WorldWideScience

Sample records for chard

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of red...... spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), green spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), golden Swiss chard...... the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard...

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of the...... following frozen vegetables: red spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), green spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf...

  3. Swiss chard: a salad crop for the space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logendra, Logan S.; Gilrain, Matthew R.; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Janes, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    Salad greens will be among the first crops grown on lunar or planetary space stations. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important candidate salad crop because it is high yielding and rich in vitamins and minerals. Five Swiss chard cultivars were grown in the greenhouse under two light levels for 13 weeks to compare cumulative yields from weekly harvests, mineral composition, and to evaluate sensory attributes as a salad green. The varieties Large White Ribbed (LWR) and Lucullus (LUC) were the highest yielding in both light regimes. LWR was the shortest of the cultivars requiring the least vertical space. LWR also received the highest sensory ratings of the five cultivars. LWR Swiss chard should be considered as an initial test variety in food production modules.

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood ...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of norma...

  6. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of Swiss chard from... are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We...

  7. Seasonal variation of the radiocaesium transfer soil-to-Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) in allophanic soils from the Lake Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from soil-to-Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) was studied in two different characteristic allophanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) of the Lake Region, an important agricultural region situated in central-south Chile. To investigate especially the time dependence and the effect of K-fertilisation on the TF, field experiments were conducted. Plots of 7.6 m2 were labelled with 100 kBq 134Cs m-2 at Santa Rosa Experiment Station close to the city of Valdivia characterised by a temperate climate and high precipitation rates. The variation in time of the radiocaesium TF soil-to-Swiss chard was observed during two consecutive years after soil contamination by sequential harvests and radiocaesium analyses of the plants. The TFs showed no significant ageing effect, but a pronounced seasonal decrease with effective half-lives of about 140 and 160 days for the umbric andosol without and with K-fertilisation, respectively, and of 50 and 60 days for the dystric fluvisol without and with K-fertilisation, respectively. The effect of K-fertilisation on the absolute values of the TF was determined by the ratio between the median TF values obtained for corresponding dates without and with use of K-fertiliser. A ratio of TFwithoutKTFwithK=1.8 for the umbric andosol and TFwithoutK TFwithK=2.9 for the dystric fluvisol was obtained, indicating a reduction of the TF by applying 90 kg K ha-1. The maximal values of the TF to chard predicted by the equation characterising the seasonal decrease of the TF at the beginning of the harvest periods are 0.19 for the umbric andosol and 0.11 for the dystric fluvisol, both values for soil treated with common K-fertilisation

  8. Agronomic traits and comprehensive utilization values analysis of Swiss chard%叶用甜菜农艺特性及综合利用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秀显; 刘巧环; 牟善伟; 田庆彬; 刘丽萍; 徐伟丽; 刘巧红

    2014-01-01

    Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris cicla ) belongs to biennial herbaceous plant , which Leaves are used as main raw material for planter .Its foliage possesses the characteristics of rich nutrition , tender, juicy and good palatability .Swiss chard not only is one of fodders for pigs , cattle and other animal , also can be used as vegeta-bles and herbal medicines .Leaf beet is sibling species of sugar beet .As rare genetic germplasm materials , Swiss chard is one of the important resources for improving genetic basis of sugar beet .In recent years , researchers have breeding some new varieties regard leaf morphology , color and flavor quality , which have the combination features of edible and ornamental .Leaf beet has a broad prospect of development and utilization .In this paper , agronomic characteristics , such as biology classification , botany characteristics and comprehensive utilization of nutrition function value for foods , fodders , medicines are analyzed .%叶用甜菜是以叶片作为主要原料的二年生草本植物。其营养丰富,柔嫩多汁,适口性好,不仅是猪、牛等喜食的青饲料之一,也可用作草药或作为蔬菜食用。叶用甜菜是糖甜菜的近缘种,作为不可多得的甜菜遗传种质材料,是改良糖甜菜遗传基础的重要资源之一。近年来国内外科研人员从叶用形态学、色泽以及风味品质等方面入手培育出了一些新的品种,具有食用、观赏等兼用的特性,有着广阔的开发利用前景。本文针对叶用甜菜的生物学分类、植物学特性等农艺特征及食用、饲用、药用等营养功能的综合利用价值进行了分析。

  9. A PPO Promoter from Betalain-Producing Red Swiss Chard, Directs Petiole- and Root-Preferential Expression of Foreign Gene in Anthocyanins-Producing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Hai; Han, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A 1670 bp 5'-flanking region of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene was isolated from red Swiss chard, a betalain-producing plant. This region, named promoter BvcPPOP, and its 5'-truncated versions were fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Arabidopsis, an anthocyanins-producing plant. GUS histochemical staining and quantitative analysis of transgenic plants at the vegetative and reproductive stages showed that BvcPPOP could direct GUS gene expression in vegetative organs with root- and petiole-preference, but not in reproductive organs including inflorescences shoot, inflorescences leaf, flower, pod and seed. This promoter was regulated by developmental stages in its driving strength, but not in expression pattern. It was also regulated by the abiotic stressors tested, positively by salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) but negatively by abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), NaCl and OH(-). Its four 5'-truncated versions varied in the driving strength, but not obviously in expression pattern, and even the shortest version (-225 to +22) retained the root- and petiole- preference. This promoter is, to our knowledge, the first PPO promoter cloned and functionally elucidated from the betalain-producing plant, and thus provides not only a useful tool for expressing gene(s) of agricultural interest in vegetative organs, but also a clue to clarify the function of metabolism-specific PPO in betalain biosynthesis. PMID:26569235

  10. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  11. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage, chard, and bell peppers. Starchy vegetables include corn, green peas, lima beans, carrots, yams and taro. Note that potato should be considered a pure starch, like white bread or white rice, instead of a vegetable. FRUITS ( ...

  12. Potassium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... l Bell peppers l Bamboo shoots ( canned) l Broccoli (fresh) l Cabbage l Carrots l Cauliflower l ... Baked beans l Beet and other greens l Broccoli (cooked) l Brussels sprouts (cooked) l Chard l ...

  13. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples Grains Wheat, rye, oats, rice, corn, bulgur, barley Green leafy vegetables Lettuce, spinach, swiss chard, endives, beet greens, romaine Cruciferous vegetables Broccoli, cabbage, turnip, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kohlorabi, bok choy, watercress, collards, kale, mustard ...

