WorldWideScience

Sample records for chard

  1. Chard

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Hunt, Sara; Sorenson, Crista; Heineman, Bethany; Beyers, Blake; Workman, Ashley Walker

    2010-01-01

    Chard is actually part of the beet family. It's known throughout the world by many different names, such as white beet, strawberry spinach, seakale beet, leaf beet, Sicilian beet, spinach beet, Chilian beet, Roman kale, and silverbeet. Chard is often referred to as Swiss chard because of its extensive cultivation in Switzerland.

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard, and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination....... cicla), golden Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which...

  3. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation into the continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest... importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  4. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Colombia into the continental United States. Based on that analysis, we have concluded that the application... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia....

  5. and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn...... Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  6. Radiosensitivity of E.coli O157: H7 and Salmonella typhimurium on swiss chard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marco A.S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: masperei@ipen.br; nlmastro@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Swiss Chard is a beet (Beta vulgaris cicla) producing large yellowish green leaves with thick succulent stalks and often cooked as a potherb, called also seakale beet or chard. It is a nutritive vegetable rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and vitamin C. Ionising radiation is an effective method to reduce pathogens. Radiation sensitivity of bacteria, however, depends on several factors. Particularly, few data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on ready to eat vegetables. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the radiation sensitivity of pathogens experimentally contaminating the mentioned vegetable. Swiss chard leaves minimally processed were inoculated separately either with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella typhimurium by immersion to contain 6 log CFU/g and 1h later gamma-irradiated with 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy and 1.5 kGy, dose rate of 2.94 kGy/h. The assay of pathogen survivors was made by direct plating. After applying a radiation dose of 0.5 kGy reductions of at least 3 log were achieved for both bacteria. The average D10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log of pathogen were 0.12 and 0.10 for E.coli O157:H7 and S.typhimurium respectively. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens that can eventually contaminate ready to eat vegetables. (author)

  7. Source-separated municipal solid waste compost application to Swiss chard and basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Warman, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    A growth room experiment was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, S, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, and Se from a sandy loam soil amended with source-separated municipal solid waste (SSMSW) compost. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% SSMSW compost to soil (by volume) mixture. Soils and compost were sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu, Pb, and Zn into exchangeable (EXCH), iron- and manganese-oxide-bound (FeMnOX), organic-matter (OM), and structurally bound (SB) forms. Overall, in both species, the proportion of Cu, Pb, and Zn levels in different fractions followed the sequence: SB > OM > FeMnOX > EXCH for Cu; FeMnOX = SB > OM > EXCH for Pb; and FeMnOX > SB = EXCH > OM for Zn. Application of SSMSW compost increased soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC), and increased the concentration of Cu, Pb, and Zn in all fractions, but not EXCH Pb. Basil yields were greatest in the 20% treatment, but Swiss chard yields were greater in all compost-amended soils relative to the unamended soil. Basil plants in 20 or 40% compost treatments reached flowering earlier than plants from other treatments. Additions of SSMSW compost to soil altered basil essential oil, but basil oil was free of metals. The results from this study suggest that mature SSMSW compost with concentrations of Cu, Pb, Mo, and Zn of 311, 223, 17, and 767 mg/kg, respectively, could be used as a soil conditioner without phytotoxic effects on agricultural crops and without increasing the normal range of Cu, Pb, and Zn in crop tissue. However, the long-term effect of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils needs to be carefully considered.

  8. Genetic variability and association pattern among quantitative nutritional traits in Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. L. var. cicla accessions and its implication for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozokalfa Kadri M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to improving agronomic traits, enriched cultivar such as nutritional elements and health promoting compounds are new demands for today's and the future's perspectives of crop breeding. In this respect, among leafy vegetables Swiss chard is a good source of nutritional elements and supplies large amounts of health promoting compounds. The existing knowledge of genetic variability for mineral composition both at the phenotype and genotype level, heritability of characters and also relationships among investigated minerals is fundamental for variety selection in Swiss chard. This also applies for the assurance of desirable agronomic traits with optimum mineral concentrations. This research analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among Swiss chard accessions for all investigated mineral concentrations and the accessions display higher phenotype coefficient variation than genotype coefficient variation for all traits. The results revealed that phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nitrate and nitrite exhibited high genetic advance accompanied with high heritability (>60%. The remaining mineral content demonstrated high heritability with moderate genetic advance. Genotype correlations were higher than the phenotype correlation for significant mineral concentrations. Genotype and phenotype correlations followed similar trends in all significant cases indicating the high heritable nature of the characters and the results showed that Swiss chard accessions should allow for the selection of individuals for enriched mineral concentration in edible parts of the plant.

  9. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  10. Dynamic behaviour and residual pattern of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in Swiss chard using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Farha, Waziha; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kabir, Md Humayun; Im, So Jeong; Jung, Da-I; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kim, Sung-Woo; Son, Young Wook; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-05-01

    A simultaneous method was developed to analyse thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in Swiss chard using tandem mass spectrometry (in the positive electrospray ionisation mode using multiple reaction monitoring mode) to estimate the dissipation pattern and the pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL). Thiamethoxam (10%, WG) was sprayed on Swiss chard grown in two different areas under greenhouse conditions at the recommended dose rate of 10 g/20 L water. Samples were collected randomly up to 14 days post-application, extracted using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) acetate-buffered method and purified via a dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) procedure. Matrix matched calibration showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2)) ⩾ 0.998. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.007 and 0.02 mg/kg. The method was validated in triplicate at two different spiked concentration levels. Good recoveries (n=3) of 87.48-105.61% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) thiamethoxam residues in/on Swiss chard was best described by first-order kinetics with half-lives of 6.3 and 4.2 days. We predicted from the PHRL curves that if the residues were thiamethoxam concentrations would be below the maximum residue limits during harvest.

  11. Agronomic traits and comprehensive utilization values analysis of Swiss chard%叶用甜菜农艺特性及综合利用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秀显; 刘巧环; 牟善伟; 田庆彬; 刘丽萍; 徐伟丽; 刘巧红

    2014-01-01

    叶用甜菜是以叶片作为主要原料的二年生草本植物。其营养丰富,柔嫩多汁,适口性好,不仅是猪、牛等喜食的青饲料之一,也可用作草药或作为蔬菜食用。叶用甜菜是糖甜菜的近缘种,作为不可多得的甜菜遗传种质材料,是改良糖甜菜遗传基础的重要资源之一。近年来国内外科研人员从叶用形态学、色泽以及风味品质等方面入手培育出了一些新的品种,具有食用、观赏等兼用的特性,有着广阔的开发利用前景。本文针对叶用甜菜的生物学分类、植物学特性等农艺特征及食用、饲用、药用等营养功能的综合利用价值进行了分析。%Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris cicla ) belongs to biennial herbaceous plant , which Leaves are used as main raw material for planter .Its foliage possesses the characteristics of rich nutrition , tender, juicy and good palatability .Swiss chard not only is one of fodders for pigs , cattle and other animal , also can be used as vegeta-bles and herbal medicines .Leaf beet is sibling species of sugar beet .As rare genetic germplasm materials , Swiss chard is one of the important resources for improving genetic basis of sugar beet .In recent years , researchers have breeding some new varieties regard leaf morphology , color and flavor quality , which have the combination features of edible and ornamental .Leaf beet has a broad prospect of development and utilization .In this paper , agronomic characteristics , such as biology classification , botany characteristics and comprehensive utilization of nutrition function value for foods , fodders , medicines are analyzed .

