which shows that the designed dust controller can obtain a good atomizing effect and achieve well dustfall efficiency for the wetting dust control of coal mine.

  6. Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation of non-covalent ions: charge- and guest-dependence of decomplexation reaction efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Glenn; Lemaur, Vincent; De Winter, Julien; Isaacs, Lyle; De Pauw, Edwin; Cornil, Jérôme; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2016-05-14

    Supramolecular chemistry, and especially host-guest chemistry, has been the subject of great interest in the past few decades leading to the synthesis of host cage molecules such as calixarenes, cyclodextrins and more recently cucurbiturils. Mass spectrometry methods are increasingly used to decipher at the molecular level the non-covalent interactions between the different associated molecules. The present article illustrates that the association between mass spectrometry and computational chemistry techniques proves very complementary to depict the gas-phase dissociation processes of ionic non-covalent complexes when subjected to collisional activation. The selected system associates a nor-seco-cucurbit[10]uril bitopic receptor with different amino compounds (adamantylamine, para-xylylenediamine, and para-phenylenediamine). When subjected to CID experiments, the ternary complexes undergo fragmentation via dissociation of non-covalently bound partners. Interestingly, depending on their charge state, the collisionally excited complexes can selectively expel either a neutral guest molecule or a protonated guest molecule. Moreover, based on energy-resolved CID experiments, it is possible to evaluate the guest molecule dependence on the gas phase dissociation efficiency. We observed that the relative order of gas phase dissociation is charge state dependent, with the adamantylamine-containing complexes being the weakest when triply charged and the strongest when doubly charged. The energetics of the gas-phase dissociation reactions have been estimated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We succeeded in theoretically rationalizing the experimental collision-induced dissociation results with a special emphasis on: (i) the charge state of the expelled guest molecule and (ii) the nature of the guest molecule. PMID:27086657

  7. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in highly boosted top-quark pair production in s=8 TeV pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the pp→tt¯ process the angular distributions of top and anti-top quarks are expected to present a subtle difference, which could be enhanced by processes not included in the Standard Model. This Letter presents a measurement of the charge asymmetry in events where the top-quark pair is produced with a large invariant mass. The analysis is performed on 20.3 fb−1 of pp collision data at s=8TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, using reconstruction techniques specifically designed for the decay topology of highly boosted top quarks. The charge asymmetry in a fiducial region with large invariant mass of the top-quark pair (mtt¯>0.75 TeV and an absolute rapidity difference of the top and anti-top quark candidates within −2<|yt|−|yt¯|<2 is measured to be 4.2±3.2%, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction at next-to-leading order. A differential measurement in three tt¯ mass bins is also presented.

  8. Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe dominant economic theory, neoclassical economics, employs a single economic evaluative criterion: efficiency. Moreover, it assigns this criterion a very specific meaning. Other – heterodox – schools of thought in economics tend to use more open concepts of efficiency, related to comm

  9. Collective excitation of plasmonic hot-spots for enhanced hot charge carrier transfer in metal/semiconductor contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, Adrien; Earl, Stuart K.; Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J.; Gómez, Daniel E.

    2015-04-01

    We show how a combination of near- and far-field coupling of the localised surface plasmon resonances in aluminium nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 films greatly enhances the visible light photocatalytic activity of the semiconductor material. We demonstrate two orders of magnitude enhancement in the rate of decomposition of methylene blue under visible light illumination when the surface of TiO2 films is decorated with gratings of Al nanoparticle dimers.We show how a combination of near- and far-field coupling of the localised surface plasmon resonances in aluminium nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 films greatly enhances the visible light photocatalytic activity of the semiconductor material. We demonstrate two orders of magnitude enhancement in the rate of decomposition of methylene blue under visible light illumination when the surface of TiO2 films is decorated with gratings of Al nanoparticle dimers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed information on estimates of hot-electron injection efficiencies, electrodynamic simulations, sample preparation, spectroscopic and structural characterization and photocatalytic experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01592h

  10. On the use of a charged tunnel layer as a hole collector to improve the efficiency of amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Cangming; Sahraei, Nasim; Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Stangl, Rolf [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Peters, Ian Marius

    2015-06-28

    A new concept, using a negatively charged tunnel layer as a hole collector, is proposed and theoretically investigated for application in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The concept features a glass/transparent conductive oxide/ultra-thin negatively charged tunnel layer/intrinsic a-Si:H/n-doped a-Si:H/metal structure. The key feature of this so called t{sup +}-i-n structure is the introduction of a negatively charged tunnel layer (attracting holes from the intrinsic absorber layer), which substitutes the highly recombination active p-doped a-Si:H layer in a conventional p-i-n configuration. Atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD AlO{sub x}) is suggested as a potential candidate for such a tunnel layer. Using typical ALD AlO{sub x} parameters, a 27% relative efficiency increase (i.e., from 9.7% to 12.3%) is predicted theoretically for a single-junction a-Si:H solar cell on a textured superstrate. This prediction is based on parameters that reproduce the experimentally obtained external quantum efficiency and current-voltage characteristics of a conventional processed p-i-n a-Si:H solar cell, reaching 9.7% efficiency and serving as a reference. Subsequently, the p-doped a-Si:H layer is replaced by the tunnel layer (studied by means of numerical device simulation). Using a t{sup +}-i-n configuration instead of a conventional p-i-n configuration will not only increase the short-circuit current density (from 14.4 to 14.9 mA/cm{sup 2}, according to our simulations), it also enhances the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor (from 917 mV to 1.0 V and from 74% to 83%, respectively). For this concept to work efficiently, a high work function front electrode material or a high interface charge is needed.

  11. Towards increased recycling of household waste: Documenting cascading effects and material efficiency of commingled recyclables and biowaste collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Rothmann, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management remains a challenge, even in Europe where several countries now possess capacity to treat all arising MSW, while others still rely on unsustainable disposal pathways. In the former, strategies to reach higher recycling levels are affecting existing waste-to-energy (WtE) treatment infrastructure, by inducing additional overcapacity and this in turn rebounds as pressure on the waste and recyclable materials markets. This study addresses such situations by documenting the effects, in terms of resource recovery, global warming potential (GWP) and cumulative energy demand (CED), of a transition from a self-sufficient waste management system based on minimal separate collection and efficient WtE, towards a system with extended separate collection of recyclable materials and biowaste. In doing so, it tackles key questions: (1) whether recycling and biological treatment are environmentally better compared to highly efficient WtE, and (2) what are the implications of overcapacity-related cascading effects, namely waste import, when included in the comparison of alternative waste management systems. System changes, such as the implementation of kerbside separate collection of recyclable materials were found to significantly increase material recovery, besides leading to substantial GWP and CED savings in comparison to the WtE-based system. Bio-waste separate collection contributed with additional savings when co-digested with manure, and even more significantly when considering future renewable energy background systems reflecting the benefits induced by the flexible use of biogas. Given the current liberalization of trade in combustible waste in Europe, waste landfilling was identified as a short-to-medium-term European-wide waste management marginal reacting to overcapacity effects induced by the implementation of increased recycling strategies. When waste import and, consequently, avoided landfilling were included in the system

  12. Robust Inclusion Complexes of Crown Ether Fused Tetrathiafulvalenes with Li+@C-60 to Afford Efficient Photodriven Charge Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supur, M.; Kawashima, Y.; Larsen, K. R.;

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion complexes of benzo-and dithiabenzocrown ether functionalized monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF) molecules were formed with Li+@C-60 (1 center dot Li+@C-60 and 2 center dot Li+@C-60). The strong complexation has been quantified by high binding constants that exceed 10(6) (-1)(M......) obtained by UV/Vis titrations in benzonitrile (PhCN) at room temperature. On the basis of DFT studies at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, the orbital interactions between the crown ether moieties and the p surface of the fullerene together with the endohedral Li+ have a crucial role in robust complex formation....... Interestingly, complexation of Li+@C-60 with crown ethers accelerates the intersystem crossing upon photoexcitation of the complex, thereby yielding 3(Li+@C-60)*, when no charge separation by means of 1Li(+)@C-60* occurs. Photoinduced charge separation by means of 3Li(+)@C-60* with lifetimes of 135 and 120 ms...

  13. Theoretical investigation of electronic structure and charge transport property of 9,10-distyrylanthracene (DSA) derivatives with high solid-state luminescent efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Jibo; Dong, Yujie; Wen, Shanpeng; Zhang, Houyu; Tian, Wenjing

    2013-02-21

    The electronic structure and charge transport property of 9,10-distyrylanthracene (DSA) and its derivatives with high solid-state luminescent efficiency were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). The impact of substituents on the optimized structure, reorganization energy, ionization potential (IP) and electronic affinity (EA), frontier orbitals, crystal packing, transfer integrals and charge mobility were explored based on Marcus theory. It was found that the hole mobility of DSA was 0.21 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) while the electron mobility was 0.026 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which were relatively high due to the low reorganization energies and high transfer integrals. The calculated results showed that the charge transport property of these compounds can be significantly tuned via introducing different substituents to DSA. When one electron-withdrawing group (cyano group) was introduced into DSA, DSA-CN exhibited hole mobility of 0.14 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) which was on the same order of that of DSA. However, the electron mobility of DSA-CN decreased to 8.14 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) due to the relatively large reorganization energy and disadvantageous transfer integral. The effect of electron-donating substituents was investigated by introducing methoxy group and tertiary butyl into DSA. DSA-OCH(3) and DSA-TBU showed much lower charge mobility than DSA resulting from the steric hindrance of substituents. On the other hand, both of them exhibited balanced transport properties (for DSA-OCH(3), the hole and electron mobility was 0.0026 and 0.0027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1); for DSA-TBU, the hole and electron mobility was 0.045 and 0.012 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) because of their similar transfer integrals for both hole and electron. DSA and its derivatives were supposed to be one of the most excellent emissive materials for organic electroluminescent applications because of their high charge mobility and high solid-state luminescent efficiency. PMID:23319079

  14. Contribution of Partial Charge Interactions and Base Stacking to the Efficiency of Primer Extension at and beyond Abasic Sites in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David; Eom, Soo Hyun; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H. (Yale); (Gwangju)

    2012-08-31

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold depending on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.

  15. Highly efficient ZnO/Au Schottky barrier dye-sensitized solar cells: Role of gold nanoparticles on the charge-transfer process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanujjal Bora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods decorated with gold (Au nanoparticles have been synthesized and used to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. The picosecond-resolved, time-correlated single-photon-count (TCSPC spectroscopy technique was used to explore the charge-transfer mechanism in the ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC. Due to the formation of the Schottky barrier at the ZnO/Au interface and the higher optical absorptions of the ZnO/Au photoelectrodes arising from the surface plasmon absorption of the Au nanoparticles, enhanced power-conversion efficiency (PCE of 6.49% for small-area (0.1 cm2 ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC was achieved compared to the 5.34% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanorod DSSC. The TCSPC studies revealed similar dynamics for the charge transfer from dye molecules to ZnO both in the presence and absence of Au nanoparticles. A slower fluorescence decay associated with the electron recombination process, observed in the presence of Au nanoparticles, confirmed the blocking of the electron transfer from ZnO back to the dye or electrolyte by the Schottky barrier formed at the ZnO/Au interface. For large area DSSC (1 cm2, ~130% enhancement in PCE (from 0.50% to 1.16% was achieved after incorporation of the Au nanoparticles into the ZnO nanorods.

  16. The effect of the first dynode's geometry on the detection efficiency of a 119EM electron multiplier used as a highly charged ion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krása, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Stöckli, M. P.; Lehnert, U.; Fry, D.

    1999-05-01

    The ion counting as well as the current gain of an electron multiplier type 119EM with BeCu dynodes having a Venetian blind structure was measured in terms of the dependence on the position where ions impact the surface of the first dynode. The dependence of the 119EM's detection efficiency on the impact position exhibited large variations across the Venetian blind of the first dynode. The highest detection efficiency was localized at the first dynode's surface near its output area into the second dynode region. The lowest one was measured at the input area of the first dynode region that is far from the second dynode. The measurements also show that the 119EM is not very reliable for ion counting. The analog particle gain derived from the mean current gain measured across a single slat increases with increasing charge state as well as with ion energy for Co q+(10⩽ q⩽26) and Ta q+(14⩽ q⩽34) ions with kinetic energy per charge from 33 keV/ q to 163 keV/ q. The gains were derived from comparison with the Faraday cup measurements.

  17. Efficient and ultrafast formation of long-lived charge-transfer exciton state in atomically thin cadmium selenide/cadmium telluride type-II heteronanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaifeng; Li, Qiuyang; Jia, Yanyan; McBride, James R; Xie, Zhao-xiong; Lian, Tianquan

    2015-01-27

    Colloidal cadmium chalcogenide nanosheets with atomically precise thickness of a few atomic layers and size of 10-100 nm are two-dimensional (2D) quantum well materials with strong and precise quantum confinement in the thickness direction. Despite their many advantageous properties, excitons in these and other 2D metal chalcogenide materials are short-lived due to large radiative and nonradiative recombination rates, hindering their applications as light harvesting and charge separation/transport materials for solar energy conversion. We showed that these problems could be overcome in type-II CdSe/CdTe core/crown heteronanosheets (with CdTe crown laterally extending on the CdSe nanosheet core). Photoluminesence excitation measurement revealed that nearly all excitons generated in the CdSe and CdTe domains localized to the CdSe/CdTe interface to form long-lived charge transfer excitons (with electrons in the CdSe domain and hole in the CdTe domain). By ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we showed that the efficient exciton localization efficiency could be attributed to ultrafast exciton localization (0.64 ± 0.07 ps), which was facilitated by large in-plane exciton mobility in these 2D materials and competed effectively with exiton trapping at the CdSe or CdTe domains. The spatial separation of electrons and holes across the CdSe/CdTe heterojunction effectively suppressed radiative and nonradiative recombination processes, leading to a long-lived charge transfer exciton state with a half-life of ∼ 41.7 ± 2.5 ns, ∼ 30 times longer than core-only CdSe nanosheets. PMID:25548944

  18. Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3: role of interconnectivity of TiO2 in charge collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Kim, Hui-Seon; Jang, In-Hyuk; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite solar cells with high power conversion efficiency usually employ mesoporous TiO2, however the role of the TiO2 layer has not been clearly resolved. Here we prepared MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3 to investigate the role of the mesoporous TiO2 layer. The Al2O3 content was varied from 0% (pure TiO2) to 100% (pure Al2O3) with nominal composition of (1 - x)TiO2 + xAl2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The photocurrent density and fill factor decreased as Al2O3 content increased, whereas the open-circuit voltage was hardly changed. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) was less quenched as the Al2O3 content increased due to its non-electron-injecting characteristics, where a decrease in PL intensity with increasing TiO2 content was correlated to an increase in photocurrent. Electron injection to TiO2 was also evidenced by time-resolved PL and time-limited photocurrent measurements, where interconnection of TiO2 particles played an important role in charge collection. The slight change in voltage with Al2O3 content was explained by balancing the Fermi position due to a trade-off between charge recombination and the Fermi level. The results observed from the admixture mesoporous layer comprising electron-injecting and electron-non-injecting oxides suggest that electron-injection characteristics play an important role in determining photovoltaic parameters.