  14. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Richards, Jeff; Spencer, LaShelle; Hummerick, Mary; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond; Douglas, Grace; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Spinach, lettuce, chard, beet, mizuna, and Chinese cabbage were grown in plant chambers to assess their potential as candidate crops for space food production systems. The species and varieties were compared in terms of biomass yields, size, nutrient value, and taste factors, as determined by a taste panel. Although other species might be considered for future studies, Chinese cabbage ranked number one from the testing, chard second, mizuna third, and red-leaf lettuce fourth. Results from the testing and analyses will be presented.

  15. CADMIUM SULFATE APPLICATION TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS. 1. EFFECT ON YIELD AND CADMIUM AVAILABILITY TO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve paired soils (only one of each pair having a history of sludge application) with pH values ranging from 3.9 to 7.4 were amended with CdSO4 in a growth chamber experiment. Three crops of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) and one crop of corn (Zea mays L) were sequentia...

  16. Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in High School Settings: Analysis of Eight High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Frank, Jennifer L.; Kato, Mimi McGrath; Doren, Bonnie; Fenning, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systems-level intervention designed to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior and increase social competence. A growing body of research documents that SWPBS reduces problem behavior and improves academics (e.g., McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006), yet documentation of the feasibility…

  17. in situ immobilization of Cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.It is generally assumed that a decrease in metal c

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for...

  19. The Role of Timing in Assessing Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2016-01-01

    Despite rapid growth in literacy-related programmes and evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa, little critical attention has been paid to the relevance of assumptions that underlie existing assessment methods. This study focuses on the issue of timing in the assessment of oral reading fluency, a critical component of successful reading (Chard, Vaughn,…

  20. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of 'phytoremediation'is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author)

  1. Soil to crops transfer of radiocaesium and -strontium in different allophanic soils from the Lake Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium and -strontium from soil to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) was studied in two different allophanic soils (Umbric Andosol and Dystric Fluvisol) characteristic of the Lake Region, an important agricultural region situated in central-south Chile. The TFs for both radionuclides were generally within the ranges in the literature. Cs TFs showed no effect of 'ageing'. There was a pronounced decrease of TFs in sequential harvests of chard during the course of the season by a factor of 3-4 for Cs and 4-8 for Sr. With all crops application of fertilizer containing 90 kg ha-1 of K reduced all Cs TFs. Application of fertilizer containing 100 kg ha-1 of Ca did not affect Sr TFs. (author)

  2. Suppression of Heterodera schachtii Populations by Dactylella oviparasitica in Four Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Olatinwo, R; Becker, J. Ole; Borneman, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Dactylella oviparasitica strain 50 applications on sugarbeet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) population densities and plant weights were assessed in four agricultural soils. The fungus was added to methyl iodide-fumigated and nonfumigated portions of each soil. The soils were seeded with Swiss chard. Four weeks later, soils were infested with H. schachtii second-stage juveniles (J2). Approximately 1,487 degree-days after infestation, H. schachtii cy...

  3. in situ immobilization of Cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Osté, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.It is generally assumed that a decrease in metal concentration in the soil solution reduces metal leaching, and metal uptake by and toxicity to plants and soil organisms. In situ immobilization is a soil remediation technique that aims at reducing the metal conc...

  4. Innovating the collaborative future of global fashion business

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, Jo; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    With the increasingly ubiquitous nature of social networks and cloud computing, users are starting to explore new ways to interact with, and exploit these developing paradigms. Social networks are used to reflect real world relationships that allow users to share information and form connections between one another, essentially creating dynamic virtual organizations. (Chard et al, 2010) The reality within the fashion industry is that business practices are evolving at an unprecedented rate in...

  5. تقييم لبعض النباتات المصربة المحلية كمصدر لصبغ اليخضور

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; S. I. Ismail; Hussiney, H. A.; A. A. Hussein

    1994-01-01

    Four plant materials viz. Spinacia oleracae Linn, (spinach), Beta vulgaris Limm (chard), Medicago sativa Linn, (alfalfa) and Petroselinum sativum Hoff. (parsely) were studied as local sources for the preparation of chlorophyll pigments as natural green colour additives. Processing of the plant materials were carried out under different conditions viz. blanching, non-blanching followed by drying in air or electrical oven or in solar dehydrating oven. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation...

  6. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  7. Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Emma; Rouphael, Youssef; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2016-05-15

    The nutritional composition of ten leafy vegetables (chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, red lettuce, rocket, spinach, Swiss chard, and tatsoi) and quality traits of the selected leafy vegetables in relation to the light intensity (low and high Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) at time of harvest were determined. Irrespective of the light intensity at time of harvest, the highest leaf dry matter (DM), proteins, nitrate, P, K and Ca contents were observed in rocket followed by mizuna. The highest lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA) was recorded in red lettuce and rocket, whereas ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic (TP) contents of red lettuce were higher compared to the other leafy vegetables. When leafy vegetables were harvested at low as opposed to high PAR, the leaf content was higher in DM, protein, K, Ca and Mg, hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA), and LAA by 12.5%, 10.0%, 12.6%, 23.7%, 14.1%, 11.9%, and 18.5%, respectively. The highest values in TP for chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, and red lettuce, were observed under high PAR. PMID:26776027

  8. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-06-14

    Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%. PMID:16756361

  9. Estudios micológicos colombianos. dothideales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las exploraciones micológicas en Colombia han sido relativamente pocas; no es de extrañarlo porque la Micología es una ciencia que apenas comienza a desarrollarse en nuestro país.  Los estudios más extensos e interesantes los efectuaron Chardón y Toro en los años de 1926 a 1929, siendo bien conocida la publicación que de ellos hicieron en 1930, con el título de “Micological Exploratios of Colombia”.  Recolecciones posteriores han acrecentado un poco el número lo suficientemente elevado como p...

  10. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. PMID:26588061

  11. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. PMID:26540023

  12. Avaliação experimental de um modelo numerico para o processo de redistribuição da agua no solo

    OpenAIRE

    Poliseli, Paulo Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Para simular o processo transiente da redistnouição da água no solo, para a direção vertical, PREVEDELLO (1996) desenvolveu um modelo numérico em linguagem BASIC de programação (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instructional Code). O desenvolvimento do modelo baseou-se na linearização da equação de RlCHARDS (1931), à qual governa o movimento da água no solo, através da utilização de uma simplificação da relação entre a condutividade hidráulica e a tensão da água (K ('I'm )), sugerida p...