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.......), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial...... physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of Tuscan black cabbage...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... field crops—alfalfa, clover, cotton, dandelion, peanuts (including hay), rice, sorghum (milo), soybeans...), horseradish (radish, rutabagas, turnip roots), leafy greens (spinach, swiss chard), lettuce (head leaf),...

  15. Análise faunêstica de moscas-das-frutas (diptera, tephritidae em pomares de pessegueiro em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul Faunal study of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach or-chards in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterizc the peach trees ecosystem in Porto Alegre related to tephrilidea species, a faunal study was developed over the data of the collects of these insects with traps in tvvelve months. For the characterization of the communities, constancy, abundance and frequency index were determined. Relation between sex were obtained by correlation matrix, sexual proportion and sexual rates. Anastrepha fratercalus (Wiedemann, 1830 was abundant, constant and frequent, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 was accessory and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart, 1845 accidental. A greatcr number of females than males was observed.

  16. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Incorporated – “Changing the System” HeLLeR , TRiCiA A., Deputy Director of Congressional Support, Technical and Analytical Support, USAF A-Team...Interview Recorder” HeLLieR, RiCHARD, Director of Air Force Programs, United Technologies – “Joint Stars System” HeRMAN , DR. ROBeRT, Member, Defense

  17. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body at even greater risk for harm. Ongoing stress, or chronic, heavy alcohol use, may impair the body’s ability ... J.A., and Chard, K.M. Alcohol and stress in the military. Alcohol Research: ... suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. ...

  18. The Role of Number Sense in the Identification and Prevention of Mathematics Disability: A Consideration of the Phonemic Awareness/Number Sense Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Sally; Kemp, Coral

    2004-01-01

    In a 1999 paper Gersten and Chard proposed that number sense might be to mathematics what phonemic awareness is to reading. They explained the role of phonemic awareness in reading acquisition and its influence on reading research and argued that an understanding of the concept of number sense could be equally influential in the field of…

  19. Tank Access for Ballast Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. ~~r R~ obert C. chards "Director of Technical Development United States Coast Guard Research...Water Sampling Protocols (Technical Report No. 18). Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. U.S. Department of

  20. in situ immobilization of Cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.It is generally assumed that a decrease in metal c

  1. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  2. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  3. Evaluation of Some Local Egyptian Plants as a Source of Chlorophyll Pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Ismail, S I; Hussiney, H. A.; A. A. Hussein

    1994-01-01

    Four plant materials viz. Spinacia oleracae Linn, (spinach), Beta vulgaris Limm (chard), Medicago sativa Linn, (alfalfa) and Petroselinum sativum Hoff. (parsely) were studied as local sources for the preparation of chlorophyll pigments as natural green colour additives. Processing of the plant materials were carried out under different conditions viz. blanching, non-blanching followed by drying in air or electrical oven or in solar dehydrating oven. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation...

  4. Elemental uptake by edible herbs and lettuce (Latuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Veni; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-05-01

    The total concentration of toxic elements (aluminum, cadmium, chromium and lead) and selected macro and micro elements (iron, manganese, copper and zinc) are reported in six leafy edible vegetation species, namely lettuce, spinach, cabbage, chards and green and red types of Amaranth herbs. Although spinach and chards had greater than 125 mv of iron, both the amaranthus herbs recorded > than 320 microg g(-1) dry weight. In both the spinach and chard species, the Mn and Zn levels were appreciable recording > 225 microg g(-1) and 150 microg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Aluminum concentrations were (in microg g(-1) dry weight) lettuce (10), cabbage (11), spinach (167), chards (65), amaranthus green (293) and amaranthus red (233). All the micro and macro elements and the toxic elements (Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb) elements analyzed, were below the recommended maximum permitted levels (RMI) in vegetables. Further the elemental uptake and distribution of the nine elements, at three growth stages of the lettuce plant grown on soil bed under controlled conditions are detailed. In the soil, except for iron (16%), greater than 33% of the other cations were in exchangeable form. Generally in the lettuce plant, roots retained much of the iron (> 224 microg g(-1)) and aluminum (> 360 microg g(-1)), while leaves had less than 200 microg g(-1) of iron and 165 microg g(-1) of Al. Although the concentrations of elements marginally decreased with growth, the lettuce leaves had significant amounts of Mn (30 microg g(-1)), Zn (50 microg g(-1)) and Cu (3.6 microg g(-1)). Some presence of lead in leaves (2.0 microg g(-1)) was noticed, but all the toxic and other elements analyzed were well below the RMI values for the vegetables.

  5. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant.

  6. Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Emma; Rouphael, Youssef; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2016-05-15

    The nutritional composition of ten leafy vegetables (chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, red lettuce, rocket, spinach, Swiss chard, and tatsoi) and quality traits of the selected leafy vegetables in relation to the light intensity (low and high Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) at time of harvest were determined. Irrespective of the light intensity at time of harvest, the highest leaf dry matter (DM), proteins, nitrate, P, K and Ca contents were observed in rocket followed by mizuna. The highest lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA) was recorded in red lettuce and rocket, whereas ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic (TP) contents of red lettuce were higher compared to the other leafy vegetables. When leafy vegetables were harvested at low as opposed to high PAR, the leaf content was higher in DM, protein, K, Ca and Mg, hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA), and LAA by 12.5%, 10.0%, 12.6%, 23.7%, 14.1%, 11.9%, and 18.5%, respectively. The highest values in TP for chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, and red lettuce, were observed under high PAR.

  7. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-06-14

    Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%.

  8. Acetylene Resembling Effect of Ethylene on Seed Germination: Evaluating the Effect of Acetylene Released from Calcium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz MASHAYEKHI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some vegetable seeds need a very long time to germinate. In these kinds of seeds the second phase of germination is very long. As acetylene’s chemical structure is almost similar to the gaseous hormone ethylene, its’ physiological effect on seed germination should be very similar as well. Therefore, an experiment was established in order to enhance seed germination, by treating seeds with acetylene released from interaction of calcium carbide (CaC2 with water (H2O. A simple system was designed for efficient and proper use of gaseous acetylene resulted from the two substrates interaction, which conducted the produced gas obtained inside the interaction chamber into a sealed container wherein seeds were floating in water. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of one concentration of acetylene with different exposure periods (between 1 to 8 hours on parsley, celery and Swees chard seeds’ germination (chosen as late germinating vegetables. The effect of acetylene on seed germination speed and percent was investigated. There were significant differences in both percent and speed of germination within the various treatments. By floating for 3, 5 and 3 hours for parsley, celery and Swiss chard respectively, the highest germination rates were observed. The highest germination speed was achieved by 5, 5 and 3 hours floating respectively for parsley, celery and Swiss chard. Based on the results obtained, the current experiment suggests that acetylene has positive effect on enhancing seed germination of named vegetables, and played the role of ethylene, its effects resembling in regard to seed germination process.