  19. Improvement of the electron collection efficiency in porous hematite using a thin iron oxide underlayer: towards efficient all-iron based photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Carbonare, Nicola; Carli, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Orlandi, Michele; Bazzanella, Nicola; Miotello, Antonio; Caramori, Stefano; Bignozzi, Carlo A

    2015-11-28

    Different approaches have been explored to increase the water oxidation activity of nanostructured hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes, including doping with various elements, surface functionalization with both oxygen evolving catalysts (OEC) and functional overlayers and, more recently, the introduction of ultrathin oxide underlayers as tunneling back contacts. Inspired by this latter strategy, we present here a photoanode design with a nanometric spin-coated iron oxide underlayer coupled with a mesoporous hematite film deposited by electrophoresis. The electrodes equipped with the thin underlayer exhibit a four-fold improvement in photoactivity over the simple hematite porous film, reaching a stable photocurrent density of ca. 1 mA cm(-2) at 0.65 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE) at pH 13.3 (NaOH 0.1 M) under air mass (AM) 1.5G illumination. A further improvement to 1.5 mA cm(-2) is observed after decoration of the hematite surface with a Fe(iii)-OEC. These results demonstrate that by combining different iron oxide morphologies, it is possible to improve the selectivity of the interfaces towards both electron collection at the back contact and hole transfer to the electrolyte, obtaining an efficient all-iron based photoelectrode entirely realized with simple wet solution scalable procedures. PMID:26477966

  20. Oxygen Evolution Reaction Dynamics, Faradaic Charge Efficiency, and the Active Metal Redox States of Ni-Fe Oxide Water Splitting Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlin, Mikaela; Chernev, Petko; Ferreira de Araújo, Jorge; Reier, Tobias; Dresp, Sören; Paul, Benjamin; Krähnert, Ralph; Dau, Holger; Strasser, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Mixed Ni-Fe oxides are attractive anode catalysts for efficient water splitting in solar fuels reactors. Because of conflicting past reports, the catalytically active metal redox state of the catalyst has remained under debate. Here, we report an in operando quantitative deconvolution of the charge injected into the nanostructured Ni-Fe oxyhydroxide OER catalysts or into reaction product molecules. To achieve this, we explore the oxygen evolution reaction dynamics and the individual faradaic charge efficiencies using operando differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). We further use X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) under OER conditions at the Ni and Fe K-edges of the electrocatalysts to evaluate oxidation states and local atomic structure motifs. DEMS and XAS data consistently reveal that up to 75% of the Ni centers increase their oxidation state from +2 to +3, while up to 25% arrive in the +4 state for the NiOOH catalyst under OER catalysis. The Fe centers consistently remain in the +3 state, regardless of potential and composition. For mixed Ni100-xFex catalysts, where x exceeds 9 atomic %, the faradaic efficiency of O2 sharply increases from ∼30% to 90%, suggesting that Ni atoms largely remain in the oxidation state +2 under catalytic conditions. To reconcile the apparent low level of oxidized Ni in mixed Ni-Fe catalysts, we hypothesize that a kinetic competition between the (i) metal oxidation process and the (ii) metal reduction step during O2 release may account for an insignificant accumulation of detectable high-valent metal states if the reaction rate of process (ii) outweighs that of (i). We conclude that a discussion of the superior catalytic OER activity of Ni-FeOOH electrocatalysts in terms of surface catalysis and redox-inactive metal sites likely represents an oversimplification that fails to capture essential aspects of the synergisms at highly active Ni-Fe sites. PMID:27031737

  1. Effects of Te inclusions on charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This work reveals the behaviors of Te inclusion in affecting charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe detectors for the first time and analysis the mechanism therein. • The results show that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from the Hecht rule. • This phenomenon is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. • A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high-density localized defects, say Te inclusions, on the charge collection efficiency. • We believe that this research has wide appeal to analyze the macroscopic defects and their influence on charge transport properties in semiconductor radiation detectors. - Abstract: The influence of tellurium (Te) inclusions on the charge collection efficiency in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors has been investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique. Combining the analysis of infrared transmittance image, most of the low charge collection areas in the IBIC images prove the existence of Te inclusions. To further clarify the role of Te inclusions on charge transport properties, bias dependent local IBIC scan was performed on Te inclusion related regions from 20 V to 500 V. The result shows that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from Hecht rule. This behavior is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high

  2. Charge collection and non-ionizing radiation tolerance of CMOS pixel sensors using a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Min

    2016-09-01

    The proposed Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) will be primarily aimed for precision measurements of the discovered Higgs boson. Its innermost vertex detector, which will play a critical role in heavy-flavor tagging, must be constructed with fine-pitched silicon pixel sensors with low power consumption and fast readout. CMOS pixel sensor (CPS), as one of the most promising candidate technologies, has already demonstrated its excellent performance in several high energy physics experiments. Therefore it has been considered for R&D for the CEPC vertex detector. In this paper, we present the preliminary studies to improve the collected signal charge over the equivalent input capacitance ratio (Q / C), which will be crucial to reduce the analog power consumption. We have performed detailed 3D device simulation and evaluated potential impacts from diode geometry, epitaxial layer properties and non-ionizing radiation damage. We have proposed a new approach to improve the treatment of the boundary conditions in simulation. Along with the TCAD simulation, we have designed the exploratory prototype utilizing the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process and we will verify the simulation results with future measurements.

  3. 钒液流电池建模及充放电效率分析%Vanadium redox flow battery modeling and charge-discharge efficiency analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洁; 李广凯; 侯耀飞; 滕松; 贾超

    2013-01-01

    The energy storage plays an important role in wind power systems and solar photovoltaic power generation system.As a new energy storage battery,the vanadium redox flow battery (VRB)'s advantages and successful example demonstrate its broad prospects in storage marker.The operating principle of VRB was introduced.Through studying stack voltage,state of charge,intemal loss and dynamic response,VRB simulation model was set up.The constant current mode for VRB was studied in detail.At the end,the factors which influenced the charging and discharging efficiency of battery energy storage were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.What's more,the optimal charging-discharging current was obtained.%储能系统是风力发电系统和太阳能光伏发电系统的重要组成部分,钒液流电池(VRB)作为一种新型储能电池,其优势及成功范例充分展示了它在储能市场的广阔前景.介绍了钒液流电池的工作原理,通过研究VRB的堆栈电压、荷电状态SOC、内部损耗和动态响应,构建了VRB仿真系统模型.详细研究了VRB恒电流充放电模式,定性、定量地分析了影响钒液流电池储能充放电效率的因素,并得出了最优充电电流.

  4. Charge Transfer Dynamics of Highly Efficient Cyanidin-3-O- Glucoside Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, E. C.; Yuliarto, B.; Suyatman; Dipojono, H. K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the novel efficiency achievement of black rice-based natural dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher dye concentration, the longer dye extraction as well as dye immersion onto a TiO2 film, and the co-adsorption addition are key strategies for improved-cell performance compared to the highest previous achievement. The black rice dye containing 1.38 mM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside has been extracted without purification for 3 weeks at dark condition and room temperature. The anatase TiO2 photoanode was dipped into dye solution within 4 days. Its electrode was firmly sealed to be a cell and was filled by I-/I3- electrolyte using vacuum technique. As a result, the overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency was 1.49% at AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW.cm-2). The voltametric analysis has reported the interfacial electronic band edges of TiO2-Dye-Electrolyte. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown the kinetic of interfacial electron transfer dynamics among TiO2-dye-electrolyte. The cell has the transfer resistance (Rt) of 12.5 ω, the recombination resistance (Rr) of 266.8 ω, effective electron diffusion coefficients (Dn) of 1.4 × 10-3 cm2/s, Dye-TiO2 effective electron transfer (τd) of 26.6 μs, effective diffusion length (Ln)of 33.78 μm, chemical capacitance (Cμ) of 12.43 μF, and electron lifetime (τn) of 3.32 ms.

  5. Absolute determination of charge-coupled device quantum detection efficiency using Si K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J; Steel, A B

    2012-05-06

    We report a method to determine the quantum detection efficiency and the absorbing layers on a front-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD). The CCD under study, as part of a crystal spectrometer, measures intense continuum x-ray emission from a picosecond laser-produced plasma and spectrally resolves the Si K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure features due to the electrode gate structure of the device. The CCD response across the Si K-edge shows a large discontinuity as well as a number of oscillations that are identified individually and uniquely from Si, SiO{sub 2}, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers. From the spectral analysis of the structure and K-edge discontinuity, the active layer thickness and the different absorbing layers thickness can be determined precisely. A precise CCD detection model from 0.2-10 keV can be deduced from this highly sensitive technique.

  6. Measurements of charge and CP asymmetries in $b$-hadron decays using top-quark events collected by the ATLAS detector in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'onofrio, Adelina; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez Lopez, Jorge Andres; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven D; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, George; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Same- and opposite-sign charge asymmetries are measured in lepton+jets $t\\bar{t}$ events in which a $b$-hadron decays semileptonically to a soft muon, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 $fb^{-1}$ from proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The charge asymmetries are based on the charge of the lepton from the top-quark decay and the charge of the soft muon from the semileptonic decay of a $b$-hadron and are measured in a fiducial region corresponding to the experimental acceptance. Four CP asymmetries (one mixing and three direct) are measured and are found to be compatible with zero and consistent with the Standard Model.

  7. Influence of controlled-charge anodization processes on the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes and their efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the electrochemical anodization growth process on the development of self-organized TiO2 nanotube (NT) films and their efficiency as photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been comparatively investigated, by keeping constant the total anodization charge. Slow and rapid potentiostatic anodization processes were accordingly compared to the galvanostatic one, while a two step potentiostatic–galvanostatic technique was applied for the first time for the growth of TiO2 NT arrays, as a step forward in relation to the existing potentiostatic–potentiostatic (P–P) technique. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy verified the wide diversity in the morphological and structural characteristics of the TiO2 NTs obtained by the different anodization modes. The novel approach of galvanostatic tube growth on a potentiostatically patterned Ti foil provided the most uniform TiO2 nanotubular films with clean top surface exempt of nanograss or cracks over extended areas. Evaluation of the TiO2 NTs performance as photoelectrodes in DSC devices showed distinct differences of their electrical parameters that reflected finely the underlying structure/morphology variations of the different anodic oxidation conditions. Galvanostatic TiO2 NT films presented the most favorable (open-ordered) structure for DSC photoelectrodes with superior electrical performance, essentially impaired by a relatively low fill factor that requires improvement by appropriate post-treatment. Furthermore, despite the marked differences in morphology, the TiO2 NT photoelectrodes exhibited comparable overall performance (of the order of 4%), with only exception the P–P samples which presented slightly lower (about 25%) photovoltaic efficiency. These results indicate that the anodization charge is a critical factor that effectively controls the nanotubes behavior when they are used as photoelectrodes in DSCs

  8. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter M J; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C E; Oomen, Agnes G

    2015-12-01

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  9. Collection efficiency of the soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam-laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements are used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam-particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of 2. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on the compact ECR ion source for highly charged ions with high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the collection of the summaries of OHP copies presented at the title workshop. In Tanashi Institute, the Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, as an E-Arena developmental research in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility (KEK-JAERI Joint Project), a short-lived nucleus formation, separation and acceleration apparatus to form, separate and accelerate a short-lived nucleus by using beams from already installed SF cyclotron was finished. Together with movement from Tanashi to Tsukuba, plannings on effective application of the apparatus in Tanashi before finishing of the E-Arena in the Accelerator Facility have been investigated from various viewpoints. Therefore, it was necessary to develop present target and ion source system to supply short-lived nuclear ions formed by the ISOL method to a post-accelerator so as to be applicable to new possibility. Specification and applicability of ECR ion source under a center of groups relating to its development and actual application were reported. (G.K.)

  11. Multi-3,3'-Bicarbazole-Substituted Arylsilane Host Materials with Balanced Charge Transport for Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dianming; Zhou, Xiaokang; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhongjie; Ma, Dongge; Yan, Shouke

    2015-08-19

    A series of 3,3'-bicarbazole (mCP)-functionalized tetraphenylsilane derivatives (SimCPx), including bis(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)diphenylsilane (SimCP2), tris(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)methylsilane (SimCP3-CH3), tris(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)phenylsilane (SimCP3-Ph), and tetrakis(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)silane (SimCP4), serving as bipolar blue hosts for bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl-N,C2']iridium(III) (FIrpic), have been synthesized by incorporating different ratios of mCP subunits into a central silicon atom. All of the SimCPx derivatives have wide bandgaps and high triplet energies because of the indirect linkage by silicon between each mCP subunit. The good solubility and high thermal and morphological stability of SimCPx are beneficial for forming amorphous and homogeneous films through solution processing. Density functional theory simulations manifest the better bipolar characteristics for SimCPx using three and four mCP units rather than the represented bipolar host SimCP2. As a result, SimCP4 presents the best electron-transporting ability for charge balance. Consequently, the lowest driving voltage of 4.8 eV, and the favorable maximum efficiencies of 14.2% for external quantum efficiency (28.4 cd A(-1), 13.5 lm W(-1)), are achieved by solution-processed, SimCP4-based blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes as the highest performance among SimCPx, in which 32% improved device efficiencies compared to that of SimCP2 are obtained. It is inspiring to develop efficient bipolar hosts for blue phosphors by just incorporating monopolar carbazole into arylsilanes in two steps. PMID:26252613

  12. Laboratory studies of collection efficiency of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets on a single droplet basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ardon-Dryer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the Collection Efficiency (CE of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets. Water droplets of a dilute aqueous ammonium sulfate solution with a radius of ~20 μm fall freely into a chamber and collide with sub-micrometer Polystyrene Latex Sphere (PSL particles of variable size and concentrations. Two RH conditions, ~15 and ~88%, hereafter termed "Low" and "High", respectively, were varied with different particles size and concentrations. After passing through the chamber, the droplets and aerosol particles were sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS instrument to determine chemical compositions on a single particle basis. Coagulated droplets had mass spectra that contain signatures from both an aerosol particle and a droplet residual. CE values range from 5.7 × 10−3 to 4.6 × 10−2 for the Low RH and from 6.4 × 10−3 to 2.2 × 10−2 for the High RH cases. CE values were, within experimental uncertainty, independent of the aerosol concentrations. CE values in this work were found to be in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. To our knowledge, this is the first coagulation experiment performed on a single droplet basis.

  13. Improvement of multi jet low pressure impactor for high collection efficiency of UF5 in the molecular laser isotope separation of uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Yoshikazu; Jurcik, Benjamin; Satooka, Sakae; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    1995-07-01

    A numerical and experimental study for the collection of photo-produced UF 5 particles was performed for the low pressure impactors which have different design factors at typical flow conditions (upstream pressure of the impactor = 10-15 Torr, pressure ratio of downstream to upstream of the impactor, {P down}/{P up} = 0.2-0.5 ) in the molecular laser isotope separation of uranium at RIKEN (RIMLIS). Smaller {H}/{W} ratios (the distance between the impactor orifice exit and the impaction plate, H, divided by the orifice diameter of the impactor, W) and the smaller {P down}/{P up} were found to be preferable to obtain a higher collection efficiency from both numerical and experimental investigations. In addition it was experimentally demonstrated that the use of a 16 μm laser system for the selective reaction of 235UF 6 to form 235UF 5 was not relevant for the study of the collection of UF 5 particles. So, we used an ultraviolet laser system (fourth harmonic YAG laser (266 nm) and an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm)) which was more convenient to cope with various operating conditions. The collection efficiency was found to increase with the initial concentration of UF 5 molecules produced. Applying the improved impactor stage, we obtained a collection efficiency which was approximately 10 times higher than that of our previous work. Higher collection efficiencies of photo-produced UF 5 particles enriched in 235U reduce the enrichment cost.

  14. The efficiency and effectiveness of sampling strategies used to develop a core collection for the Polish spring triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm. germplasm resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Studnicki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm. is a hybrid of wheat and rye, which is bred using conventional plant breeding methods. A core collection is defined as a representative sample of the entire plant genetic resources collection that reflects the diversity in the entire collection. A core collection may simplify management and improve the utilisation of the considered germplasm resources. This paper describes and evaluates the efficiency (in sample representativeness sense of 50 sampling strategies used to establish core collections of Polish spring triticale germplasm resources. Five fractions of core collections (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of the entire collection, two clustering methods (Ward’s and UPGMA and five sample allocation methods based on agro-morphological quantitative traits were compared for their effectiveness using two indices. The first index refers to the average of absolute differences between means across all of the traits in the core and entire collections relative to the means in the entire collection, MD%. The other index is the average of the absolute differences between variances across all of the traits in the core and entire collections relative to the variances in the entire collection, VD%. The results showed that for the studied spring triticale germplasm collection 1 the core collection including at least 20% of the entire collection should be sufficient to provide good representativeness, 2 two of the five sample allocation methods (the proportional and the D2 were characterized by highest level of sample strategies effectiveness, 3 Ward’s method of cluster analysis enabled us to stratify the entire collection in a way that draws more representative core collections than those created using the UPGMA method.