  13. Effect of calcium silicate slag application on radium-226 concentrations in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if plants absorb Ra from slag applied to soil. Slag at rates equivalent to 0 and 22 mt/ha was mixed with Mountview silt loam (Typic Paleudults) limed to pH 5.8 and 7.2. Three clippings each of fescue (Festuca arundiancea Schreb.), and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.), and one harvest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for grain and straw were grown on separate series of treated soil, and plant samples were analyzed for radioactivity due to 226Ra uptake. Samples of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) forage and extracted juice from field experiments in Florida testing this slage as a Si source also were analyzed for radioactivity. Dry forage yields of fescue and wheat were not affected by slag applications, but those of Swiss chard were somewhat higher on slag-treated soil at pH 5.8. Wheat grain and straw yields were higher on soil at pH 7.2 than at pH 5.8 regardless of slag treatment. Uptake of 226Ra by fescue forage and wheat grain and straw was not affected by slag application. Concentrations of 226Ra were similar in forage and extracted juice from untreated sugarcane or that treated with slag at rates up to 5.6 mt/ha. These results suggest that plant uptake of radionuclides is negligible from calcium silicate slag applied at the recommended rates for liming acid soils or as a source of Si for sugarcane

  14. Evaluation of Exposure to Heavy Metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Vegetables Grown in the Olericultures of Zanjan Province\\'s Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tabande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The contamination of soils and plants with heavy metals is a serious and growing problem. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and some agricultural products and the probability of risks due to their consumption. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using random sampling at harvest time in 2014 on 205 samples of vegetable crops (Leek, chard, parsley, watermelon, melon, tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, onion, garlic, radish, green peas, and broad bean and 129 samples of soils under cultivation. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil and plant samples were determined by an atomic absorption instrument and the data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between the mean concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn for different vegetables (P<0.001, but no significant difference was observed for Cd. The highest mean levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were detected in parsley, chard, broad bean, and leek respectively. However, there was no heavy metal pollution in the remainder of the vegetables and soil samples (with the exception of agricultural soils adjacent to the lead mine of Mahneshan area studied. Hazard probability (HQ of each element for cancerous diseases was less than unit and the intake of heavy metals was lower than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that major accumulation of heavy metals was obtained in leafy vegetables. Therefore, much attention should be paid to consumption of leafy vegetables, especially vegetables grown in the surrounding industrial areas.

  15. Field evaluations on soil plant transfer of lead from an urban garden soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Chammi P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Harms, Ashley; Presley, DeAnn; Martin, Sabine; Pierzynski, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most common contaminants in urban soils. Gardening in contaminated soils can result in Pb transfer from soil to humans through vegetable consumption and unintentional direct soil ingestion. A field experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010 in a community urban garden with a soil total Pb concentration of 60 to 300 mg kg. The objectives of this study were to evaluate soil-plant transfer of Pb, the effects of incorporation of a leaf compost as a means of reducing Pb concentrations in vegetables and the bioaccessibility of soil Pb, and the effects of vegetable cleaning techniques on the Pb concentrations in the edible portions of vegetables. The amount of compost added was 28 kg m. The tested plants were Swiss chard, tomato, sweet potato, and carrots. The vegetable cleaning techniques were kitchen cleaning, laboratory cleaning, and peeling. Compost addition diluted soil total Pb concentration by 29 to 52%. Lead concentrations of the edible portions of vegetables, except carrot, were below the maximum allowable limits of Pb established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. Swiss chard and tomatoes subjected to kitchen cleaning had higher Pb concentrations than laboratory-cleaned plants. Cleaning methods did not affect Pb concentrations in carrots. Bioaccessible Pb in the compost-added soils was 20 to 30% less than that of the no-compost soils; compost addition reduced the potential of transferring soil Pb to humans via vegetable consumption and direct soil ingestion. Thorough cleaning of vegetables further reduced the potential of transferring soil Pb to humans. PMID:25602649

  16. Survival and distribution of Escherichia coli on diverse fresh-cut baby leafy greens under preharvest through postharvest conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Camacho, Alex B; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Suslow, Trevor V

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been associated in multiple outbreaks linked to the consumption of whole produce and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. However, plant-based foods had not been traditionally recognized as a host for enteric pathogens until the elevated incidence of produce-related outbreaks became apparent. The survival dynamics of two cocktails of generic E. coli (environmental water, plant and soil isolates) and E. coli O157:H7 within the phyllosphere of Mizuna, Red Chard and Tatsoi during their production, harvest, minimal processing, packaging and storage over two greenhouse production cycles were studied. Genotyping of applied generic E. coli strains to evaluate their comparative survival and relative abundance in the phyllosphere by REP-PCR is also reported. The Mizuna, Red Chard and Tatsoi shoots were grown under standard greenhouse conditions and fertility management. Both E. coli cocktails were spray-inoculated separately and determined to result in an initial mean population density of log 4.2 CFU/cm². Leaves were harvested as mini-greens approximating commercial maturity, minimally processed in a model washing system treated with 3 mg/L of ClO₂ and stored for 7 days at 5 °C. Rapid decline of generic E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 populations was observed for all plant types regardless of the leaf age at the time of inoculation and the irrigation type across both seasonal growth cycle trials. The decline rate of the surviving populations for the fall season was slower than for the summer season. The minimal processing with 3 mg/L of ClO₂ was not sufficient to fully disinfect the inoculated leaves prior to packaging and refrigerated storage. Viable populations of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 were confirmed throughout storage, including the final time point at the end of acceptable visual leaf quality. In this study, the ability of low populations of E. coli to survive during production and postharvest operations in selected mini-greens has been