  9. Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    The present study provides an update on the betaxanthin (bx) compositions of red and yellow beetroots, yellow-coloured Swiss chard petioles, and yellow-orange cactus pear. Applying RP-HPLC coupled with positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry and by comparison with UV-vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as retention times of semi-synthesized reference compounds, 24 betaxanthins were identified in red and yellow beetroot hypocotyls. Twenty-five and thirteen betaxanthins were present in yellow Swiss chard petioles and the cactus pear cultivar 'Gialla', respectively. Ethanolamine-bx and threonine-bx were found to be novel betaxanthins in Chenopodiaceae representatives, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as genuine pigments so far. Furthermore, aspartic acid-bx (miraxanthin II), lysine-bx, and methionine-bx, hitherto found in other families, were identified in the Chenopodiaceae for the first time. Additionally, tyrosine-bx (portulacaxanthin II) and tryptophan-bx have not been earlier reported to occur in the Cactaceae. These findings provide valuable phytochemical information and may be useful for a better understanding of the functional properties of betaxanthins in plants.

  10. Simulation of nitrogen leaching from a fertigated crop rotation in a Mediterranean climate using the EU-Rotate_N and Hydrus-2D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Nuñoz, P

    2010-01-01

    an experiment where four N fertigation levels were applied to a bell pepper-cauliflower-Swiss chard rotation in a sandy loam soil. All the input data were obtained from measurements, transfer functions or were included in the model databases. Model runs were without specific site calibration. The use of soil...... input parameters based on the same pedotransfer functions in both models resulted in a very similar simulation of soil water content in spite of the different nature of the approaches. Good correlations were found between the simulated water draining below 60 cm and that calculated by water balance......-scaling the quantification of N leaching from a field level to regional and national levels, identifying best management strategies in relation to N use from an environmental and economic perspective...

  11. Liberalismo e antimarxismo: Richard Rorty em diálogo com Dewey e Casto riadis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tosi Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This ar ti cle has as ob jec ti ve for mu la tes a cri tic to Ri chard Rorty`s an ti mar xism and his de fen se of the po li ti cal li be ra lism. The ar ti cle tries to do it, in first pla ce, des cri bing the phi lo sop hi cal cri tic of Rorty to Marx; in se cond pla ce iden tif ying two in te llec tual sour ces that ai ded him in the for mu la tion of their co nep tions about li be ra lism and mar xism, John De wey and Cor ne lius Cas to ria dis; and, fi nally, poin ting the am bi gui ties in the re la tions hip bet ween Rorty and Marx´s le gacy.

  12. ¿ES NECESARIA Y POSIBLE UNA TEORÍA GENERAL PARA ESTRUCTURAR LA CIENCIA CONTABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ JOAQUÍN ORTIZ BOJACÁ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo bosqueja un conjunto de argumentos enfocados en el objeto de la ciencia contable, la interdisciplinariedad y transdisciplinariedad, y la complejidad; todos ellos como elementos claves en la estructuración de la teoría general de la contabilidad. Sin embargo, se identifica que la ciencia contable no ha logrado un nivel maduro de estructuración científica por las razones que se convier - ten en el eje central de esta disertación. Se analizan dos de los principales pensadores contables, Ri - chard Mattessich y a Antonio Lópes de Sá, para confrontar y evaluar sus respectivos modelos frente al marco epistemológico, referente a la construcción y consolidación de la ciencia contable. Se pro - pone caminos para recabar el diseño de la estructura general del cuerpo teórico y sus implicaciones.

  13. Evaluation of Exposure to Heavy Metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Vegetables Grown in the Olericultures of Zanjan Province\\'s Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tabande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The contamination of soils and plants with heavy metals is a serious and growing problem. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and some agricultural products and the probability of risks due to their consumption. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using random sampling at harvest time in 2014 on 205 samples of vegetable crops (Leek, chard, parsley, watermelon, melon, tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, onion, garlic, radish, green peas, and broad bean and 129 samples of soils under cultivation. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil and plant samples were determined by an atomic absorption instrument and the data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between the mean concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn for different vegetables (P<0.001, but no significant difference was observed for Cd. The highest mean levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were detected in parsley, chard, broad bean, and leek respectively. However, there was no heavy metal pollution in the remainder of the vegetables and soil samples (with the exception of agricultural soils adjacent to the lead mine of Mahneshan area studied. Hazard probability (HQ of each element for cancerous diseases was less than unit and the intake of heavy metals was lower than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that major accumulation of heavy metals was obtained in leafy vegetables. Therefore, much attention should be paid to consumption of leafy vegetables, especially vegetables grown in the surrounding industrial areas.

  14. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e outros parasitas em hortaliças consumidas in natura, no Recife Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and others parasites in vegetables consumed in natura, Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas e consumidas em Pernambuco. Foram utilizadas 100 amostras de hortaliças: 40 amostras de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa, 40 de agrião (Nasturtium officinale e 20 de acelga (Beta vulgaris, provenientes de feiras livres e supermercados. A detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. foi realizada conforme Monge e Arias sendo utilizado dois métodos de coloração, Koster modificado e Ziehl-Nielsen. Foi usada a técnica de sedimentação espontânea de Gelli et al. para a análise parasitológica. As análises de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas de acordo com Andrews. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um percentual de contaminação parasitária em 60% de alface, 30% de agrião e 20% de acelga, destacando-se o Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis e Ancylostoma duodenale dentre os helmintos, e o Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba coli e o complexo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba díspar, dentre os protozoários com maior freqüência. As hortaliças mais contaminadas por coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram alface nas amostras de supermercado e agrião em feira livre. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade da adoção de medidas educativas aos produtores, e do monitoramento das águas destinadas à irrigação das hortas.The study was carried with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteroparasites in vegetables commercialized and consumed in natural form in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Horticultural samples purchased from supermarket and free market: 40 from lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 40 from watercress (Nasturtium officinale and 20 from chard (Beta vulgaris were analyzed. Cryptosporidium spp. detection was realized following Monge and Arias methodology, using two staining processes (Koster modified and Ziehl-Nielsen. Parasitological analysis was determined by the spontaneous sedimentation technique (Gelli et al., and total

  15. Caracterización de acelga fresca de Santiago del Estero (Argentina. Comparación del contenido de nutrientes en hoja y tallo. Evaluación de los carotenoides presentes Characterization of fresh Beta vulgaris from Santiago del Estero (Argentina. Nutrient and caroteniod content of stem and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Macías de Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron estudios de caracterización integral de acelga (Beta vulgaris, var. cycla cultivada en la Provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Por tratarse de un vegetal de importante consumo regional, se realizó la determinación de sus constituyentes básicos, minerales y pigmentos para conocer los valores nutricionales que aporta este alimento en nuestra región. Se analizaron comparando hoja y tallo: humedad, cenizas, proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono utilizables, fibra dietaria total, contenido de clorofila y carotenoides. En cuanto a minerales, se determinaron calcio, magnesio, sodio, potasio, manganeso, zinc, hierro, fósforo y boro. Se encontraron diferencias en los aportes de minerales, proteínas, grasas y fibra entre hoja y tallo, así como también el contenido de carotenoides exclusivamente en las hojas. Los resultados marcan importantes diferencias en el contenido energético y en su valor provitamínico A entre la hoja y el tallo de este vegetal, mostrando que este último es una parte aprovechable de la planta, recomendable en dietas hipocalóricas.An integrated characterization study of Swiss chard grown in Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was carried out. As Swiss chard is a vegetable of important regional consumption, the determination of its basic constituents, minerals and pigments was done to appraise the nutritional value offered by this food in our area. Moisture, ash content, proteins, fats, available carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, chlorophylls and carotenoids were analysed, comparing the leaves and the stems. As to minerals, calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorous, potassium, and boron were determined. Differences in the concentration of minerals, proteins, fats and fiber between the leaves and the stems were found, as well as the carotenoid content mainly in the leaves. These findings revealed important differences in energy content and provitamin A value, showing that the stem