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE REYNOLDS NUMBER OF AIR FLOW TO THE PARTICLE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF A FIBROUS FILTER MEDIUM WITH CYLINDRICAL SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Kouropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At this study an attempt for the theoretical approach of the Re ynolds number effect of air flow to the particle collection efficiency of a fibrous fil ter with cylindrical section will be made. Initially, a report of the air filtration models to fibrous filter media will be presented along with an explanation of both the parameters and the physical quantities which govern the air filtration process. Furthermore, the resul ting equation from the mathematical model will be applied to a real filter medium and the characteristic curves of filter efficiency will be drawn. The change of a filter medi um efficiency with regard to the Reynolds number of air flow that passes through the filt er, derived from the curves, will be studied. The general conclusion that we have is that as the Reynolds number of filtered air increases, the collection efficiency of the filter decreases.

  16. Phonon-Assisted Modulation of the Electron Collection Efficiency into InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.;

    1997-01-01

    and longitudinal-optical phonons gives rise to a 42 meV-period modulation of the efficiency of carrier collection into the well and of the corresponding collection time. The energy position of the electronic level driving the capture into the well has been deduced from the data and does not coincide with any...... calculated energy level of the well structure. The capture time turns out to be at the limit of our time resolution (approximate to 20 ps), while the collection time oscillates with an amplitude of about 80 ps, because of the emission of acoustic phonons....

  17. Interfacial electronic structure and charge transfer of hybrid graphene quantum dot and graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites: insights into high efficiency for photocatalytic solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zuju; Sa, Rongjian; Li, Qiaohong; Wu, Kechen

    2016-01-14

    New metal-free carbon nanodot/carbon nitride (C3N4) nanocomposites have shown to exhibit high efficiency for photocatalytic solar water splitting. (J. Liu, et al., Science, 2015, 347, 970) However, the mechanism underlying the ultrahigh performance of these nanocomposites and consequently the possibilities for further improvements are not at present clear. In this work, we performed hybrid functional calculations and included long-range dispersion corrections to accurately characterize the interfacial electron coupling of the graphene quantum dot-graphitic carbon nitride composites (Gdot/g-C3N4). The results revealed that the band gap of Gdot/g-C3N4 could be engineered by changing the lateral size of Gdots. In particular, the C24H12/g-C3N4 composites present an ideal band gap of 1.92 eV to harvest a large part of solar light. More interestingly, a type-II heterojunction is formed at the interface of the Gdot/g-C3N4 composites, a desirable feature for enhanced photocatalytic activity. The charge redistribution at the interface leads to strong electron depletion above the Gdot sheet and electron accumulation below the g-C3N4 monolayer, potentially facilitating the separation of H2O oxidation and reduction reactions. Furthermore, we suggested that the photocatalytic performance of the Gdot/g-C3N4 nanocomposites can be further improved by decreasing the thickness of Gdots and tuning the size of Gdots.

  18. Correlation of the heterogeneous discoloration efficiency of aqueous Rhodamine-B solutions and charge separation enhancement of mixed-phase nanocrystalline titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2012-05-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye from liquid phase was done using mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 for enhancement of charge separation and UV-visible-light-driven photocatalysis capabilities. The mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was characterized using various analytical techniques including XRD, TEM, UV-vis DRS and PL to investigate its phase composition and structure, nanocrystalline size distribution, band gap energy, and photoluminescence properties. The photocatalytic discoloration efficiency of mixed-phase nanocrystalline titania was explored by monitoring the decomposition of RhB dye in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the as-prepared mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was excellent for degradation of RhB molecule, and the combination of crystal phase of anatase and rutile has great effect on decomposition of RhB. The kinetic studies demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxidation reaction followed a pseudo-first-order expression due to the evidence of linear correlation between ln( c/c 0) vs. reaction time t. Moreover, the aqueous RhB dye decomposition over the as-prepared mixed-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 catalyst is controlled by RhB pre-adsorption.

  19. 25  W/m2 collection efficiency solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Almeida, J; Vistas, C R

    2016-09-20

    A large aspheric fused silica lens was used to couple efficiently the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone of a 1.5-m-diameter primary concentrator into a 4-mm-diameter, 35-mm-long Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity. Continuous-wave laser power of 29.3 W was measured, attaining 25.0  W/m2 solar laser collection efficiency, corresponding to a 19% increase over the previous record. Its laser beam figure of merit-the ratio between laser power and the product of Mx2, My2 beam quality factors-of 0.01 W is 1.6 times higher than that of a direct tracking solar laser with 30  W/m2 collection efficiency. A strong dependency of solar laser power on laser resonator cavity length was found.

  20. 内置筛网预制式太阳能集热板集热效果试验研究%Collecting Efficiency of Built-in Screen Prefabricated Type Solar Heat-collecting Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 杨立权; 于淼; 李松

    2016-01-01

    预制式太阳能集热板是一种新型具有渗透结构的集热板。试验通过有金属筛网和无金属筛网形式制作了2种预制式太阳能集热板,采用对比方法,对2种形式的集热板集热效率、热损失系数UL进行了测试。试验结果表明:2种集热板的热损失系数差异不大,采用有金属筛网渗透结构的集热板比无金属筛网结构的集热板综合集热效果更好。%Prefabricated type solar heat-collecting panel is a kind of heat-collecting panel with new permeability structure. Two kinds of solar heat-collecting panels are manufactured for experiment with or without metal mesh. Both the collecting efficiency and heat loss coefficient UL of these two types of panels are tested through comparison. The experimental results show that there was a slight difference between the heat loss coefficients of prefabricated type solar heat-collecting panels, the panel with metal mesh as permeability structure shows better thermal efficiency than the panel without metal mesh.

  1. Data Collection Framework for Energy Efficient Privacy Preservation in Wireless Sensor Networks Having Many-to-Many Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hayretdin Bahsi; Albert Levi

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) generally have a many-to-one structure so that event information flows from sensors to a unique sink. In recent WSN applications, many-to-many structures evolved due to the need for conveying collected event information to multiple sinks. Privacy preserved data collection models in the literature do not solve the problems of WSN applications in which network has multiple un-trusted sinks with different level of privacy requirements. This study proposes a data c...

  2. Fission product removal by containment spray - influence of the distance between the drops on the aerosol collection efficiency; Influence de la densite spatiale des gouttes d'aspersion sur l'efficacite de collecte des produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauchet, N

    2000-07-01

    This work is within the framework of the studies that are conducted at the IPSN concerning the loss of coolant in a nuclear reactor. During this kind of accident, a spray system in the reactor containment induces the scrubbing of fission products in the atmosphere, and allows the decrease of their concentration in the containment. Our objective is to study the influence of the distance between the drops of their aerosol collection efficiency. This is not taken into account in the existing models. We stimulate the various aerosol collection mechanisms with one free falling drop using computational fluid dynamics codes. The mechanisms are: deposition by brownian diffusion, impaction and interception of the particles by the drop, and collection of particles in the presence of steam condensation at the surface of the drop. These phenomena are studied for drops ranging in diameter from 100 to 700 micrometers, falling in a saturated air-steam mixture whose temperature varies between 20 and 140 degrees Celsius, and total pressure varies between 1 and 5 bars. We validate these models with results available in the literature and with experimental results CARAIDAS. Then we apply these models to the case of three aligned drops, which constitutes a case for which the proximity of the drops has a strong influence on the collection of aerosols. While varying the distance between the drop from 5 to 25 drop diameters, we can highlight the modification of the collection efficiency of each mechanism related to the disturbance of the velocity and concentration fields in the vicinity of the drops. We note that the strongest variations of efficiency observed are in the field of impaction, and that the steam condensation at the surface of the drops limits the decrease. (authors)

  3. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-15

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  4. Chemical physics behind formation of efficient charge-separated state for complexation between PC70BM and designed diporphyrin in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anamika; Banerjee, Shrabanti; Ghosh, Shalini; Bauri, Ajoy K.; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports supramolecular interaction of [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) with two designed diporphyrin molecules having dithiophene (1) and carbazole (2) spacer in solvent having varying polarity. Studies on complex formation reveal relatively higher binding constant for PC70BM/2 complex in all the solvent studied. Solvent dependence of charge separation and charge recombination processes in PC70BM/diporphyrin non-covalent complexes has been well established in present work. Donor-acceptor geometry and stabilization of the singlet excited state of the diporphyrin during charge recombination are considered to be the possible reasons for this behavior.

  5. Effect of prior dust collection on detection, counting efficiency, and energy resolution for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past several years, we have supported the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project by evaluating the capabilities and performance of the Eberline Alpha 6 continuous air monitor (CAM). This evalution has focused on the ability of the CAM to correctly report plutonium in the presence of salt dust. Tests involving the simultaneous collection of plutonium and salt have shown that burial by salt can degrade the detection of plutonium, but that this interference is negligible when salt concentrations are below about 0.2 mg/m3. Throughout the evalution, it has been assumed that salt burial is a concern for slow, chronic release of plutonium, but that any acute release of plutonium would be collected on the top surface of the filter or salt and would be unattenuated. The spectral quality of alpha radiation detection on membrane filters is observed to improve with filter loading. This is attributed to the probability that accumulations of dust tend to fill in surface irregularities of the collection filter at a a faster rate than they create additional surface irregularities. The validity of these assumptions about the improved detection of plutonium on salt-layer surfaces has recently been questioned. Based on electron micrographic examination of salt-laden filters, it has been speculated that collection of salt dust on a membrane filter results in formation of pores, fissures, and dendritic shapes of salt on the filter surface. If plutonium were collected, particles could penetrate into the pores and fissures, resulting in a degraded or lost signal from the plutonium. Because no experimental evidence existed to answer the concern, the purpose of the current study was to quantify any differences between detection of plutonium on clean or salt-laden filters

  6. Development of Efficient Sludge Collection Cones for Concentration of Raceway-Derived Solids in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; McLean, E

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of sludge cones in raceways was studied using both physical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. A sludge cone installed at a commercial trout farm was used as a model for the experiments. A scale 1:4 model of the commercial cone was constructed. In order to describe fluid...

  7. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongyong Wang; Peng Tao; Yang Liu; Hao Xu; Qinxian Ye; Hang Hu; Chengyi Song; Zhaoping Chen; Wen Shang; Tao Deng

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with ...

  8. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  9. Conditions for charge transport without recombination in low mobility organic solar cells and photodiodes (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Philippa, Bronson; White, Ronald D.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Juška, Gytis; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2015-10-01

    Organic semiconductors typically possess low charge carrier mobilities and Langevin-type recombination dynamics, which both negatively impact the performance of organic solar cells and photodetectors. Charge transport in organic solar cells is usually characterized by the mobility-lifetime product. Using newly developed transient and steady state photocurrent measurement techniques we show that the onset of efficiency limiting photocarrier recombination is determined by the charge that can be stored on the electrodes of the device. It is shown that significant photocarrier recombination can be avoided when the total charge inside the device, defined by the trapped, doping-induced and mobile charge carriers, is less than the electrode charge. Based upon this physics we propose the mobility-recombination coefficient product as an alternative and more convenient figure of merit to minimize the recombination losses. We validate the results in 3 different organic semiconductor-based light harvesting systems with very different charge transport properties. The findings allow the determination of the charge collection efficiency in fully operational devices. In turn, knowing the conditions under which non-geminate recombination is eliminated enables one to quantify the generation efficiency of free charge carriers. The results are relevant to a wide range of light harvesting systems, particularly those based upon disordered semiconductors, and require a rethink of the critical parameters for charge transport.

  10. Contributions of the secondary jet to the maximum tangential velocity and to the collection efficiency of the fixed guide vane type axial flow cyclone dust collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akira; Anzou, Hideki; Yamamoto, So; Shimagaki, Mituru

    2015-11-01

    In order to control the maximum tangential velocity Vθm(m/s) of the turbulent rotational air flow and the collection efficiency ηc (%) using the fly ash of the mean diameter XR50=5.57 µm, two secondary jet nozzles were installed to the body of the axial flow cyclone dust collector with the body diameter D1=99mm. Then in order to estimate Vθm (m/s), the conservation theory of the angular momentum flux with Ogawa combined vortex model was applied. The comparisons of the estimated results of Vθm(m/s) with the measured results by the cylindrical Pitot-tube were shown in good agreement. And also the estimated collection efficiencies ηcth (%) basing upon the cut-size Xc (µm) which was calculated by using the estimated Vθ m(m/s) and also the particle size distribution R(Xp) were shown a little higher values than the experimental results due to the re-entrainment of the collected dust. The best method for adjustment of ηc (%) related to the contribution of the secondary jet flow is principally to apply the centrifugal effect Φc (1). Above stated results are described in detail.

  11. Dependence of charge collection distributions and dose on the gas type filling the ionization chamber for a p(66)Be(49) clinical neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of central axis depth charge distributions (CADCD) in a p(66)Be(49) clinical neutron beam using A-150 TE plastic ionization chambers (IC) have shown that these distributions are dependent on the gas type filling the ICs. IC volumes from 0.1 to 8 cm3 and nine different gases were investigated. Off axis ratios and build-up measurements do not seem to be as sensitive to gas type. The gas dosimetry constants given in the AAPM Protocol for Neutron Beam Dosimetry for air and methane based TE gases were tested for consistency in water and in TE solution filled phantoms at depths of 10 cm, when used in conjunction with an IC having 5 mm thick walls of A-150. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Channeling of electron transport to improve collection efficiency in mesoporous titanium dioxide dye sensitized solar cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my, E-mail: joserajan@gmail.com [Nanostructured Renewable Energy Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Pahang (Malaysia); Khalidin, Zulkeflee [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Pahang (Malaysia)

    2014-02-03

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) modules are generally made by interconnecting large photoelectrode strips with optimized thickness (∼14 μm) and show lower current density (J{sub SC}) compared with their single cells. We found out that the key to achieving higher J{sub SC} in large area devices is optimized photoelectrode volume (V{sub D}), viz., thickness and area which facilitate the electron channeling towards working electrode. By imposing constraints on electronic path in a DSC stack, we achieved >50% increased J{sub SC} and ∼60% increment in photoelectric conversion efficiency in photoelectrodes of similar V{sub D} (∼3.36 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 3}) without using any metallic grid or a special interconnections.

  13. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  14. [Experimental investigation of the collection efficiency of a PTW Roos ionization chamber irradiated with pulsed beams at high pulse dose with different pulse lengths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Leonhard; Richter, Christian; Pawelke, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    In gas-filled ionization chambers as radiation detectors, the collection of the charge carriers is affected by the recombination effect. In dosimetry this effect must be accounted for by the saturation correction factor k(S). The physical description of the correction factor by Boag, Hochhäuser and Balk for pulsed radiation is well established. However, this description is only accurate when the pulse length is short compared to the collection time of the ionization chamber. In this work experimental investigations of the saturation correction factor have been made for pulses of 4 μ s up to pulse doses of about 230 mGy, and the theory of Boag, Hochhäuser and Balk was again confirmed. For longer pulses, however, the correction factor decreases and at a pulse duration of about 200μs reaches 75% of the value valid for short pulses. This reduced influence of the ion recombination is interpreted by the reaction kinetics of ion recombination as a second-order reaction. This effect is negligible for PTW Roos chambers at clinical linear accelerators with 4 μ s pulse duration for pulse doses up to 120 mGy.