  17. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e outros parasitas em hortaliças consumidas in natura, no Recife Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and others parasites in vegetables consumed in natura, Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas e consumidas em Pernambuco. Foram utilizadas 100 amostras de hortaliças: 40 amostras de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa, 40 de agrião (Nasturtium officinale e 20 de acelga (Beta vulgaris, provenientes de feiras livres e supermercados. A detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. foi realizada conforme Monge e Arias sendo utilizado dois métodos de coloração, Koster modificado e Ziehl-Nielsen. Foi usada a técnica de sedimentação espontânea de Gelli et al. para a análise parasitológica. As análises de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas de acordo com Andrews. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um percentual de contaminação parasitária em 60% de alface, 30% de agrião e 20% de acelga, destacando-se o Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis e Ancylostoma duodenale dentre os helmintos, e o Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba coli e o complexo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba díspar, dentre os protozoários com maior freqüência. As hortaliças mais contaminadas por coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram alface nas amostras de supermercado e agrião em feira livre. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade da adoção de medidas educativas aos produtores, e do monitoramento das águas destinadas à irrigação das hortas.The study was carried with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteroparasites in vegetables commercialized and consumed in natural form in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Horticultural samples purchased from supermarket and free market: 40 from lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 40 from watercress (Nasturtium officinale and 20 from chard (Beta vulgaris were analyzed. Cryptosporidium spp. detection was realized following Monge and Arias methodology, using two staining processes (Koster modified and Ziehl-Nielsen. Parasitological analysis was determined by the spontaneous sedimentation technique (Gelli et al., and total

  18. An overview of measurements of radionuclides in foods of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, L.; Ortiz, J.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring includes the determination of radionuclides in foods since they are an important way of intake of radionuclides to the human organism. Moreover, knowledge of the levels of radionuclides in foodstuffs will inform about the environmental radioactivity background permitting to control possible contamination due to human activity, such as agriculture activity, nuclear power plants or other radioactive facilities. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LRA) at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) performs measurements on representative foods from all over the Comunidad Valenciana (CV). Those measurements are part of several monitoring programs promoted by the Generalitat Valenciana. A total of 2200 samples of fruits, cereals, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs and fish coming from markets, agricultural cooperatives or small producers have been analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometry analysis has been performed in all samples. It has been detected 40K in all samples, 7Be in some of them. Radiochemical separation of 90Sr has been carried out in some of the samples collected, mainly orange and lettuce. Samples of lettuce and chard collected following Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident present activity concentration of 131I (0.10-1.51 Bq kg-1). In this paper, a review of the data obtained at the 1991-2013 period in the framework of the development of the Environmental monitoring program is presented.

  19. Effects of air pollution on crops. I. Effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide and ozone on the occurrence of symptoms of injuries on vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahara, O.; Mega, K.

    1974-06-01

    In order to obtain information on plant injuries due to air pollution to utilize susceptible plants as biological indicators of air pollution, potted plants such as chard, spinach, Chinese cabbage, and Japanese radish or cut plants such as Welsh onion were exposed in a glass house to sulfur dioxide at 0.4 ppM continuously for a week or to ozone for 6 hr at 0.13, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ppM. The symptoms due to sulfur dioxide appeared first as peripheral and interveinal necrosis, followed by dehydration. The period of exposure required for the appearance of injuries depended mainly on the vegetable species and ranged from 1 day for potted herb mustard to more than a week for maize. A variety of cabbage did not show any injury after 1 week of continuous exposure to sulfur dioxide. The symptoms due to ozone appeared on the veinal or interveinal parts of leaves and were white to light brown in color on cruciferous vegetables and onions. Brown spots appeared on cucumber, and brown, reddish-purple, or dark purple lesions appeared on burdock, rice, and kidney bean. Damage was most severe on cucumbers occurring even at 0.13 ppM. The environmental conditions before and after the exposure to these gases affected the appearance of the symptoms.

  20. Operational System-Impact Products for the Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSBX) and the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC/WXT) have combined efforts under the Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D). The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation provides a general overview of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2007-2008.

  1. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS. PMID:11542242

  2. Illusions perdues, « l’œuvre capitale dans l’œuvre »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Massonnaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La lecture proposée d’Illusions perdues se place sous l’égide du propos balzacien pour tenter de cerner la singularité de ce grand roman. L’approche fait place à la genèse du roman, à ses effets pragmatiques, pour saisir en quoi il relève de la « porosité généralisée » qui caractérise La Comédie humaine dans son entier puis propose de lire dans ce texte – qui est aussi le « roman de David Séchard » – un ultime rêve balzacien.Honoré de Balzac, Illusions perdues, éd. par Roland Chollet, in La Comédie humaine, dir. par Pierre-Georges Castex, t. V, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade 32 (Paris : Gallimard, 1977.

  3. Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Z C; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

  4. Ozone injury to vegetation in the northeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daines, R.H.; Brennan, E.; Leone, I.

    1963-01-01

    Air pollution damage to vegetation is an increasing problem in many areas in the northeast. Of the photochemical phytotoxic oxidants, ozone is at least as important here as the oxidized hydrocarbons. In 1958, Richards, et al. described ozone injury to grapes as a dark upper surface stipple to older leaves. The authors have observed and reproduced this same type symptom on grapes, potatoes, and beans. In 1959, Heggestad, et al. attributed weather fleck (a light-colored fleck to upper leaf surface of older leaves) of tobacco to ozone toxicity. The authors have since observed and reproduced this symptom on tobacco, swiss chard, cucumber, spinach, turnip, mustard, carrot, radish, onion, parsley, watermelon, squash, tomato, cantaloupe, sunflower, sweet pea, escarolle, chicory, endive, and chickweed. Histological examinations of injured tissue revealed disorganized palisade cells. Cereal crops frequently exhibit necrotic spots and streaks on their leaves as a result of ozone injury. These streaks occur in well-aerated tissue between the veins. Some plants such as spinach and cucumber may exhibit either flecking or larger milk-white spots, whereas white pine shows a tip burn on current season needles.

  5. Determination of 23 pesticide residues in leafy vegetables using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and analyte protectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Rosa Ma; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2008-07-01

    A gas chromatographic method was developed for simultaneously determining residues of 12 insecticides (acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbofuran, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenamiphos, methiocarb and tau-fluvalinate) and 11 fungicides (cyprodinil, fludioxonil, iprodione, metalaxyl, penconazole, pyrimethanil, procymidone tebuconazole, triadimefon, triadimenol and vinclozolin) in leafy vegetables. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned-up with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. The eluate was finally evaporated and redissolved with 0.5 mL of acetone containing the internal standards (pentachlorobenzene and fenpropathrin) and three analyte protectants (3-ethoxy-1,2-propanediol, d-sorbitol and l-gulonic acid gamma-lactone). The addition of analyte protectants allows to avoid the matrix-induced response enhancement effect on quantitation process with absolute recoveries ca. 100%. Precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was lower than 10% for all pesticides and finally, limits of detection were also 10-20 times lower than maxima residue levels (MRLs) established by European Regulation. The proposed method was applied to determine pesticide residues in commercial leafy vegetables (lettuce, Swiss chard and spinach) purchased from markets in Orense (NW Spain). Pesticide residues were detected in 84% of the total samples (63 from 75 samples) and pesticide concentrations were higher than MRL in 18 samples. PMID:18343389

  6. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

  7. Number of residual thermotolerant coliforms on plants and in soil when using reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamkure, Sasirot; Cervantes, Edmundo Peña; Zermeño González, Alejandro; Cervantes, Rubén López; Melo, Prócoro Gamero; Ramírez, Homero

    2013-01-01

    The reclamation of domestic wastewater for irrigation is one alternative approach to solve the water scarcity crisis, but it is essential to control the microbiological quality of wastewater used for irrigation. The removal of thermotolerant coliforms, also known as faecal coliforms (FC), from treated domestic wastewater by intermittent media infiltration (IMI) in column was studied. The columns were filled with natural filter media (soil, soil/charcoal and zinc-modified zeolite, Zeo-Zn), and wastewater, IMI-treated wastewater and disinfected wastewater were compared. The numbers of residual FC on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) and in agricultural soil were determined over a 4-month period. The column using Zeo-Zn had a higher FC removal efficiency (2.98 log) than columns with other filter media and disinfection (1.87-2.57 log) due to the bactericidal properties of Zn(2+). The treatment of wastewater using Zeo-Zn and disinfection both decreased the accumulation of FC on plants and in soil to approximately 1-20 MPN/g dry matter. IMI-treated wastewater using the column with Zeo-Zn was suitable for unrestricted agricultural use, complied with Mexican regulations (as did disinfected wastewater) and had a low risk of FC contamination of plants and soil. PMID:23168639

  8. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  9. Integrated analytical approaches for food traceability and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It developed in the laboratory of Food Science of the Montevideo commissariat a regional workshop with the following aims:To evaluate the effect of vegetable matrices on the determination of pesticides through analysis by GC / M S. For the implementation and application of these tests, it was applied the Laboratory s protocol which it was distributed to all members of the working group. It worked with a matrix lettuce, chard and a mix of green leafy vegetables , evaluating the matrix effect in the following pesticides: chloropyrifos, procimidione, L-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, trifluralin and fenbuconazole, using heptachlor as internal standard.They carried out in five concentration levels, in triplicate tests, applying the techniques of extraction by QuEChERS (kit agile nt). Prepared samples are injected into the GC / M S equipment, an analysis of the results were evaluated by the working group. Furthermore this regional workshop was about nuclear techniques role in agricultural practice, the traceability and pollution control, laboratory services and farmers relationships, environmental, economic, social and political impact, pest prevention and animal diseases, risk, the human health, environment protection in the agricultural and the pesticides uses.

  10. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. PMID:26372740

  11. Advanced Life Support Food Subsystem Salad Crop Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stevens, Irene; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Lane, Helen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to look towards longer duration space flights, the importance of fresh foods and varied menu choices increases. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity). The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. Microgravity imposes significant limitations on the ability of the crew to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. Salad crops will be available for the planetary mission. Supplementing the transit food system with salad crops is also being considered. These crops will include carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, radish, spinach, chard, cabbage, and onion. The crops will be incorporated in the menu along with the prepackaged food. The fresh tasting salad crops will provide variety, texture, and color in the menu. This variety should provide increased psychological benefit. Preliminary studies on spinach, tomatoes, and bok choy have been completed. Sensory and analytical tests, including color and moisture were conducted on the chamber grown crops and compared to store bought spinach, tomatoes, and bok choy. Preliminary studies of the appropriate serving sizes and number of servings per week have also been conducted.

  12. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Tavakkoli-Kakhki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products. Results: In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food­­ groups. Conclusions: This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables, pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts and ultimately trout (high protein products are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Italsur srl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The Panel considers that barley soup “Orzotto”, which is a vegetable mix containing pearled barley, Tuscan Black cabbage, potatoes, “blu savoy” cabbage, purple carrots, “bi coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage.

  14. Seguridad en la aplicación de productos fitosanitarios en cultivos hortícolas y frutícolas Safety in the application of phitosanitary products in horticultural and fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. Bulacio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En sistemas de producción intensivos, el uso incorrecto de productos fitosanitarios puede afectar la salud de los operarios. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar sobre el cuerpo del operario aplicador las zonas de deposición de agroquímico al momento de realizar tratamientos foliares en cultivos hortícolas de diferente porte y en monte frutal. Se trabajó en lotes de acelga (Beta vulgaris var cicla L., de alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L., de poroto chaucha (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en monte de naranjos (Citrus sp.. En cada lote se simularon 4 aplicaciones foliares de fitosanitarios utilizando mochila manual, reemplazando los productos por una solución de fenoftaleína (0,5 g/l. En cada aplicación se recorrieron 100 m entre las hileras de cultivo y previo a cada una de ellas se distribuyeron sobre distintas zonas del cuerpo del operario parches de tela de algodón blanca de 10 cm x 10 cm. En laboratorio se recuperó el residuo de fenoftaleína de cada parche con hidróxido de sodio 0,1 N y se valoró en espectrofotómetro a 540 nm. Los residuos detectados en la parte anterior y posterior del cuerpo del aplicador, respectivamente, fueron: en acelga 1095,6 μg/cm² y 91,02 μg/cm², en alcaucil 787,00 μg/cm² y 404,00 μg/cm², en poroto chaucha 197,50 μg/cm² y 68,35 μg/cm², en monte frutal 481,70 μg/cm² y 44,20 μg/cm². Se demostró la exposición de todo el cuerpo del operario al realizar tratamientos en condiciones similares a las de estos ensayos, validando la necesidad de contar con elementos de protección que lo cubran en forma total.In intensive production systems, the improper use of phytosanitary products may affect the operator's health. The objective of this work was to determine the areas the agrochemical deposits on the worker's body, at the time of applying foliar treatments in horticultural crops of several heights and in fruit trees. It was performed in lots of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var cicla L., artichoke (Cynara

  15. Recommended domestic handling of fruits and vegetables to preserve their nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Basulto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of daily consumption of at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables are well documented. The World Health Organization (WHO public health goal, established in 600 grams per person/day, is not achieved in Spain, so it is important to improve access to these foods, maintain their potential nutritive value and overcome barriers for their consumption. The objectives of this paper are: facilitate responsible decision-making regarding health; maximize the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables, help overcome barriers for fruit and vegetables consumption and report on how their storage at home, their handling and cooking affect to nutritional value of fruit and vegetables.In order to minimize nutrients loss and improve their bioavailability during fruit and vegetables handling, the Association for the promotion of fruit and vegetables “5 a day” (Spain recommends: avoid prolonged storage of fruit and vegetables in the fridge; use layers and outer leaves; peel and/or cut them just before consumption; wash the whole pieces and then chop them; controlling the soaking time of cut pieces; prefer cooking techniques that do not require direct contact with water; a shorter cooking time, less loss of nutrients; the correct frying retains nutrients very well, although it is a technique of which should not be abused; add a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice to the cooking water if it does not change the taste and dish acceptance; use the water of cooking to elaborate other foods (e.g. sauces, soups, purees, etc. except those coming from chard, spinach or beets. The “5 a day” Association (Spain recommends increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables, and state that theloss of nutrients during their home handling should not be understood as a barrier for their consumption.

  16. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a 60 Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  17. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  18. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  19. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce (two specimens), endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery (two specimens), spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley. Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus (Ultra-Turrax) in buffer solution (liquid shearing). The homogenates were separated into supernatants (cytosoles)and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization (solid shearing) required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. At least 50% on the average of the elements Zn, Cd, Rb, and K could be transferred to the solutions by the dispersing treatment with Ultra-Turrax. In many cases, the cytosole-borne detectable contents of these 5 elements were above 70%. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K. All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. 90%, so that comprehensive speciation of these elements is possible. (orig./AJ)

  20. Preparation of 99Tcm-Annexin V and in vitro study of its binding characteristics in dopaminergic apoptotic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aims of this study were two. One was to find out an optimal method for 99Tcm-Annexin V preparation and the other was to investigate the binding characteristics of 99Tcm-Annexin V in dopaminergic apoptotic neurons in vitro. Methods: For 99Tcm-Annexin V preparation, hydrazine nicotinamide (HYNIC), a bifunctional chelating agent was used. Product was purified by Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and analyzed with instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). To test the binding characteristics in dopaminergic apoptotic neurons in vitro, a rat pheoehromocytoma cell line (PC12) treated with l-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) was used. Tests including time-temperature binding, saturable bind- ing, competition binding between dopaminergic apoptotic neurons and 99Tcm-HYNIC-Annexin V and dose- dependent MPP+ studies were performed and evaluated. Results: The labeling rate of 99Tcm was (64.56 ± 6.23)%. The specific activity of 99Tcm-HYNIC-Annexin V was (3.7-74)xl05 kBq/mg protein. The radiochemical purity was (93.6±2.48)% and was >90% after 4 hours storage at room temperature. Seat- chard plotting suggested that the concentrations of Kd was (7.16±1.78) nmol/L, and Bmax was (178.73± 32.62) fmoL/106 ceils. Conclusions: The preliminary results show that an optimal 99Tcm-HYNIC-Annexin V preparation method can be provided. The 99Tcm-HYNIC-Annexin V prepared in our laboratory has good receptor-binding activity and may possibly be a potential drug in studying the apoptotic phenomenon in Parkin- son's disease at early stage in an animal model. (authors)

  1. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative determination of native 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and its polyglutamyl derivatives in raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Folate deficiency is a prevalent phenomenon worldwide especially in underprivileged countries. Polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) species are the naturally occurring principle folate in store-bought vegetables. Here we report a simple and complete extraction method for the determination of native polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in vegetables using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS/MS). Coarsely chopped samples (18 different vegetables) were steamed to inactivate glutamylase enzymes and liberate folate from binding proteins and extracted in a reducing buffer with (13)C(5) 5MTHF stable isotope added as internal standard. The polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species were separated in 9 min on a C(18) column using a reversed phase system. HPLC eluate was interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in electrospray positive mode. The respective pseudomolecular cation of each polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species was selected for fragmentation to a common daughter ion for detection. We quantitated polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in store-bought vegetables from families Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae (including mustard greens, romaine lettuce and Swiss chard) of which most have not been quantitated previously. Most vegetables from Asteraceae and those from Amaranthaceae contained similar amounts of monoglutamyl 5MTHF and polyglutamyl 5MTHF while Brassicaceae were dominated by polyglutamyls and endive species (Asteraceae) contained mainly monoglutamyl 5MTHF. The precision of the method for the various polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate forms was 1-9% RSD, recovery 84-91%, limit of detection 64-658 fmol and limit of quantitation 193-1994 fmol. Herein we describe a rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS technique to quantitate polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species. This method may be suitable for analyzing the polyglutamyl 5

  2. Effect of oxygen on the growth and biofilm formation of Xylella fastidiosa in liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriner, Anthony D; Andersen, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and scorch diseases of many other plant species. The disease symptoms are putatively due to blocking of the transpiration stream by bacterial-induced biofilm formation and/or by the formation of plant-generated tylosis. Xylella fastidiosa has been classified as an obligate aerobe, which appears unusual given that dissolved O2 levels in the xylem during the growing season are often hypoxic (20-60 μmol L(-1)). We examined the growth and biofilm formation of three strains of X. fastidiosa under variable O2 conditions (21, 2.1, 0.21 and 0 % O2), in comparison to that of Pseudomonas syringae (obligate aerobe) and Erwinia carotovora (facultative anaerobe) under similar conditions. The growth of X. fastidiosa more closely resembled that of the facultative anaerobe, and not the obligate aerobe. Xanthomonas campestris, the closest genetic relative of X. fastidiosa, exhibited no growth in an N2 environment, whereas X. fastidiosa was capable of growing in an N2 environment in PW(+), CHARDS, and XDM2-PR media. The magnitude of growth and biofilm formation in the N2 (0 % O2) treatment was dependent on the specific medium. Additional studies involving the metabolism of X. fastidiosa in response to low O2 are warranted. Whether X. fastidiosa is classified as an obligate aerobe or a facultative anaerobe should be confirmed by gene activation and/or the quantification of the metabolic profiles under hypoxic conditions. PMID:25100224

  3. English language learners with learning disabilities interacting in a science class within an inclusion setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Vivian Luz

    In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to

  4. Synthesis and Application of Amberlite Xad-4 Functionalized with Alizarin Red-S for Preconcentration and Adsorption of Rhodium (iii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sid Kalal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with alizarin red-s through an azo spacer, characterized by infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis and studied for Rh(III preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissionspectroscopy (ICP-AES for rhodium monitoring in the environment. The optimum pH for sorption of the metal ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity was found 2.1 mg/g of resin for Rh(III. A recovery of 88% was obtained for the metal ion with 1.5 M HCl as eluting agent.Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed by adsorption and desorption times of Rh(III on modified resin. Scat chard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymers. The linear regression equation was Q/C = –1.3169Q + 27.222 (R2 = 0.9239,for Rh were formed in the SPE sorbent,Kd and Qmax for the affinity binding sites were calculated to be 0.76 μmol/mL and 20.67 μmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium data and parameters of Rh(III adsorption on modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich,Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models. The experimental adsorption isotherm was in good concordance with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.998 and based on the Langmuir isotherm the maximum amount of adsorption (qmax was 4.842 mg/g. The method was applied for rhodium ions determination in environmental samples. with high recovery (>80%.

  5. Synthesis and application of Amberlite xad-4 functionalized with alizarin red-s for preconcentration and adsorption of rhodium (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid Kalal Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new chelating resin was prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with alizarin red-s through an azo spacer, characterized by infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis and studied for Rh(III preconcentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES for rhodium monitoring in the environment. The optimum pH for sorption of the metal ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity was found 2.1 mg/g of resin for Rh(III. A recovery of 88% was obtained for the metal ion with 1.5 M HCl as eluting agent. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed by adsorption and desorption times of Rh(III on modified resin. Scat chard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymers. The linear regression equation was Q/C = –1.3169Q + 27.222 (R2 = 0.9239, for Rh were formed in the SPE sorbent,Kd and Qmax for the affinity binding sites were calculated to be 0.76 μmol/mL and 20.67 μmol/g, respectively. The equilibrium data and parameters of Rh(III adsorption on modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models. The experimental adsorption isotherm was in good concordance with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.998 and based on the Langmuir isotherm the maximum amount of adsorption (qmax was 4.842 mg/g. The method was applied for rhodium ions determination in environmental samples. with high recovery (>80%.

  6. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevares, Lucia M; Schiff, Jamie R

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children's literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children's mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O'Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children's understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children's literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children's books in mathematics activities and for teacher training. PMID:24904475

  7. Phenolic profile evolution of different ready-to-eat baby-leaf vegetables during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2014-01-31

    Ready-to-eat baby-leaf vegetables market has been growing and offering to consumers convenient, healthy and appealing products, which may contain interesting bioactive compounds. In this work, the composition and the evolution of the phenolic compounds from different baby-leaf vegetables during refrigerated storage was studied. The phenolic compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the phenolic profile of each sample was analyzed and quantified by using LC-MS and LC-DAD methods, respectively, at the beginning and at the end of a 10-day storage period. The baby-leaf vegetables studied included green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, swiss chard, spinach, pea shoots, watercress, garden cress, mizuna, red mustard, wild rocket and spearmint samples and a total of 203 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The main naturally phenolic compounds identified correspond to glycosylated flavonoids, with exception of green lettuce and spearmint leaves which had a higher content of hydroxycinnamic acids. Quantification of the main compounds showed a 10-fold higher content of total phenolic content of ruby red lettuce (483mgg(-1)) in relation to the other samples, being the lowest values found in the garden cress (12.8mgg(-1)) and wild rocket leaves (8.1mgg(-1)). The total phenolic content only showed a significant change (p<0.05) after storage in the green lettuce (+17.5%), mizuna (+7.8%), red mustard (-23.7%) and spearmint (-13.8%) leaves. Within the different classes of phenolic compounds monitored, the flavonols showed more stable contents than the hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, although the behavior of each compound varied strongly among samples. PMID:24438834

  8. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T; Subbarao, Krishna V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management. PMID:24964150

  9. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables; Aplicacao do metodo microbiologico DEFT/APC e do teste do cometa na deteccao do tratamento com radiacao ionizante de hortalicas minimamente processadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel Mozeika

    2008-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60} Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  10. Toxicological assessment of heavy metals accumulated in vegetables and fruits grown in Ginfel river near Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Abraha; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Hadera, Amanual; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables resulting from irrigation with contaminated water obtained from industrial effluents may create a potential public health risk. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb) in soil, vegetables and the water used for irrigation at two sites (Laelay Wukro and Tahtay Wukro) around Wukro Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. The concentrations of heavy metals in irrigation water measured during this study were lower than permissible limits of heavy metals allowed for irrigation water. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in irrigated soil samples obtained from Tahtay Wukro were higher for Mn, Zn, Cr, and Cu. The overall results of soil samples ranged 2.62-827, 1.4-51.6, 25.5-33.6, 23.5-28.2, 2.52-25.1, 15-17.8, 3-4, 2.5-40.49 and 0.7-0.8 mg/kg for Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Fe and Cd, respectively. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were also observed in vegetable samples from Tahtay Wukro. Pb was found to accumulate the most in all vegetable samples. It was observed that green pepper and lettuce accumulate high amounts of Cu and Zn; Swiss chard accumulates excessive amounts of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Co; lettuce and tomato higher amounts of Cd; and green pepper, tomato and onion a higher concentration of Pb. Significant differences in the elemental concentrations between the vegetables analyzed from Laelay and Tahtay Wukro were observed. This was attributed in part to the geological nature of the study area and the discharges from the town and from a tannery. The results also indicate that Fe, Pb and Cd have high transfer factor values (mean values: 42.89, 0.84 and 0.37, respectively). The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe>Pb>Cd>Mn>Cu>Zn>Ni>Zn>Cr=Co. The heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Tahtay Wukro, located downstream of the tannery, may pose increased health risks in the future to the local population

  11. A produç��o científica em empreendedorismo: análise do academy of management meeting: 1954-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leandro de Borba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a produção científica da área de empreendedorismo apresentada no Academy of Management Meeting (AOM – Meeting, de 1954 a 2005. A pesquisa foi exploratória, com delineamento qualitativo, de caráter bibliográfico, em sua primeira fase. Aqui os 91 artigos identificados na base de dados da Ebsco, no Business Source Premier, foram classificados quanto ao campo de estudos do empreendedorismo, com base nos temas propostos por Vésper (1977 e Schreier e Komives (1973. Os destaques foram: administração de pequenas empresas, empreendedorismo e inovação, e psicologia. Houve tendência de interesse para o processo de ação da empresa. A segunda fase da pesquisa foi descritiva, com método quantitativo, realizada por meio da técnica de análise de citação, em que as 2.127 referências constantes nos 91 artigos estudados foram analisadas com base nos trabalhos de Béchard (1996 e Grégoire et al. (2006. A vida média da literatura citada foi de onze anos. Assim, há um intervalo de tempo entre a publicação das obras citadas e a sua efetiva citação nos artigos analisados no AOM – Meeting, de 1954 a 2005. O grupo de elite foi composto por 19 autores, sendo representado por Arnold C. Cooper, com 36 citações. Um total de 30 autores possuiu obras relevantes que impactaram essa literatura. O maior fator de impacto coube às obras de Joseph Alois Schumpeter. Por tratar-se do maior evento internacional e do mais antigo em administração de empresas, a relevância do AOM – Meeting é reconhecida. Assim, os resultados desta pesquisa contribuem para aumentar o conhecimento sobre a literatura gerada e os autores que contribuíram para fundamentar os estudos em empreendedorismo, em um período de abrangência de mais de cinquenta anos.

  12. Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility

  13. 日本草在南方红壤山边沟果园套种适应性研究%Growth adaptability and ecological benefit of hedyotis sp. at hillside ditches orchard in red soil region of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪炳卿; 谢启庚; 陈远辉; 伍启忠; 廖秀琴; 陈可菁

    2014-01-01

    This paper carries out a study on the adaptability of Hedyotis sp. at hillside ditches orchard in red soil region of South China. In this study,Hedyotis sp. was planted under the new hillside ditches or-chards. In the first year,6 branches were found in June and 16 in August,and the number reached 11. 4 in the second year. The dry mass of first year was about 5 308 kg / hm2 in June and 8 523 kg / hm2 in Au-gust,which is lower than Paspalum notatum Flugga by 2. 61% and 13. 78% respectively. However,the dry mass was 17 333 kg / hm2 in the second year,which is 8. 33% higher than Paspalum notatum Flugga. The height and coverage were 25 cm and 55% in June,49 cm and 100% in August in the first year, which showed a similar trend with dry mass. Compared with bare land,planting Hedyotis sp. reduced soil erosion by 79. 41% and improved the ecological environment of the orchard.%通过对南方红壤山边沟果园套种日本草适应性的研究,发现新开山边沟果园4月套种日本草扦插苗当年的6月分萌数可达6条,8月可达16条,第二年的7月能达11.4条;当年6月干草量可达5308 kg/ hm2,8月达8523 kg/ hm2,比套种百喜草分别低2.61%、13.78%,种植第二年7月达17333 kg/ hm2,比百喜草增加8.33%;当年6月草层厚度可达25 cm,比百喜草低19.35%,当年8月达49 cm,种植第二年7月达46 cm,分别比百喜草高6.52%、2.2%;当年6月覆盖率可达55%,比百喜草低15.38%,当年8月达100%,比百喜草高2.04%,种植第二年7月与百喜草一样达100%;套种日本草当年土壤流失率比裸地减少79.41%,同时能有效改善果园的生态环境.

  14. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m3 HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  15. 红松分杈现象研究现状及展望%Current Research Situation and Prospect for Multi-stem Phenomenon of Pinus koraiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海龙; 张金虎; 王龙

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the current situation and future issues in research on branching phenomenon of Pinus Koraiensis, this paper reviewed the research achievements in Korean pine on the cause and prevention measurements of branching , the relationship between branching and stand density , the relationship between cone-setting and branching/crown-control , and the appli-cation of branching in its silviculture .The early research in China was focused on the causes and preventing methods for branching of Korean pine because the branching phenomenon was believed to be harmful to the timber production . Recently , the influence of branching on the growth and cone-setting, the relationship between branching and stand density , the physiological asspects of branch-ing, and top-pruning were taken into consideration in the studies related .Top-pruning and crown-control for seed orchard Korean pine trees were well conducted in South Korea .These results could be used in establishing silvicultural systems of Korean pine seed or-chard , nut production plantation and combined production plantation of timber and nut .Future studies should pay much more attention to systematic and long term research from point of developmental biology , nutritional physiology , reproduction biology , and artificial control technology establishment .%为了解掌握红松分杈现象研究现状,以便充分利用现有成果并为下一步深入研究奠定基础,本文综述红松分杈原因及预防措施、分杈与密度关系、分杈及树体调控与结实关系、红松分杈在其培育中应用等方面的研究成果。我国早期研究是把分杈作为一种影响木材培育的不良现象而进行的,研究集中在分杈原因与预防措施方面,近年来才关注分杈对生长及结实的影响、分杈与林分密度的关系,个别研究深入到分杈的生理机制,并有人工截顶促杈研究;韩国对种子园母树截顶促杈的研究比

  16. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihok, S.; St-Amanat, N.; Kwamena, N.O. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Clark, I.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A. [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m{sup 3} HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  17. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium; Beitraege zur Multielement-Speziation in pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln: Studien zur Bindungsform zahlreicher Elemente unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K.

    1997-03-01

    In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce (two specimens), endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery (two specimens), spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley. Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus (Ultra-Turrax) in buffer solution (liquid shearing). The homogenates were separated into supernatants (cytosoles)and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization (solid shearing) required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. At least 50% on the average of the elements Zn, Cd, Rb, and K could be transferred to the solutions by the dispersing treatment with Ultra-Turrax. In many cases, the cytosole-borne detectable contents of these 5 elements were above 70%. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K. All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. 90%, so that comprehensive speciation of these elements is possible. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Im ersten Teil dieser Studie wurden die Gesamtgehalte und das Loeslichkeitsverhalten von Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K und Rb in 26 verschiedenen - ueberwiegend