  16. 柑橘大实蝇防控覆盖材料筛选%Selection of the Cover Material to Control Bac-trocera minax Enderlein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜朝林; 袁富春; 黄立新; 陈炼明

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the or-chard covering technology for prevention and control of Bactrocera minax Ender-lein, five different materials were used to cover the citrus orchard. The results showed that non-woven fabric covering had better control effect against Bactro-cera minax Enderlein, the control effi-ciency was more than 90%. Moreover, the non-woven fabric covering was low cost, which was easily accepted by fruit growers and good for popularization and application. The non-woven fabric cov-ering should be applied to the whole cit-rus orchard in which Bactrocera minax Enderlein occurred seriously.%为了探索柑橘大实蝇果园覆盖防治技术,设置了5种不同材料对柑橘果园进行覆盖。结果表明,用无纺布覆盖防治柑橘大实蝇效果好,防治效果90%以上,而且成本低,果农易接受,利于推广应用,但应尽量选择柑橘大实蝇发生危害严重的果园推广应用,全园覆盖。

  17. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur srl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scient......Following an application from Italsur srl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The Panel considers that barley soup “Orzotto”, which is a vegetable mix containing pearled barley, Tuscan Black cabbage, potatoes, “blu savoy” cabbage, purple carrots, “bi...... coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn...

  18. Number of residual thermotolerant coliforms on plants and in soil when using reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamkure, Sasirot; Cervantes, Edmundo Peña; Zermeño González, Alejandro; Cervantes, Rubén López; Melo, Prócoro Gamero; Ramírez, Homero

    2013-01-01

    The reclamation of domestic wastewater for irrigation is one alternative approach to solve the water scarcity crisis, but it is essential to control the microbiological quality of wastewater used for irrigation. The removal of thermotolerant coliforms, also known as faecal coliforms (FC), from treated domestic wastewater by intermittent media infiltration (IMI) in column was studied. The columns were filled with natural filter media (soil, soil/charcoal and zinc-modified zeolite, Zeo-Zn), and wastewater, IMI-treated wastewater and disinfected wastewater were compared. The numbers of residual FC on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) and in agricultural soil were determined over a 4-month period. The column using Zeo-Zn had a higher FC removal efficiency (2.98 log) than columns with other filter media and disinfection (1.87-2.57 log) due to the bactericidal properties of Zn(2+). The treatment of wastewater using Zeo-Zn and disinfection both decreased the accumulation of FC on plants and in soil to approximately 1-20 MPN/g dry matter. IMI-treated wastewater using the column with Zeo-Zn was suitable for unrestricted agricultural use, complied with Mexican regulations (as did disinfected wastewater) and had a low risk of FC contamination of plants and soil.

  19. Implication of the G145C polymorphism (rs713598) of the TAS2r38 gene on food consumption by Brazilian older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colares-Bento, Fernanda Cristina Jesus; Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Toledo, Juliana Oliveira; Moraes, Clayton Franco; Alho, Clarice Sampaio; Lima, Ricardo Moreno; Cordova, Claudio; Nobrega, Otávio Toledo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity to perceive bitter taste in a sample of the elderly population of the Brazilian Federal District, and to investigate its association with the consumption profile of distinct food groups. A total of 255 female outpatients aged 60 years or older took part in this cross-sectional study. The following data were determined for all the volunteers: alimentary frequency by clinical dieticians; genotyping of the G145C polymorphism in the TAS2r38 gene; cognitive status; sensorial (visual and hearing) acuity and drugs related to ageusia or dysgeusia. Sensitivity to bitter taste was assessed using phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) in a subset. Non-parametric tests confirmed the remarkable effect of the C allele in determining sensitivity to PTC (parugula (p=0.044) and chard (p=0.006). No associations were observed for the remaining food classes. The present findings suggest that the G145C genetic variation in the TAS2r38 gene modestly influenced food consumption habits of Brazilian older women. Nonetheless, the results do not rule out possible effects of past experiences on choices of elderly individuals.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Italsur srl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The Panel considers that barley soup “Orzotto”, which is a vegetable mix containing pearled barley, Tuscan Black cabbage, potatoes, “blu savoy” cabbage, purple carrots, “bi coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage.

  1. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Tavakkoli-Kakhki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products. Results: In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food­­ groups. Conclusions: This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables, pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts and ultimately trout (high protein products are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect.

  2. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  3. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  4. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  5. [Effects of weeding methods on weed community and its diversity in a citrus orchard in southwest Zhejiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, He-Jin; Jin, Zong-Lai; Yang, Wei-Bin; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    By using the research methods of ecological community, the effects of different weed management strategies including chemical weeding, manual weeding, and their combination on the weed community and its diversity in a citrus chard of main orange producing region in Quzhou City, Zhejiang Province were studied from June 2005 to May 2008. In control plots, there were 75 species and 25 families of weeds; after chemical weeding, manual weeding, and their combination, there were 46 species and 17 families, 59 species and 20 families, and 51 species and 18 families of weeds, respectively. The Margalef's species richness index, Shannon's diversity index, and Shannon's evenness index were the lowest after chemical weeding, but the highest after manual weeding, suggesting that chemical weeding had the greatest effects on the weed diversity in the citrus orchard. It was suggested that to sufficiently control the weeds while to maintain the weed diversity in the orchard weeds in southwest Zhejiang, the combination of chemical and manual weeding would be the best management strategy.

  6. Operational System-Impact Products for the Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSBX) and the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC/WXT) have combined efforts under the Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D). The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation provides a general overview of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2007-2008.

  7. Overview and Status of the Space Weather System-Impact Products for the SSA Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SYAG/SED) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of the SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation will provide general overviews and status update of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2009.

  8. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  9. Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax Meats and the Vegetable Quality of Beta vulgaris var. cicla Farmed in Freshwater and Saltwater Aquaponic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to exploit the euryhaline nature of commercially attractive species for their cultivation in freshwater aquaponic systems. This approach may increase the profitability of aquaponic production in coastal countries where the consumption of marine fish is traditional and of commercial relevance. For this purpose, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reared in an aquaponic freshwater (AFW system and an aquaponic saltwater (ASW system (salinity 20 ppt, in combination with chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. At the end of the trial, nitrate and phosphate concentration in water significantly increased in the ASW system, suggesting that the ability of B. vulgaris to absorb these substances was limited by salinity. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the concentration of some oligoelements such as Fe remained lower with respect to the concentration in the freshwater hydroponic solution, in both AFW and ASW. FTIR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on plants showed that growth at high salinity affected their lipid content. In the case of fish, freshwater had no effects on mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acid profiles, although saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in D. labrax reared in AFW. Our results demonstrates that it is possible to increase aquaponic profitability by farming D. labrax juveniles in an aquaponic freshwater system together with Beta vulgaris, obtaining good quality products.