  15. First charge collection and position-precision data on the medium-resistivity silicon strip detectors before and after neutron irradiation up to 2x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng E-mail: zhengl@bnl.gov; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, C.J.; Verbitskaya, E

    1999-04-21

    Test strip detectors of 125 {mu}m, 500 {mu}m, and 1 mm pitches with about 1 cm{sup 2} areas have been made on medium-resistivity silicon wafers (1.3 and 2.7 k{omega} cm). Detectors of 500 {mu}m pitch have been tested for charge collection and position precision before and after neutron irradiation (up to 2x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}) using 820 and 1030 nm laser lights with different beam-spot sizes. It has been found that for a bias of 250 V a strip detector made of 1.3 k{omega} cm (300 {mu}m thick) can be fully depleted before and after an irradiation of 2x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. For a 500 {mu}m pitch strip detector made of 2.7 k{omega} cm tested with an 1030 nm laser light with 200 {mu}m spot size, the position reconstruction error is about 14 {mu}m before irradiation, and 17 {mu}m after about 1.7x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} irradiation. We demonstrated in this work that medium resistivity silicon strip detectors can work just as well as the traditional high-resistivity ones, but with higher radiation tolerance. We also tested charge sharing and position reconstruction using a 1030 nm wavelength (300 {mu}m absorption length in Si at RT) laser, which provides a simulation of MIP particles in high-physics experiments in terms of charge collection and position reconstruction.

  16. Technical and economic analysis of the decisions efficiency of system of water vapor condensate collecting and reusing organization in the industrial firm practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullina, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the technical and economic aspects of power - and resource-recovery decisions on a steam condensate recycling and effective using of the (residual) afterheat containing in it basing on the specifics of the industrial enterprises. Below there are the results of the technical and economic analysis of the original innovative solution introduced in practice of the organization of system of collecting and recycling using of water vapor condensate in the conditions of high probability of its pollution by hydrocarbon joints and a non-return of condensate to the source. Also we showed here the high efficiency of the proposed solution.

  17. Bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with polyaniline-silica nanocomposites as an efficient hole-collecting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsennia, Mohsen; Bidgoli, Maryam Massah; Khoddami, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Alireza; Boroumand, Farhad Akbari

    2016-01-01

    At first, bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs) with conventional configuration: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:C60/Al, containing different blend ratios of poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene, (P3HT):C60 as active layer have been fabricated. The effect of replacement of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by the prepared polyaniline-fumed silica (PANI-SiO2) nanocomposites as the hole-collecting layer (HCL) on the performance of the fabricated PSC with the optimized blending ratio of P3HT:C60 was examined in detail. According to the obtained results, it was found that the fabricated PSC with PANI-SiO2 nanocomposite containing 10% SiO2 (PANI-10% SiO2) as the HCL and P3HT:C60 with the optimized blending ratio (P3HT:33% C60) as active layer exhibited best performance with a fill factor (FF) of 0.35, compared to the PSC containing conventional PEDOT:PSS HCL with an FF of 0.32. Our demonstration suggests that PANI-SiO2 nanocomposites could be promising HCL replacing PEDOT:PSS in PSCs as well as other organic electronic devices.

  18. Analysis of waveguide-coupled directional emission for efficient collection of Fluorescence/Raman light from surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lu, Dan-Feng; Gao, Ran; Qi, Zhi-Mei

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical method based on the optical reciprocity theorem combined with the Fresnel theory has been developed for the analysis of waveguide-coupled directional emission technique, which is useful for the surface Fluorescence/Raman spectroscopy. The Kretschmann-type waveguide with a molecular dipole located above or inside the core layer serves as the simulation model. The two-dimensional (2D) pattern of power density for the waveguide-coupled emission from the molecular dipole was calculated using the theoretical method. According to the results, with a given waveguide the 2D pattern of power density is highly dependent on both the orientation and position of the dipole. The maximum fraction of power occupied by the waveguide-coupled emission is 87% with the plasmon waveguide and 95% with the resonant mirror. Compared with the dipole emission in free space, the waveguide-coupled directional emission possesses easy collection, which is benefit for the detection of weak Fluorescence and Raman signals. From this point, the theoretical method used here is helpful for design and optimization of Kretschmann-type waveguide structures for high-sensitivity surface monitoring by Fluorescence/Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Measurement of the collection efficiency and adsorptive distribution of semi and low volatile organic chlorine (SLVOCI) in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, A. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Osaka (Japan); Watanabe, N.; Minami, Y.; Mizutani, S.; Takatsuki, H. [Kyoto University Environment Preservation Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Municipal waste incineration (MWI) flue gas includes various organic halogen compounds, which show a close correlation between PCDD/Fs concentration and organic halogen group parameters, e.g. TOX and SNVOX. Last year, we reported a newly developed sampling method and atomic emission spectrophotometry system equipped with barrier discharge radio-frequency helium plasma, which detect organic halogen compounds with the advantages of elemental selectivity, high sensitivity and robustness. In this sampling system, flue gas was directed to a two-drain trap and two empty impingers, which removed drain water, hydrochloric acid and moisture (Fig. 1). After those four impingers, semi and low volatile organic halogens (SLVOX) were captured with two different adsorbents. Carbotrap C was the adsorbent for LVOX and Carbotrap B was for SVOX. The flow rate and the sampled gas were 2 L/min and 10-40 L, respectively. In this paper, in order to investigate the passage efficiency through the drain trap and the adsorptive distribution to Carbotrap C and B of various organic chlorinated compounds, chlorinated benzenes (CBs) and chlorinated phenols (CPs) were tested in the sampling system as model organic halogen compounds.

  20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  1. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery

  2. Physical stage of photosynthesis charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A. G.; Shuvalov, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical review is given concerning the biophysical aspects of light-driven primary charge separation in photosynthesis reaction centers (RCs) which are special pigment-protein complexes residing in a cell membrane. The primary (physical) stage of charge separation occurs in the pico- and femtosecond ranges and consists of transferring an electron along the active A-branch of pigments. The review presents vast factual material on both the general issues of primary photosynthesis and some more specific topics, including (1) the role of the inactive B-branch of pigments, (2) the effect of the protein environment on the charge separation, and (3) the participation of monomeric bacteriochlorophyll BA in primary electron acceptance. It is shown that the electron transfer and stabilization are strongly influenced by crystallographic water and tyrosine M210 molecules from the nearest environment of BA. A linkage between collective nuclear motions and electron transfer upon charge separation is demonstrated. The nature of the high quantum efficiency of primary charge separation reactions is discussed.

  3. Efficient charge transfer and field-induced tunneling transport in hybrid composite device of organic semiconductor and cadmium telluride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varade, Vaibhav, E-mail: vaibhav.tvarade@gmail.com; Jagtap, Amardeep M.; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.; Ramesh, K. P.; Menon, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Anjaneyulu, P. [Department of Physics, Gitam University, Hyderabad 502329 (India)

    2015-06-07

    Temperature and photo-dependent current–voltage characteristics are investigated in thin film devices of a hybrid-composite comprising of organic semiconductor poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs). A detailed study of the charge injection mechanism in ITO/PEDOT:PSS-CdTe QDs/Al device exhibits a transition from direct tunneling to Fowler–Nordheim tunneling with increasing electric field due to formation of high barrier at the QD interface. In addition, the hybrid-composite exhibits a huge photoluminescence quenching compared to aboriginal CdTe QDs and high increment in photoconductivity (∼ 400%), which is attributed to the charge transfer phenomena. The effective barrier height (Φ{sub B} ≈ 0.68 eV) is estimated from the transition voltage and the possible origin of its variation with temperature and photo-illumination is discussed.

  4. Efficient charge transfer and field-induced tunneling transport in hybrid composite device of organic semiconductor and cadmium telluride quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature and photo-dependent current–voltage characteristics are investigated in thin film devices of a hybrid-composite comprising of organic semiconductor poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs). A detailed study of the charge injection mechanism in ITO/PEDOT:PSS-CdTe QDs/Al device exhibits a transition from direct tunneling to Fowler–Nordheim tunneling with increasing electric field due to formation of high barrier at the QD interface. In addition, the hybrid-composite exhibits a huge photoluminescence quenching compared to aboriginal CdTe QDs and high increment in photoconductivity (∼ 400%), which is attributed to the charge transfer phenomena. The effective barrier height (ΦB ≈ 0.68 eV) is estimated from the transition voltage and the possible origin of its variation with temperature and photo-illumination is discussed

  5. Structural stability versus conformational sampling in biomolecular systems: Why is the charge transfer efficiency in G4-DNA better than in double-stranded DNA?

    OpenAIRE

    Woiczikowski, P. Benjamin; Kubař, Tomáš; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Elstner, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The electrical conduction properties of G4-DNA are investigated using a hybrid approach, which combines electronic structure calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the formulation of an effective tight-binding model Hamiltonian. Charge transport is studied by computing transmission functions along the MD trajectories. Though G4-DNA is structurally more stable than double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), our results strongly suggest that the potential improvement of the electrical transpo...

  6. Facile fabrication of efficient AgBr-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterostructured photocatalyst for degrading pollutants and its photogenerated charge transfer mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxin [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Harbin 150080 (China); Jing, Liqiang, E-mail: Jinglq@hlju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Harbin 150080 (China); Qu, Yichun; Luan, Yunbo; Fu, Honggang; Xiao, Yuchen [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A microemulsion-like chemical precipitation is developed for AgBr-TiO{sub 2} composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite displays effective charge transfers between AgBr and TiO{sub 2.} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A charge transfer mechanism in the AgBr-TiO{sub 2} composite is suggested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested mechanism is responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A simple microemulsion-like chemical precipitation method has been successfully developed to construct effectively-contacted AgBr-TiO{sub 2} composite. The key of this method is the dual roles of Br{sup -} in the synthetic process, as linkers between cetyltrimethyl ammonium cation surfactants and nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} in the acidic condition, and as bromine sources to directly produce nanocrystalline AgBr on the surfaces of TiO{sub 2} by chemical precipitation. It is well demonstrated that the as-constructed AgBr-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterostructured composites display effective photogenerated charge transfer between AgBr and TiO{sub 2}, favorable to improve charge separation, by means of the surface photovoltage technique in different atmospheres at the aid of outer electric fields, especially for the transient surface photovoltage technique in air. And also, the Br{sup -} in crystal lattice of AgBr could effectively capture photogenerated holes under illumination. These factors are well responsible for the enhanced activity for photocatalytic degradation of liquid phase aqueous phenol solution and gas phase acetaldehyde under either UV-visible or visible irradiation, and the stability of AgBr in the photocatalytic processes.

  7. Adsorption of heterogeneously charged nanoparticles on a variably charged surface by the extended surface complexation approach: Charge regulation, chemical heterogeneity, and surface complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saito, T.; Koopal, L.K.; Nagasaki, S.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of randomly branched polyelectrolytes, hairy particles and internally structured macromolecules, collectively denoted as heterogeneously charged nanoparticles, on charged surfaces is important in. many technological and natural processes. In this paper, we will focus on (1) the charge reg

  8. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  9. Complete Charging for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊康旗; 徐春辉; 王卫东

    2014-01-01

    Under an in-phase assumption, the complete charging for an energy harvesting system is studied, which consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor, a switch, a controller and a rechargeable battery. For the transient charging, the results indicate that the voltage across the filter capacitor increases as the charging proceeds, which is consistent with that reported in the literature. However, a new finding shows that the charging rate and energy harvesting efficiency decrease over time after their respective peak values are acquired. For the steady-state charging, the results reveal that the energy harvesting efficiency can be adjusted by altering the critical charging voltage that controls the transition of the system. The optimal energy harvesting efficiency is limited by the optimal efficiency of the transient charging. Finally, the relationship between the critical charging voltage and the equivalent resistance of the controller and rechargeable battery is established explicitly.

  10. Modulation of cellulase activity by charged lipid bilayers with different acyl chain properties for efficient hydrolysis of ionic liquid-pretreated cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihono, Kai; Ohtsu, Takeshi; Ohtani, Mai; Yoshimoto, Makoto; Kamimura, Akio

    2016-10-01

    The stability of cellulase activity in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs) is critical for the enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose pretreated with ILs. In this work, cellulase was incorporated in the liposomes composed of negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and zwitterionic phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different length and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains. The liposomal cellulase-catalyzed reaction was performed at 45°C in the acetate buffer solution (pH 4.8) with 2.0g/L CC31 as cellulosic substrate. The crystallinity of CC31 was reduced by treating with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) at 120°C for 30min. The liposomal cellulase continuously catalyzed hydrolysis of the pretreated CC31 for 48h producing glucose in the presence of 15wt% [Bmim]Cl. The charged lipid membranes were interactive with [Bmim](+), as elucidated by the [Bmim]Cl-induced alterations in fluorescence polarization of the membrane-embedded 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) molecules. The charged membranes offered the microenvironment where inhibitory effects of [Bmim]Cl on the cellulase activity was relieved. The maximum glucose productivity GP of 10.8 mmol-glucose/(hmol-lipid) was obtained at the reaction time of 48h with the cellulase incorporated in the liposomes ([lipid]=5.0mM) composed of 50mol% POPG and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosohocholine (DLPC) with relatively short and saturated acyl chains. PMID:27318965

  11. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in highly boosted top-quark pair production in $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV $pp$ collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans-Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi

    2016-01-01

    In the $pp \\rightarrow t\\bar{t}$ process the angular distributions of top and anti-top quarks are expected to present a subtle difference, which could be enhanced by processes not included in the Standard Model. This Letter presents a measurement of the charge asymmetry in events where the top-quark pair is produced with a large invariant mass. The analysis is performed on 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, using reconstruction techniques specifically designed for the decay topology of highly boosted top quarks. The charge asymmetry in a fiducial region with large invariant mass of the top-quark pair ($m_{t\\bar{t}} > $ 0.75 TeV) and an absolute rapidity difference of the top and anti-top quark candidates within $-$2 $ < |y_t| - |y_{\\bar{t}}| <$ 2 is measured to be 4.2 $\\pm$ 3.2%, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction at next-to-leading order. A differential measurement in three $t\\bar{t}$ mass bins is also presented.

  12. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A; Miller, Gerald A; van Oers, Willem T H

    1994-01-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed.

  13. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  14. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for Collection and Conversion of Infrared Laser Light: 45% Efficiency Demonstrated for Near-Term 800 W/kg Space Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; Howell, Joe; Fikes, John; Fork, Richard; Phillips, Dane; Aiken, Dan; McDanal, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 2% years, our team has been developing a unique photovoltaic concentrator array for collection and conversion of infrared laser light. This laser-receiving array has evolved from the solar-receiving Stretched Lens Array (SLA). The laser-receiving version of SLA is being developed for space power applications when or where sunlight is not available (e.g., the eternally dark lunar polar craters). The laser-receiving SLA can efficiently collect and convert beamed laser power from orbiting spacecraft or other sources (e.g., solar-powered lasers on the permanently illuminated ridges of lunar polar craters). A dual-use version of SLA can produce power from sunlight during sunlit portions of the mission, and from beamed laser light during dark portions of the mission. SLA minimizes the cost and mass of photovoltaic cells by using gossamer-like Fresnel lenses to capture and focus incoming light (solar or laser) by a factor of 8.5X, thereby providing a cost-effective, ultra-light space power system.

  15. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  16. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO2 electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO2 electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ∼150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO2 layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO2 layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClxpoly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture

  17. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D’Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G. [Instituut voor Materiaalonderzoek, Universiteit Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-08-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ∼150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO{sub 2} layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO{sub 2} layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3-x}Cl{sub x}poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  18. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO2 electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D'Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G.

    2014-08-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO2 electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ˜150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO2 layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO2 layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClxpoly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  19. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO2 electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Conings

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO2 electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C, which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ∼150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO2 layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO2 layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClxpoly(3-hexylthiophene/Ag architecture.

  20. Genetic Variation of Morphological Traits and Transpiration in an Apple Core Collection under Well-Watered Conditions: Towards the Identification of Morphotypes with High Water Use Efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Lopez

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency (WUE is a quantitative measurement which improvement is a major issue in the context of global warming and restrictions in water availability for agriculture. In this study, we aimed at studying the variation and genetic control of WUE and the respective role of its components (plant biomass and transpiration in a perennial fruit crop. We explored an INRA apple core collection grown in a phenotyping platform to screen one-year-old scions for their accumulated biomass, transpiration and WUE under optimal growing conditions. Plant biomass was decompose into morphological components related to either growth or organ expansion. For each trait, nine mixed models were evaluated to account for the genetic effect and spatial heterogeneity inside the platform. The Best Linear Unbiased Predictors of genetic values were estimated after model selection. Mean broad-sense heritabilities were calculated from variance estimates. Heritability values indicated that biomass (0.76 and WUE (0.73 were under genetic control. This genetic control was lower in plant transpiration with an heritability of 0.54. Across the collection, biomass accounted for 70% of the WUE variability. A Hierarchical Ascendant Classification of the core collection indicated the existence of six groups of genotypes with contrasting morphology and WUE. Differences between morphotypes were interpreted as resulting from differences in the main processes responsible for plant growth: cell division leading to the generation of new organs and cell elongation leading to organ dimension. Although further studies will be necessary on mature trees with more complex architecture and multiple sinks such as fruits, this study is a first step for improving apple plant material for the use of water.

  1. 提高 SF6充气设备带电检测效率的方法及实施%Approach to Improve Live Detection Efficiency of SF6 Charging Equipment and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正明; 王振华; 赵岚

    2014-01-01

    With a multitude of SF6 charging equipment, increasing number of live detection and finite human resources, power supply companies are generally faced with low live detection efficiency and low completion ratio of periodic live detection work. Starting from field practical conditions, the maintenance and test work area in a power supply company independently developed a four-way valve for live detection of SF6 charging equipment. In combination with the patented product, SF6 live line detection joint of the company, favorable field application effect is achieved and work efficiency of live line detection for SF6 charging equipment is im-proved significantly.%面对数量巨大的 SF6充气设备、越来越多的带电检测项目以及有限的人力资源,供电公司普遍面临着带电检测效率低、周期性带电检测工作完成率低的问题。某供电公司检修试验工区从现场实际出发,自主研发了用于 SF6充气设备带电检测的四通阀,配合本单位的专利产品 SF6带电测试接头,取得了较好的现场应用效果,大大提高了 SF6充气设备带电检测的工作效率。

  2. Enhanced charge collection and photocatalysis performance of CdS and PbS nanoclusters co-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Gong, Zezhou; Tao, Jiajia [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei, 230601 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Chen, Xiaoshuang [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Jiang, Xishun [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); School of Mechanical & Electronic Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou, 239000 (China); He, Gang; Wang, Peihong; Meng, Fanming [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A novel translucent TiO{sub 2} porous film was prepared through etched method. The CdS, PbS and CdS/PbS nanoclusters were imbedded on TiO{sub 2} porous film by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. Microstructure, morphology, optical and photoelectron-chemical properties of the as-synthesized thin films were investigated systematically. XRD and morphology analysis showed that PbS or CdS nanoclusters have been attached to the TiO{sub 2} porous films. It was found that the energy band gap of TiO{sub 2} porous film decreased from 3.46 to 3.2 eV after sensitized with nanoclusters. The photocurrent density of ITO/TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode increased from 0.017 to 0.28 mA/cm{sup 2} after co-sensitized with CdS and PbS nanoclusters. Besides, the photoelectrode sensitized with two sorts of nanoclusters showed evident higher photocurrent density than which sensitized just one sort of nanoclusters. The photocurrent density of ITO/TiO{sub 2}/PbS and TO/TiO{sub 2}/CdS photoelectrode was 0.11 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.22 mA/cm{sup 2} respectively. 0.28 mA/cm{sup 2} can be obtained by ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CdS/PbS photoelectrode. The results showed that the optical and photoelectrochemistry properties and phtotcatalysis performance of TiO{sub 2} porous film were greatly improved by co-sensitized with CdS and PbS nanoclusters. - Graphical abstract: When CdS and PbS were brought in the cascade structure, such a Fermi level alignment causes upward and downward shifts of the band edges for PbS and CdS, respectively. Therefore the resulting band edges for the ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CdS/PbS devices are inferred to have a stepwise structure. The elevated conduction band edge of PbS provides a higher driving force for the injection of photogenerated electrons from PbS to CdS as well as the injection of excited holes from CdS to PbS. Such a structure offers efficient separation and transport of the excited electrons and holes. - Highlights: • Ti films were obtained from direct current

  3. Study of the energy deposition in LiF by heavy charged particle irradiation and its relation to the thermoluminescent efficiency of the material

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, O; Brandan, M E

    1999-01-01

    The initial energy deposition stage of the thermoluminescent (TL) process is investigated. A coupled ion-electron Monte Carlo (MC) transport code developed for LiF considering its solid-state nature is used to obtain radial dose distributions for incident proton and helium ions at several energies. Models which relate the initial energy deposition to the final TL light emission are used to predict TL efficiencies. Track structure theory (TST) efficiency calculations using the MC radial dose distributions and target sizes of 50, 100 and 150 A were performed for the total signal of LiF. Comparison with recent high linear energy transfer (LET) efficiency measurements suggests a value for the target size within the interval 50-100 A. Modified TST (MTST) proton-to-gamma and helium-to-gamma relative TL efficiency calculations were performed with the MC radial dose distributions and 8.1 keV x-rays as test radiation. It is found that both theories show good agreement with the data, though both predict an energy depen...

  4. Improvement of the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of a highly active β-glucanase from Talaromyces leycettanus JCM12802 by optimizing residual charge–charge interactions

    OpenAIRE

    You, Shuai; Tu, Tao; Zhang, Lujia; Wang, Yuan; Huang, Huoqing; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Bai, Yingguo; Su, Xiaoyun; Lin, Zhemin; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background β-Glucanase is one of the most extensively used biocatalysts in biofuel, food and animal feed industries. However, the poor thermostability and low catalytic efficiency of most reported β-glucanases limit their applications. Currently, two strategies are used to overcome these bottlenecks, i.e., mining for novel enzymes from extremophiles and engineering existing enzymes. Results A novel endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanase of GH16 (Tlglu16A) from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces leycettanu...

  5. Color-stable and efficient tandem white organic light-emitting devices using a LiF n-doping layer and a MoOx p-doping layer as charge generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated color-stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen):LiF/4,4′,4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA):molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as charge generating unit (CGU), which has the advantages of air stability and ease of fabrication; the working mechanism of Bphen:LiF/m-MTDATA:MoOx is also discussed through analysis of the electrical and spectral emission properties of tandem devices with different CGUs. The performance of tandem white OLED, comprising blue and yellow phosphorescent EL units, can be improved by optimizing the thickness of Bphen:LiF layer. The device comprised of 30 nm Bphen:LiF layer has a maximum current efficiency of 38.7 cd/A and it can still maintain 24.6 cd/A at the luminance of 10,370 cd/m2. Moreover, the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the device are rather stable and the variation is only (± 0.003, ± 0.007) over a wide range of luminance (100–13,000 cd/m2). - Highlights: • LiF n-doping layer and MoOx p-doping layer were used as charge generating units. • The device performance was improved by optimizing the thickness of n-doping layer. • High luminance and efficiency were both achieved at a very low current density. • The device showed rather stable spectra over a wide range of luminance

  6. Color-stable and efficient tandem white organic light-emitting devices using a LiF n-doping layer and a MoO{sub x} p-doping layer as charge generating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Qingyang; Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Guo, Runda; Wang, Peng; Wu, Mingzhu; Gou, Changhua; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-10-31

    We have demonstrated color-stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen):LiF/4,4′,4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA):molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) as charge generating unit (CGU), which has the advantages of air stability and ease of fabrication; the working mechanism of Bphen:LiF/m-MTDATA:MoO{sub x} is also discussed through analysis of the electrical and spectral emission properties of tandem devices with different CGUs. The performance of tandem white OLED, comprising blue and yellow phosphorescent EL units, can be improved by optimizing the thickness of Bphen:LiF layer. The device comprised of 30 nm Bphen:LiF layer has a maximum current efficiency of 38.7 cd/A and it can still maintain 24.6 cd/A at the luminance of 10,370 cd/m{sup 2}. Moreover, the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the device are rather stable and the variation is only (± 0.003, ± 0.007) over a wide range of luminance (100–13,000 cd/m{sup 2}). - Highlights: • LiF n-doping layer and MoO{sub x} p-doping layer were used as charge generating units. • The device performance was improved by optimizing the thickness of n-doping layer. • High luminance and efficiency were both achieved at a very low current density. • The device showed rather stable spectra over a wide range of luminance.

  7. Highly Efficient Visible-to-NIR Luminescence of Lanthanide(III) Complexes with Zwitterionic Ligands Bearing Charge-Transfer Character: Beyond Triplet Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mei; Du, Bin-Bin; Zhu, Yi-Xuan; Yue, Mei-Qin; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-02-12

    Two zwitterionic-type ligands featuring π-π* and intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) excited states, namely 1,1'-(2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene)bis(methylene)dipyridinium-4-olate (TMPBPO) and 1-dodecylpyridin-4(1 H)-one (DOPO), have been prepared and applied to the assembly of lanthanide coordination complexes in an effort to understand the ligand-direction effect on the structure of the Ln complexes and the ligand sensitization effect on the luminescence of the Ln complexes. Due to the wide-band triplet states plus additional ILCT excitation states extending into lower energy levels, broadly and strongly sensitized photoluminescence of f→f transitions from various Ln(3+) ions were observed to cover the visible to near-infrared (NIR) regions. Among which, the Pr, Sm, Dy, and Tm complexes simultaneously display both strong visible and NIR emissions. Based on the isostructural feature of the Ln complexes, color tuning and single-component white light was achieved by preparation of solid solutions of the ternary systems Gd-Eu-Tb (for TMPBPO) and La-Eu-Tb and La-Dy-Sm (for DOPO). Moreover, the visible and NIR luminescence lifetimes of the Ln complexes with the TMPBPO ligand were investigated from 77 to 298 K, revealing a strong temperature dependence of the Tm(3+) ((3) H4 ) and Yb(3+) ((2) F5/2 ) decay dynamics, which has not been explored before for their coordination complexes.

  8. Charge gradient microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seungbum; Tong, Sheng; Park, Woon Ik; Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Cho, Yasuo; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a simple and fast method to reliably image polarization charges using charge gradient microscopy (CGM). We collected the current from the grounded CGM probe while scanning a periodically poled lithium niobate single crystal and single-crystal LiTaO3 thin film on the Cr electrode. We observed current signals at the domains and domain walls originating from the displacement current and the relocation or removal of surface charges, which enabled us to visualize the ferroelectric domains at a scan frequency above 78 Hz over 10 μm. We envision that CGM can be used in high-speed ferroelectric domain imaging and piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices. PMID:24760831

  9. Selection and screening of microbial consortia for efficient and ecofriendly degradation of plastic garbage collected from urban and rural areas of Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Megha, M; Kini, Meghna Niranjan; Mukund, Kamath Manali; Rizvi, Alya; Vasist, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to massive accumulation of plastic garbage all over India. The persistence of plastic in soil and aquatic environment has become ecological threat to the metropolitan city such as Bangalore, India. Present study investigates an ecofriendly, efficient and cost-effective approach for plastic waste management by the screening of novel microbial consortia which are capable of degrading plastic polymers. Plastic-contaminated soil and water samples were collected from six hot spots of urban and rural areas of Bangalore. The plastic-degrading bacteria were enriched, and degradation ability was determined by zone of clearance method. The percentage of polymer degradation was initially monitored by weight loss method, and the main isolates were characterized by standard microbiology protocols. These isolates were used to form microbial consortia, and the degradation efficiency of the consortia was compared with individual isolate and known strains obtained from the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) and Gene Bank, India. One of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation was identified, and the biodegradation mechanism was hypothesized by bioinformatics studies. From this study, it is evident that the bacteria utilized the plastic polymer as a sole source of carbon and showed 20-50% weight reduction over a period of 120 days. The two main bacteria responsible for the degradation were microbiologically characterized to be Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria could grow optimally at 37 °C in pH 9.0 and showed 35-40% of plastic weight reduction over 120 days. These isolates were showed better degradation ability than known strains from MTCC. The current study further revealed that the microbial consortia formulated by combining Psuedomonas spp. showed 40 plastic weight reduction over a period of 90 days. Further, extracellular lipase, one of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation, was identified. The

  10. TiO2/carboxylate-rich porous carbon: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lingling; Huang, Dongliang; Shi, Hefei; Gu, Mengbin; Li, Jilei; Dong, Fei; Luo, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    A novel visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on TiO2/carboxylate-rich porous carbon composite (TiO2/CRPC) was successfully synthesized by low temperature carbonization process in air. Sodium gluconate plays a crucial role in the formation of TiO2/CRPC. Different functional groups of sodium gluconate play synergetic roles in the formation of TiO2/CRPC. XRD and Raman spectra studies indicated that there are two different TiO2 crystalline phases existing in TiO2/CRPC, which are anatase and brookite, and the CRPC is amorphous. Via FT-IR and XPS spectra investigations, it was demonstrated that carboxylate group, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) forming functional group, was solidified into the CRPC and form the LMCT complex on TiO2 surface through the fabrication of TiO2/CRPC. Compared with the pure TiO2, TiO2/CRPC exhibit enhanced absorption in the UV and visible light region around 260-600 nm. The strong absorption in the visible light region gives TiO2/CRPC advantages over pure TiO2 for the degradation of organic pollutants. TiO2/CRPC can activate O2 in air under mild conditions and exhibit excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities. However, TiO2/C composite obtained by using glucose instead of sodium gluconate exhibits poor photocatalytic activity, which demonstrated that carboxylate-TiO2 complexes are responsible for the prominent photocatalytic properties of TiO2/CRPC under visible light irradiation.

  11. Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Albert; Knight, Mark; Garnett, Erik C; Ehrler, Bruno; Sinke, Wim C

    2016-04-15

    Recent developments in photovoltaic materials have led to continual improvements in their efficiency. We review the electrical characteristics of 16 widely studied geometries of photovoltaic materials with efficiencies of 10 to 29%. Comparison of these characteristics to the fundamental limits based on the Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance model provides a basis for identifying the key limiting factors, related to efficient light management and charge carrier collection, for these materials. Prospects for practical application and large-area fabrication are discussed for each material.

  12. 3D Bi2S3/TiO2 cross-linked heterostructure: An efficient strategy to improve charge transport and separation for high photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minmin; Jia, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    A novel 3D cross-linked heterostructure of TiO2 nanorods connecting with each other via ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets is constructed by a facile and effective strategy. The growth mechanism has been investigated and proposed based on the evolution of microstructure by changing the reaction parameters. Benefiting from the unique cross-linked heterostructure, the as-prepared Bi2S3 nanosheets modified TiO2 nanorods arrays could achieve a high energy conversion efficiency of 3.29% which is the highest value to date for Bi2S3-only sensitized solar cells as the reported highest value is 2.23% and other reported values are less than 1%. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical studies clearly reveal that the novel cross-linked heterostructure exhibits much better activity than 0D nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanorods under visible light irradiation, which may be primarily ascribed to the efficient electron transfer from 2D ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets to 1D TiO2 nanorod arrays. The promising results in this work confirm the advantages of cross-linked heterostructure and also undoubtedly offer an attractive synthesis strategy to fabricate other nanorod-based hierarchical architecture as well as nano-devices for solar energy conversion.

  13. The Fifteen-Year Attitude History of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Radiator and Collection Efficiencies for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Cooke, William J.; Koehler, H.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator assembly was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) during the summer of 2009. Immediately apparent was a distinct biasing of the largest 45 impact features towards one side of the radiator, in contrast to an approximately uniform distribution of smaller impacts. Such a distribution may be a consequence of the HST s attitude history and pointing requirements for the cold radiator, or of environmental effects, such as an anisotropic distribution of the responsible population in that size regime. Understanding the size-dependent spatial distribution of impact features is essential to the general analysis of these features. We have obtained from GSFC a 15 minute temporal resolution record of the state vector (Earth Centered Inertial position and velocity) and HST attitude, consisting of the orientation of the velocity and HST-sun vectors in HST body coordinates. This paper reviews the actual state vector and attitude history of the radiator in the context of the randomly tumbling plate assumption and assesses the statistical likelihood (or collection efficiency) of the radiator for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environments. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Meteoroid Environment Model is used to assess the micrometeoroid component. The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) is used to model the orbital debris component. Modeling results are compared with observations of the impact feature spatial distribution, and the relative contribution of each environmental component are examined in detail.