  10. 刚架拱桥破坏机理的分析%A Study of the Failure Mechanism of the Framed Arch Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚良云; 陈燊

    2012-01-01

    Base on the framed arch bridge mechanical behavior, a solid model of batter brace by means of ANSYS program is established to analysis the Failure Mechanism of the Framed Arch Bridge. In order to do further research, using the MIDAS/Civil model, the number of lateral bracing is gradually reduced, and the influence of the lateral bracing on the global stiffness of the bridge is concluded, the reason of the disease of the lateral bracing has been found, that is the thrust produced by the micro--bend plate. And it has been found that the height of the the vault section and outer upper chard is not enough, which is the main reasons of the failure.%本文根据刚架拱桥结构的受力特性建立全桥及局部实体模型分析刚架拱桥的破坏机理,文中利用MIDAS/Civil模型,逐步减少模型中的横系梁,以考察横向联系的破坏对桥梁整体性的影响,研究表明由于微弯板产生的水平推力导致了横系梁的破坏,跨中截面和外弦杆破坏主要原因为截面高度不够。

  11. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  12. An overview of measurements of radionuclides in foods of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, L.; Ortiz, J.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring includes the determination of radionuclides in foods since they are an important way of intake of radionuclides to the human organism. Moreover, knowledge of the levels of radionuclides in foodstuffs will inform about the environmental radioactivity background permitting to control possible contamination due to human activity, such as agriculture activity, nuclear power plants or other radioactive facilities. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LRA) at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) performs measurements on representative foods from all over the Comunidad Valenciana (CV). Those measurements are part of several monitoring programs promoted by the Generalitat Valenciana. A total of 2200 samples of fruits, cereals, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs and fish coming from markets, agricultural cooperatives or small producers have been analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometry analysis has been performed in all samples. It has been detected 40K in all samples, 7Be in some of them. Radiochemical separation of 90Sr has been carried out in some of the samples collected, mainly orange and lettuce. Samples of lettuce and chard collected following Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident present activity concentration of 131I (0.10-1.51 Bq kg-1). In this paper, a review of the data obtained at the 1991-2013 period in the framework of the development of the Environmental monitoring program is presented.

  13. Seguridad en la aplicación de productos fitosanitarios en cultivos hortícolas y frutícolas Safety in the application of phitosanitary products in horticultural and fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. Bulacio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En sistemas de producción intensivos, el uso incorrecto de productos fitosanitarios puede afectar la salud de los operarios. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar sobre el cuerpo del operario aplicador las zonas de deposición de agroquímico al momento de realizar tratamientos foliares en cultivos hortícolas de diferente porte y en monte frutal. Se trabajó en lotes de acelga (Beta vulgaris var cicla L., de alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L., de poroto chaucha (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en monte de naranjos (Citrus sp.. En cada lote se simularon 4 aplicaciones foliares de fitosanitarios utilizando mochila manual, reemplazando los productos por una solución de fenoftaleína (0,5 g/l. En cada aplicación se recorrieron 100 m entre las hileras de cultivo y previo a cada una de ellas se distribuyeron sobre distintas zonas del cuerpo del operario parches de tela de algodón blanca de 10 cm x 10 cm. En laboratorio se recuperó el residuo de fenoftaleína de cada parche con hidróxido de sodio 0,1 N y se valoró en espectrofotómetro a 540 nm. Los residuos detectados en la parte anterior y posterior del cuerpo del aplicador, respectivamente, fueron: en acelga 1095,6 μg/cm² y 91,02 μg/cm², en alcaucil 787,00 μg/cm² y 404,00 μg/cm², en poroto chaucha 197,50 μg/cm² y 68,35 μg/cm², en monte frutal 481,70 μg/cm² y 44,20 μg/cm². Se demostró la exposición de todo el cuerpo del operario al realizar tratamientos en condiciones similares a las de estos ensayos, validando la necesidad de contar con elementos de protección que lo cubran en forma total.In intensive production systems, the improper use of phytosanitary products may affect the operator's health. The objective of this work was to determine the areas the agrochemical deposits on the worker's body, at the time of applying foliar treatments in horticultural crops of several heights and in fruit trees. It was performed in lots of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var cicla L., artichoke (Cynara

  14. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables; Aplicacao do metodo microbiologico DEFT/APC e do teste do cometa na deteccao do tratamento com radiacao ionizante de hortalicas minimamente processadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel Mozeika

    2008-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60} Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  15. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O.

  16. Synthesis and application of Amberlite xad-4 functionalized with alizarin red-s for preconcentration and adsorption of rhodium (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid Kalal Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with alizarin red-s through an azo spacer, characterized by infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis and studied for Rh(III preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES for rhodium monitoring in the environment. The optimum pH for sorption of the metal ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity was found 2.1 mg/g of resin for Rh(III. A recovery of 88% was obtained for the metal ion with 1.5 M HCl as eluting agent. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed by adsorption and desorption times of Rh(III on modified resin. Scat chard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymers. The linear regression equation was Q/C = –1.3169Q + 27.222 (R2 = 0.9239, for Rh were formed in the SPE sorbent,Kd and Qmax for the affinity binding sites were calculated to be 0.76 μmol/mL and 20.67 μmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium data and parameters of Rh(III adsorption on modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models. The experimental adsorption isotherm was in good concordance with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.998 and based on the Langmuir isotherm the maximum amount of adsorption (qmax was 4.842 mg/g. The method was applied for rhodium ions determination in environmental samples. with high recovery (>80%.

  17. Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Flevares

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992. We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill, Pearce & Pick, 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004. For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (Skoumpourdi & Mpakopoulou, 2011; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen & Van den Boogaard, 2008 and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (Clements et al., 1999; Hannibal, 1999; van Hiele, 1986. We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000, Schiro (1997, Hunsader (2004 and Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012. Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Chard, Baker & Clarke, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2000 which lead to misconceptions (Inan & Dogan-Temur, 2010; Oberdorf & Taylor-Cox, 1999. Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  18. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative determination of native 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and its polyglutamyl derivatives in raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Folate deficiency is a prevalent phenomenon worldwide especially in underprivileged countries. Polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) species are the naturally occurring principle folate in store-bought vegetables. Here we report a simple and complete extraction method for the determination of native polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in vegetables using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS/MS). Coarsely chopped samples (18 different vegetables) were steamed to inactivate glutamylase enzymes and liberate folate from binding proteins and extracted in a reducing buffer with (13)C(5) 5MTHF stable isotope added as internal standard. The polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species were separated in 9 min on a C(18) column using a reversed phase system. HPLC eluate was interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in electrospray positive mode. The respective pseudomolecular cation of each polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species was selected for fragmentation to a common daughter ion for detection. We quantitated polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in store-bought vegetables from families Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae (including mustard greens, romaine lettuce and Swiss chard) of which most have not been quantitated previously. Most vegetables from Asteraceae and those from Amaranthaceae contained similar amounts of monoglutamyl 5MTHF and polyglutamyl 5MTHF while Brassicaceae were dominated by polyglutamyls and endive species (Asteraceae) contained mainly monoglutamyl 5MTHF. The precision of the method for the various polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate forms was 1-9% RSD, recovery 84-91%, limit of detection 64-658 fmol and limit of quantitation 193-1994 fmol. Herein we describe a rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS technique to quantitate polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species. This method may be suitable for analyzing the polyglutamyl 5

  19. 可调式握力高枝剪设计及分析%Design and Analysis for Grip Type and Adjustable Lopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱稷; 邸葆; 王鹏飞; 陈海江

    2015-01-01

    可调式握力高枝剪的设计包括外观参数的确定和刀具的设计。根据大宗果树的生长状况确定高枝剪各关键部件结构及参数;根据高枝剪在果园作业受到剪枝过程中刀具剪断和夹持枝条所需力的大小进行刀具的设计。通过在Inventor 软件中构建可调式手握高枝剪三维模型,利用 AIP 中的有限元功能对模型进行分析,得出果园工作环境下高枝剪的安全系数和变形量。果园作业试验结果表明:在该设计参数下,高枝剪性能可靠、使用灵活。%According to the orchard pruning , picking jobs in the working environment conditions ( such as cutting and clamping force required for branches , and so on ) and growth of fruit trees ( such as line spacing and height of fruit trees , and so on ) , choose the right material and appearance of the tree pruner parameters .Building three -dimensional model of grip type and adjustable lopper in software of Inventor .Using technology of ANSYS in the AIP for finite element analy-sis of cutter belong to grip type and adjustable lopper , getting safety coefficients of the lopper .Having experiments in or-chards and testing the date .Proved that the lopper in this design parameter is reliable and flexible in use .