  14. Efficiency increased in new solar cell: A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchby, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Graded band-gap cell should be able to convert solar radiation into electrical energy more efficiently than any solar cell currently available. Thickness of band-gap region should be chosen to maximize both quantity of light absorbed in region and fraction of photogenerated charge carriers collect at junction.

  15. Invisible Surface Charge Pattern on Inorganic Electrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We propose an easy method to pattern the surface charge of ${\\rm SiO}_{2}$ electrets without patterning the dielectric layer. By eliminating the use of metal guard electrodes, both the charge efficiency and the surface charge stability in humid environments improve. We apply the concept to a vibr...

  16. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company. PMID:22317394

  17. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  18. First charge collection and position-precision data on the medium-resistivity silicon strip detectors before and after neutron irradiation up to 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng; Eremin, V; Li, C J; Verbitskaya, E

    1999-01-01

    Test strip detectors of 125 mu m, 500 mu m, and 1 mm pitches with about 1 cm sup 2 areas have been made on medium-resistivity silicon wafers (1.3 and 2.7 k OMEGA cm). Detectors of 500 mu m pitch have been tested for charge collection and position precision before and after neutron irradiation (up to 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2) using 820 and 1030 nm laser lights with different beam-spot sizes. It has been found that for a bias of 250 V a strip detector made of 1.3 k OMEGA cm (300 mu m thick) can be fully depleted before and after an irradiation of 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2. For a 500 mu m pitch strip detector made of 2.7 k OMEGA cm tested with an 1030 nm laser light with 200 mu m spot size, the position reconstruction error is about 14 mu m before irradiation, and 17 mu m after about 1.7x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2 irradiation. We demonstrated in this work that medium resistivity silicon strip detectors can work just as well as the traditional high-resistivity ones, but with higher radiation tolerance. We als...

  19. Simulating charge transport to understand the spectral response of Swept Charge Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Athiray, P S; Narendranath, S; Gow, J P D

    2015-01-01

    Swept Charge Devices (SCD) are novel X-ray detectors optimized for improved spectral performance without any demand for active cooling. The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) experiment onboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft used an array of SCDs to map the global surface elemental abundances on the Moon using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The successful demonstration of SCDs in C1XS spurred an enhanced version of the spectrometer on Chandrayaan-2 using the next-generation SCD sensors. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate validation of a physical model developed to simulate X-ray photon interaction and charge transportation in a SCD. The model helps to understand and identify the origin of individual components that collectively contribute to the energy-dependent spectral response of the SCD. Furthermore, the model provides completeness to various calibration tasks, such as generating spectral response matrices (RMFs - redistribution matrix files), estimating efficiency, optimizing event...

  20. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A

    2002-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  1. Understanding the Linkage between Charging Network Coverage and Charging Opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Kontou, Eleftheria [University of Florida, Gainesville; Wu, Xing [Lamar University

    2016-01-01

    Using GPS-based travel survey data, this paper estimates the relationship between public charging network coverage and charging opportunity, defined as the probability of being able to access public charging for a driver at one of his/her stops or at one travel day. Understanding this relationship is of important interests to the electric vehicle industry and government in determining appropriate charging infrastructure deployment level and estimating the impact of public charging on market adoption of electric vehicles. The analysis finds that drivers trip destinations concentrate on a few popular places. If top 1% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, on average, drivers will be able to access public charging at 20% of all their stops and 1/3 of their travel days; If 20% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, drivers will be able to access public charging at 89% of all their stops and 94% of their travel days. These findings are encouraging, implying charging network can be efficiently designed by concentrating at a few popular places while still providing a high level of charging opportunity.

  2. Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  3. DNA charge transport: Moving beyond 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, William B.; Liu, Chaoren; Zhang, Peng; Balaeff, Alexander; Beratan, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Charge transport across novel DNA junctions has been studied for several decades. From early attempts to move charge across DNA double crossover junctions to recent studies on DNA three-way junctions and G4 motifs, it is becoming clear that efficient cross-junction charge migration requires strong base-to-base electronic coupling at the junction, facilitated by favorable pi-stacking. We review recent progress toward the goal of manipulating and controlling charge transport through DNA junctions.

  4. Hopping transport in the space-charge region of p-n structures with InGaN/GaN QWs as a source of excess 1/f noise and efficiency droop in LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkareva, N. I.; Ivanov, A. M.; Klochkov, A. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kogotkov, V. S. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Rebane, Yu. T. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Virko, M. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Shreter, Y. G., E-mail: y.shreter@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    It is shown that the emission efficiency and the 1/f noise level in light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quantum wells correlate with how the differential resistance of a diode varies with increasing current. Analysis of the results shows that hopping transport via defect states across the n-type part of the space-charge region results in limitation of the current by the tunneling resistance at intermediate currents and shunting of the n-type barrier at high currents. The increase in the average number of tunneling electrons suppresses the 1/f current noise at intermediate currents. The strong growth in the density of current noise at high currents, S{sub J} ∝ J{sup 3}, is attributed to a decrease in the average number of tunneling electrons as the n-type barrier decreases in height and width with increasing forward bias. The tunneling-recombination leakage current along extended defects grows faster than the tunneling injection current, which leads to emission efficiency droop.

  5. Hopping transport in the space-charge region of p-n structures with InGaN/GaN QWs as a source of excess 1/f noise and efficiency droop in LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the emission efficiency and the 1/f noise level in light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quantum wells correlate with how the differential resistance of a diode varies with increasing current. Analysis of the results shows that hopping transport via defect states across the n-type part of the space-charge region results in limitation of the current by the tunneling resistance at intermediate currents and shunting of the n-type barrier at high currents. The increase in the average number of tunneling electrons suppresses the 1/f current noise at intermediate currents. The strong growth in the density of current noise at high currents, SJ ∝ J3, is attributed to a decrease in the average number of tunneling electrons as the n-type barrier decreases in height and width with increasing forward bias. The tunneling-recombination leakage current along extended defects grows faster than the tunneling injection current, which leads to emission efficiency droop

  6. Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zujun; Liu Yinong; Chen Wei; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Shaoyan; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.

  7. Elimination of charge-enhancement effects in GaAs FETs with a low-temperature grown GaAs buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of low temperature grown GaAs (LT GaAs) buffer layer in GaAs FETs is shown via computer simulation and experimental measurement to reduce ion-induced charge collection by two to three orders of magnitude. This reduction in collected charge is associated with the efficient reduction of charge-enhancement mechanisms in the FETs. Error rate calculations indicate that the soft error rate of LT GaAs integrated circuits will be reduced by several orders of magnitude when compared to conventional FET-based GaAs ICs

  8. Optimal charging of an electric vehicle using a Markov decision process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper proposes an algorithm to optimally charge an electric vehicle considering the usage of the vehicle. • The charging policy depends on the use of the vehicle, the risk aversion of the end-user, and the electricity price. • The model is versatile and can easily be adapted to any specific vehicle, thus providing a customized charging policy. - Abstract: The combination of electric vehicles and renewable energy is taking shape as a potential driver for a future free of fossil fuels. However, the efficient management of the electric vehicle fleet is not exempt from challenges. It calls for the involvement of all actors directly or indirectly related to the energy and transportation sectors, ranging from governments, automakers and transmission system operators, to the ultimate beneficiary of the change: the end-user. An electric vehicle is primarily to be used to satisfy driving needs, and accordingly charging policies must be designed primarily for this purpose. The charging models presented in the technical literature, however, overlook the stochastic nature of driving patterns. Here we introduce an efficient stochastic dynamic programming model to optimally charge an electric vehicle while accounting for the uncertainty inherent to its use. With this aim in mind, driving patterns are described by an inhomogeneous Markov model that is fitted using data collected from the utilization of an electric vehicle. We show that the randomness intrinsic to driving needs has a substantial impact on the charging strategy to be implemented

  9. Active space debris charging for contactless electrostatic disposal maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Sternovsky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The remote charging of a passive object using an electron beam enables touchless re-orbiting of large space debris from geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using electrostatic forces. The advantage of this method is that it can operate with a separation distance of multiple craft radii, thus reducing the risk of collision. The charging of the tug-debris system to high potentials is achieved by active charge transfer using a directed electron beam. Optimal potential distributions using isolated- and coupled-sphere models are discussed. A simple charging model takes into account the primary electron beam current, ultra-violet radiation induced photoelectron emission, collection of plasma particles, secondary electron emission and the recapture of emitted particles. The results show that through active charging in a GEO space environment high potentials can be both achieved and maintained with about a 75% transfer efficiency. Further, the maximum electrostatic tractor force is shown to be insensitive to beam current levels. This latter later result is important when considering debris with unknown properties.

  10. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  11. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  12. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. PMID:25078828

  13. Optimal charging of an electric vehicle using a Markov decision process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    to the energy and transportation sectors, ranging from governments, automakers and transmission system operators, to the ultimate beneficiary of the change: the end-user. An electric vehicle is primarily to be used to satisfy driving needs, and accordingly charging policies must be designed primarily...... for this purpose. The charging models presented in the technical literature, however, overlook the stochastic nature of driving patterns. Here we introduce an efficient stochastic dynamic programming model to optimally charge an electric vehicle while accounting for the uncertainty inherent to its use....... With this aim in mind, driving patterns are described by an inhomogeneous Markov model that is fitted using data collected from the utilization of an electric vehicle. We show that the randomness intrinsic to driving needs has a substantial impact on the charging strategy to be implemented....

  14. Diffusion model for charge transfer from a photosynthetic reaction center to an electrode in a photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takshi, Arash [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)], E-mail: arasht@ece.ubc.ca; Madden, John D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Beatty, J. Thomas [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2009-05-30

    In spite of a high quantum efficiency in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) the overall efficiency in a RC-based photovoltaic device is very poor partly because of an inefficient collection of charges by electrodes. To explain charge transport between the RC and an electrode a diffusion model is proposed. The numerical solution of the diffusion process describes the measured photocurrent well. An approximation of the initial condition is also made to obtain analytical expressions for the photocurrent. The model suggests that the slow transient response of the photocurrent is due to the diffusion in a biological photovoltaic device.

  15. Diffusion model for charge transfer from a photosynthetic reaction center to an electrode in a photovoltaic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of a high quantum efficiency in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) the overall efficiency in a RC-based photovoltaic device is very poor partly because of an inefficient collection of charges by electrodes. To explain charge transport between the RC and an electrode a diffusion model is proposed. The numerical solution of the diffusion process describes the measured photocurrent well. An approximation of the initial condition is also made to obtain analytical expressions for the photocurrent. The model suggests that the slow transient response of the photocurrent is due to the diffusion in a biological photovoltaic device.

  16. Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations. PMID:26352781

  17. Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations.

  18. 客户电费托收正确率有效提升的理论研究及案例分析%Theoretical Research and Case Analysis on the Effective Improvement of the Accuracy of Customer’s Electric Charge Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立群; 吴薇; 吕敏; 黄蓓雯

    2014-01-01

    Taking a certain electric power company’s electric charge collection as an example, and making innovative use of fishbone diagram and Plato analysis, this paper probes into the main factors influencing the accuracy of this company’s electric charge collection, and puts forward some solutions.%以某电力公司客户电费托收实际为例,创新性地运用鱼骨图和柏拉图分析法,探讨了影响该公司电费托收正确率的主要因素,提出了解决问题的对策。

  19. Development of efficient system for collection-analysis-application of information using system for technology and information in field of RI-biomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sol Ah; Kim, Joo Yeon; Park, Tai Jin [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    RI-Biomics is the new radiation fusion technology of which, such as the characteristics of radioisotope, is applied to the biomics. In order to sharing and overall analysis of data between the institutions through total management of information in the field of RI-Biomics, RI-Biomics Information portal ‘RIBio-Info’ was constructed by KARA (Korean Association for Radiation Application) in February 2015. For systematic operation of this ‘RIBio-Info’ system, it is required to develop system of collection-analysis-application of information. So, in this paper, we summarized development of document forms at each processes of collection-analysis-application of information and systematization of collection methods of information, establishment of characteristically analysis methods of reports such as issue paper, policy report, global market report and watch report. Therefore, these are expected to improving the practical applicability in this field through the vitalization of technology development of users by achieving the circular structure of collection analysis-application of information.

  20. Use of CMOS imagers to measure high fluxes of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoli, L.; Tucceri, P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of high flux charged particle beams, specifically at medical accelerators and with small fields, poses several challenges. In this work we propose a single particle counting method based on CMOS imagers optimized for visible light collection, exploiting their very high spatial segmentation (> 3 106 pixels/cm2) and almost full efficiency detection capability. An algorithm to measure the charged particle flux with a precision of ~ 1% for fluxes up to 40 MHz/cm2 has been developed, using a non-linear calibration algorithm, and several CMOS imagers with different characteristics have been compared to find their limits on flux measurement.

  1. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  2. 用于288×4读出电路中的高效率模拟电荷延迟线%High Efficient Analog Charge Delay Lines for 288×4 ROIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁文高; 陈中建; 张雅聪; 吉利久

    2008-01-01

    提出了一种带时间延迟积分功能的高性能CMOS读出电路芯片适用的高效率电荷延迟线结构. 基于该结构,设计了一款288×4规格焦平面阵列组件适用的CMOS读出电路芯片,并已完成流片、测试.该芯片包括4个视频输出端,每个端口的像元输出频率为4~5MHz(如用于实现384×288规模的成像,帧频可达160Hz).测试结果表明这款芯片具有高动态范围(大于78dB)、高线性度(大于99.5%)、高均匀性(大于96.8%)等特征.%A high efficient analog charge delay line (ACDL) is proposed. These analog delay lines can be used to realize high performance CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROIC) with time delay integration (TDI) function. A CMOS ROIC for 288×4 IRFPA were designed, manufactured, and tested. The chip has 4 video outputs, whose pix el frequency is 4-5MHz (for 384×288 format, its frame fr equency can achieve 160Hz). Test results show that this chip has high dyna mic range (>78dB), high linearity (>99.5%), and high uniformity (96.8% ).

  3. Track finding efficiency in BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BABAR detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of KS0 particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BABAR running periods

  4. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  5. Characterisation of a Thin Fully Depleted SOI Pixel Sensor with High Momentum Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marco; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Giubilato, Piero; Mattiazzo, Serena; Pantano, Devis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the characterisation of a thin, fully depleted pixel sensor manufactured in SOI technology on high-resistivity substrate with high momentum charged particles. The sensor is thinned to 70 $\\mu$m and a thin phosphor layer contact is implanted on the back-plane. Its response is compared to that of thick sensors of same design in terms of signal and noise, detection efficiency and single point resolution based on data collected with 300 GeV pions at the CERN SPS. We observe that the charge collected and the signal-to-noise ratio scale according to the estimated thickness of the sensitive volume and the efficiency and single point resolution of the thinned chip are comparable to those measured for the thick sensors.

  6. Assessment of electrical charge on airborne microorganisms by a new bioaerosol sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-An; Willeke, Klaus; Mainelis, Gediminas; Adhikari, Atin; Wang, Hongxia; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2004-03-01

    Bioaerosol sampling is necessary to monitor and control human exposure to harmful airborne microorganisms. An important parameter affecting the collection of airborne microorganisms is the electrical charge on the microorganisms. Using a new design of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for bioaerosol sampling, the polarity and relative strength of the electrical charges on airborne microorganisms were determined in several laboratory and field environments by measuring the overall physical collection efficiency and the biological collection efficiency at specific precipitation voltages and polarities. First, bacteria, fungal spores, and dust dispersed from soiled carpets were sampled in a walk-in test chamber. Second, a simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores was dispersed and sampled in the same chamber. Third, bacteria were sampled in a small office while four adults were engaged in lively discussions. Fourth, bacteria and fungal spores released from hay and horse manure were sampled in a horse barn during cleanup operations. Fifth, bacteria in metalworking fluid droplets were sampled in a metalworking simulator. It was found that the new ESP differentiates between positively and negatively charged microorganisms, and that in most of the tested environments the airborne microorganisms had a net negative charge. This adds a signature to the sampled microorganisms that may assist in their identification or differentiation, for example, in an anti-bioterrorism network.