  20. Recommended domestic handling of fruits and vegetables to preserve their nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Basulto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of daily consumption of at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables are well documented. The World Health Organization (WHO public health goal, established in 600 grams per person/day, is not achieved in Spain, so it is important to improve access to these foods, maintain their potential nutritive value and overcome barriers for their consumption. The objectives of this paper are: facilitate responsible decision-making regarding health; maximize the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables, help overcome barriers for fruit and vegetables consumption and report on how their storage at home, their handling and cooking affect to nutritional value of fruit and vegetables.In order to minimize nutrients loss and improve their bioavailability during fruit and vegetables handling, the Association for the promotion of fruit and vegetables “5 a day” (Spain recommends: avoid prolonged storage of fruit and vegetables in the fridge; use layers and outer leaves; peel and/or cut them just before consumption; wash the whole pieces and then chop them; controlling the soaking time of cut pieces; prefer cooking techniques that do not require direct contact with water; a shorter cooking time, less loss of nutrients; the correct frying retains nutrients very well, although it is a technique of which should not be abused; add a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice to the cooking water if it does not change the taste and dish acceptance; use the water of cooking to elaborate other foods (e.g. sauces, soups, purees, etc. except those coming from chard, spinach or beets. The “5 a day” Association (Spain recommends increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables, and state that theloss of nutrients during their home handling should not be understood as a barrier for their consumption.

  1. Determination of alkylphenols and phthalate esters in vegetables and migration studies from their packages by means of stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of three alkylphenols (APs), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-n-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP), and six phthalate esters (PEs), dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), n-butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate (DOP), in vegetables using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Ultrasonic radiation was used to extract the analytes from the solid food matrix, and the extract obtained was preconcentrated by SBSE. The different parameters affecting both stages were carefully optimized. The method was applied to analyze commercial vegetables, in the form of plastic packed salads and canned greens, as well as the corresponding filling liquids of the canned food. Quantification of the samples was carried out against aqueous standards using an internal standard (anthracene). The analysis of a 2 g vegetable sample provided detection limits between 12.7 and 105.8 pg g⁻¹ for OP and DEHP, respectively. Migration studies from the plastic packages of the vegetables samples analyzed were carried out. DEP, DBP and DEHP were found to have migrated from the bags to the simulant and the same compounds were quantified in lettuce, corn salad, arugula, parsley and chard, at concentration levels in the 8-51 ng g⁻¹ range. However, OP and NP were found in only two vegetable samples and one filling liquid, but neither was detected in any package. The proposed method provided recoveries of 83-118%.

  2. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevares, Lucia M; Schiff, Jamie R

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children's literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children's mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O'Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children's understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children's literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children's books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  3. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  4. English language learners with learning disabilities interacting in a science class within an inclusion setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Vivian Luz

    In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to

  5. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  6. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children’s literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevares, Lucia M.; Schiff, Jamie R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training. PMID:24904475

  7. 华北落叶松单亲本子代测定林遗传变异和选择研究%Study on Genetic Variation and Selection of Larix principis-rupprechtii Single Parent Progeny Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帮同; 文彦忠

    2015-01-01

    Study on genetic variation and selection of single parent progeny test is the basis of the work and an effective way for 1.5 generation seed orchard and a way to improve the quality of seed orchard .Progeny test of 20 years Larix principis-rup-prechtii seed orchard 70 single family in the Shanxi Province Jingle County State Seed Base of Larix principis-rupprechtii was studied.The results showed that different families between tree height and diameter at breast height had difference ;through the tree height and diameter at breast height , dual optimization were selected a pedigree with 25, and uniform numbers;tree high genetic gain was 11.95%, diameter genetic gain amounted to 11.75%.The research has technological basis for seed or-chard upgrade replacement .%单亲本子代测定林遗传变异的研究是种子园升级换代,建设1.5代种子园的基础工作,是种子园提高种子质量的有效途径. 通过对山西省静乐县国家华北落叶松良种基地20年生华北落叶松种子园70个单亲本家系子代测定林进行研究,结果显示:不同家系间树高和胸径差异显著;通过树高和胸径双重选优,共选出优良家系25个,并进行了统一编号;树高遗传增益为11.95%,胸径遗传增益达11.75%.为种子园升级换代奠定了技术基础.

  8. Synthesis and Application of Amberlite Xad-4 Functionalized with Alizarin Red-S for Preconcentration and Adsorption of Rhodium (iii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sid Kalal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with alizarin red-s through an azo spacer, characterized by infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis and studied for Rh(III preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissionspectroscopy (ICP-AES for rhodium monitoring in the environment. The optimum pH for sorption of the metal ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity was found 2.1 mg/g of resin for Rh(III. A recovery of 88% was obtained for the metal ion with 1.5 M HCl as eluting agent.Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed by adsorption and desorption times of Rh(III on modified resin. Scat chard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymers. The linear regression equation was Q/C = –1.3169Q + 27.222 (R2 = 0.9239,for Rh were formed in the SPE sorbent,Kd and Qmax for the affinity binding sites were calculated to be 0.76 μmol/mL and 20.67 μmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium data and parameters of Rh(III adsorption on modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich,Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models. The experimental adsorption isotherm was in good concordance with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.998 and based on the Langmuir isotherm the maximum amount of adsorption (qmax was 4.842 mg/g. The method was applied for rhodium ions determination in environmental samples. with high recovery (>80%.

  9. Synthesis and application of Amberlite xad-4 functionalized with alizarin red-s for preconcentration and adsorption of rhodium (III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid Kalal, Hossein; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Hoveidi, Hassan; Taghiof, Mohammad; Menderjani, Mahnaz Taheri

    2012-09-18

    A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with alizarin red-s through an azo spacer, characterized by infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis and studied for Rh(III) preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for rhodium monitoring in the environment. The optimum pH for sorption of the metal ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity was found 2.1 mg/g of resin for Rh(III). A recovery of 88% was obtained for the metal ion with 1.5 M HCl as eluting agent. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed by adsorption and desorption times of Rh(III) on modified resin. Scat chard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymers. The linear regression equation was Q/C = -1.3169Q + 27.222 (R2 = 0.9239), for Rh were formed in the SPE sorbent,Kd and Qmax for the affinity binding sites were calculated to be 0.76 μmol/mL and 20.67 μmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium data and parameters of Rh(III) adsorption on modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson models. The experimental adsorption isotherm was in good concordance with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.998) and based on the Langmuir isotherm the maximum amount of adsorption (qmax) was 4.842 mg/g. The method was applied for rhodium ions determination in environmental samples. with high recovery (>80%).

  10. A produç��o científica em empreendedorismo: análise do academy of management meeting: 1954-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leandro de Borba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a produção científica da área de empreendedorismo apresentada no Academy of Management Meeting (AOM – Meeting, de 1954 a 2005. A pesquisa foi exploratória, com delineamento qualitativo, de caráter bibliográfico, em sua primeira fase. Aqui os 91 artigos identificados na base de dados da Ebsco, no Business Source Premier, foram classificados quanto ao campo de estudos do empreendedorismo, com base nos temas propostos por Vésper (1977 e Schreier e Komives (1973. Os destaques foram: administração de pequenas empresas, empreendedorismo e inovação, e psicologia. Houve tendência de interesse para o processo de ação da empresa. A segunda fase da pesquisa foi descritiva, com método quantitativo, realizada por meio da técnica de análise de citação, em que as 2.127 referências constantes nos 91 artigos estudados foram analisadas com base nos trabalhos de Béchard (1996 e Grégoire et al. (2006. A vida média da literatura citada foi de onze anos. Assim, há um intervalo de tempo entre a publicação das obras citadas e a sua efetiva citação nos artigos analisados no AOM – Meeting, de 1954 a 2005. O grupo de elite foi composto por 19 autores, sendo representado por Arnold C. Cooper, com 36 citações. Um total de 30 autores possuiu obras relevantes que impactaram essa literatura. O maior fator de impacto coube às obras de Joseph Alois Schumpeter. Por tratar-se do maior evento internacional e do mais antigo em administração de empresas, a relevância do AOM – Meeting é reconhecida. Assim, os resultados desta pesquisa contribuem para aumentar o conhecimento sobre a literatura gerada e os autores que contribuíram para fundamentar os estudos em empreendedorismo, em um período de abrangência de mais de cinquenta anos.

  11. Comparison of Trapping Efficiency of Sugar -Vinegar Liquid and Sex Pheromone on Grapholita molesta (Busck)%性诱剂和糖醋液对梨小食心虫诱集效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽莉; 郭婷婷; 门兴元; 陈浩; 孙廷林; 夏小菊; 于毅

    2015-01-01

    为给梨小食心虫田间预测预报提供理论依据,在山东省选择6个有代表性的果园(济南、泰安、肥城、广饶、莱芜)比较性诱剂和糖醋液对梨小食心虫的诱集效果。结果显示:不同果园性诱剂和糖醋液对梨小食心虫的诱虫量均差异显著,性诱剂诱虫量最高是糖醋液诱虫量的37.20倍,但二者对梨小食心虫成虫诱集量随时间的变化趋势较一致。因此,在一些不方便获取性诱剂的地区,糖醋液也可以作为预测梨小食心虫发生的替代材料。%The trapping efficiency of sex pheromone and sugar -vinegar liquid on Grapholita molesta (Busck)were investigated to provide scientific basis for forecasting and controlling of insect pest.Six typical or-chards from Shandong Province including Jinan,Taian,Feicheng,Guangrao and Laiwu were selected for trap-ping survey.The results showed that the amount of moths trapped by sex pheromone and sugar -vinegar liquid were all significantly different in six orchards.Compared with sugar -vinegar liquid,sex pheromone trapped more moths,which up to 37.20 times.At the same time,the change trend of trapping amount by sugar -vinegar liquid with time was similar to that of sex pheromone.Therefore,in some areas lack of sex pheromone,sugar -vinegar liquid could be used as alternative material for monitoring of field occurrence rule of G.molesta.

  12. Determinação do fator de correção das hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em Brasília Correction factor determination in leafy vegetable crops commercialized in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline G Lemos

    2011-06-01

    modo geral, as perdas avaliadas pelo FC estão mais relacionadas ao manipulador das folhosas e ao estado de conservação das hortaliças do que ao período de safra. Desta forma, para as hortaliças que apresentaram diferenças com relação à época de amostragem, recomenda-se observância quanto ao período de planejamento dos cardápios visando a obtenção do aproveitamento eficiente do produto.Brazil has high indexes of food waste, which affects regional economy and increases social problems. Inadequate planning of food processing, from postharvest to consumption, is one of the reasons of loss. Vegetable crops are live organisms and their durability is affected by the processes of subdivision and cooking. To reduce losses, the determination of the Correction Factor is essential in order to evaluate the losses and the factors which interfere on these losses. This work consists on determining the Correction Factor of the following vegetable crops: Crisphead Lettuce, Unheaded Lettuce, Lettuce, Purple Leafs, Chard, Endive, Watercress, Common Chicory, Borecole Green Collard, Escarole, Spinach, Mustard, Cabbage, Red Cabbage and Rocket Crop. Three sale units of each vegetable crop were acquired at the CEASA in Brasília (Federal District, Brazil, from three different suppliers, with four replicates, a total of 36 samples of each vegetable crop. Aiming to detect the influence of the gathering month on the Partial Correction Factor (CF 1 and Final Correction Factor (CF 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test were carried out. In all tests a level of 5% of statistical significance was considered. The results showed that for the majority of the vegetables, harvest does not influence loss. However for chard, the lower CF occurred at harvest. On the other hand for cabbage, the lower CF occurred at harvest. This way for the majority of the vegetables, the losses evaluated by the CF are more related to handling procedures and conservation. For cabbage, it is recommended

  13. 红松分杈现象研究现状及展望%Current Research Situation and Prospect for Multi-stem Phenomenon of Pinus koraiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海龙; 张金虎; 王龙

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the current situation and future issues in research on branching phenomenon of Pinus Koraiensis, this paper reviewed the research achievements in Korean pine on the cause and prevention measurements of branching , the relationship between branching and stand density , the relationship between cone-setting and branching/crown-control , and the appli-cation of branching in its silviculture .The early research in China was focused on the causes and preventing methods for branching of Korean pine because the branching phenomenon was believed to be harmful to the timber production . Recently , the influence of branching on the growth and cone-setting, the relationship between branching and stand density , the physiological asspects of branch-ing, and top-pruning were taken into consideration in the studies related .Top-pruning and crown-control for seed orchard Korean pine trees were well conducted in South Korea .These results could be used in establishing silvicultural systems of Korean pine seed or-chard , nut production plantation and combined production plantation of timber and nut .Future studies should pay much more attention to systematic and long term research from point of developmental biology , nutritional physiology , reproduction biology , and artificial control technology establishment .%为了解掌握红松分杈现象研究现状,以便充分利用现有成果并为下一步深入研究奠定基础,本文综述红松分杈原因及预防措施、分杈与密度关系、分杈及树体调控与结实关系、红松分杈在其培育中应用等方面的研究成果。我国早期研究是把分杈作为一种影响木材培育的不良现象而进行的,研究集中在分杈原因与预防措施方面,近年来才关注分杈对生长及结实的影响、分杈与林分密度的关系,个别研究深入到分杈的生理机制,并有人工截顶促杈研究;韩国对种子园母树截顶促杈的研究比

  14. Design and Research of the Accompanying Self-propelled Mower Orchard%随行自走式果园割草机的设计与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏飞; 刘俊峰; 高迎; 李建平; 刘洪杰

    2016-01-01

    针对北方山地中小型矮砧密植苹果园生草制管理中所面临的果园地形复杂及割草作业量大等问题,设计开发了随行自走式果园割草机。该机采用双离合结构,能够实现机具行走与割草作业分别控制。手动控制行走离合可以实现操作人员随行,降低了劳动强度。该机设计割幅为60cm,割茬高度可在5~10cm 范围内调节,正常工作速度为3~5 km/h。田间试验结果表明:该型割草机工作性能良好,单位区域内杂草撕裂率0.47%,漏割率1.50%,杂草碎段区域平均长度79.39mm,碎草性能较好,工作效率可达0.5hm2/h。该机结构设计合理,割草作业质量能够满足农艺要求,为我国中小型果园生草制管理作业提供了技术支持。%Against the north mountain in the management of small and medium-sized dwarf anvil dense planting apple or-chards sward facing the complex terrain of orchard, cut the grass down big problems, designed and developed with self-contained orchard lawn mower.This machine adopts double clutch structure, can achieve walking machine and cut the grass work control respectively.Manual control walking clutch can realize operation personnel accompanying, reduces the labor intensity.The machine design cutting length 60cm, stubble height can be adjusted within 5cm to 10cm, normal working speed is 3~5km/h, the field experiment results show that the retrofit mowing work performance is good, the u-nit area of weeds tear rate was 0.47%, the leakage rate cut 1.50%, weeds fragile region the average length of 79.39 mm, crushed grass performance is good, the efficiency can reach 0.5hm2/h, the average fuel consumption of 4.75L/hm2 .

  15. Investigation on ecological influence resulting from trapping insects by using yellow sticky card in apple and pear orchards%苹果、梨园悬挂黄色粘板诱虫的生态效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汉杰; 张金勇; 涂洪涛; 韩立新; 王红艳; 朱守卫

    2012-01-01

    为了探索苹果、梨园悬挂黄色粘板诱集昆虫的生态效应,对开花前悬挂的黄板,到6月底麦收后收集样本.调查诱集昆虫种类和数量,发现不同生态条件下果园诱到的昆虫种类和数量差异很大,在果园周围种植有麦田的江苏丰县地区苹果、梨园,黄板诱集到大量的蚜茧蜂,苹果园诱集到昆虫的益害比为1:0.16,在梨园诱集到昆虫的益害比为1:2.05;在浅山岭区的河南陕县、灵宝市地区苹果园,黄板诱集昆虫的益害比分别为1:2.92和1:1.46;而在河南郑州市郊区梨园黄板诱集的昆虫益害比为1:0.24。由此看出,在果园悬挂黄板治虫,要根据环境条件,及时悬挂与摘除。%The ecological influence resulting from trapping insects by using yellow sticky card in apple and pear orchards was investigated. The cards were hung in the orchards before blooming. The insect species and their numbers on the cards collected back were identified and recorded. The results showed that there were obvious differences in the species and quantity of trapped insects among three areas. A large number of parasite wasps were trapped by yellow sticky card in orchards at Fengxian County in Jiangsu Provence, where there is large scale wheat field around the orchard. The rate of natural enemy to pest is 1:0.16 and 1:2.05 in the apple and pear orchard respectively. In the orchards at Shanxian County and Lingbao City in Henan Provence, which are located on the lower mountain, more pests were trapped and the rate of natu- ral enemy and pest is 1:2.92 and 1:1.46 respectively. More natural enemies were trapped in the pear or- chard at the suburb area of Zhengzhou City, The rate of natural enemy to pest is 1:0.24. Based on the results investigated , the yellow sticky card should be hung and removed in orchard according to the invironmental condition.

  16. 江苏省部分中年人营养摄入与能量消耗的相关性研究%The Relationship Between Nutrient Intake and Energy Consumption in Some Middle Aged People in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海全; 赵彦

    2016-01-01

    objective;through investigation of nutrient intakes nourishment for the middle-aged people of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Province middle-aged nutrients intake of the actual situation of the research, for for middle-aged people in Jiangsu Province's nutritional status give appropriate advice.: This practical significance to reflect the middle-aged healthy diet.Research methods:research objects selected age in 39~59 middle-aged man as the object of study, dietary intake using three days 24-hour dietary recording table records by participants three days every meal, eat the food and edible weight, physical activity survey by GTX-3 axis motion sensor records daily physical activity, and fill in the bou Chard physical activity questionnaire.Conclusion:Jiangsu Province mid-dle-aged protein intake is the average lower than the recommended values of RNI, male and female energy con-sumption difference P <0.05, male energy consumption than female energy consumption in Jiangsu Province, middle-aged women have less daily physical activity, there inactive status.%目的:;通过对江苏省部分中年人的营养素摄入状况调查,研究江苏省中年人的营养素摄入的实际情况,对于针对江苏省中年人的营养状况给出适当建议。意义:对于反映中年人的饮食健康具有现实意义。研究方法:研究对象选取年龄段在39~59的中年人为研究对象,膳食摄入采用三天24小时膳食记录表记录受试者三天当中每日每餐所食用的食材及食用的分量,体力活动调查采用GTX-3轴运动传感器记录每日体力活动,并且填写Bouchard体力活动问卷。结论:江苏省中年人蛋白质摄入情况平均值低于推荐值RNI,男女能量消耗存在较大差异P<0.05,男性能量消耗比女性能量消耗大,江苏省中年女性日常体力活动较少,存在活动不足的现状。

  17. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihok, S.; St-Amanat, N.; Kwamena, N.O. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Clark, I.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A. [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m{sup 3} HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  18. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium; Beitraege zur Multielement-Speziation in pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln: Studien zur Bindungsform zahlreicher Elemente unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K.

    1997-03-01

    In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce (two specimens), endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery (two specimens), spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley. Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus (Ultra-Turrax) in buffer solution (liquid shearing). The homogenates were separated into supernatants (cytosoles)and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization (solid shearing) required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. At least 50% on the average of the elements Zn, Cd, Rb, and K could be transferred to the solutions by the dispersing treatment with Ultra-Turrax. In many cases, the cytosole-borne detectable contents of these 5 elements were above 70%. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K. All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. 90%, so that comprehensive speciation of these elements is possible. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Im ersten Teil dieser Studie wurden die Gesamtgehalte und das Loeslichkeitsverhalten von Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K und Rb in 26 verschiedenen - ueberwiegend

  19. Impacts of Combination of Cover Plants on Pests and Natural Enemies in Apple Orchards%苹果园地面植被优化组合对害虫和天敌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢增斌; 于毅; 门兴元; 李丽莉; 庄乾营; 张思聪; 严毓骅

    2016-01-01

    increased populations of natural enemies could ef-fectively suppress the pest abundance on cover plants.The responses of arthropods in apple tree canopy to dif-ferent cover plant combinations were also different.The abundance of natural enemies in 100% M.sativa, 25% L.supine and 35% L.supine regions were 1.08,1.29 and 2.48 times of that in clean -cultivated or-chards,respectively,and the density of pests were 71.95%,62.68% and 74.41% of that in clean -culti-vated orchards,respectively;further more,these combinations of cover plants promoted the establishment and enlargement of natural enemy populations in early spring,and the species richness and diversity of natural ene-mies also increased significantly.These results clearly indicated that different comopositions of ground cover plants could regulate the structure of arthropod community and natural enemy populations in apple tree cano-py,create advantageous conditions for natural enemies but not for pests.Therefore,cover plants play impor-tant roles in promoting the eatablishment and enlargement of natural enemy population in early spring and en-hancing biocontrol of pests.