  7. Charge transport through split photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Nanostructured Renewable Energy Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26300 (Malaysia); Khalidin, Zulkeflee [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26600 (Malaysia)

    2014-04-28

    Charge transport and recombination are relatively ignored parameters while upscaling dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Enhanced photovoltaic parameters are anticipated by merely widening the devices physical dimensions, viz., thickness and area as evident from the device design adopted in reported large area DSCs. These strip designs lead to ≤50% loss in photocurrent compared to the high efficiency lab scale devices. Herein, we report that the key to achieving higher current density (J{sub SC}) is optimized diffusion volume rather than the increased photoelectrode area because kinetics of the devices is strongly influenced by the varied choices of diffusion pathways upon increasing the electrode area. For a given electrode area and thickness, we altered the photoelectrode design by splitting the electrode into multiple fractions to restrict the electron diffusion pathways. We observed a correlation between the device physical dimensions and its charge collection efficiency via current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The modified electrode designs showed >50% increased J{sub SC} due to shorter transport time, higher recombination resistance and enhanced charge collection efficiency compared to the conventional ones despite their similar active volume (∼3.36 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 3}). A detailed charge transport characteristic of the split devices and their comparison with single electrode configuration is described in this article.

  8. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO2 electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T; Dera, R; D’Haen, J.; Manca, J.; H.-G. Boyen

    2014-01-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO2 elec- tr...

  9. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vasugi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.

  10. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    causes the AUV to rise, and emptying of the bladder allows the AUV to descend. This type of direct buoyancy control is much more energy efficient than using electrical pumps in that the inefficiencies of converting thermal energy to electrical energy to mechanical energy is avoided. AUV charging stations have been developed that use electricity produced by waves on floating buoys and that use electricity from solar photovoltaics on floating buoys. This is the first device that has absolutely no floating or visible parts, and is thus impervious to storms, inadvertent ocean vessel collisions, or enemy sabotage.

  11. Target debris collection studies for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, G. P.; Archuleta, T. N.; Bradley, P. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Obst, A. W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-08-01

    At the recently completed National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the initial set of diagnostics to be deployed are focused on measuring neutrons and γ's generated by d(t,n)α reactions in the imploded capsule. Although valuable for understanding pre-ignition experiments, this abbreviated diagnostic suite provides an incomplete picture of the plasma conditions obtained. Prompt radiochemical techniques, based on induced neutron and charged particle reactions within the imploded target, provide a novel and interesting new perspective. To enable these techniques requires the collection and assay of activated target material. In Nov. 2008, experiments were performed using the Omega Laser at the University of Rochester to study the efficiency of collecting debris from directly driven targets. Results from these experiments indicate that target debris was successfully collected, and the debris thermalization and transport scheme enhanced the debris collection up to 347% over direct collection.

  12. Target debris collection studies for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grim, G P; Archuleta, T N; Bradley, P A; Fowler, M M; Hayes, A C; Jungman, G; Obst, A W; Rundberg, R S; Vieira, D J; Wang, Y Q; Wilhelmy, J B, E-mail: gpgrim@lanl.go [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At the recently completed National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the initial set of diagnostics to be deployed are focused on measuring neutrons and {gamma}'s generated by d(t,n){alpha} reactions in the imploded capsule. Although valuable for understanding pre-ignition experiments, this abbreviated diagnostic suite provides an incomplete picture of the plasma conditions obtained. Prompt radiochemical techniques, based on induced neutron and charged particle reactions within the imploded target, provide a novel and interesting new perspective. To enable these techniques requires the collection and assay of activated target material. In Nov. 2008, experiments were performed using the Omega Laser at the University of Rochester to study the efficiency of collecting debris from directly driven targets. Results from these experiments indicate that target debris was successfully collected, and the debris thermalization and transport scheme enhanced the debris collection up to 347% over direct collection.

  13. Ultrathin efficient perovskite solar cells employing a periodic structure of a composite hole conductor for elevated plasmonic light harvesting and hole collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingzhu; Chen, Zefeng; Zhang, Tiankai; Xiao, Yubin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Jian; Yan, Keyou; Xu, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure composite (PMC) HTM in combination with the conformal Au electrode could promote the absorption through the enhanced cavity effects, leading to comparable absorption even using much thinner perovskite (240 nm). We identified that the cavity was the combination of Fabry-Pérot interferometer and surface plasmonic resonance, with light harvesting enhancement through surface plasmon polariton or waveguide modes that propagate in the plane of the perovskite layer. On the other hand, the PMC HTM increased hole conductivity by one order of magnitude with respect to standard spiro-OMeTAD HTM due to molecular packing and self-assembly, embodying traceable hole mobility and density elevation up to 3 times, and thus the hysteresis was greatly avoided. Owing to dual optical and electronic enhancement, the PMC PSC afforded high efficiency PSC using as thin as 240 nm perovskite layer, delivering a Voc of 1.05 V, Jsc of 22.9 mA cm-2, FF of 0.736, and efficiency amounting to 17.7% PCE, the highest efficiency with ultrathin perovskite layer.We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure

  14. The study on the effect of fractional composition and ash particle diameter on the ash collection efficiency at the electrostatic precipitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đurić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of experimental investigations shown in this paper is to estimate the operating efficiency degree of the electrostatic precipitator on a real industrial plant (a the thermal power plant „Gacko“ with the electric power of 310 MW, Bosnia & Herzegovina and to use the obtained results as a base of periodical engineering or continual measurement and compare them with the investigations of other investigators. The investigation of the electrostatic precipitator performance was done according to BAS ISO 9096:2003. In this paper, the electrostatic precipitator efficiency during the ash particle removal with a wide range of particle sizes from 1 to 250 μm is evaluated. The exploitational experience points out that electrostatic precipitators are efficient for the coals of different quality (coal particles with diameters bigger than 1 μm and that they could be optimized during the exploitation itself and for some following processes (e.g., flue gas desulphurization. Within the measurement plane, the measurements were made on 20 points per section. It has been noticed that ash removal degrees obtained experimentally (3 investigations have approximately equal value (95.93 to 97.78%. The best concordance with the results of experimental investigation shows the Deutsch equation, while theoretical models of Zhibin-Guoquan and Nobrega-Falaguasta-Coury do not correspond well to the results of experimental investigations. For the ash particles with the diameters less than 17.5 μm there is no good correlation between investigated theoretical models. The highest deviation of the model for ash particles with diameters less than 17.5 μm is notable in the case of using the Deutsch equation.

  15. Efficient data collection algorithm in sensor networks with optimal-path mobile sink%传感器网络中基于移动sink最穿越路径的高效数据收集算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 林亚平; 周四望; 黄岑羲; 罗卿

    2011-01-01

    Mobile sink can efficiently collect data and extend the network lifetime. However, the existing researches about data collection based on mobile sink mainly focus on path-constrained mobile sink. Hence, a path-controlled traversal model for mobile sink data collection was constructed, and a data collection algorithm for mobile sink based on optimal-path traveling was proposed. The algorithm discretized the continuous path problem by local Voronoi grid, used the amount of data collected and system energy consumption as performance metric, combined taboo search algorithm to achieve the maximum amount of data collected and the minimum of network energy consumption traversing. Theoretically and experimentally, it is concluded that the proposed algorithm is able to solve the optimal-path traveling of data collection problem using path-controlled mobile sink.%移动sink数据收集研究主要集中在轨迹固定的移动策略.为此,建立了移动sink穿越路径可控条件下的数据收集模型,并提出一种最优路径穿越的移动sink数据收集算法(OTP-TS).算法利用局部Voronoi网格将连续路径问题离散化,以收集数据量、系统能耗为衡量指标,结合禁忌搜索算法,实现系统数据量最大化和网络能耗最小化穿越.理论分析和实验结果表明,该算法很好地解决了移动sink在可控移动轨迹情况中数据收集的最优路径穿越问题.

  16. Efficiency spectrum of a CdTe X- and γ-ray detector with a Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the efficiency spectrum of CdTe X- and γ-ray detectors utilizing Schottky diodes for different material parameters and diode structures is reported. Special attention is paid to the effect of deep levels and compensation on space-charge region width. It is shown that charge collection in the neutral region of the detector considerably contributes to the device efficiency. Calculations also show that the efficiency of a stacked detector can be higher than that of a bulk detector with ohmic contacts. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Biodegradable charged polyester-based vectors (BCPVs) as an efficient non-viral transfection nanoagent for gene knockdown of the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbin; Panwar, Nishtha; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Butian; Liu, Maixian; Toh, Huiting; Yoon, Ho Sup; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Chong, Peter Han Joo; Law, Wing-Cheung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-04-01

    First-line therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has always involved the use of BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase inhibitors which is associated with an abnormal chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome. Although the overall survival rate has been improved by the current therapeutic regime, the presence of resistance has resulted in limited efficacy. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic regime is proposed with the aim to knockdown the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The siRNA transfection rates have usually been limited due to the declining contact probability among polyplexes and the non-adherent nature of leukemic cells. Our work aims at addressing this limitation by using a biodegradable charged polyester-based vector (BCPV) as a nanocarrier for the delivery of BCR-ABL-specific siRNA to the suspension culture of a K562 CML cell line. BCR-ABL siRNAs were encapsulated in the BCPVs by electrostatic force. Cell internalization was facilitated by the BCPV and assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The regulation of the BCR-ABL level in K562 cells as a result of RNAi was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed that BCPV was able to form stable nanoplexes with siRNA molecules, even in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and successfully assisted in vitro siRNA transfection in the non-adherent K562 cells. As a consequence of downregulation of BCR-ABL, BCPV-siRNA nanoplexes inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. All results were compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine2000™, which served as a positive control. More importantly, this class of non-viral vector exhibits biodegradable features and negligible cytotoxicity, thus providing a versatile platform to deliver siRNA to non-adherent leukemia cells with high transfection efficiency by effectively overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers. Due to the excellent in vitro

  18. Evaluating the Critical Thickness of TiO 2 Layer on Insulating Mesoporous Templates for Efficient Current Collection in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chandiran, Aravind Kumar

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, a way of utilizing thin and conformal overlayer of titanium dioxide on an insulating mesoporous template as a photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. Different thicknesses of TiO2 ranging from 1 to 15 nm are deposited on the surface of the template by atomic layer deposition. This systematic study helps unraveling the minimum critical thickness of the TiO2 overlayer required to transport the photogenerated electrons efficiently. A merely 6-nm-thick TiO2 film on a 3-μm mesoporous insulating substrate is shown to transport 8 mA/cm 2 of photocurrent density along with ≈900 mV of open-circuit potential when using our standard donor-π-acceptor sensitizer and Co(bipyridine) redox mediator. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Symposium GC: Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommisetty, Venkat [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    2011-06-23

    This paper provides a summary only and table of contents of the sessions. Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  20. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  1. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  2. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Singh, Vivek [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Noh, Hyunwoo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Cha, Jennifer N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 2445 Kittredge Loop, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers.

  3. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Noh, Hyunwoo; Singh, Vivek; Cha, Jennifer N.; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-02-01

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers.

  4. Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1976-01-01

    If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to

  5. Multistep Charge Method by Charge Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segami, Go; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Iwasa, Minoru; Kibe, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    We studied reduction of the size and weight of the Power Control Unit (PCU). In this study, we specifically examined the weight of the Battery Charge Regulator (BCR), which accounts for half of the PCU weight for a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite. We found a multistep charge method by charge arrays and adopted a similar method for GEO satellites, thereby enabling the BCR reduction. We found the possibility of reducing the size and weight of PCU through more detailed design than that for a conventional PCU.BCRC1R1batterySAPower Control UnitBCRC1R1batterySAPower UnitHowever, this method decreases the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. Battery tests, a battery simulator test, and numerical analysis were used to evaluate the SOC decrease. We also studied effects of this method on the battery lifetime. The multistep charge method by charge arrays enabled charging to the same level of SOC as the conventional constant current/ constant voltage (CC/CV) charge method for a LEO satellite.

  6. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  7. Solar energy collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  8. Separation Efficiency of Photogenerated Charges and Photoelectric Properties in Two Types of Heterojunctions%两类异质结构中光生电荷分离效率与光电性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵涛涛

    2016-01-01

    Firstly,different composites of Cu4 Bi4s9 nanoribbons and graphene (CBS-graphene) were fabricated with graphene of 0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0 and 2.4 wt.%.Using α-Fe2O3 as electron acceptor,CBS and CBS-graphene as electron donor,two types of heterojunctions (α-Fe2O3/CBS,α-Fe2O3/CBS-graphene) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were prepared.The XRD results show that α-Fe2O3 and CBS components can be indexed as the well-crystallized structures for two types of heterojunctions.Moreover,all of composite systems present the absorption characteristics of composite structure,but there is not an obvious difference from absorption spectra.For CBS-graphene,the surface photovoltage (SPV) increased gradually with graphene changing from 0.4 to 1.6 wt.%.Above 1.6 wt.%,the SPV signal decreased continuously.Besides,α-Fe2O3/CBS-graphene exhibits the higher photovoltaic response than α-Fe2O3/CBS using steady state and electric field induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy.With graphene of 1.6 wt.%,α-Fe2O3/CBS and α-Fe2O3/CBS-graphene BHJ solar cells present the highest photoelectric conversion efficiencies of 3.1% and 6.8%,respectively.From thickness of film,energy level matching,graphene conductive network and remarkably high electron mobility,etc.,the factors on the separation of photogenerated charges and the charge dynamics were analysed in detail.%首先制备Cu4Bi4S9纳米带与石墨烯不同比例复合体系(CBS-graphene),其中石墨烯质量分数分别为:0.4%,0.8%,1.2%,1.6%,2.0%和2.4%.以α—Fe2O3为电子受主,CBS和CBS-graphene为电子施主,制备成α-Fe203/CBS、α—Fe2O3/CBS-graphene两类异质结构及体相异质结太阳能电池.XRD检测结果表明,异质结两组分都达到了良好的结晶状态;而且,两类复合体系都呈现出了复合结构的光吸收特性,但光吸收性质无明显差异,对于CBS-graphene,随着石墨烯含量逐步增加其光伏性质逐渐增强,当石墨烯质量分数为1.6%时

  9. Probing the defect nanostructure of helium and proton tracks in LiF:Mg,Ti using optical absorption: Implications to track structure theory calculations of heavy charged particle relative efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major objective of track structure theory (TST) is the calculation of heavy charged particle (HCP) induced effects. Previous calculations have been based exclusively on the radiation action/dose response of the released secondary electrons during the HCP slowing down. The validity of this presumption is investigated herein using optical absorption (OA) measurements on LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) samples following irradiation with 1.4 MeV protons and 4 MeV He ions at levels of fluence from 1010 cm−2 to 2 × 1014 cm−2. The major bands in the OA spectrum are the 5.08 eV (F band), 4.77 eV, 5.45 eV and the 4.0 eV band (associated with the trapping structure leading to composite peak 5 in the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve). The maximum intensity of composite peak 5 occurs at a temperature of ∼200 °C in the glow curve and is the glow peak used for most dosimetric applications. The TST calculations use experimentally measured OA dose response following low ionization density (LID) 60Co photon irradiation over the dose-range 10–105 Gy for the simulation of the radiation action of the HCP induced secondary electron spectrum. Following proton and He irradiation the saturation levels of concentration for the F band and the 4.77 eV band are approximately one order of magnitude greater than following LID irradiation indicating enhanced HCP creation of the relevant defects. Relative HCP OA efficiencies, ηHCP, are calculated by TST and are compared with experimentally measured values, ηm, at levels of fluence from 1010 cm−2 to 1011 cm−2 where the response is linear due to negligible track overlap. For the F band, values of ηm/ηHCP = 2.0 and 2.6 for the He ions and protons respectively arise from the neglect of enhanced Fluorine vacancy/F center creation by the HCPs in the TST calculations. It is demonstrated that kinetic analysis simulating LID F band dose response with enhanced Fluorine vacancy creation, and incorporated into the TST calculation, can lead to

  10. Proposal of law which aims at limiting the energy loads in collective buildings for accommodation purpose; Proposition de loi visant a limiter les charges energetiques dans les immeubles collectifs a usage d'habitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Y.; Billard, M.; Mamere, N.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this proposal of law is to limit to 40% maximum the share of electricity in the production of heat and hot water in new collective residential buildings. Electric heating is the less expensive solution in terms of investment but certainly the most expensive solution on the long term use for the budget of households. (J.S.)

  11. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  12. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  13. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  14. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages.

  15. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xeq+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  16. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S.; Suss, M. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bercovici, M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, ...

  17. Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jacob

    Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.

  18. Theory and applications of fluctuating-charge models

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiahao

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuating-charge models are computationally efficient methods of treating polarization and charge-transfer phenomena in molecular mechanics and classical molecular dynamics simulations. They are also theoretically appealing as they are minimally parameterized, with parameters corresponding to the chemically important concepts of electronegativities and chemical hardness. However, they are known to overestimate charge transfer for widely separated atoms, leading to qualitative errors in the predicted charge distribution and exaggerated electrostatic properties. We present the charge transfer with polarization current equilibration (QTPIE) model, which solves this problem by introducing distance-dependent electronegativities. A graph-theoretic analysis of the topology of charge transfer allows us to relate the fundamental quantities of charge transfer back to the more familiar variables that represent atomic partial charges. This allows us to formulate a unified theoretical framework for fluctuating-charge mo...

  19. Charge exchange system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  20. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  1. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  2. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

  3. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions∕s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms∕charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV∕u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

  4. Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  5. JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Freedom and the Collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Isaiah Berlin’s epitomizing Cold War-essay, "Two Concepts of Liberty, " thinkers who emphasize collective concepts of social life have carried the burden of proof against charges of totalitarian tendencies. The background is a ground figure in contemporary political thought that sets notions of collectivity against individual freedom, in a zero sum game: Either one is in favour of the individual, or one is in favour of the collective, and hence, so the bias has it, willing to sacrifice the rights and liberties of individuals. Since it is impossible to favour the latter position and remain liberal, in the wide sense of the term, this dichotomy serves to rob contemporary political thought of both its classical and revolutionary connotations, leaving only individual initiatives like lobbying and voting. Cornelius Castoriadis offers a way around this – arguably false – dichotomy, by regarding individual and collective freedom as two sides of the same coin.

  7. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  8. Particles with non abelian charges

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods for describing non abelian charges in worldline approaches to QFT are useful to simplify calculations and address structural properties, as for example color/kinematics relations. Here we analyze in detail a method for treating arbitrary non abelian charges. We use Grassmann variables to take into account color degrees of freedom, which however are known to produce reducible representations of the color group. Then we couple them to a U(1) gauge field defined on the worldline, together with a Chern-Simons term, to achieve projection on an irreducible representation. Upon gauge fixing there remains a modulus, an angle parametrizing the U(1) Wilson loop, whose dependence is taken into account exactly in the propagator of the Grassmann variables. We test the method in simple examples, the scalar and spin 1/2 contribution to the gluon self energy, and suggest that it might simplify the analysis of more involved amplitudes.

  9. Search for four-top-quark production in final states with one charged lepton and multiple jets using $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV data collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Serkin, Leonid; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for four-top-quark production is presented based on the proton-proton collision data taken $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV and collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider during 2015, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 $fb^{-1}$. Data are analysed in the single-lepton channel, characterised by an isolated high transverse momentum electron or muon and multiple jets. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found and an observed (expected) upper limit of 21 (16) times the four-top quark Standard Model cross-section is obtained at 95% confidence level. Additionally, upper bounds on four-top-quark production are set in different scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  10. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  11. One-pot hydrothermal route to fabricate nitrogen doped graphene/Ag-TiO2: Efficient charge separation, and high-performance "on-off-on" switch system based photoelectrochemical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ding; Du, Xiaojiao; Chen, Danyang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yaqi; Hao, Nan; Qian, Jing; Liu, Qian; Wang, Kun

    2016-09-15

    Charge separation is crucial for increasing the performances of semiconductor-based materials in many photoactive applications. In this paper, we designed novel nanocomposites consisting of TiO2 nanocrystals, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and nitrogen doped graphene (NGR) via a facile one-pot hydrothermal route. The as-prepared ternary nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances owing to the introduction of Ag NPs and NGR, which increase the excitons' lifetime and improve the charge transfer. In particular, it is shown by means of the transient-state surface photocurrent responses that the photocurrent intensity of the as-fabricated composites exhibited 18.2 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Based on the robust photocurrent signal, a new kind of "on-off-on" PEC aptasensor was established with the assistance of Pb(2+) aptamer, which integrates the advantages of low background signal and high sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, a wide linear response for Pb(2+) detection was obtained from 1pM to 5nM as well as a detection limit down to 0.3pM. With its simplicity, selectivity, and sensitivity, this proposed strategy shows great promise for Pb(2+) detection in food and environment analysis. PMID:27108257

  12. An investigation into waste charges in Ireland, with emphasis on public acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Louise; Convery, Frank J; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-12-01

    There are 34 local authorities in Ireland with legal responsibility to deal with waste arising in their jurisdictions. In 2003 the National government introduced legislation that allows local authorities to recover the costs of waste collection and disposal, and to do so by 'executive function', i.e., not requiring support or agreement by the relevant local political representatives. The year 2005 was set as the date by which implementation of a pay by weight or volume was to be introduced. The local authorities were given autonomy as to how they addressed this challenge, so we have - in theory - 34 potentially different experiences from which to learn. This paper examines the pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) waste system in Ireland as it develops in line with EU and National demands, with a view to assessing economic and environmental efficiency. All local authorities were surveyed and thirteen responded. While this only represents about 38% of the total number, it includes jurisdictions that contribute in total more than 50% of waste arising. Key figures in the policy and business community were also interviewed in order to identify how the charging schemes were implemented, and to what effect. These insights and parallel investigations are used to review the potential for problems regarding public acceptability of environmental taxes and examine the evidence for economic and environmental efficiency, as well as problem areas, using data from each of the responding local authority jurisdictions. Concentrating on the incentives and drivers across households, municipalities and private waste contractors, the variations in charging system, annual charges and landfill charges are compared where information was available. The various jurisdictions are also examined in terms of relative successes and problems encountered in the transition from fixed charge or free waste collection to PAYT systems. The Irish situation is placed in the context of the international literature on

  13. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  14. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  15. Dipole-mediated rectification of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Duoduo; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Larsen, Jillian M; Xia, Bing; Georgieva, Boriana; Nuñez, Vicente; Espinoza, Eli M; Hartman, Joshua D; Wurch, Michelle; Chang, Andy; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Larkin, Jason; Vasquez, Krystal; Beran, Gregory J O; Vullev, Valentine I

    2014-09-17

    Controlling charge transfer at a molecular scale is critical for efficient light harvesting, energy conversion, and nanoelectronics. Dipole-polarization electrets, the electrostatic analogue of magnets, provide a means for "steering" electron transduction via the local electric fields generated by their permanent electric dipoles. Here, we describe the first demonstration of the utility of anthranilamides, moieties with ordered dipoles, for controlling intramolecular charge transfer. Donor-acceptor dyads, each containing a single anthranilamide moiety, distinctly rectify both the forward photoinduced electron transfer and the subsequent charge recombination. Changes in the observed charge-transfer kinetics as a function of media polarity were consistent with the anticipated effects of the anthranilamide molecular dipoles on the rectification. The regioselectivity of electron transfer and the molecular dynamics of the dyads further modulated the observed kinetics, particularly for charge recombination. These findings reveal the underlying complexity of dipole-induced effects on electron transfer and demonstrate unexplored paradigms for molecular rectifiers. PMID:25162490

  16. Ultrafast charge separation in organic photovoltaics enhanced by charge delocalization and vibronically hot exciton dissociation

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In organic photovoltaics, the mechanism by which free electrons and holes are generated overcoming the Coulomb attraction is a currently much debated topic. To elucidate this mechanism at a molecular level, we carried out a combined electronic structure and quantum dynamical analysis that captures the elementary events from the exciton dissociation to the free carrier generation at polymer/fullerene donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Our calculations show that experimentally observed efficient charge separations can be explained by a combination of two effects: First, the delocalization of charges which substantially reduces the Coulomb barrier, and second, the vibronically hot nature of the charge transfer state which promotes charge dissociation beyond the barrier. These effects facilitate an ultrafast charge separation even at low-band-offset heterojunctions.

  17. Direct charged particle imaging sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMOS image sensors optimized for charged particle imaging applications, such as electron microscopy and particle physics, have been designed and characterized. These directly image charged particles without reliance on performance-degrading hybrid technologies such as the use of scintillating materials. Based on standard CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology, the sensor arrays uses an 8-20 μm epitaxial layer that acts as a thicker sensitive region for the generation and collection of ionization electrons resulting from impinging high-energy particles. This results in a 100% fill factor and a far larger signal per incident electron than a standard CMOS photodiode could provide. A 512x550 pixels prototype has been fabricated and used extensively in an electron microscope, including having been used to take sample images. Temporal noise was measured to be 0.9 mV RMS, and the dynamic range was 60 dB. Power consumption at 70 frames/s is 20 mW. The full-width half-maximum of the collected ionization electron distribution was found to be 5.5 μm, yielding a spatial resolution of approximately 2.3 μm for individual incident electrons, and the modulation transfer function of the sensor at the Nyquist limit is to be 32%

  18. Collective Enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  19. Generative collectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Osch; M. Avital

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing generative group activities against the backdrop of an increasingly connected world, this theory development paper introduces the concept of "generative collectives" as a new framework for classifying internet-based collectives and a novel theoretical lens for explaining why some internet-

  20. Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    This chapter discusses litigation touching on collective bargaining issues. The chapter is organized to follow the collective bargaining process, from cases dealing with union organizing to cases involving arbitration. Issues covered also include determination of bargaining units, scope of bargaining, union security, and unfair labor practices in…

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zujun, Wang; Yinong, Liu; Wei, Chen; Benqi, Tang; Zhigang, Xiao; Shaoyan, Huang; Minbo, Liu; Yong, Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.

  2. High-Efficiency Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fast Charge Extraction through Self-Assembled 3D Fibrous Network of Crystalline TiO 2 Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2010-12-28

    Herein, we present a novel morphology for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on the simple and straightforward self-assembly of nanorods into a 3D fibrous network of fused single-crystalline anatase nanowires. This architecture offers a high roughness factor, significant light scattering, and up to several orders of magnitude faster electron transport to reach a near-record-breaking conversion efficiency of 4.9%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusel, O., E-mail: o.meusel@iap.uni-frankfurt.de; Droba, M.; Noll, D.; Schulte, K.; Schneider, P. P.; Wiesner, C. [IAP, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt D-60438 (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  4. Decay of electric charge on corona charged polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study on the surface potential decay of corona charged low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. A conventional corona charging process is used to deposit charge on the surface of film and surface potential is measured by a compact JCI 140 static monitor. The results from corona charged multilayer sample reveal that the bulk process dominates charge decay. In addition, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) technique has been employed to monitor charge profiles in corona charged LDPE films. By using the PEA technique, we are able to monitor charge migration through the bulk. Charge profiles in corona charged multilayer sample are consistent with surface potential results. Of further significance, the charge profiles clearly demonstrate that double injection has taken place in corona charged LDPE films

  5. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  6. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  7. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  8. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  9. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barak, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Several non-minimal Higgs scenarios, e.g. Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDM), predict the existence of charged Higgs bosons. This talk describes searches for charged Higgs bosons produced in top quark decays, in association with a top quark, or decaying to a tau lepton and a neutrino using the Run I data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  10. On-line charge breeding using ECRIS and EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The efficient and rapid production of a high-quality, pure beam of highly charged ions is at the heart of any radioactive ion beam facility. Whether an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source or an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is used to produce these highly charged ions, their operating characteristics will set the boundaries on the range of experiments which can be performed. In addition, time structure and duty cycle have to be considered when defining the operating parameters of the accelerator system as a whole. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), an ECR charge breeder was developed as part of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) program. The charge breeding efficiency and high charge state production of the source is at the forefront of ECR charge breeders, but its overall performance as part of the accelerator system is limited by pervasive background and relatively long breeding times. As such, an EBIS charge breeder has been developed and is running in an off-line configuration. It has already demonstrated good breeding efficiencies, shorter residence times, and reduced background and is scheduled to replace the ECR charge breeder in late 2015. The resultant change in duty cycle and time structure necessitates changes to the overall operation of the facility. The experiences with these breeders, as well as from several other facilities which already utilize an ECR or EBIS for charge breeding, help to define the operational characteristics of each technology - their strengths, their weaknesses, and the possible paths to improvement.

  11. An improved charge pump with suppressed charge sharing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Bai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential charge pump with reduced charge sharing effect is presented. The current-steering topology is adopted for fast switching. A replica charge pump is added to provide a current path for the complementary branch of the master charge pump in the current switching. Through the replica charge pump, the voltage at the complementary node of the master charge pump keeps stable during switching, and the dynamic charge sharing effect is avoided. Apply the charge pump to a 4.8 GHz band integer-N PLL, the measured reference spur is -49.7dBc with a 4-MHz reference frequency.

  12. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  13. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  14. Collecting biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Haripersaud, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Collecting biodiversity There are major concerns about the use of primary species occurrence data that are rapidly becoming available on the internet for ecological studies. To this end, this research assessed the extent of biases associated with a herbarium dataset based is based on specimens collected in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. After getting an understanding of the biases, the database was used to: (a) develop a model to simulate relative abundance distributions in the herbarium...

  15. Analysis of Full Charge Reconstruction Algorithms for X-Ray Pixelated Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; /Fermilab; Carini, G.; /SLAC; Deptuch, G.; /Fermilab; Grybos, P.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Hoff, J.; /Fermilab; Siddons, P., Maj.; /Brookhaven; Szczygiel, R.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-21

    Existence of the natural diffusive spread of charge carriers on the course of their drift towards collecting electrodes in planar, segmented detectors results in a division of the original cloud of carriers between neighboring channels. This paper presents the analysis of algorithms, implementable with reasonable circuit resources, whose task is to prevent degradation of the detective quantum efficiency in highly granular, digital pixel detectors. The immediate motivation of the work is a photon science application requesting simultaneous timing spectroscopy and 2D position sensitivity. Leading edge discrimination, provided it can be freed from uncertainties associated with the charge sharing, is used for timing the events. Analyzed solutions can naturally be extended to the amplitude spectroscopy with pixel detectors.

  16. Analysis of full charge reconstruction algorithms for x-ray pixelated detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; /Fermilab; Carini, G.; /SLAC; Deptuch, G.; /Fermilab; Grybos, P.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Hoff, J.; /Fermilab; Siddons, P., Maj.; /Brookhaven; Szczygiel, R.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Existence of the natural diffusive spread of charge carriers on the course of their drift towards collecting electrodes in planar, segmented detectors results in a division of the original cloud of carriers between neighboring channels. This paper presents the analysis of algorithms, implementable with reasonable circuit resources, whose task is to prevent degradation of the detective quantum efficiency in highly granular, digital pixel detectors. The immediate motivation of the work is a photon science application requesting simultaneous timing spectroscopy and 2D position sensitivity. Leading edge discrimination, provided it can be freed from uncertainties associated with the charge sharing, is used for timing the events. Analyzed solutions can naturally be extended to the amplitude spectroscopy with pixel detectors.

  17. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminat