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Sample records for charcoal

  1. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile flow problems (cholestasis) during pregnancy. ... pregnancy, according to some early research reports. Preventing hangover. Activated charcoal is included in some hangover remedies, ...

  2. Charred by charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Taskeen

    2014-01-01

    A boy borne down with charcoal on his chukudu (home-made cycle), Goma. In an environment where the rebel groups have established a shadow state and economy in a political economy framed by war, charcoal as a necessity is traded every day in Goma, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is this charcoal trading that allows the boy to survive; it then bites back with violence that is financed by the very same things. In contrast to existing scholarship on internationally traded high value comm...

  3. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  4. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  5. Moisture insensitive charcoal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in the air in houses is the most appropriate approach for the real-time measurements, but this requires complex and expensive instruments and is not practical for large studies. Activated carbon canisters have been used extensively for determining the average concentration over a period of a few days. The ''open face'' charcoal detectors have an integration time constant of about 14 h so that they are sensitive to short-term transient changes in the radon concentration. In addition, water uptake at high relative humidities reduces the radon uptake by the charcoal. The addition of a diffusion barrier and a nylon screen results in a charcoal detector with an integration half-time ranging from 20 to 60 h and a reduced uptake of water at high humidities. Silicone rubber sheeting is relatively permeable to radon and impermeable to water vapor. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the effect of a silicone barrier on the charcoal canister radon collective device. 3 refs

  6. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Rainier Imaña; Álvaro Nogueira de Souza; Humberto Ângelo; Márcio Lopes da Silva; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2015-01-01

    In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the prod...

  7. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  8. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  9. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  10. THE BLENDING EFFECT OF COALITE, COCONUT SHELL CHARCOAL AND GELAM WOOD CHARCOAL ON CALORIFIC VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Nukman; Riman Sipahutar; Irsyadi Yani; Taufik Arief

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to scrutinize the effect of blend solid fuels consisting of coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal on calorific value. Coalite is the solid fuels made from coal that is mined from the earth, while coconuts shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are processed from natural plants. Coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are solid fuels which was obtained from carbonization process or pyrolitic process of fuel material. Gelam wood char...

  11. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder

  12. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth;

    2002-01-01

    kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h...

  13. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the CxF to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH4F. The charcoal laden with NH4F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH4F as a mixture of NH3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH4F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  14. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  15. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  16. Charcoal production from Pinus species in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Charcoal produced from wood of Pinus strobus var. chiapensis (13 years old) and P. elliottii var. elliotti (15 years old) was compared with charcoal from Eucalyptus maculata and E. camaldulensis (both 4-5 year old). Although their charcoal was inferior to E. maculata charcoal in several respects, both pine species produced better charcoal than E. camaldulensis.

  17. EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus saligna: both directed to charcoal production. Also, it was looked for to select clones with highercapacity for the establishment of a forestry improvement program. During the assessment it was considered the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the charcoal. According to the results it was verified that there exists a large variation among the assessed clones, which is higher in Eucalyptus grandis. The production of dry mass, associated to the estimation of mass of both lignin and charcoal proportionate a classification of the clones considered as the superior (clones number five, six and two, median (clones number ten, three, one and eight and inferior (clones number nine, four and seven. Clone seven was the worsen for the charcoal production due to its low growth rate. The classification of the clones based on both the wood chemical characteristics and charcoal yield was not satisfactory. The growth rate was fundamental for the clones classification, being recommendable to incorporate it in future assessment of wood quality. Eucalyptus grandis clones were superior to Eucalyptus saligna clones.

  18. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the local made charcoal tubes against adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene vapors. Results indicate that desorption capacity and the recovery percentage decrease as the benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations and also relative humidity increase. It is concluded that the water vapor is the major interfere in the adsorption of mentioned vapors when the air is passed through the activated charcoal bed. The experiments show that the local made charcoal tubes are suitable for sampling in the predicted ranges existing in the work place.

  19. Charcoal production with by-product recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxamana, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    The carbonization of Gonacaryum calleryanum, Cananga odorata, Sandoricum koetjape, and Dillenia philippinensis at 315-375 degrees gave charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and settled for in a yield of 36-47%, 38-49% and 1-5%, respectively.

  20. EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Fábio Akira Mori; Ana Luiza Lino

    2001-01-01

    Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus ...

  1. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D.J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined di...

  2. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; F Golbabaie; K. Mehrain; A. Hematian

    1994-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the local made charcoal tubes against adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene vapors. Results indicate that desorption capacity and the recovery percentage decrease as the benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations and also relative humidity increase. It is concluded that the water vapor is the major interfere in the adsorption of mentioned vapors when the air is passed through the activated charcoal bed. The experiments show th...

  3. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  4. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  5. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  6. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion.

  7. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

  8. Thermal testing methods in determination of characterization of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守新; 张世润; 礼波宁; 朱文红

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis testing methods were used in determination of the characterization of charcoals. Thermogravimetry (TG) method was adopted to determine the composition of charcoals, which include moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and ash contents. The result showed that this method could detect the subtle change of charcoal composition, even the variation of different parts of material. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and related methods were also used to investigate reactivity of charcoals. The ignition temperature decrease with increasing carbon content was detected by these methods.

  9. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  10. Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Zackrisson, Olle

    2008-05-01

    Fire is a global driver of carbon storage and converts a substantial proportion of plant biomass to black carbon (for example, charcoal), which remains in the soil for thousands of years. Black carbon is therefore often proposed as an important long-term sink of soil carbon. We ran a 10-year experiment in each of three boreal forest stands to show that fire-derived charcoal promotes loss of forest humus and that this is associated with enhancement of microbial activity by charcoal. This result shows that charcoal-induced losses of belowground carbon in forests can partially offset the benefits of charcoal as a long-term carbon sink.

  11. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  12. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  13. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO2, NO2, CO2, methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  14. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  15. Heats of adsorption for charcoal nitrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.; Akkimaradi, B.S.; Rastogi, S.C. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group; Rao, R.R. [Government College for Boys, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Srinivasan, K. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    This paper develops an empirical equation for correlation of the loading dependence of the heat of adsorption for two samples of activated charcoal-nitrogen systems. Details are given of the use of isotherm data, the evaluation of the heat of adsorption using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the plotting of primary adsorption data, and the plotting of the heat of adsorption as a function of the loading of the two samples. The need to consider the heat of adsorption property when designing a system in which a gaseous medium is adsorbed by a solid sorbent is discussed. (UK)

  16. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  17. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  18. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance

  19. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  20. Production of charcoal from small-dimension lignocellulosic waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perzynski, B.; Babicki, R.

    1973-01-01

    Wood charcoal could be produced in a batch furnace by the indirect heating of sawdust or oakwood chips remaining after the extraction of furfural (98-01-1). The highest yields (25.8%) were obtained from the extracted oakwood by the indirect heating of 300/sup 0/. Good charcoals were also obtained from oak sawdust at 300 to 400/sup 0/ (indirect heating) or at 270/sup 0/ (direct heating), from pine sawdust at 350 to 400/sup 0/ (indirect heating), and from beech sawdust at 270/sup 0/ (indirect heating). All these charcoals contained less than or equal to 5% ash and 10 to 20% volatile components.

  1. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  2. Studies on radon adsorption characteristics of different charcoals used as amplifiers for the track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosma, C; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    Ten sorts of charcoals were studied regarding their use as amplifier in the design of a personal dosimeter. It consists of a combination of a Makrofol detector and activated charcoal. The calibration factor for the Makrofol using the charcoals as an amplifier is about ten times higher comparing with an exposure without charcoal. The best results were obtained with Carboxen 564. The background radioactivity of charcoals must also be considered in the dosimeter's design.

  3. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  4. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; F Golbabaie; S. Nasseri; M. Mahmoodi; K. Mehrain

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of...

  5. Performance evaluation of natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, K.N.; Ramana, P.V.; Singh, R.N. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Inst., Gujarat (India)

    2000-07-01

    A natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal reactor has been described herein along with its performance details. Instead of releasing pyrogases into the atmosphere, these gases are burnt inside the charcoal reactor, offering better energy efficiency and environmental acceptability. Agricultural residues like arhar stalks (Cajanus cajan), saw mill woody waste, Ipomoea (Ipomoea fistulasa, Syn. Ipomoea Carnea) and babul wood (Acacia nilotica), all sun dried, were used as the feedstocks for charcoal making. Saleable charcoal (SC) yield was in the range of 28 to 47% dry basis (db) with the maximum from saw mill woody waste and the minimum from Ipomoea. Fixed carbon (FC) content in the SC varies from 69 to 77% (db) in the agricultural residues based charcoal. Babul wood charring gave the highest SC yield (50%, db) and the best quality charcoal in terms of FC (80%, db). Economic analysis revealed that if the system developed was operated annually for 4000 h, the user could have a net profit of around Rs.l,00,000/-(US $2500). (author)

  6. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: When the inner surface of the ITER pumping duct is covered with a thin αN-tilde:H film, the hydrogen recombination coefficient can be reduced. In this case, atomic hydrogen can reach the cryopump region and interact with charcoal cryosorbent. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by sorption measurements and TDS at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with H2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H2 in mixture in the afterglow zone was 1/10000. After exposure in H/H2 mixture the tube section with charcoal was warmed up to 300 K. In reference experiments the same sample of charcoal was exposed successively in H2 and CH4. After sample exposure in H/H2 mixture, the TD peak shifted to higher temperatures from 125 K (peak temperature after exposure in H2) to 150 K. The high temperature shoulder of this peak coincided with the temperature of methane release. The wide spectrum of heavy hydrocarbons formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal measured by N2 adsorption at 77 K decreased by 10-15%. (author)

  7. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Huang; Baoliang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g.,charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment.To further elucidate their interaction mechanism,sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene,m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated.The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation,and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38,being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types.After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF),both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component.The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified.The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites,partition phases,and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated.The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment.The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850℃),10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar,and 10 organic sorbates.

  8. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  9. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

  10. In vitro study on fluoxetine adsorption onto charcoal using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta-Politou, J; Skopelitis, I; Apatsidis, I; Koupparis, M

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro investigation was performed to study the adsorption rate constant as well as the adsorption characteristics of fluoxetine (F) to activated charcoal and its commercial formulation Carbomix powder in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) fluid environment. Ion-selective electrode (ISE) potentiometry, based on the selective, direct and continuous monitoring of F with an F-ISE constructed in our laboratory was used. The method used in the kinetic experiments consists of the rapid addition of a slurry containing the charcoal into the drug solution under stirring and continuous recording of the F-ISE potential until the establishment of equilibrium. The free ionized drug concentration at appropriate time intervals was calculated from the recorded adsorption curve and the apparent adsorption rate constant was estimated assuming pseudo first order kinetics. Within run R.S.D. of the estimates ranged from 0.24 to 11.5%, while between run R.S.D. (n=3-4) ranged from 0.90 to 13.8%. A linear relationship was found between the apparent adsorption rate constants and the amount of charcoal used with slopes (+/-S.D.) for activated charcoal and Carbomix equal to 1.14(+/-0.21) and 0.146(+/-0.009) s(-1)g(-1), respectively. Successive additions of microvolumes of F solution were made into a charcoal slurry with measurement of the F-ISE potential at equilibrium. The maximum adsorption capacity values (+/-S.D.) of activated charcoal and Carbomix were 254.8+/-1.8 and 405+/-41 mg/g, respectively while the affinity constant values (+/-S.D.) were 45.6+/-2.2 and 55.5+/-2.9 l/g, respectively. The adsorption of F to charcoals was rapid and for amounts of charcoal 10 times greater than the amount of the drug, 95% of F was adsorbed within the first 5 min. Relative to the toxic and lethal doses in cases of F intoxications, both types of charcoals tested adsorbed effectively F at gastric pH. Carbomix can be considered as appropriate charcoal formulation for medical treatment in cases of F

  11. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... values and 95% CI for the AUCs were (in mg/l x min): 6307 (4932-8065) for the activated charcoal--water slurry and 6525 (5111-8330) for the activated charcoal--yogurt mixture. The palatability study showed significant difference (p

  12. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  13. Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R

    2004-08-01

    This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are

  14. PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD HYBRIDS AND CHARCOAL AT THREE AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vássia Carvalho Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present studied was investigated hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in three different ages. Wood and charcoal characteristics as well as the influence of wood characteristics on the charcoals produced were evaluated. Chemical analyzes (extractives, lignin, ash, elemental analysis, basic density and calorific value - PCS were performed for wood. The charcoals were produced in a muffle type furnace with a heating rate of 1.67 °C.min-1 and an end temperature of 450 °C. Volatile material content, ash content, fixed carbon content, elemental analysis and gravimetric yield of the pyrolysis process were performed for the charcoals. An increase in density values , extractives content, carbon content and C/H rate were observed with the maturity of the tree. Other features such as ash content and S/G ratio decreased with the age of the tree. Greater gravimetric yield in charcoal and non-condensable gases were found in more mature materials.

  15. GRANULOMETRIC INFLUENCE ON THE COMBUSTION OF CHARCOAL FOR BARBECUE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed characteristics of charcoal used for barbecue and mainly took interest in the influence of the granulometry in the combustion process. The material have been tested for four different grain size (8, 16, 32 and 50 mm following a combustion test called combustion index (ICOMcv, which takes in consideration time processing, temperature generated and the mass consumed. The characterization of charcoal was done according to the following parameters, moisture, apparent density, grain density, volatile materials content, ash content, fixed carbon content and calorific value. The proofed charcoal presented standard indicators for use in barbecue and was noticed the relationship between granulometric analysis and the ICOMcv. The 16 mm grain size charcoal sample showed the best results for combustion. By contrast, the largest grain size sample presented lower results compared to the other samples. Thus, establishing unprecedented quantitative indicators in relation to those observed in practice, regarding the influence of grain size on the efficiency of combustion of the charcoal when used for barbecue.

  16. A theoretical treatment of adsorption of radon gas on charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ding; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Tse, Wan-Sun [Academia Sinica, Taipei, TW (China). Inst. of Physics; Skrable, K.; Li, Kuang-Pang

    1997-09-01

    The use of an activated charcoal sampler for radon monitoring has become popular in recent years because of its passiveness and low price. Dynamics of adsorption on a passive sampler have been described with theoretical models. However, extrapolation of the measured results of radon on charcoal to the diurnal fluctuations of the ambient radon concentration is often difficult and even misleading because of the oversimplification of these models. A more generalized approach is undertaken by treating the diurnal variations in radon concentrations as poly-exponential functions and by solving for explicit particular solutions of Fick`s equation. The application of these solutions to various practical situations is explored. This includes their use for charcoal sampler calibration. Estimated values of the adsorption coefficients, k, and diffusion constant, D, appear to be agreeable with corresponding reported values. A triple-sampler protocol is also proposed for radon survey in areas of high diurnal fluctuations. (author)

  17. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  18. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  19. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  20. Charcoal reactivity: comparison between eucalyptus charcoals and charcoal from native forests; Reatividade do carvao vegetal: comparacao entre carvoes de cerrado e eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Figueira, Renato Minelli [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The rates of gasification of charcoal produced from native forests and eucalyptus were compared. Using a mathematical model for heat and mass transfer between solids and gas, the effects of these different rates of gasification in blast furnace operation were investigated in terms of the degree of iron ore reduction in the upper part of blast furnace and carbon consumption. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning. PMID:26403022

  2. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nassiri

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of known percentages of four compounds of benzene, toluene, O-xylene and P-xlene. The adsorption of various parts of sampler tubes was done by a chemical method using CS2 and the final analysis was done by gas chromatography. The results obtained show that the amount of the above named compounds adsorbed by glass wool and foam in comparison to the activated charcoal isn’t significant (respectively P<0.001 & P,0.05. Also the experiments don’s show any significant differences between the total amount of adsorbed chemicals by charcoal in the back-up layer and the sample layer of the foamed tube and the amount adsorbed in the foamless tube, when treated with various compounds (P,0.001. Considering the equal adsorption of both types of tubes and the advantage of foamed tubes in controlling the time duration and the flow rate of sampling, the foamed type was recommended for production and use.

  3. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  4. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  5. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of Rn equilibrium factor using charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and new evaluation system for radon equilibrium factor has been developed. Radon equilibrium factor is defined as a ratio between radon progeny concentration and radon concentration in air. Radon progeny in air becomes one of the main factors of public dose. However radon concentration itself in air has usually been estimated, because its detection is much easier than that of its progeny. In this dosimetry technique, radon equilibrium becomes the most important parameter we must adequately evaluate in advance. In this study, a new system using a charcoal filter for evaluation of radon equilibrium factor using charcoal filter was discussed. Two filters are combined to sample the airborne radioactivity of radon family. One of them is the charcoal filter, where is the main point of this study. Radon concentration is estimated based on the radioactivity sampled on a charcoal filter, and radon progeny concentration is based on the radioactivity on a glass-fiber filter. We have already fully known the characteristics of the glass-fiber filter for radon progeny. Therefore we tested charcoal filters here and obtained some characteristics on its sampling ability for radon. Especially we focused on the variety of sample abilities based on sampling flow-rate (L/min) and sampling duration (min). As a result, the most optimum sampling flow-rate was determined as 20 L/min and sampling duration was 10 min, based on the results gained by several experiments. According to this new evaluation system, we can calculate more adequate radon equilibrium factor easily because both concentrations of radon and its progeny in a same sample air can be determined at the same time. We can well adopt this system in special environments like in mines and undergrounds. (author)

  7. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length. Internationaly, NT is defined as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the length mentioned above, thus, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature, such as high strength, unique surface structure, soft feeling, durability, water resistance, incombustibility, antimicrobial property, and so on. Indeed, NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research, by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries. This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT, its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  8. Apparatus for producing charcoal from fine lignocellulose wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Perzynski, B.

    1979-05-15

    A continuous retort for the production of charcoal from sawdust, nut shells, wood chips, etc. consists of a cylindrical tower separated from the top into the drying, pyrolyzing, and cooling sections. Dry feed is introduced at the top where it is spread by stirrer blades on 2 trays kept at 120 degrees and 160 degrees by external heating. The feed falls through discharge slots into a 2nd section where it is contacted with a limited supply of hot air while the temperature rises to about 600 degrees. Hot charcoal is swept by stirrer blades toward discharge slots and falls into a 3rd section where it is cooled and discharged. Off gases are used for predrying the incoming feed, scrubbed, and vented through a stack.

  9. Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, George

    1999-04-01

    Charcoal analysis of three archaeological sites in southern Syria in the vicinity of the Jebel al Arab (formerly Jebel Druze) indicates that during the Early Bronze Age an association consisting predominately of Pistacia, deciduous oak and almond was exploited. During the Middle Bronze Age these taxa diminish and are partially replaced by more steppic species or introduced wood such as olive. During the Roman period evergreen oak appeared in the region and gradually replaced the deciduous oak which is now restricted to a small area. The gradual replacement of deciduous oaks by evergreen oaks has been observed in other areas of the Mediterranean basin during the Holocene. Conifer charcoal such as pine and cedar is present on the sites, but it is not clear whether these were local or imported from farther away, for example, the Lebanese highlands. During the Middle Bronze Age olive wood was also used as combustible but here also its exact origin is not known.

  10. Editorial: Using charcoal to fix the price of carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Gray

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using charcoal as a model is probably as close as we can come at present to developing a realistic cost for offsetting CO2 emissions. Of course, carbon taxation needs an equitable basis for calculation and, unlike the current offset costs that are based largely on what the voluntary market can sustain, fixed emission charges per weight may well be the incentive required to achieve elusive GHG reduction targets.

  11. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva; Reinaldo Bertola Cantarutti; Gelton Geraldo Fernandes Guimarães; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These ...

  12. A Mathematical Model for Assaying Gaseous Radioiodine in Charcoal Cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling radioiodine in ambient air or gaseous effluent streams is accomplished by passing an air sample through a charcoal cartridge. Since gaseous radioiodine may be presented in various chemical forms including elemental and organic species, the charcoal is impregnated with 5% TEDA (TetraEthylenDiAmine) to convert organic iodide species to forms that can be collected on charcoal. Charcoal cartridges' producers test their cartridges against nonradioactive iodine at concentrations that are about 9-10 orders of magnitude higher than radioiodine concentrations that could be encountered in nuclear industry. Thus, the suitability of their reported adsorption efficiencies to the radioiodine concentration range is doubtful. The analysis of a cartridge containing radioiodine is generally performed by germanium gamma ray spectrometer. The cartridge is counted with the inlet side facing the detector and assuming most of the activity is concentrated in the front side of the cartridge. When sampling is performed for long periods (over several days), radioiodine can be found in deeper parts of the cartridge. In such cases the analysis may lead to major discrepancies between the measured value and the true value. Another problem rises in very long sampling periods (around one month) where breakthrough of the cartridge may occur. In such a case, the measured value does not account for the radioiodine that crossed the cartridge. In the present study, a numerical model was developed, to estimate the total amount of radioiodine that is adsorbed in the cartridge and the amount that breaks-through the cartridge. In order to use the model, the cartridge was divided into 14 layers and calibration was performed for the counting of each layer from the front and rear sides of the cartridge. Such a calibration has to be performed for each radionuclide and for each detector

  13. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  14. Variability in oxidative degradation of charcoal: Influence of production conditions and environmental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Francis, S. M.; Thornton, B.; Midwood, A. J.; Scott, A. C.; Apperley, D.

    2011-05-01

    Charcoal is a key component of the Black Carbon (BC) continuum, where BC is characterized as a recalcitrant, fire-derived, polyaromatic material. Charcoal is an important source of palaeoenvironmental data, and of great interest as a potential carbon sink, due to its high apparent environmental stability. However, at least some forms of charcoal are clearly susceptible to environmental alteration and degradation over relatively short timescales. Although these processes have importance for the role of charcoal in global biogeochemistry, they remain poorly understood. Here we present results of an investigation into the susceptibility of a range of charcoal samples to oxidative degradation in acidified potassium dichromate. The study examines both freshly-produced charcoal, and charcoal exposed to environmental conditions for up to 50,000 years. We compare the proportion of carbon present in different forms between the samples, specifically with respect to the relative chemical resistance of these forms. This was undertaken in order to improve understanding of the post-depositional diagenetic changes affecting charcoal within environmental deposits. A wide range in chemical compositions are apparent both within and between the sample groups. In freshly-produced charcoal, material produced at 300 °C contains carbon with more labile forms than charcoal produced at ⩾400 °C, signifying a key chemical change over the 300-400 °C temperature range. Charcoal exposed to environmental depositional conditions is frequently composed of a highly carboxylated aromatic structure and contains a range of carbon fractions of varying oxidative resistance. These findings suggest that a significant number of the environmental charcoals have undergone post-depositional diagenetic alteration. Further, the data highlight the potential for the use of controlled progressive oxidative degradation as a method to characterize chemical differences between individual charcoal samples.

  15. Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ballof, Sylvain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience It is now attested that a large part of the Amazonian rain forest has been cultivated during Pre-Colombian times, using charcoal as an amendment. The incorporation of charcoal to the soil is a starting point for the formation of fertile Amazonian Dark Earths, still selected by Indian people for shifting cultivation. We showed that finely separated charcoal was commonly incorporated in the topsoil by Pontoscolex corethrurus, a tropical earthworm which thrives after bu...

  16. Comment on "Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Sohi, Saran

    2008-09-01

    Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only by accelerated loss of humus but also by loss of charcoal. It is also unclear whether such loss is related to mineralization to carbon dioxide or to physical export.

  17. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  18. The selection of optimum conditions and influencing factors of activated charcoal adsorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal adsorption systems have been widely used for uranium exploration. Based upon the test results of charcoal adsorption systems for radonmetry, the authors have selected the optimum conditions for adsorption systems, including types of adsorbent and desiccator, sensitivity of the systems, exposure time of buried adsorber, relationship of Rn with volume and adsorptive content of adsorber and so on. In addition to this, some factors such as desorption temperature and time of activated charcoal and influence of different moisture on adsorption capability of activated charcoal were studied. Some test data are given in detail

  19. Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Black Sea Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Science Education

    1999-02-01

    Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar as binder. Briquette properties improved with an increase in briquetting pressures and percentages of binder materials. The best charcoal briquettes were obtained at 800 MPa pressure at 400 K. (author)

  20. Charcoal Morphometry for Paleoecological Analysis: The Effects of Fuel Type and Transportation on Morphological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair J. Crawford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems.

  1. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These compounds were obtained by oxidation of Eucalyptus grandis charcoal, produced at charring temperatures of 350 and 450 ºC, with 4.5 mol L-1 HNO3. The charcoal was oxidized by solubilization in acidic or alkaline medium, similar to the procedure of soil organic matter fractionation (CHox350 and CHox450. CHox was characterized by C, H, O, N contents and their respective atomic relations, by the ratio E4 (absorbance 465 nm by E6 (absorbance 665 nm, and by active acidity and total acidity (CEC. The inhibitory effect of CHox on the urease activity of Canavalia ensiformis was assessed in vitro. The NH3 volatilization from urea was evaluated with and without coating of oxidized charcoal (U-CHox350 or U-CHox450 in a closed system with continuous air flow. The pH of both CHox was near 2.0, but the total acidity of CHox350 was higher, 72 % of which was attributed to carboxylic groups. The variation in the ionization constants of CHox350 was also greater. The low E4/E6 ratios characterize the high stability of the compounds in CHox. CHox did not inhibit the urease activity in vitro, although the maximum volatilization peak from U-CHox450 and U-CHox350 occurred 24 h after that observed for uncoated urea. The lowest volatilization rate was observed for U-CHox350 as well as a 43 % lower total amount of NH3 volatilized than from uncoated urea.

  2. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation. PMID:26347927

  3. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

  4. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  5. Environmental Crisis or Sustainable Development Opportunity? Transforming the Charcoal Sector in Tanzania : A Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The policy note builds on experience from both Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries with similar socioeconomic and environmental contexts. This policy note puts forward and discusses a range of policy measures along the entire charcoal value chain in Tanzania. The development of this policy note benefited from a variety of recent studies on charcoal utilization and trade conduc...

  6. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  7. Impact of Credit Access on Charcoal Productivity: Implication for Sustainable Development, Oyo- State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagunju, F. I.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of credit on charcoal productivity was assessed in Oyo state of southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select 140 respondents. Data used in this study were gathered from traditional charcoal producers that have access and no access to credit with the aid of interview schedule; the analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, Logit and multiple regression models. It was revealed that about 20% of the charcoal producers used loans from co-operative societies while 55% sourced their funds from personal savings. The model has a sigma square (σ2 value of 42.741 P<0.01which is an indication of a good fit and a normal distribution of the error term. About 50% of the charcoal farmers had limited access to formal funds due to insufficient collateral securities and this had negative effect on their business hence they recorded low level of farm income. The coefficient of these variables, years of experience in charcoal production, level of education, sources of credit, sources of log and their quantities were positively significant at 5% level. The multiple regression analysis revealed that frequency of extension visit, household size, amount and source of credit had a significant direct relationship with charcoal productivity. The study therefore concludes that credit acquisition by the charcoal producers had a significant impact on the charcoal productivity which brings about a sustainable development in the study area.

  8. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbo

  9. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  10. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  11. Some theoretical priciples of the activation of wood charcoal by steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Kinetics and diffusion in the pores of a carbonaceous material are considered. The macroscopic rate of the reaction of steam with the carbon of wood charcoal has been determined. The optimum conditions for the activation of wood charcoal have been found.

  12. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  13. Commercial charcoal production in the Ibarapa district of southwestern Nigeria: forestry dividends and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

    2010-01-01

    Logging activities have long provided both wood fuel and charcoal for household and commercial use in rural and urban communities in developing countries. However, logging problems range from deforestation to threatened household air quality from burning wood and charcoal. This exploratory case study triangulated 15 in-depth interviews among charcoal bulk buyers and the workers, observations of workers at two èédú (charcoal) commercial depots in Igbo-Ora and of workers in the forest, and review of studies in academic database. Three categories of people are working in the business ranging from the producers in the forests (alaake) to the bulk buyers (olowo) in the middle and the wholesalers (ajagunta) in the city. A small team of 4-8 people can produce three pickup truck loads of charcoal in 2 weeks, and a large team between 7-8 loads. The olowo and the alaake have associations, membership cards, and meet to discuss business progress and regulate members' economic behavior. Close to 35,000 bags of charcoal of 450 pickup trucks may make the journey weekly from Ibarapa. Overall, the charcoal business is informal, and the local people also frown at cutting any useful indigenous trees ascertaining that an individual's actions may affect the whole community. The role of community health educators is important in the dissemination of effects of deforestation through charcoal production. PMID:22192943

  14. A solid fuel which includes coal, coke and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuti, Y.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Sonetaka, K.

    1983-04-15

    A composition of solid domestic fuel is proposed with a reduced liberation of toxic gases (CO and hydrocarbon (Uv)) upon combustion. The fuel is produced from (percent) 80 mineral coal, 10 charcoal, 10 CaC03 with an additive of 2 percent methylcellulose to the charge. Briquets are made from the mixture with perforated openings which have a transverse cross section (PS) of 10 to 200 square millimeters. The ratio of the total transverse cross section of all the openings and the transverse cross section of the fuel briquet, including the area of the openings is 25 to 70. Systems for disposition of the openings in the fuel are cited, along with the cross section of a furnace with the loaded fuel and the dependencies of the CO content in the furnace gas on the properties of the fuel.

  15. The impact of charcoal production on forest degradation: a case study in Tete, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Silva, J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multitemporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Carbon sequestration from waste via conversion to charcoal : equipment for a small scale operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.C. [Cenovus Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Struyk, A. [AST Technical Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gilbert, D. [GTEC Consulting, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is not very cost effective in oilsand operations. For that reason, this study examined the feasibility of using charcoal sequestration (CS) as an alternative carbon offset method to CCS. The economics of the charcoal approach depends on 2 factors, notably the cost of the feed biomass and the cost of processing. The first factor was addressed in this study by using municipal waste as feedstock which is available free of charge. Since the cost of processing depends on the apparatus and the scale of operation, a robust kiln was designed to convert waste at remote industrial camp sites to charcoal. In charcoal sequestration, carbon contained in a portion of naturally produced biomass is preserved in solid form by converting it to charcoal, thus preventing it from entering into atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The paper showed that the newly designed equipment can contribute to a reduction in waste disposal costs and that the study can serve as a demonstration and data collection project for waste-to-charcoal projects for carbon sequestration. These demo projects can also help evaluate various aspects of this novel method of sequestration, and enhance public awareness on the subject. In view of the growing per capita waste worldwide, use of municipal waste as feedstock for charcoal sequestration can be a significant measure of carbon offset at global scale. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollen, Emily; Ryan, Casey M; Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Ribeiro, Natasha; Lisboa, Sá N

    2016-09-19

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502380

  18. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Lisboa, Sá N.

    2016-01-01

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502380

  19. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  20. Black carbon quantification in charcoal-enriched soils by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), the solid residue of the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, is ubiquitous in soil and sediments, fulfilling several environmental services such as long-term carbon storage. BC is a particularly important terrestrial carbon pool due to its large residence time compared to thermally unaltered organic matter, which is largely attributed to its aromatic structure. However, BC refers to a wide range of pyrogenic products from partly charred biomass to highly condensed soot, with a degree of aromaticity and aromatic condensation varying to a large extend across the BC continuum. As a result, BC quantification largely depends on operational definitions, with the extraction efficiency of each method varying across the entire BC range. In our study, we investigated the adequacy of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the quantification of BC in charcoal-enriched soils collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial charcoal kilns in forest and cropland of Wallonia, Belgium, where charcoal residues are mixed to uncharred soil organic matter (SOM). We compared the results to the fraction of the total organic carbon (TOC) resisting to K2Cr2O7 oxidation, another simple method often used for BC measurement. In our soils, DSC clearly discriminates SOM from chars. SOM is less thermally stable than charcoal and shows a peak maximum around 295°C. In forest and agricultural charcoal-enriched soils, three peaks were attributed to the thermal degradation of BC at 395, 458 and 523°C and 367, 420 and 502 °C, respectively. In cropland, the amount of BC calculated from the DSC peaks is closely related (slope of the linear regression = 0.985, R²=0.914) to the extra organic carbon content measured at charcoal kiln sites relative to the charcoal-unaffected adjacent soils, which is a positive indicator of the suitability of DSC for charcoal quantification in soil. The first BC peak, which may correspond to highly degraded charcoal, contributes to a

  1. Study of the performance of charcoal filters under post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the performance of TEDA- and KI-impregnated charcoals has been done under reactor accident conditions. The efficiency of these charcoals in removing CH3I and I2 was studied as a function of temperature, relative humidity, radiation field with and without H2, contaminants and other factors. In addition to determining the decontamination factor, in certain cases, the distribution of activity along the length of the charcoal bed was monitored as a function of purging time. Activity distribution measurements were useful in understanding the chemistry of these systems

  2. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  3. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy; Elder, Thomas

    2006-05-17

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The multivariate models of charcoal were able to distinguish between species and wood thermal treatments, revealing that the characteristics of the wood charcoal depend not only on the wood species, but also on the carbonization temperature. This work demonstrates the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy in the whiskey industry, from the identification and classification of the wood species for the mellowing process to the chemical characterization of the barrels after the toasting and charring process. PMID:19127715

  4. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  6. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, B.; Lehmann, J.; Zech, W.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical properties of charcoal as affected by different combustion procedures, and the eff...

  7. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  8. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  9. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment.

  10. Entrepreneurial Skill Development: A Case Study Of The Design And Construction Of Charcoal Baking Oven

    OpenAIRE

    Asibeluo I.S; Okeri P.E; Onwurah C; Adiogba M

    2015-01-01

    This research, concerns the design and construction of a charcoal baking oven using locally available materials as a case study for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The baking oven in this work has a rectangular box like shape with a total baking area of 315000mm2 . The oven is used for baking, drying and warming of food e.g cakes, bread, fish, meat etc. It is constructed with mild steel and angle bars. It comprises baking tray, housing frame, charcoal heating t...

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by she...

  12. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Vleminckx

    Full Text Available The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i the relative abundance of each guild, (ii each species and family abundance and (iii mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16 and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP, and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii the prevalence of other

  13. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental

  14. Chemical and Isotopic Thresholds in Charring: Implications for the Interpretation of Charcoal Mass and Isotopic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A; Hockaday, William C; Boutton, Thomas; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Kinney, Timothy J; Masiello, Caroline A

    2015-12-15

    Charcoal plays a significant role in the long-term carbon cycle, and its use as a soil amendment is promoted as a C sequestration strategy (biochar). One challenge in this research area is understanding the heterogeneity of charcoal properties. Although the maximum reaction temperature is often used as a gauge of pyrolysis conditions, pyrolysis duration also changes charcoal physicochemical qualities. Here, we introduce a formal definition of charring intensity (CI) to more accurately characterize pyrolysis, and we document variation in charcoal chemical properties with variation in CI. We find two types of responses to CI: either linear or threshold relationships. Mass yield decreases linearly with CI, while a threshold exists across which % C, % N, and δ(15)N exhibit large changes. This CI threshold co-occurs with an increase in charcoal aromaticity. C isotopes do not change from original biomass values, supporting the use of charcoal δ(13)C signatures to infer paleoecological conditions. Fractionation of N isotopes indicates that fire may be enriching soils in (15)N through pyrolytic N isotope fractionation. This influx of "black N" could have a significant impact on soil N isotopes, which we show theoretically using a simple mass-balance model. PMID:26523420

  15. Evaluation of usher wood and karkadeh stem for charcoal in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan)); Vergnet, L. (CTFT, 94 - Nogent s/Marne (France). Energie Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Two unusual biomass materials Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa (karkadeh) stem and Calotropis procera (usher) wood were investigated in the laboratory as potential raw materials for charcoal making in Sudan. The materials were characterised physically and chemically and despite the low density and high bark-to-wood ratio by volume, good yields and quality of charcoal were predicted. The carbonization trials with a laboratory retort at conditions close to those of field metal kiln gave very good charcoal yields (35% for karkadeh and 38% for usher) with high energy transformation (58% and 62%, respectively). The karkadeh charcoal, except for a somewhat high ash content, was good for domestic uses (79% fixed carbon and 30.3 MJ kg[sup -1] heat value). The usher charcoal was better with respect to fixed carbon (86.5%) and gross heat value (32.4 MJ kg[sup -1]). Both charcoals were of low density (140-160 kg m[sup -3]) and further assessment of their economic suitability should be carried out under field conditions. The carbonization by-products were also collected and characterized by means of gas chromatography. (author)

  16. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  17. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  18. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself. PMID:27192198

  19. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  20. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  1. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  2. Factors Affecting the Estimation of Indoor Radon Using Passive Activated Charcoal Canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore Charles

    1990-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption studies of 20 activated charcoals were conducted in a monolayer and a packed bed utilizing tracer gases. Kinetic studies, using xenon-133, demonstrate the existence of a two-compartment micropore volume with entrance capillaries which together determine the response characteristics of the charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two -compartment model adequately describes the adsorption and desorption dynamics of radon in the presence of water vapor. Measurements with charcoal exposed to water vapor and Rn-222 in a monolayer and packed bed for exposure intervals of 1-7 days demonstrate that the uptake rate and total quantity of adsorbed Rn-222 are highly dependent upon the amount of water adsorbed. The effect of CO_2 on radon adsorption is small in any charcoal. The measured effective diffusion coefficient of radon in a packed bed of a peat based charcoal at 15% humidity and 25^circC is 7.97 times 10^{-6} cm^2/s. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries reduces the effective pore radius, increasing the diffusion half-time, both into and out of the charcoal. The amount of adsorbed water per gram of charcoal required to block the entrance capillaries varies with the charcoal type. The proposed term for this quantity is the "break-point". A two-stage diffusion barrier charcoal monitor with a long diffusion path length was developed. This design inhibits passive airflow while maintaining the amount of adsorbed water vapor in the primary charcoal adsorbent below the break-point. Water removal at the entry port allows for longer exposure times improving the integrating capability necessary for indoor exposure assessment. The long diffusion path length increases the integration time -constant for radon adsorption normally 24 hours for conventional open-faced canisters to 50 hours for the improved canister. The increased integration time-constant allows for a 7 day sample to be measured at 70% humidity and 23

  3. Pemanfaatan Asap Buangan Tungku Arang Menjadi Asam Cuka Kayu dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan Pengusaha Arang Rakyat (the Utilization of Disposal Smoke of Charcoal Kiln as Wood Vinegar and its Contribution to Income of Charcoal Industrialist)

    OpenAIRE

     Usman, Syammaun;  Purwoko, Agus

    2010-01-01

    Untill now, smoke from charcoal industry has been disposed and become a source of air polution. The reserch was aimed to implement the processing tecnology of dosposal gas of charcoal kiln to become wood vinegar by simple dry destilation technique, to find out the economical feasibility and to examine the contribution level of wood vinegar production to charcoal industrialist. A basic technique applied was a dry destilation technique. The research showed that the processing technology o...

  4. A new and simple method for separation of 131I from tellurium oxide using an activated charcoal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for separation of 131I from irradiated TeO2 is described. Initially Te was separated from the 131I by precipitation technique. 131I solution containing traces of Te was adsorbed on an activated charcoal. After sufficient washings with HCl and water, 131I was desorbed from charcoal with NaOH. The recovery of Te was 99%. Retention of 131I on charcoal was 100% and elution efficiency was 75-80%. (author)

  5. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites.

  6. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuels and ethanol contributed 5.4%; electricity, 1.6%; and coal, 1.0%. Most of the energy (84.8%) was consumed in the household sector. The “Malawi Charcoal Project”, which is the main charcoal project...

  7. Charcoal and the Record of Fire-related Sedimentation in Holocene Alluvial Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last few decades, rising temperatures and ensuing severe wildfires in the western USA cordillera have provided the opportunity to examine processes and deposits of postfire sedimentation on alluvial fans and floodplains. Most events are generated by widespread surface runoff from intense convective-storm precipitation on severely burned slopes. Flow processes range from debris flow to sediment-charged water floods. Muddy debris flows best preserve coarse charcoal in fan deposits, whereas gravelly debris flows often comminute charcoal into fine particles. As charcoal remains suspended in high-energy hyperconcentrated and water floods, only their fine-grained deposits typically contain much charcoal. Charcoal is locally concentrated in low-energy fluvial deposits, but displays increasing evidence for reworking with distance from source. Charred vegetation and litter marking burned soil surfaces may be preserved under postfire fan and fluvial sediments. Modern deposits provide models for identification of Holocene fire-related sediments and estimates of paleofire severity. AMS 14C dating of discrete charcoal fragments allows sample selection to minimize errors of sample age > fire age. Fires are incompletely recorded in the event stratigraphy of one fan, but larger populations of 14C ages from numerous fans permit composite probability distributions that represent centennial- to millennial-scale changes in fire-related sedimentation across a study area. Records from Yellowstone and central Idaho indicate the large role of fire in episodic erosion across a range of conifer forests, most strongly during severe, multidecadal droughts in warmer periods (e.g. in Medieval time 900-1300 AD). In central Idaho, identification of charcoal macrofossils indicates broadly similar, aspect-controlled forest compositions over the last 3000 yr. Emerging data from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, show rapid fan aggradation due to fire-related events in the warm middle

  8. Chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal: how similar are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Merino, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    The enhanced chemical resistance to biological degradation of pyrogenic materials, either produced during wildfires (charcoal) or by man (biochar), makes them long-term carbon sinks once incorporated in soils. In spite of their fundamental similarities, studies comparing the chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal are scarce because analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Using solid-state 13C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we characterized the chemical recalcitrance of pyrogenic materials generated from the same unburnt feedstooks (litter and dead wood from Pinus banksiana): (a) charcoal from a high-intensity wildfire and (b) biochar obtained by slow pyrolysis [3 treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C]. For quantification, the spectra were divided into four regions representing different chemical environments of the 13C nucleus: alkyl C (0-45 ppm), O-alkyl C (45-110 ppm), olefinic and aromatic C(110-160 ppm), and carbonyl C (160-210 ppm). As an indicator of chemical recalcitrance, the degree of aromaticity (%) was calculated as follow: aromatic-C ∗ 100 / (alkyl C+ O alkyl-C + aromatic-C). The pyrogenic materials derived from wood show higher degrees of aromaticity (68 to 88%) than pyrogenic material derived from litter (40 to 88%). When comparing biochar and wildfire charcoal, biochars produced at 500 and 650°C always have higher degrees of aromaticity than wildfire charcoals, irrespective of the original feedstock. Wildfire charcoals always show a more heterogeneous chemical composition, with alkyl and O-alkyl compounds present even in charcoal generated at very high temperatures (temperatures up to 950 °C were recorded on the litter surface during the wildfire). However, biochars produced at 500 and 650 °C are mostly aromatic, and only the biochars produced at 350 °C show partial contribution of alkyl-C compounds. Our results suggest that biochar-type pyrogenic

  9. Tailoring the characteristics of carbonized wood charcoal by using different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Oh, Choong-Hyeon; Park, Byung-Ho; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the characteristics of charcoals generated from White Lauan ( Pentacmecontorta) and Punah ( Tetrameristaglabra) by using different carbonization temperatures and heating rates. The scanning electron micrographs showed vestured pits in the White Lauan and raphide crystals in Punah as their respective anatomical characteristics. A slower heating rate resulted in a lower temperature to obtain the same amount of weight loss, regardless of the species being tested. A greater charcoal yield was obtained at a higher heating rate. The specific surface area was smaller in the charcoal produced at a higher carbonization temperature, but the heating rate had little effected. For both wood species, the axial compressive strength of the charcoal increased as the carbonization temperature was increased. The X-ray diffractograms of White Lauan and Punah woods heated at 1200°C indicated thermal decomposition of the crystal structure of cellulose, but no appreciable structural changes occurred under the tested heating rate conditions. Overall, the heating rate affected the charcoal yield but not the specific surface area, compressive strength, and crystal structure.

  10. Wood and charcoal quality from planted forest in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of young Eucalyptus spp. trees, and to verify the influence of age and clone on the energy performance of these fuels. It was sampled the clones 1277 and 0321 of Eucalyptus spp. in two ages (46 and 58 months. The characteristics determined in the wood were: chemical molecular and elementary, basic density, carbon stocks and lignin by volume, the energy density and heating values (higher and lower. The charcoal was produced in an electric furnace (muffle with the final temperature of 450 °C. It was conducted the mass balance and carbonization energy, beyond the immediate evaluation of the chemical composition, apparent density and calorific value of charcoal. The clone 1277, at the age 58 months, is the most suitable for the charcoal production for steel industry and direct combustion of wood, because it showed better results for basic density, energy density, carbon stocks and lignin per unit volume and the lignin content of the wood. The clonal effect and age did not influence the content of fixed carbon and volatile materials, the calorific values, the gravimetric yield in charcoal and energy losses of carbonization.

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  12. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  13. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on the Modified Mechanism of Aluminum-Impregnated Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride contamination in drinking water is a prominent and widespread problem in many parts of the world. Excessive ingestion of fluoride through water can lead to the high risk of fluorosis in human body. Bone charcoal, with the principal active component of hydroxyapatite, is a frequently used adsorbent for fluoride removal. Many laboratory experiments suggest that the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal is an effective adsorbent in defluoridation. However, the mechanisms underlying this modification process are still not well understood, which in turn greatly impedes the further studies on other different modified adsorbents. To address this issue, we used the infrared spectroscopy to examine the bone charcoal and the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal, respectively. The comparative results show that the −OH peak of infrared spectroscopy has been intensified after modification. This significant change helped speculate the modified mechanism of the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal. In addition, it is found that the hydroxide ion dissociates from hydroxyapatite in the modification process. Such finding implies that the tetrahydroxoaluminate can be combined with the hydroxyapatite and the aluminum ion can be impregnated onto the bone char surface.

  14. The evolution of the epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan: a spatial and temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of carbon monoxide poisoning suicide by burning barbecue charcoal has occurred in East Asia in the last decade. We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the epidemic to assess its impact on the epidemiology of suicide in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Age-standardised rates of suicide and undetermined death by charcoal burning were mapped across townships (median population aged 15 y or over = 27,000 in Taiwan for the periods 1999-2001, 2002-2004, and 2005-2007. Smoothed standardised mortality ratios of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicide and undetermined death across townships were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Trends in overall and method-specific rates were compared between urban and rural areas for the period 1991-2007. The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic. The rural excess in overall suicide rates prior to 1998 diminished as rates of charcoal-burning suicide increased to a greater extent in urban than rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The charcoal-burning epidemic has altered the geography of suicide in Taiwan. The observed pattern and its changes in the past decade suggest that widespread media coverage of this suicide method and easy access to barbecue charcoal may have contributed to the epidemic. Prevention strategies targeted at these factors, such as introducing and enforcing guidelines on media reporting and restricting access to charcoal, may help tackle the increase of charcoal-burning suicides. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  16. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  17. Review of the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of a critical review of the published literature on the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal. This review, which was supported by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, showed that (a) individual charcoals have a wide range of adsoprtion coefficients and therefore the performance of a given bed is heavily dependent on the quality of the charcoal it contains; (b) because of the detrimental effects of mass transfer on noble gas adsorption, consideration should be given to including this factor in developing technical specifications for adsorption beds; and (c) additional research is needed on the determination of the inter-relationship of moisture and temperature and their effects on adsorption bed performance

  18. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions.

  19. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  20. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  1. Soil stratigraphy of charcoal kiln remains (CKR) in the Litchfield Hills, CT, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Ouimet, Will; Dethier, David

    2016-04-01

    Charcoal kiln relicts (CKRs) are small anthropogenic landforms that are often found in historic mining areas. CKRs have not been a big research topic yet but mainly were studied as by-products of archaeological excavations. In the last years newly available and very accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data have been used to identify these archaeological remains. In addition, findings of several thousands CKRs in the North German Lowland have increased the awareness that historical charcoal production may significantly contribute to Late Holocene landscape change. Besides the archaeological aspect of CKRs, potential impacts of charcoal burning on the ecology of modern soil landscapes and ecosystem processes must be considered. A relatively high density of CKRs is found in the Litchfield Hills nearby the town of West Cornwall, Litchfield County, CT, USA. The CKRs are especially well preserved on slopes of the tributary valleys of the Housatonic River and form little, circular ramparts with diameters normally less than ten meters. First, rough field surveys in Litchfield County in spring 2015 have suggested differences between soils inside and outside the CKR. Soils on the CKR seem to have relatively deep humus-rich and charcoal containing topsoils whereas the topsoils outside the CKR appear typically thinner and less rich in humus. More thorough investigations have been started in autumn 2015 to prove the hypothesis that properties, distribution and development of soils are controlled by archaeological remains of historical charcoal burning. We present preliminary results from our field studies conducted in October 2015. The stratigraphy and the extent of the 26 CKRs were studied using a sedimentological-pedological approach by coring and trenching. Our results indicate that in Litchfield County the CKRs were used twice and in quick succession. Before the second reuse, the rim of the platform was stabilized

  2. Effect of Metal Oxide on Electrical Resistivity of Conductive Wood Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the effect of metal oxide on electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal,wood powder of Masson pine was mixed with ferric oxide (Fe_2O_3) and nickel oxide (NiO), respectively,and then the mixed powders were carbonized at high temperature in a laboratory-scale tube furnace in a nitrogen atmosphere. DCY-3 resistivity tester was used to measure electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal. When carbonization temperature was 1200 ℃, the electrical resistivity of controlsamples, Fe_2O_3 (...

  3. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  4. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    2N. Qamar; R. Azmat; Naz, R.; Malik, B.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye) from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8), shaking time (5min. - 1hour), adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm) and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml) were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal ...

  5. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records show fire activity for the last 4ka yrs and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers – El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human

  6. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires

  7. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold in activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method is described for the determination of gold in activated charcoal by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Compensation for matrix effects is achieved by means of platinum that is added for use as an internal standard. Calibration is achieved by use of a series of synthetic standards that are made by the spiking of barren charcoal with gold and platinum. The limit of determination is about 8 p.p.m. of gold, and the relative standard deviation is 1,2 per cent at a concentration level of 2300 p.p.m

  8. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In conclusion

  9. Vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age by using microscopic structure of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structure of charcoals was determined in two sites of Bronze Age, Chifeng area by using the scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that these charcoals are all timbers of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). It has powerful climatic indicative significance. Based on the assemblage of pollen composition, their eco-climatic index and character of community, the vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age was obtained. The reconstruction showed that the zonal vegetation was Mongolian oak forest and Chinese pine forest in the loess hills in the Chifeng area, which suggested that the climatic condition was warmer and wetter at that time than present time.

  10. Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

    2006-12-01

    Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000

  11. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  12. Assessing the potential of biochar and charcoal to improve soil hydraulic properties in the humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Anjeni watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayabil, H.K.; Stoof, C.R.; Lehmann, J.C.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has shown promise for restoring soil hydraulic properties. However, biochar production could be expensive in the developing world, while charcoal iswidely available and cheap. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate whether some of the charcoal made in developing countries ca

  13. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  14. Comparison of Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Charcoal Versus Gas and Solar Energy Treated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment using different sources of heat on the chemical composition and microbial quality of milk was studied. Raw cow, goat and sheep milk were heated with charcoal, gas and solar energy at 99ºC for 12 min, cooled to 20ºC and chemical (fat, protein, total solids, ash (titratable acidity, vitamin C composition as well as microbiological examination (total viable bacteria count were carried out. Results showed that fat, total solids and ash contents w ere high in cow milk heated with solar energy, while protein content was high when milk was heated with gas, and the titratable acidity was high in milk heated with charcoal and gas. The fat, total solids and ash contents of goat milk w ere high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein content and titratable acidity were high when milk was heated with solar energy. The fat contents of sheep milk was high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein and total solids content were high in milk heated with solar energy, and ash content and titratable acidity were high in milk heated with charcoal. Vitamin C content was high for all milks when heated with solar energy, while the total viable bacteria count was high in milks of all species when heated with charcoal. Solar energy was shown to be suitable for heating milk from chemical view point, while heat treatment of milk with gas was found to be better microbiologically.

  15. PURIFICATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM DURIAN PEEL’S WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Rinaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste of durian’s peel can be used to make liquid smoke and activated charcoal with pyrolysis method. To make liquid smoke for food preservative, liquid smoke must be proceeded with purification method such as distilation, purification with activated zeolit and activated charcoal. Liquid smoke characterization results from the durian’s peel from pyrolysis, distillation, purification with activated zeolite and activated charcoal purification with pH values ​​obtained successively 4.09; 3.24; 3.46; and 2.09. Acetic acid levels respectively 6.07; 7.59; 9.11; and 10.63 (mg/L. Based on the characteristics of the component compounds using GC-MS, results of pyrolysis liquid smoke was detected 17 compounds, liquid smoke distillation obtaining 12 compounds, liquid smoke purification with active zeolit obtaining 10 compounds and liquid smoke from activated charcoal purification obtaining 6 compounds with the majority component comprised of acetic acid compounds, phenols and carbonyls and do not contain carcinogenic compounds, so it can be used as a food preservative.

  16. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  17. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  18. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  19. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Qamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  20. Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from respiratory specimens by using selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, E; Snell, H; Black, B L; Storey, M.; Colby, W D

    1992-01-01

    Nocardiosis is difficult to diagnose clinically and by laboratory methods. A patient presented with disease compatible with pulmonary malignancy, but Nocardia asteroides was isolated on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. Investigation revealed that this medium may be a suitable selective primary isolation medium for Nocardia species from respiratory specimens.

  1. Selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for isolation of nocardiae from mixed cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, M. A.; Holmes, H T; Nolte, F S

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of Nocardia species from mixed cultures is facilitated by use of a selective medium. We show that buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium with polymyxin, anisomycin, and vancomycin can be used for the selective isolation of nocardiae from contaminated specimens.

  2. Intravenous theophylline poisoning and multiple-dose charcoal in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, K W; Bar-Or, D; Rumack, B H

    1987-08-01

    Large overdoses of IV theophylline (50 to 100 mg/kg) were administered to five canines on two separate occasions. On day one, with no charcoal administered, theophylline levels were serially obtained between ten minutes and 12 hours after infusion and the animals were recovered from anesthesia. Three days later the same dose of theophylline was administered, but then 50 g activated charcoal was placed through a nasogastric tube into the duodenum every hour for eight doses. In all five animals tested, activated charcoal significantly decreased the area under the serum concentration-time curve, decreased the half-life of elimination, and increased the clearance of theophylline. This effect on pharmacokinetics was not seen when the nasogastric tube was put into the stomach instead of the small bowel because the charcoal administered did not pass beyond the pylorus. In a separate experiment in which bile theophylline concentrations were measured, it was demonstrated that enhanced elimination was not from interruption of enterohepatic circulation of theophylline. This suggests that the demonstrated physiologic mechanism is that of gastrointestinal dialysis.

  3. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment-charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlon, Jennifer R.; Kelly, Ryan; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vannière, Boris; Power, Mitchell J.; Bartlein, Patrick; Higuera, Philip; Blarquez, Olivier; Brewer, Simon; Brücher, Tim; Feurdean, Angelica; Gil Romera, Graciela; Iglesias, Virginia; Yoshi Maezumi, S.; Magi, Brian; Mustaphi, Colin J. Courtney; Zhihai, Tonishtan

    2016-06-01

    The location, timing, spatial extent, and frequency of wildfires are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, producing substantial impacts on ecosystems, people, and potentially climate. Paleofire records based on charcoal accumulation in sediments enable modern changes in biomass burning to be considered in their long-term context. Paleofire records also provide insights into the causes and impacts of past wildfires and emissions when analyzed in conjunction with other paleoenvironmental data and with fire models. Here we present new 1000-year and 22 000-year trends and gridded biomass burning reconstructions based on the Global Charcoal Database version 3 (GCDv3), which includes 736 charcoal records (57 more than in version 2). The new gridded reconstructions reveal the spatial patterns underlying the temporal trends in the data, allowing insights into likely controls on biomass burning at regional to global scales. In the most recent few decades, biomass burning has sharply increased in both hemispheres but especially in the north, where charcoal fluxes are now higher than at any other time during the past 22 000 years. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to data-model comparisons and identify areas for future research. Spatially gridded versions of the global data set from GCDv3 are provided to facilitate comparison with and validation of global fire simulations.

  4. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  5. The use of charcoal as an alternate internal fuel addition in the pelletising process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vining, K.R.; Firth, A.R.; Douglas, J.D.; Garden, J.F. [Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization, Clayton South, Victoria (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Solid fuels are often combined with ground iron ore fines during the pelletizing process in order to reduce maximum firing temperatures and amounts of burner fuel required, as well as to pellet strength. Coke and coal both contribute to raised levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the pelletization process. Various minerals have been investigated as an alternative to coke and coal. The use of wood biomass and wood char is a suitable alternative to coke and coal, as it is a renewable energy source, has a low ash content, and can reduce GHG emissions from the iron and steel-making process. The results of an experimental testwork program conducted to compare the behaviour of fired pellets containing traditional solid fuels and charcoal were presented. Physical properties of the pellets were compared in terms of their tumble and abrasion indices, reduction properties, and compressive strength. Pellet microstructures were also compared. The aim of the project was to demonstrate that biomass is an adequate replacement for both coke and coal. Chemical analyses were conducted, and surface area and specific reactivity was measured. A pot grate test was conducted. Results of the study showed that the use of charcoal or anthracite resulted in green balls with a higher moisture content than Black Pine charcoal. Various firing regimes were used during the experiments. Results showed that charcoal performed better than coke breeze due to its faster reactivity. Further testing is needed to determine optimal combinations of basicity, firing temperature, and internal fuel additions. 4 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and th

  7. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B Chatterjee

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 g/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  9. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  10. Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, K.

    2008-12-01

    In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional

  11. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  12. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  13. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pfood (Hoegberg et al. 2002). Depending on which type of ice cream was mixed with the charcoal...

  14. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  15. Hybrid mode-locked fiber ring laser using graphene and charcoal nanoparticles as saturable absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2016-05-01

    A fiber ring laser which implements hybrid mode locking technique has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to generate pulse train at 20 GHz repetition rate with ultrashort pulse width. Graphene and charcoal nano-particles acting as passive mode lockers are inserted into a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser to improve the performance. With graphene saturable absorbers, the pulse duration is shortened from 5.3 ps to 2.8 ps, and with charcoal nano-particles, it is shortened to 3.2 ps. The RF spectra show that supermode noise can be removed in the presence of the saturable absorbers. Numerical simulation of the pulse transmission has also been carried out, which shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  17. Comparative study of cultivation of feces in vermiculite or charcoal to obtain larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared feces culturing in charcoal or vermiculite to obtain Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae. Methods Feces (5g from infected rats was mixed with vermiculite (10g or coal (10g in plastic cups and incubated at 28°C for 48h. Larvae were recovered using Baermann-Moraes method. Results Significantly higher number of positive larval cultures were recovered from vermiculite than from charcoal (15/17 and 4/17, respectively; p < 0.001; 990.6 ± 307.5 and 215 ± 78.1 larvae, p = 0.027. Conclusions Vermiculite yields more larvae and provides cleaner pellets, improving larvae identification and facilitating their use for other purposes.

  18. Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: II. 222Rn studies in a monolayer and packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C; Harley, N H

    1990-10-01

    The adsorptive and desorptive characteristics of canisters containing a petroleum-based charcoal were investigated under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and Rn concentration. Charcoals exposed in a monolayer and packed bed during exposure intervals of 1-7 d demonstrate that Rn adsorption and desorption are dependent on bed depth and the amount of water adsorbed. Changes in the adsorptive and desorptive properties of the charcoal occurred near the break-point where the pores became occluded by water vapor that condenses in the entrance capillaries. Radon-222 adsorption is decreased by an order of magnitude as the amount of adsorbed water exceeds the break-point of the charcoal. The reduction in pore surface due to adsorbed water results in a marked increase in the rate of Rn loss from exposed canisters, accounting for reduced adsorption. The apparent desorption time-constant for a 2-cm bed of loose Witco 6 x 10 mesh charcoal containing 0.220-0.365 kg H2O kg-1 is typically between 2-8 h. The apparent desorption time-constant for an equivalent packed bed containing a water vapor content of 0.026-0.060 kg H2O kg-1, which is below the break-point of the charcoal, is about 15-30 h. Conventional charcoal canisters, if exposed in the fully-opened configuration, can achieve the break-point in less than 4 d at 70% humidity. The use of a diffusion barrier would allow for longer exposure times until the break-point of the charcoal is achieved. PMID:2398008

  19. Charcoal and Total Carbon in Soils from Foothills Shrublands to Subalpine Forests in the Colorado Front Range

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Sanford; Christopher Licata

    2012-01-01

    Temperate conifer forests in the Colorado Front Range are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term soil charcoal C (CC) pools result from the combined effects of wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. We measured CC pools in surface soils (0–10 cm) at mid-slope positions on east facing aspects in five continuous foothills shrubland and conifer forest types. We found a significant statisti...

  20. NMR-based estimates of the molecular dimensions in wildfire charcoal: Implications for predictions of biochar residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, William; Kane, Evan; Huang, Rixiang; Von Bargen, Justin; Davis, Rebecca; Ohlson, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to energy and fuels generates charcoal as a co-product. Charcoals derived from sustainable biomass sources—biochars—are an inherently stable form of carbon, relatively long residence times in the environment. Biochars can have potentially beneficial properties as soil fertility amendments, which has further stimulated research on the use of biochars for soil carbon sequestration as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, it is challenging to assess the long-term stability of biochar carbon using laboratory or field incubations because these are comprised of short-term observations. In this study, we make use of ancient charcoals from the boreal forests of Alaska and Scandanavia. We have deliberately selected charcoals from organic soil horizons, as to investigate the inherent biological and chemical stability of charcoal C without the protective influence of soil minerals. We use 14C radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the charcoals, differential scanning calorimetry to assess thermal stability, and solid-state 13C NMR to assess the chemical structure. Specifically, we employ C-H dipolar-dephasing NMR experiments to estimate the relative abundance and molecular dimensions of condensed aromatic domains and aliphatic structures. We test the hypothesis that the environmental stability, as determined by apparent 14C age and thermal stability, is related to the extent of ring condensation in the charcoal structure. Preliminary results suggest that the dimension of the condensed aromatic ring clusters may be an important molecular parameter to include in algorithms used to model/predict the residence time of charcoal and biochar C in soil.

  1. Applying a bio-economic optimal control model to charcoal production: The case of slash and burn agriculture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Fernando; Mauricio G. Villena

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural poverty and forestland management in the context of charcoal production under slash and burn. An optimal control model determines how a representative household makes decisions on the allocation of labor and forest areas to exploit, which in turn affects the renewable resource base available to the community. The proposed optimal control model for charcoal production is built upon the agricultural model of slash and burn of Pascual and Barbie...

  2. Applying a bio-economic optimal control model to charcoal production: The case of slash and burn agriculture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Fernando; Mauricio G. Villena

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural poverty and forest land management in the context of charcoal production under slash and burn. An optimal control model determines how a representative household makes decisions on the allocation of forest areas to work and use them to affect the renewable resource base on which it depends. The proposed optimal control model for charcoal production is built upon the agricultural model of slash and burn by Pascual and Barbier (2007). This theo...

  3. Charcoal-Oil Mixture as an Alternative Fuel: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast depletion of fuel oil and continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. The world energy consumption is projected to grow at an average of 2.7-3.7% from 1996 to 2010. Therefore search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus this study presents the results on the characteristic of charcoal-oil mixture as an alternative fuel. The calorific value, ash content and stability of the mixture are determined.

  4. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  5. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  6. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharief ud Din Khan; Manju Arora; Wahab, M. A.; Parveen Saini

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic resin (AR) based electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC) in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorpo...

  7. Comparison of three buffers used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1993-01-01

    Growth of Legionella spp. on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with 3-(n-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 3-(n-morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO), or n-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer was similar. With three exceptions, growth was no different in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with MOPS or ACES buffer.

  8. Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

  9. Clinical demonstration of isolation of Nocardia asteroides on buffered charcoal-yeast extract media.

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, R M; Rihs, J D; Yu, V L

    1992-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides was isolated only from sputum samples, obtained from three patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, that had been cultured onto buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) and selective BCYE media as part of laboratory workups for Legionella species. A decontamination procedure with low-pH pretreatment (KCl-HCl solution) had been performed on the sputa prior to culture onto the BCYE media because direct cultures on the media were overgrown with commensal microflora. Chalky white co...

  10. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models.

  12. Simulating water and pollutant transport in bark, charcoal and sand filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuk Karlsson, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    A septic tank combined with a sand filter is the most common onsite wastewater treatment system worldwide, since it is a simple, lowcost and reliable treatment method. Alternatives to sand in filters could be advantageous in terms of availability of material and enhanced treatment properties. In this study, flow dynamics and pollutant transport in three filter materials; sand, pine bark and activated charcoal, intermittently dosed with artificial greywater, were simulated using the HYDRU...

  13. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Vleminckx; Julie Morin-Rivat; Biwolé, Achille B.; Kasso Daïnou; Jean-François Gillet; Jean-Louis Doucet; Thomas Drouet; Olivier J Hardy

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree spec...

  14. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. PMID:26207816

  15. Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: I. 133Xe studies in a monolayer and packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C; Harley, N H

    1990-10-01

    Detailed desorption studies using petroleum-based activated charcoals were conducted in monolayers and packed beds. Less extensive studies were conducted on several other types of charcoal. Kinetic studies, using 133Xe, demonstrated the existence of a micropore volume with entrance capillaries that together determined the response characteristics of charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two-phase model, composed of micropores and entrance capillaries, describes the desorption dynamics of an adsorbed gas in the presence of water vapor. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries of the charcoal reduced the effective pore radius and increased the diffusion half-time. Water could also adversely affect the integrating capability of the charcoal dramatically if the adsorbed water completely blocked the entrance capillaries. The amount of adsorbed water required to block the capillaries varied with the charcoal type and was termed here as the "break-point." The desorption parameters measured in this work can be used to design an improved passive Rn monitor to effectively integrate during a 3-7 d exposure period by eliminating the adverse effects of water vapor. The improved canister design would provide more accurate and reproducible measurements of indoor Rn concentrations than are currently available. PMID:2398007

  16. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B. [Building and Industrial Minerals Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO{sub 2} did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  17. Suppression of charcoal rot in soybean by moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa GS-33 under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep; Paradeshi, Jayasinh; Chaudhari, Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    Charcoal rot severely limits the soybean crop yield under saline conditions. The present studies focus on biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of phenazine producing moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GS-33) in soybean under saline soil conditions. A marine isolate; GS-33 was identified as P. aeruginosa based on polyphasic characterization. This strain showed potent in vitro biocontrol activity against charcoal rot causing fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. It was capable of producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid even at elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, GS-33 possessed other biocontrol traits like production of siderophores, HCN and protease under saline conditions. Multiple traits for plant growth promotion such as synthesis of IAA, NH3 , and solubilization of phosphate were also exhibited by GS-33. Plant growth promoting and biocontrol control potentials of GS-33 were evaluated by pot assay under saline soil conditions. Higher biomass and chlorophyll content were observed in GS-33 treated seedlings. A greater reduction in charcoal rot caused by fungal pathogens under both normal and saline soil conditions in GS-33 treated seedlings was observed. In a nut shell, phenazine producing halotolerant strain GS-33 could mitigate saline soil conditions (abiotic stress) and infestation of M. phaseolina (biotic stress) in soybean. PMID:27213894

  18. Canonical correlation analysis of the characteristics of charcoal from Qualea parviflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationships between the characteristics of charcoal from Qualea parviflora Mart. using canonical correlation analysis. Five trees were analyzed in such way that 5-cm thick discs were removed from each tree at the base, DBH (1.30 m, middle and top sections. The wood was carbonized in a muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 °C min-1. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationships between the group formed by fixed carbon, volatile matter, ash, elemental carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen levels and a second group formed by the gravimetric yield, higher heating value and relative bulk density of the charcoal. A tendency was noted for high levels of fixed carbon and elemental carbon to be associated to low levels of volatile matter, ash and oxygen and to low gravimetric yield. Fixed carbon and elemental carbon levels had a positive relation to higher heating value and to relative bulk density, whereas volatile matter, ash and oxygen levels had a negative relation to such characteristics. The higher the gravimetric yield from carbonization, the higher the volatile matter, ash and oxygen levels will be in the resulting charcoal.

  19. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan.

  20. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 oC for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  1. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  2. Optimum Parameters for the Formulation of Charcoal Briquettes Using Bagasse and Clay as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya generates about 1.6 million tones of sugarcane bagasse which has enormouspotential for exploitation in modern commercial applications. Due to rising fossilfuel prices, availability in large quantity and rapidly growing interest in bio-energyas well as technological advances and environmental concerns , bagasse could beutilized for the formulation of charcoal briquettes for household use tosupplement wood charcoal. In this study briquettes were formulated usingcarbonized bagasse, clay as a binder and molasses as a filler. Bagasse was obtainedfrom sugar factories for carbonization. Carbonization was carried out using abrick-built kiln while blending used a manually operated drum mixer. A piston typebriquetting press fitted onto a universal strength testing machine was used for theproduction of briquettes. The most optimum parameters that produced briquetteswhich complied to current charcoal specifications for household use were in theratio of 1:1:40 for molasses, clay and carbonized bagasse respectively at0.50N/mm2 pressure. At this formulation, briquettes were produced whose ashcontent, volatile matter and calorific energy were 36.4%, 27.2% and 4.390 Kca/grespectively. The briquettes produced burnt without sparks and were smokeless,producing no irritating smell. They ignited easily and took relatively long beforethey extinguished. They were recommended for household use in Kenya.

  3. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  4. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  5. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal.

  6. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Law Chi-kin; Leung Candi MC

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–5...

  7. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Belcher

    Full Text Available Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  8. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of 222Rn and 220Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the 222Rn and 220Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for 222Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for 220Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3–4.12 m3 kg−1 with a mean value of 2.99 m3 kg−1. The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed 222Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal. - Highlights: • 222Rn and 220Rn removal from air using activated charcoal bed is demonstrated. • Breakthrough time and adsorption coefficient were evaluated. • A sustained mitigation factor

  9. Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  10. Conversion reaction of the Yallourn charcoal by the methane microwave plasma; Metanmaikuroha purazuma niyoru yarunsumi no tenkan hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Osamu; Marushima, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Motoki; Ogami, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya

    1999-09-01

    The distribution of the raw coal midyear gift element to the product. As a technology development which converted lignite to fuel oil, middle raw material gas and the high-grade residue in which carbon content rate is high directly, the time change of the process which distributes each C, H, O element from supply methane and Yallourn charcoal using the methane microwave plasma in each product was examined. The center of the reaction tube (25.0 mm inside diameter 400 length Mm) made of cylindrical fused silica was filled with the drying charcoal. 2.45 GHz of a fixed output. The waveguide is irradiated under the methane (4.0 kPa) supply at the upper part of Yallourn charcoal in reaction tube in respect of the microwave from horizontal direction pass. As the result, a following knowledge was obtained. (1) The gas product (hydrogen with the acetylene mainly) distributes C, H element in the supply methane. (2). In the Yallourn charcoal, to oil product which consists of aliphatic hydrocarbon of H/C ratio 1.5-1.6 in the reaction within the half, the C element is distributed after 5 minutes to the carbon dioxide. (3). It is distributed to gas product (it is finally carbon monoxide) in which most of the O element in the Yallourn charcoal goes through generation and vapor phase homogeneous reaction of the carbon dioxide by the decomposition of the mosquito reportage xyl unit. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  12. Modeling climate change mitigation from alternative methods of charcoal production in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, Rob [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current carbon accounting methodologies do not accommodate activities that involve emissions reductions from both land-use change and energy production. This paper analyzes the climate change mitigation potential of charcoal production in East Africa by examining the impact of changing both land management and technology. Current production in a major charcoal producing region of Kenya where charcoal is made as a by-product of land clearance for commercial grain production is modeled as the ''business-as-usual'' scenario. Alternative production systems are proposed based on coppice management of native or exotic trees. Improved kilns are also considered. Changes in aboveground, belowground, and soil carbon are modeled and two distinct baseline assessments are analyzed: one is based on a fixed area of land and one is based on the quantity of non-renewable fuel that is displaced by project activities. The magnitude of carbon emissions reductions varies depending on land management as well as the choice of carbonization technology. However, these variations are smaller than the variations arising from the choice of baseline methodology. The fixed-land baseline yields annualized carbon emission reductions equivalent to 0.5-2.8 tons per year (t y{sup -1}) with no change in production technology and 0.7-3.5 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. In contrast, the baseline defined by the quantity of displaced non-renewable fuel is 2-6 times larger, yielding carbon emissions reductions of 1.4-12.9 t y{sup -1} with no change in production technology and 3.2-20.4 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. The results demonstrate the choice of baseline, often a political rather than scientific decision, is critical in assessing carbon emissions reductions. (author)

  13. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  14. Radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of indoor pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino Torres, Leopoldo Leonardo

    1998-12-01

    A number of recent studies have reported that activated charcoals can adsorb significant amounts of volatile organic compounds at concentration levels generally encountered indoors. In this study, a fundamental understanding of radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of water vapor and various indoor volatile organic compounds has been presented. A dynamic adsorption system was designed and constructed to study adsorption of radon both as a pure component (when present alone in a gas mixture with nitrogen) and in the presence of water vapor and some selected indoor air pollutants. The air pollutants investigated in this study include carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The experimental data were obtained in the form of breakthrough curves. The data were used to verify several existing models for both pure component radon adsorption and its adsorption from binary mixtures. As expected, radon adsorption capacity by charcoal decreased in the presence of water vapor. However, a decrease of about 9% was observed when the relative humidity of the nitrogen stream was below 40%. A sharp decrease in the adsorption capacity, about 40%, was noted if the relative humidity was above 50%. The adsorption capacity for radon decreased by 10% to 20% in the presence of toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The decrease was about 2% to 6% when carbon dioxide or formaldehyde was present in the gas mixture. The capacity for radon also decreased by about 40% during adsorption from the multicomponent mixtures. However, this reduction in the capacity was due mainly to the water vapor. Therefore it may be concluded that radon measurements would be affected significantly in the presence of various indoor pollutants. The models used in this study provided excellent agreement with the experimental data for both pure radon (when present alone in the nitrogen stream) and when present in binary mixtures with water vapor and other indoor pollutants.

  15. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  16. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  17. Serum acetaminophen assay using activated charcoal adsorption and gas chromatography without derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, M; Novic, B; Savich, R; Wagman, E

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative assay of acetaminophen in serum has been developed. The drug, together with an internal standard 2-acetamidophenol, is adsorbed on activated charcoal and then extracted into a mixture of ethyl acetate and isopropanol. This extract is then analyzed, without any derivatization, by gas chromatography. The isothermal analysis yielded a good, highly reproducible separation. The drug peak was symmetrical and without any tailing. The peak height response ratio was found to be linear with concentrations ranging from 25-500 ng/L. No interference was observed with the various drugs or metabolites which are commonly encountered in human serum. PMID:7421146

  18. Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Banat, F; Al-Asheh, S.; Al-Ahmad, R.; Bni-Khalid, F.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of olive pomace after solvent extraction and charcoal produced from the solid waste of olive oil press industry was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch tests showed that up to 80% of dye was removed when the dye concentration was 10 mg/ml and the sorbent concentration was 45 mg/ml. An increase in the olive pomace concentration resulted in greater dye removal from aqueous solution, and an increase in MB dye concentration a...

  19. Comparison of different agars used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of agar type used for buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate was tested based on the growth and size of Legionella pneumophila. Oxoid Agar no. 1, Difco Bacto and Bitek agars, and BBL Granulated, Grade A, and Select agars were tested. For colony size the agars were ranked in the following order: Oxoid agar no. 1 much greater than Bacto greater than Bitek approximately Granulated approximately Grade A greater than Select. Colony yield per pl...

  20. Does temperature of charcoal creation affect subsequent mineralization of soil carbon and nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier-Bergeron, S.; Bradley, R.; Munson, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fire is the most common form of natural disturbance of boreal forest ecosystems and has primordial influence on successional processes. This may be due in part to the pre-disturbance vegetation development stage and species composition, but these successional pathways could also vary with differences in fire behavior and consequently in fire intensity, defined as the energy released during various phases of a fire. Fire intensity may also affect soil C and N cycling by affecting the quality of the charcoal that is produced. For example, the porosity of coal tends to increase with increasing temperature at which it is produced Higher porosity would logically increase the surface area to which dissolved soil molecules, such as tannins and other phenolics, may be adsorbed. We report on a microcosm study in which mineral and organic soils were jointly incubated for eight weeks with a full factorial array of treatments that included the addition of Kalmia tannins, protein, and wood charcoal produced at five different temperatures. A fourth experimental factor comprised the physical arrangement of the material (stratified vs. mixed), designed to simulate the effect of soil scarification after fire and salvage harvest. We examined the effects of these treatments on soil C and N mineralisation and soil microbial biomass. The furnace temperature at which the charcoal was produced had a significant effect on its physico-chemical properties; increasing furnace temperatures corresponded to a significant increase in % C (P<0.001), and a significant decrease in %O (P<0.001) and %H (P<0.001). Temperature also had significant impacts on microporosity (surface area and volume). Temperature of production had no effect (P=0.1355) on soil microbial biomass. We observed a linear decreasing trend (P<0.001) in qCO2 with increasing temperature of production, which was mainly reflected in a decline in basal respiration. Finally, we found a significant interaction (P=0.010) between

  1. Entrained solvent separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous streams generated during uranium recovery from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the two cycle solvent extraction process for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid, solvents such as D2EHPA, di nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA), tri butyl phosphate (TBP), etc., get dissolved/entrained in the various aqueous phases such as WPA, ammonium carbonate solution, MGA and sulphuric acid. These solvents have to be separated both from process economy point of view and for industrial acceptability. Systematic experiments showed that recovery of solvents by diluent washing is not effective for alkaline solution. Hence studies were undertaken to study the feasibility of activated charcoal adsorption for entrained/dissolved solvent separation. (author)

  2. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the cave A5-3 in Arsanjan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern humans (Homo-sapiens), who originated in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, migrated out of Africa about 130,000-60,000 years ago, dispersed in West Asia, and finally replaced Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. The region of West Asia, especially southern Iran, therefore, is very important to understand the evolution of modem humans. The Japan-Iran international research group, led by Professor Tsuneki of Tsukuba University, has investigated A5-3 cave in the Arsanjan archeological site in southern Iran since 2011. The sequence of layers in the cave is estimated to belong Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic period, based on the type of lithic artifacts excavated. In this study, we measured AMS-14C dates of charcoal fragments collected from the layers to reveal the chronology of the Arsanjan site. Charcoal samples collected from surface layer to Layer 4 in Trench E5 (total 6 layers) and Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 (total 10 layers) in the A5-3 cave were used. In Trench E5, charcoal samples of surface layer were dated at modern, samples of Layer 1 at 300-115 BP, samples of Layer 2 at 26,750-26,370 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 and samples of Layer 4 were older than 14C-detection limit. In Trench B3, charcoal samples of Layer 2 were dated at 36,500-35,300 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 was dated at 36,890±190 BP. The layers in both Trenches E5 and B3 had been considered to correspond to each other base on the type of lithic artifacts, but the 14C results show that the layers of Trench B3 are about 10,000 BP older than those of Trench E5. Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 belong to the early Upper Paleolithic period, contemporary with the result reported for AH IV layer in Ghar-e Boof archeological site at Dasht-e Rostam region, southwestern Iran. This study is the second finding of use of these micro-blades at 37,000 BP in Iran, following the Ghar-e Boof site. Layer 4 in Trench B3 includes Middle Paleolithic artifacts, and so 37,000 BP obtained for Layer 3 in

  3. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... to be of similar size compared to the control, although statistics were weak. The AUC of the 5-g dose was 59% larger than the AUC of the 50-g dose (p = 0.0003). The terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of paracetamol was 1.6 (CI 1.4-2.0) and 1.9 (CI 1.5-2.4) hr for 50 and 25 g, respectively (NS), and 2.5 (CI 1...

  4. Measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient of Xe on coconut charcoal in CO2 streams by gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a method for measuring the dynamic adsorption coefficients of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 in CO2 carrier streams by SP-2305E gas chromatograph with the thermal conductivity cell. The adsorption column is made of stainless steel (diameter 4 x 240 mm) packed with 60-80 mesh coconut charcoal II-2. The CO2 content in carrier streams is about 87%. Three groups of data of Xe dynamic adsorption coefficient were obtained at temperature 15.5 deg C, 31.5 deg C and 50.5 deg C by pulse injection respectively. Another group was obtained at temperature approx. 16 deg C by continueous injection. In addition, adsorption isotherms and adsorption isometrics were determined. In this experimental system, the adsorption heat of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 is 2820 cal/mole

  5. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Chand Thakur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of agricultural soil which is attributed to the use of pesticides containing lead by using activated charcoal. Material and Methods: The lead contamination in agricultural soil and plant dry mass samples which increases due to the effect of pesticides was detected by using Field Portable X-Ray Fluroscence (FP-XRF spectrophotometer. Soil was taken in plastic trays and the plants were grown and watered daily. The collected ground water was also tested. For the estimation of lead in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS was employed. Results: This study suggested the remediation of soil lead content by using activated charcoal. The study also revealed that activated charcoal not only adsorbs lead but also inhibits the accumulation of lead in ground water. Conclusion: This study promotes a cost effective process to treat agricultural lands polluted with leaded pesticides. Water purifiers, refrigerator etc. contain varying amounts of activated charcoal, after usage of these appliances it can be recycled and used as a source of activated charcoal. This can be applied in pesticide contaminated fields either in the form of slurry or by spraying.

  6. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  7. Microstructure of carbon derived from mangrove charcoal and its application in Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tao [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Ruiying, E-mail: ryluo@buaa.edu.c [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Qiao Wenming [College of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the microstructure of mangrove-charcoal-derived carbon (MC) was studied using XRD, STM and TEM. MC was found to consist of aligned quasi-spherical structural units with diameters of around 5-20 nm. It shows typical hard carbon characteristics, including a strongly disoriented single graphene layer and BSU, formed by two or three graphene layers stacked nearly parallel. Some curved and faceted graphene layers, especially closed carbon nanoparticles with fullerene-like, were observed in the as-prepared samples. MC was also evaluated as an anodic material for Li-ion batteries. MC carbonized at 1000 deg. C possessed the highest available discharge capacity (below 0.5 V) of 335 mAh g{sup -1}, the high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 73.7%, good rate and cyclic capability and PC-based electrolyte compatibility. {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of fully lithiated mangrove charcoal-derived carbons indicated the co-existence of three Li species.

  8. Effects of Particle Size on the Thermal Properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal Briquettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokan, A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal briquettes were studied as a function of particle size. The particle sizes were 300, 425, 600, 1180 and 2000µm. The sieved materials were compressed into briquettes and pellets. The pellets were 12.5mm diameter and 13mm in length. The properties determined were moisture content, ash content and calorific value. The calorific value for Sawdust particle were 300µm =16.04MJ/kg and 2000µm = 17.82MJ/kg which indicates an increased with increase in particle size. For Corncobs the calorific value also rises from 16.63MJ/kg to 17.51MJ/kg for 300 µm and 2000 µm respectively. In the same vain Prosopis Africana charcoal gives 24.94MJ/kg for 300µm size and 29.67MJ/kg for 2000µm. It was observed that for all the materials investigated, an increase in particle size was accompanied by higher energy output.

  9. Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum against soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is one of the most destructive and widespread diseases of crop plants such as soybean. In this study, the biological control capability of 11 Trichoderma spp. isolates against M. phaseolina was investigated using screening tests. Among all the tested Trichoderma spp. isolates, inhibition varied from 20.22 to 58.67% in dual culture tests. Dual culture, volatile and non-volatile tests revealed that two isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (including the isolates T7 and T14 best inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina in vitro. Therefore, these isolates were selected for biocontrol of M. phaseolina in vivo. The results of greenhouse experiments revealed that disease severity in the seed treatment with T. harzianum isolates was significantly lower than that of the soil treatment. In most of the cases, though, soil treatment with T. harzianum resulted in higher plant growth parameters, such as root and shoot weight. The effects of T. harzianum isolates on the activity of peroxidase enzyme and phenolic contents of the soybean root in the presence and absence of M. phaseolina were determined in greenhouse conditions. Our results suggested that a part of the inhibitory effect of T. harzianum isolates on soybean charcoal rot might be related to the indirect influence on M. phaseolina. Plant defense responses were activated as an elicitor in addition to the direct effect on the pathogen growth.

  10. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7) for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8) for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7) for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide (p < 0.001). With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors. PMID:27754453

  11. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pasquale, G. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Impagliazzo, S., E-mail: stefania.impagliazzo@unina.i [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Lubritto, C. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Marziano, M. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Passariello, I. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Ermolli, E. Russo [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  12. Is adding charcoal to soil a good method for CO2 sequestration? : modeling a spatially homogeneous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, DP David; Fatima, T Tasnim; Meurs, van, L.; Muntean, A Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the aim to avoid dangerous climate change. In this paper, we propose a simple mathematical model (a coupled system of nonlinear ODEs) to capture some of the dynamical effects produced by adding charcoal to fertile soils. The main goal is to understand to which extent charcoal is able to lock up carbon in soils. Our results are preliminary in the sense that we do not solve the CO2 sequ...

  13. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected. The

  14. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  15. Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

  16. Former charcoal kiln sites where forest was cleared for cultivation: a case study of old biochar in cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Dufey, Joseph E.; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of biochar as a soil amendment is being increasingly investigated as a win-win solution for mitigating the anthropic CO2 emissions and improving soil fertility. However, data on the long term impact of chars on soil properties are scarce, although they are crucial for better understanding the implications of large scale application of highly persistent biochars to soil. In Wallonia (Belgium), old charcoal kilns are found in most of the area that was forested in the late 18th century. Since then, a non-negligible part of the forest has been cleared for cultivation. Today, old charcoal-making platforms can be seen on bare soils as circular or elliptic black spots due to charcoal enrichment. In order to assess the long-term (>200 years) effects of biochar on soil chemical properties, seventeen kiln sites were chosen in several cropland areas of Wallonia on loessic luvisols (14) and loamy cambisols (3). Composite samples were taken in the ploughing layer (0 - 25 cm) and the underlying horizon (35 - 50 cm) in and out the kiln sites. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, oxidizable carbon (CW&B), available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations content (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured. In order to assess the impact of cultivation on charcoal aging, we also sampled four kiln sites on loessic luvisols under forest. Here, we show that charcoal, diluted laterally by successive tillage, acts as a carbon surplus in the topsoil layer of the black spots. The charcoal-enriched horizon is characterized by higher CEC, C/N and C/LI550 ratio compared to the reference soil. Cultivation of former forest soils accelerates charcoal aging, likely due to a combined effect of mechanical (tillage splits charcoal fragments in smaller pieces and increases soil aeration) and biological actions (promoted by improved trophic conditions due to application of amendments and fertilizers over many

  17. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L* in the topmost soil material (0–1, 1–2.5 and 2.5–5 cm depths before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0–1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg−1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87** and SOC (r=−0.94** in samples 0–5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  18. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  19. Activated charcoal. 1970-June, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations from a worldwide literature survey pertaining to the uses of activated charcoal in industry as well as in the laboratory, including its use in air pollution, chemical adsorption, radioactive waste adsorption, electrochemistry, industrial waste treatment, and the mining industry. (This updated bibliography contains 92 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Carbon emissions due to deforestation for the production of charcoal used in Brazil’s steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J.; Barrett, Damian J.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2015-04-01

    Steel produced using coal generates 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually. Opportunities exist to substitute this coal with carbon-neutral charcoal sourced from plantation forests to mitigate project-scale emissions and obtain certified emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. This mitigation strategy has been implemented in Brazil and is one mechanism among many used globally to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions; however, its potential adverse impacts have been overlooked to date. Here, we report that total CO2 emitted from Brazilian steel production doubled (91 to 182 MtCO2) and specific emissions increased (3.3 to 5.2 MtCO2 per Mt steel) between 2000 and 2007, even though the proportion of coal used declined. Infrastructure upgrades and a national plantation shortage increased industry reliance on charcoal sourced from native forests, which emits up to nine times more CO2 per tonne of steel than coal. Preventing use of native forest charcoal could have avoided 79% of the CO2 emitted from steel production between 2000 and 2007; however, doing so by increasing plantation charcoal supply is limited by socio-economic costs and risks further indirect deforestation pressures and emissions. Effective climate change mitigation in Brazil’s steel industry must therefore minimize all direct and indirect carbon emissions generated from steel manufacture.

  1. Whole-bowel irrigation versus activated charcoal in sorbitol for the ingestion of modified-release pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, L A; Mathews, S C; Sitar, D S; Tenenbein, M

    1989-09-01

    Overdose with modified-release pharmaceuticals is an increasing phenomenon. This study examines whole-bowel irrigation as a potential decontamination strategy after overdose with enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid and compares it with administration of activated charcoal in sorbitol, which is currently the recommended intervention. A three-phase randomized crossover protocol was used in 10 adult volunteers. Each volunteer ingested nine 325 mg doses of enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid on three occasions, with at least 1 week between each administration period. Serum samples were analyzed for salicylic acid concentration by HPLC. Both interventions decreased peak salicylic acid concentration, time-to-zero salicylic acid concentration, and AUC when compared with control (p less than 0.01). Whole-bowel irrigation was superior to activated charcoal in sorbitol by all three criteria (p less than 0.05). Adverse effects were qualitatively and quantitatively greater during activated charcoal in sorbitol, and the volunteers preferred whole-bowel irrigation over charcoal in sorbitol. Our data suggest that whole-bowel irrigation should be considered for overdose of other modified-release pharmaceuticals. PMID:2673619

  2. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  3. Wildfire history and fire ecology of the Swiss National Park (Central Alps): new evidence from charcoal, pollen and plant macrofossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stähli, M.; Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.; Allgöwer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic (> 10 mm) and macroscopic (> 200 mm) charcoal particles were analysed in sediments from two mires in subalpine coniferous forests at c. 1800 m a.s.l. in southeastern Switzerland. Pollen and plant macrofossils suggest that since 6000 BC, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata (DC) Domin (‘upright mount

  4. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  5. The forbidden fuel. Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity. (author)

  6. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles, E-mail: zulu@msu.ed [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  7. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  8. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fahim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal (SDAC if patients arrive within an hour of ingestion. Multiple doses (MDAC may increase poison elimination at a later time by interrupting any enterohepatic or enterovascular circulations. The effectiveness of SDAC or MDAC is unknown. Since most patients present to hospital after one hour, we considered MDAC to have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit and set up a study to compare MDAC with no charcoal. A third arm of SDAC was added to help determine whether any benefit noted from MDAC resulted from the first dose or all doses. Methods/design We set up a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of superactivated charcoal in unselected adult self-poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of three Sri Lankan secondary hospitals. Patients were randomised to standard treatment or standard treatment plus either a single 50 g dose of superactivated charcoal dissolved in 300 ml of water or six doses every four hours. All patients with a history of poison ingestion were approached concerning the study and written informed consent taken from each patient, or their relative (for unconscious patients or those 72 hrs post-ingestion, and previous recruitment. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes included the occurrence of serious complications (need for intubation, time requiring assisted ventilation, fits, cardiac dysrhythmias. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis; the effects of reported time to treatment after poisoning and status on admission will also be assessed. Discussion This trial will provide important

  9. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  10. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI3, were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  11. Analogies between the cracking noise of ethanol-damped charcoal and earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Alves, L G A; Santoro, P A; Picoli, S; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S

    2015-01-01

    We report on an extensive characterization of the cracking noise produced by charcoal samples when damped with ethanol. We argue that the evaporation of ethanol causes transient and irregularly distributed internal stresses that promotes the fragmentation of samples and mimic some situations found in mining process. The results show that, in general, the most fundamental seismic laws ruling earthquakes (Gutenberg-Richter law, unified scaling law for the recurrence times, Omori's law, productivity law and Bath's law) hold under the conditions of the experiment. Some discrepancies were also identified (a smaller exponent in Gutenberg-Richter law, a stationary behavior in the aftershocks rates for long times and a double power-law relationship in productivity law) and related to the different loading condition. Our results thus corroborate to elucidate the parallel between seismic laws and fracture experiments caused by a more complex loading condition that also occurs in natural and induced seismicity (such as ...

  12. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications

  13. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief ud Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin (AR based electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorporation of AC particles leads to systematic change in the morphology of composites especially the formation of porous structure. The dielectric measurements show that 30 wt% AC loading composite display higher relative permittivity value (~79 compared to pristine AR (~5. Further, the porous structure, electrical conductivity, and permittivity value contribute towards EMI shielding effectiveness value of −36 dB (attenuation of >99.9% of incident radiation for these composites, thereby demonstrating their suitability for making efficient EMI shielding coatings.

  14. Kinetics studies of d-glucose hydrogenation over activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muthanna J.

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic hydrogenation of d-glucose to produce d-sorbitol was studied in a three-phase laboratory scale reactor. The hydrogenation reactions were performed on activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst in the temperature range 25-65°C and in a constant pressure of 1 atm. The kinetic data were modeled by zero, first and second-order reaction equations. In the operating regimes studied, the results show that the hydrogenation reaction was of a first order with respect to d-glucose concentration. Also the activation energy of the reaction was determined, and found to be 12.33 kJ mole-1. A set of experiment was carried out to test the deactivation of the catalyst, and the results show that the deactivation is slow with the ability of using the catalyst for several times with a small decrease in product yield.

  15. Copaifera cf. langsdorfii Desf. AND Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Wild. CHARCOAL ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Rodrigues Ribeiro Batista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Species discrimination by charcoal analysis is possible, because the wood anatomical structure remains almost intact after carbonization process. Studies in this area are rare and directed to paleoecology and paleoetnobotany. Thus, this study aimed to characterize anatomically the carbonized wood of Copaifera cf. langsdorfii Desf. and Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Wild., proceeding from north region of Mato Grosso state, in order to provide information to manage its illegal commerce. From each species were carbonized ten samples with dimensions of 2 x 2 x 5 cm in muffle furnace, in stage program and highest temperature of 450°C for 30 minutes, for seven hours. Final temperature applied does not change anatomical structure from both species, allowing its differentiation. The crystals formatremained without alterations, being visible little split.

  16. Impact of Plasma Surface Treatment on Bamboo Charcoal/silver Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, K.; Vijayalakshmi, K. A.; Karthikeyan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) accompanied silver (Ag) nanocomposite is synthesized through sol-gel method. The produced BC/Ag nanocomposite was surface modified by air and oxygen plasma treatments. Silver ions (Ag+) will serve to improve the antibacterial activity as well as the surface area of BC. Plasma treatment has improved the surface functional groups, crystalline intensity and antibacterial activity of the prepared nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that Ag nanoparticles have good agreement with BC and the particle size has a mean diameter of 20-40nm. We observe the carboxyl functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover surface area and adsorption were analyzed by using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  17. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue;

    Despite the flotation method allows for the systematic recovery of plant macroremains by processing large amounts of sediment, it is known that water processing can affect plant macroremains leading to their hyper fragmentation or complete destruction as soon as coming into contact with water....... In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120.......5 l) were recovered. The aim of the work is to evaluate if water processing affects similarly all of taxa or instead, differences exists in the preservation of certain types of remains. To evaluate this, taxonomic and taphonomic analyses were carried out, including the recording of alterations...

  18. Elimination of manganese-54 in waste water by oxine-impregnated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese ion in solution has been adsorbed in a column packed with oxine-impregnated activated charcoal. In an initial stage, the distribution of Mn ion along the column follows a first order kinetic equation, and the apparent rate constant was determined. With an additional supply of the solution, however, the distribution tends to deviate from the first order kinetic plots. A bed depth/service time relation has been determined experimentally. By introducing a concept of the effective ''adsorption capacity'' and ''adsorption rate constant of the adsorbent, an equation has been presented for estimating the feed application time for breakthrough at any given experimental conditions. With the assumption of a simple first order kinetic adsorption, a bed depth/service time relation was also determined by a numerical calculation, for further examining the characteristics of the relation. (author)

  19. Rainforest burning and the global carbon budget: Biomass, combustion efficiency, and charcoal formation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Leal, Niwton; Fernandes, Fernando Moreira

    1993-01-01

    Biomass present before and after burning was measured in forest cleared for pasture in a cattle ranch (Fazenda Dimona) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Aboveground dry weight biomass loading averaged 265 t ha-1 (standard deviation (SD) = 110, n = 6 quadrats) at Fazenda Dimona, which corresponds to approximately 311 t ha-1 total dry weight biomass. A five-category visual classification at 200 points showed highly variable burn quality. Postburn aboveground biomass loading was evaluated by cutting and weighing of 100 m2 quadrats and by line intersect sampling. Quadrats had a mean dry weight of 187 t ha-1 (SD = 69, n = 10), a 29.3% reduction from the preburn mean in the same clearing. Line intersect estimates in 1.65 km of transects indicated that 265 m3 ha-1 (approximately 164 t ha-1 of aboveground dry matter) survived burning. Using carbon contents measured for different biomass components (all ˜50% carbon) and assuming a carbon content of 74.8% for charcoal (from other studies near Manaus), the destructive measurements imply a 27.6% reduction of aboveground carbon pools. Charcoal composed 2.5% of the dry weight of the remains in the postburn destructive quadrats and 2.8% of the volume in the line intersect transects. Thus approximately 2.7% of the preburn aboveground carbon stock was converted to charcoal, substantially less than is generally assumed in global carbon models. The findings confirm high values for biomass in central Amazonia. High variability indicates the need for further studies in many localities and for making maximum use of less laborious indirect methods of biomass estimation. While indirect methods are essential for regional estimates of average biomass, only direct weighing such as that reported here can yield information on combustion efficiency and charcoal formation. Both high biomass and low percentage of charcoal formation suggest the significant potential contribution of forest burning to global climate changes from CO2 and trace gases.

  20. A statistical analysis of the auto thermal fast pyrolysis of elephant grass in fluidized bed reactor based on produced charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents and discusses the results of product yields, higher heating value, proximate and ultimate analyses of the charcoal obtained in the Fast Pyrolysis Plant – PPR-200. It is a fast pyrolysis plant with a biomass feed capacity of 200 kg per hour, owned by Unicamp. Elephant grass with an average particle diameter of 2 mm and 12% of moisture was used as raw material. The PPR-200 facility operated under different conditions. Air was used as fluidization agent. This study tries to increase the knowledge of the PPR-200 plant operation in fast pyrolysis regimen. Experimental tests were carried out considering two independent factors: fluidization air and stoichiometric air ratio and the height of the fixed bed. In the pyrolysis process, a charcoal with a high carbon content is obtained as well as the release of oxygen from the biomass. Experimental results showed that the favorable operating conditions for oxygen release from elephant grass and carbon concentration in the charcoal are a fixed fluidized bed of 207 mm height and 8% of supplied air to the stoichiometric air ratio. Under these optimized conditions, the fluidized bed temperature resulted to be 650 °C on average and the yield production of charcoal in relation to the biomass fed (dry and ash free, d.a.f.) was of 14 wt.%. The charcoal produced under such conditions presented 92.4% of elemental carbon, and 2.85% of elemental oxygen. - Highlights: •Pyrolysis of elephant grass was studied in a fluidized bed reactor. •The product yields were evaluated. •The composition of the solid products obtained was analyzed. •The influence of three variables was studied statistically

  1. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  2. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  3. CHARCOAL PRICE ANALYSIS IN FOUR REGIONS OF MINAS GERAIS STATE-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal, that is used as term-reducer of iron ore,for producing pig iron. This study analyzed the time series of charcoal prices in four regions of Minas Gerais State. For the analysisof the price series, the SARIMA model was used, for finding a model that better forecasts prices for the four studied areas. The mostappropriate models were chosen using graphical analyses of the standardized residues, autocorrelation functions and partialautocorrelations, stochastic tests and criteria of evaluation of the order of the model. It concluded that: the differences of charcoalprices occur, basically, due to the geographical location; the analyses of domain of the time and domain of the frequency showed thatthere is difference in the price series of the four studied areas; the areas of Sete Lagoas and Belo Horizonte, giving that they are closelylocated, possess similar prices and they generated similar model; the studied areas presented differentiated models and supplied goodadjustments for the observed series. The best models were SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Belo Horizonte; SARIMA (2,0,0x(2,1,212,for Divinópolis; SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Sete Lagoas and SARIMA (1,1,1x(1,1,112, for Vertentes. Such models presented in aparsimonious way, containing a small number of parameters. All models SARIMA (p,d,q (P,D,Qs, for the four studied areas,presented white noise and supplied adequate price forecast.

  4. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  5. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine......, a standard dose of 50 g of either of the two tested activated charcoals adsorbed a sufficient amount of paracetamol to be beneficial in the treatment of the majority of overdoses of this drug. For both types of activated charcoal, with or without ethanol, there was no significant difference in the adsorption...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7...

  6. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  7. Adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal: influence of temperature on the kinetics of the adsorption process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QADEER Riaz

    2005-01-01

    Influence of temperature on ruthenium adsorption on activated charcoal from 3 mol/L HNO3 solutions was investigated in the temperature range of 288 K to 308 K. It was observed that the rise in temperature increases the adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal and follows the kinetics of first order rate law with rate constant values 0.0564-0.0640 min-1 in the temperature range of 288 K to 308 K respectively. The activation energy for the adsorption process was found to be 1.3806kJ/mol. Various thermodynamics quantities namely △H, △S and △G were computed from the equilibrium constant KC values. The results indicated a positive heat of adsorption, a positive △S and a negative △G.

  8. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  9. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  10. Records of natural fire and climate history during the last three glacial-interglacial cycles around the South China Sea Charcoal record from the ODP 1144

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The history of natural fire and its relationship to climate during the last three gla cial-interglacial cycles in the Southern coast areas of China and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea (SCS) are discussed based on the statistic study of charcoal particles and associated pollen data from ODP 1144 Site (20° 3′N, 117° 25′E, 2037 m in water depth). Accord ing to the results of the charcoal and pollen study, the sediments from the upper 225 m are divided into 8 zones (C1-8), which might be correlated with the Marine Isotope Stage 1-8 (MIS1-8)respectively. Our study indicates that during the last glacial period (MIS2, 4), the influx of charcoal particle was much higher than that from the interglacial period, suggesting strong occurrence of natural fire and dry climate. During MIS 6 and MIS 8 (C6, C8), although the influx of fine charcoal particles was quite high, the influx of the coarse and medium charcoal particle were much low,which might be due to the smaller source area of fire probably resulting from the limited exposure of the continental shelf before MIS5. During the interglacial period (MIS1, 5, 7), the influxes of charcoal particles were much lower, implying dropping of intensity of the natural fire and then a humid climate. Another reason is that the continental shelf was submerged into the sea during the interglacial periods, and the source areas of fire were reduced then. Although the influx of the fine charcoal particles was much lower during MIS3, the influx of the coarse and medium charcoal par ticles were almost equal to those of MIS4 (C4), which suggests that the intensity of the natural fire remained quite high and the climate was considerably dry during that period.

  11. Study of Single Catalytic Events at Copper-in-Charcoal: Localization of Click Activity Through Subdiffraction Observation of Single Catalytic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decan, Matthew R; Scaiano, Juan C

    2015-10-15

    Single molecule fluorescence microscopy reveals that copper-in-charcoal--a high performance click catalyst- has remarkably few catalytic sites, with 90% of the charcoal particles being inactive, and for the catalytic ones the active sites represent a minute fraction (∼0.003%) of the surface. The intermittent nature of the catalytic events enables subdiffraction resolution and mapping of the catalytic sites. PMID:26722775

  12. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  13. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Devesh Chand Thakur; Vaishnavi Akunuri; Priyanka Mummaneni; Sujatha Christopher; Nanjundiaha Shashidhara; Venkatesh Thuppil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of ag...

  14. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Inês Mussatto; Inês Conceição Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract). Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice ...

  15. Comparison of charcoal- and starch-based media for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species to macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones.

    OpenAIRE

    Pendland, S L; Martin, S J; Chen, C.; Schreckenberger, P C; Danziger, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    We compared growth characteristics of 46 Legionella strains grown on buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE alpha) agar and buffered starch yeast extract (BSYE) agar and MICs of macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones for these organisms. Growth was poor and not reproducible on BSYE agar. Growth was excellent on BCYE alpha, and MICs were easy to interpret. BCYE alpha is superior to BSYE for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species by agar dilution.

  16. Dye-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for differentiation of members of the family Legionellaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, R M; Brown, A; Garrity, G M

    1981-01-01

    The addition of 0.001% bromocresol purple and 0.001% bromothymol blue to buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar allowed differentiation between members of the family Legionellaceae. On this medium, Legionella pneumophila grew as relatively flat, pale green colonies, whereas Tatlockia micdadei (gen. nov., comb. nov., Pittsburgh pneumonia agent) produced blue-gray colonies. Fluoribacter spp. (gen. nov., atypical Legionella-like organisms) developed glistening colonies which were brighter green th...

  17. Microscopic charcoal and tar (CHAT particles in peat: a 6500-year record of palaeo-fires in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Malmgren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat stratigraphies of eleven raised bogs in southern Sweden were investigated. Measurements included the occurrence of charcoal and various tar particles. Most of the particles found were microscopic, i.e. 5–100 µm in diameter. Two distinctly different groups of particles were distinguished: (A charred fragments of plant tissue and (B objects formed from tar, which were classified into five sub-groups on the basis of morphology. Both charcoal and tar are indicative of mire and forest fires. We suggest that it is possible to use the different groups of particles as fire regime indicators. Hence, the high frequency of charcoal and tar (CHAT in the lower parts of the stratigraphies, i.e. in the lower strongly decomposed fen and carr peats that were formed before ca. 4000 cal 14C BP, could be indicative of intense and frequent local fires. The decreasing abundance of CHAT and the lower relative share of Type A particles within the lower strongly decomposed Sphagnum peat ca. 4000–2500 cal 14C BP signify a transition from local to regional fires. With a few exceptions, the uppermost weakly decomposed ombrotrophic peats formed after ca. 2500 cal 14C BP, in which both charcoal and tar are rare, indicate a period of low fire frequency at both local and regional scales. There is no regional variation in the lower material, and it seems that wildfires were common phenomena throughout southern Sweden during the first few thousand years after peat formation began 6–8000 years ago. From a climatological point of view, the mass occurrence of CHAT in the lower parts of the profiles indicates a warm and dry Mid Holocene with frequent and widespread wildfires, and a moist and cool Late Holocene with more sporadic fires. Spectral analysis of the entire dataset shows significant periodicities of 610, 70, 30, 21, 17 and 14 years, the two most significant being 14 and 70 years.

  18. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Huang; Dongwei Li; Liu Kexiang; Yuewei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the...

  19. Determination of the structural and chemisorption characteristics of granulated active charcoal on the basis of coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Dragan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater purification and the acquirement of drinking water from water streams that are in most cases recipients of various industrial plants, present a significant problem nowadays. The structural characteristics of granulated active charcoal (GAC obtained by the carbonization of coconut shells and activated by steam are presented in this paper. The established kinetics of suspending cyanide from aqueous solution using GAC impregnated with copper(II acetate were studied and a mathematical model estabkusged by a regression - correlation analysis.

  20. Activated charcoal with high nitrogen conent and zero chromium, method for obtaining same and multiple uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Alonso, Enrique; Ruiz Bobes, Begoña; Rodríguez Gil, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a novel activated charcoal which is characterised by having high nitrogen content, and to the method for obtaining same from solid industrial waste from vegetable tanning of bovine hides, or from tannin-free non-tanned bovine hide, which has been defatted and dehydrated with acetone, said method including the following steps: grinding up the starting material after drying same if necessary in order to obtain a precursor, subjecting the precursor to thermo...

  1. Macro-Particle Charcoal C Content following Prescribed Burning in a Mixed-Conifer Forest, Sierra Nevada, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wiechmann, Morgan L.; Hurteau, Matthew D; Kaye, Jason P.; Jessica R. Miesel

    2015-01-01

    Fire suppression and changing climate have resulted in increased large wildfire frequency and severity in the western United States, causing carbon cycle impacts. Forest thinning and prescribed burning reduce high-severity fire risk, but require removal of biomass and emissions of carbon from burning. During each fire a fraction of the burning vegetation and soil organic matter is converted into charcoal, a relatively stable carbon form. We sought to quantify the effects of pre-fire fuel load...

  2. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  3. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  4. Micropropagation of orchid hybrids in knudson culture medium with addiction of vitamins of ms culture medium, benzilaminopurine and activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The genera Cattleya and Brassavola, naturally occurring in Brazil, are widely used in hybridization to obtain better shape of the lip in the hybrids. This demand creates the need to develop more effective propagation to meet the market and contributing to avoid the extinction of these plants. This study aimed to test BAP concentrations, activated charcoal, culture medium Knudson and culture medium MS’s vitamins in subculture of Brassocattleya Pastoral x Laeliocattleya Amber Glow orchids plants. There were used seedlings from in vitro germination, with 1-1.5 cm length, undergoing standardization in the culture medium Knudson for three months. The experiment were performed using concentrations of culture medium Knudson (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200%, combined with concentrations of culture medium MS’s vitamins (0%, 50%, 100% and 200% and BAP concentrations (0; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 versus activated charcoal (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, incorporated in a culture medium Knudson. In each flask of 250 mL containing approximately 50 mL of culture medium, four seedlings were placed under aseptic conditions. It was concluded that can use 129% of Knudson, supplemented with 137.5 mg L-1 activated charcoal, 104% of vitamin MS medium without addition of BAP as the best composition for culture medium of hybrid orchid in vitro propagation. The Knudson culture medium does not promote increase in the root system.

  5. Biosorption of lead (II) from water using heartwood charcoal of Areca catechu: equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H. P.; Chakravarty, P.

    2013-09-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the removal of Pb(II) from water by using heartwood charcoal of Areca catechu (HCAC). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties at different contact times (5-30 min), concentrations (0.1-10 mg/L), amounts of adsorbents (0.1-0.6 g), and in a range of pH 2-7. Most favorable biosorption condition was found at pH 5.0, 0.5 g biomass dosage and at 25 min equilibrium time. The experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Freundlich isotherm was found to well represent the measured sorption data implying HCAC has heterogeneous surface. Lagergren first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model were used to analyze the biosorption data; it was observed that the pseudo-second-order model best represented the relationship. Scanning electron microscopy image and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were also incorporated in support of the study. The result shows that HCAC has the potentiality to remove Pb(II) from water.

  6. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. PMID:27313645

  7. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent.

  8. Carbon dioxide captured by multi-walled carbon nanotube and activated charcoal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available this study, the equilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal (AC and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated. Experiments were performed at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The obtained results indicated that the equilibrium uptakes of CO2 by both adsorbents increased with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. In spite of lower specific surface area, the maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by MWCNT at 298K and 40 bars were twice of CO2 capture by AC (15 mmol.g-1 compared to 7.93 mmol.g-1. The higher CO2 captured by MWCNT can be attributed to its higher pore volume and specific structure of MWCN T such as hollowness and light mass which had greater influence than specific surface area. The experimental data were analyzed by means of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. Following a simple acidic treatment procedure increased marginally CO2 capture by MWCNT over entire range of pressure, while for AC this effect appeared at higher pressures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption were evaluated based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation showed the physical nature of adsorption mechanism. The high amount of CO2 capture by MWCNT renders it as a promising carrier for practical applications such as gas separation.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  10. Microbial Contamination of Ice Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration Systems in a City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Although microbial contamination of ice machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of ice produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of ice. We compared microbial contamination in ice samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the ice machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from ice machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the ice machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the ice was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. Ice machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for ice contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of ice in healthcare facilities are necessary.

  11. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  12. Effects of nano bamboo charcoal on PAHs-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bojia; Tao, Xueqin; Huang, Ting; Lu, Guining; Zhou, Zhili; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Nano bamboo charcoal (NBC) has been commonly used in the production of textiles, plastics, paint, etc. However, little is known regarding their effects towards the microorganisms. The effects of NBC on phenanthrene degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B were investigated in the present study. Results showed that the addition of NBC could improve the phenanthrene removal by Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, with removal efficiencies increased by 10.29-18.56% in comparison to the control at 24h, and phenanthrene was almost completely removed at 48h. With the presence of low dose of NBC (20 and 50mgL(-1)), strain GY2B displayed a better growth at 6h, suggesting that NBC was beneficial to the growth of GY2B and thus resulting in the quick removal of phenanthrene from water. However, the growth of strain GY2B in high dose of NBC (200mgL(-1)) was inhibited at 6h, and the inhibition could be attenuated and eliminated after 12h. NBC-effected phenanthrene solubility experiment suggested that NBC makes a negligible contribution to the solubilization of phenanthrene in water. Results of electronic microscopy analysis (SEM and TEM) indicated NBC may interact with the cell membrane, causing the enhanced membrane permeability and then NBC adsorbed on the membrane would enter into the cells. The findings of this work would provide important information for the future usage and long-term environmental risk assessment of NBC. PMID:26655231

  13. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  14. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, B

    2000-10-26

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility.

  15. A comparative study of charcoal gasification in two types of spouted bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Salam, P. [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Bhattacharya, S.C. [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)] e-mail: bhatta@ait.ac.th

    2006-03-01

    Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and air flow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported. Gasification of solid fuels in a spouted bed, which has certain potential advantages over other fluid bed configurations, appears to be an under-exploited technique so far. Central jet distributors are the most commonly used in the experimental studies that has been reported in the literature. Circular slit distributor is a new concept. This paper presents results of a comparative experimental study on air gasification of charcoal in central jet and circular slit inert sand spouted beds. The experiments were carried for an equivalence ratio of 0.25. The effect of spouting velocity and type of the distributor on the gasification performance were discussed. The steady state dense bed temperature varied between 979 and 1183 deg C for central jet spouted bed and between 964 and 1235 deg C for circular slit spouted bed. At higher spouting velocities, the gasification efficiency of the circular slit spouted bed was slightly more compared with that of central jet spouted bed.

  16. A comparative study of charcoal gasification in two types of spouted bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, P.A.; Bhattacharya, S.C. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). School of Environmental, Resources and Development

    2006-03-01

    Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and airflow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported. Gasification of solid fuels in a spouted bed, which has certain potential advantages over other fluid bed configurations, appears to be an under-exploited technique so far. Central jet distributors are the most commonly used in the experimental studies that has been reported in the literature. Circular slit distributor is a new concept. This paper presents results of a comparative experimental study on air gasification of charcoal in central jet and circular slit inert sand spouted beds. The experiments were carried for an equivalence ratio of 0.25. The effect of spouting velocity and type of the distributor on the gasification performance were discussed. The steady state dense bed temperature varied between 979 and 1183{sup o}C for central jet spouted bed and between 964 and 1235{sup o}C for circular slit spouted bed. At higher spouting velocities, the gasification efficiency of the circular slit spouted bed was slightly more compared with that of central jet spouted bed. (author)

  17. Accuracy improvement in leak detection of charcoal adsorbers by halide pulse integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Due to the phaseout of the supply of R-11, which is used as a charcoal adsorber leak-testing agent, several new substitutes have been suggested and tested. Pulse testing using agents with higher boiling points produced longer response times (due to prolonged evaporation and dispersion times). This longer evaporation time alters the pulse shape and lowers the peak concentration. Since the dispersion and evaporation time under different ambient condition are unpredictable, the peak concentration becomes unpredictable as well. One way to eliminate this unpredictability is to determine the area under the curve (of concentration versus time) after test-agent injection rather than the peak concentration (height). This value should be independent of the injection time and evaporation rate as long as the volume of the test agent injected remains constant. Thus, tests were performed with a constant volume injection of test agent but with different injection times and evaporation rates. The area under the curve of concentration versus time was then compared with the peak concentration for each injection. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Increased collagen accumulation in eggshell membrane after feeding with dietary wood charcoal powder and vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Yamauchi, Koh-En

    2013-01-01

    Collagen in an eggshell membrane is important for egg preservation, medical burn treatment and manufacturing of cosmetics. Because collagen in the membrane is little, it is a need to improve the accumulation in the membrane to develop these applications. Wood charcoal powder with vinegar (WCV) is a natural substance that improves poultry production. In hen fed with WCV, total collagen in the eggshell membrane increased with an increase in dietary WCV and significantly increased in the 1.0% WCV group (p slow Haugh unit decrease during egg storage and the decrease correlated with total collagen in eggshell membrane. In intact chicken, type I and type III collagens were found in different specific locations in the oviduct but not in the membrane. The finding that collagen accumulates in the eggshell membrane under WCV feeding suggests that feeding chicken with WCV will permit long-term storage of eggs in poultry production, and the increased volume of total collagen will facilitate its application in medicine and cosmetics. PMID:23972401

  19. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. PMID:12628781

  20. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m2 g−1 was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m2 g−1. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm−2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g−1). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg−1 and 1.63 kW kg−1, respectively, were achieved for EDLC

  1. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  2. Pre-industrial charcoal production in southern Brandenburg - A landscape laboratory for studies on the fate of terrestrial organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, Eberhard; Rösler, Horst; Schopper, Franz; Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    Within the scope of the intensive landscape changes caused by modern lignite mining in southern Brandenburg und northern Saxony (East Germany) large-scale archaeological surveys and excavations are carried out to get information about past land uses and historic to prehistoric cultures. The hunger for energy of modern society leads us to a historical case of energy production: On the Jänschwalde hill area (Jänschwalder Höhe) one of the biggest archaeological investigated charcoal production areas - at least in Germany - was discovered. More than 400 production units (charcoal piles) were excavated during the last years. Approximately 4,000,000 square meters of woodland were necessary to charge those piles. The charcoal was probably used nearby in the iron works of Peitz where bog iron ore was smelted since 1567. The clearing of huge parts of the forest certainly had major environmental impacts and changed the character of the landscape tremendously - not only for the short-term but also on the long-run. At least for a while vegetation was substantially missing in the landscape and the open land was used as farmland although the soils are poor in nutrients and very sandy. Wind-blown sediments covering the charcoal piles traces prove that clearing and agricultural use has induced soil erosion and eolian remobilisation of Quaternary sands. By now the piles are not well dated. One of the main targets of the ongoing investigation is to build up a chronological framework of the local charcoal production. These findings have to be correlated with the major phases of the landscape dynamics which are documented by the relicts of soil erosive landforms, human-induced eolian sediments, and buried soils (palaeosoils). The Jänschwalde area may be used as an ideal test site to study the biogeochemical fate of organic carbon in soils and soil sediments in order to improve our understanding of the abiotic and biotic processes responsible for the cycling of terrestrial carbon

  3. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  4. Neem (Azadirachta indica in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK, cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatile fraction (NIM-76, bitter fraction, neem isoprenoids containing 10% azadirachtins and a novel neem bitter formulation at 1 per cent concentration were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. (Holliday and Punithalingam, 1970, the pycnidia stage of Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub. Butl. the causal agent of charcoal rot/stem blight, seed rot, pre and post-emergence damping off. M. phaseolina is responsible for causing extensive global losses to various crops. The pathogen is both seed- and soil-borne. Among the enriched fractions, both NIM-76 and neem bitter fraction had shown higher efficacy over the parent coldpressed neem oil. The highest percent of inhibition was observed in case of the formulation NEEM 5 EC (91.87% followed by azadirachtin (81.25%, neem bitters (75.0, NIM-76 (61.25, HENSK (43.12, odourfree neem oil (56.25%, cold pressed unsaturated oil (50%, saturated fat (25%, lipid associates (56.25%. Thus the formulation NEEM 5 EC, azadirachtin and the odour-free neem bitter could find application in seed treatment to control a very common pathogen in tropics.

  5. Information Accessibility of the Charcoal Burning Suicide Method in Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijin Cheng

    Full Text Available There has been a marked rise in suicide by charcoal burning (CB in some East Asian countries but little is known about its incidence in mainland China. We examined media-reported CB suicides and the availability of online information about the method in mainland China.We extracted and analyzed data for i the characteristics and trends of fatal and nonfatal CB suicides reported by mainland Chinese newspapers (1998-2014; ii trends and geographic variations in online searches using keywords relating to CB suicide (2011-2014; and iii the content of Internet search results.109 CB suicide attempts (89 fatal and 20 nonfatal were reported by newspapers in 13 out of the 31 provinces or provincial-level-municipalities in mainland China. There were increasing trends in the incidence of reported CB suicides and in online searches using CB-related keywords. The province-level search intensities were correlated with CB suicide rates (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.43 [95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.68]. Two-thirds of the web links retrieved using the search engine contained detailed information about the CB suicide method, of which 15% showed pro-suicide attitudes, and the majority (86% did not encourage people to seek help.The incidence of CB suicide was based on newspaper reports and likely to be underestimated.Mental health and suicide prevention professionals in mainland China should be alert to the increased use of this highly lethal suicide method. Better surveillance and intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented.

  6. 《史记》“入山作炭”辨析%“Making Charcoal in Mountains”in Records of History:Making Charcoal or Mining Coal?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴国生

    2015-01-01

    学界对《史记·外戚世家》“入山作炭”的记载有“入山采煤”和“入山烧炭”两种解释,其考释论证都有其合理性,但相关论据多不确指,至目前仍未形成普遍认可的结论。本文从对两种观点的考释论证的分析出发,结合史料记载和汉代生产实际,对“入山作炭”进行考释分析,认为《史记》“入山作炭”即为“入山采煤”,其“卧岸下”“岸崩”的记载也是正确的。%In the academic circle,there are two different explanations about “making charcoal in mountains”in The Biography of Emperors’Female -side Relatives of Records of History.One is mining coal in mountains,and the other is making charcoal in mountains.Both of the textual researches and argumentations are reasonable,but the related grounds of argument are indefinite, and the conclusion has not been agreed.Combined with the historical accounts and production practice in Han Dynasty,the pa-per makes a detailed anaysis of the two views,and conclude that the “making charcoal in mountains”in Records of History is mining coal in mountains.And records on the landslide are correct too.

  7. Long-term desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoals loaded with CH3I, under simulated post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term (1100 h) desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoal filters, loaded with CH3I, has been studied under simulated post-LOCA conditions. A charcoal filter bed (20 cm long, 5.0 cm in diameter), which was pre-equilibrated with air at 353 K and a relative humidity of 72%, was exposed to 1.7 g of CH3I (containing 320 MBq of 131I) over a period of one hour. The 131I released was monitored continuously during loading and during the 1100-h purging period. The activity distribution along the length of the charcoal filter was also monitored during purging, using an external γ-ray detector. Iodine-131 released rates (Bq.h-1) as a function of purging time (in hours) were: 2.3 x 106 t/sup -6.26 +/- 0.32/ (for t = 1-5 h) and 2.0 x 103 t/sup -0.64 +/- 0.08/ (for t = 5-1100 h). The 131I activity distribution along the length of the charcoal bed decreased exponentially from inlet to outlet. Also, a small broadening and displacement (towards the outlet) of the initial 131I distribution were observed during purging. These data show that in post-accident environments deep-bed charcoal filters impregnated with KI are effective barriers to both the short-term and long-term release of CH3131I

  8. [Movement-adsorption and its mechanism of Cd in soil under combining effects of electrokinetics and a new type of bamboo charcoal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hui; Luo, Qi-Shi

    2007-08-01

    The characteristics of migration and its influencing factor of cadmium in sandy loam soil by uniform electrokinetics as well as the adsorption property by a new material-bamboo charcoal were investigated through bench-scale experiments, and the feasibility of using electrokinetic technique combined with the newly developed bamboo charcoal for remediation of cadmium contaminated soils was analyzed as well. The results show that the bamboo charcoal is good adsorption material which has comparably strong adsorption effect on Cd, bearing potential in future use, which could be simulated by both Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.96). The migration rates of cadmium in sandy loam were high up to 0. 6786 - 0.6875cm/h under an electric gradient of 1.0V/cm, depending upon the concentration of cadmium and the distribution of electric field density. Electrokinetics effectively transported the heavy metal in the soil. In the new electrokinetic tech combining the bamboo charcoal with the same electric gradient above under the polarity reversal period of 48 hours, the cadmium in the soil could be wiped off with high efficiency (removal efficiency 79.6% in 12 days) and the pH together with water content could be well retained. The electric current in the process changed periodically according to the reversal. As a new technique, the electrokinetic movement-bamboo charcoal adsorption holds high potential in future use. PMID:17926419

  9. A facile synthesis of Fe3O4-charcoal composite for the sorption of a hazardous dye from aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Juned K; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we synthesized Fe3O4-charcoal composite using chemical precipitation technique and utilized it for the sorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The synthesized composite was characterized by Infra-red spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The composite depicts absorption bands conforming to Fe-O, -OH, CO, and C-O vibrations. The composite was mesoporous in nature with a surface area of 387.30 m(2) g(-1). The observed diffraction planes correspond to face-centered cubic Fe3O4 and disordered graphitic carbon. The spherical Fe3O4 particles (average diameter ∼13.8 nm) were uniformly distributed in the carbon matrix of the charcoal. The saturation and remanent magnetizations demonstrate its potential for magnetic separation and reuse. The composite showed dye sorption capacities of 97.49 mg g(-1) and 90.85 mg g(-1) in batch and fixed-bed system. Pseudo-second order kinetics and Temkin isotherm best represented the sorption data. The sorption process was endothermic, spontaneous, and administered by electrostatic, π-π dispersive interactions, film, and intraparticle diffusion. Microwave irradiations followed by methanol elution regenerated the dye-loaded composite with nearly no loss in sorption capacity. The recovery of energy and potential utilization of bottom ash enhances the prospective of Fe3O4-charcoal composite for industrial applications. PMID:26320009

  10. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  11. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email: jmarcelo@cetesb.sp.gov.br; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  12. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  13. Charcoal and Total Carbon in Soils from Foothills Shrublands to Subalpine Forests in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sanford

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperate conifer forests in the Colorado Front Range are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term soil charcoal C (CC pools result from the combined effects of wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. We measured CC pools in surface soils (0–10 cm at mid-slope positions on east facing aspects in five continuous foothills shrubland and conifer forest types. We found a significant statistical effect of vegetation type on CC pools along this ecological gradient, but not a linear pattern increasing with elevation gain. There is a weak bimodal pattern of CC gain with elevation between foothills shrublands (1.2 mg CC ha−1 and the lower montane, ponderosa pine (1.5 mg CC ha−1 and Douglas-fir (1.5 mg CC ha−1 forest types prior to a mid-elevation decline in upper montane lodgepole pine forests (1.2 mg CC ha−1 before increasing again in the spruce/subalpine fir forests (1.5 mg CC ha−1. We propose that CC forms and accumulates via unique ecological conditions such as fire regime. The range of soil CC amounts and ratios of CC to total SOC are comparable to but lower than other regional estimates.

  14. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  15. A novel application of modified bamboo charcoal to treat oil-containing wastewater and its modified mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cui; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Shucong; Feng, Yi; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Three conventional coalescence filters including walnut shells (WS), polystyrene resin particles (PR), and quartz sand (QS) were compared with bamboo charcoal (BC) to treat oily wastewater in a coalescence system process. The results showed the order of oil removal efficiency was QS>BC>WS>PR. To improve the oil removal efficiency of BC further, six types of modified BC were prepared. The results showed that the modified BC using silane coupling agent (SCA) significantly increased oil removal efficiency, but the other types (including the use of NaOH, HNO3, H2O2, FeCl3 and ultrasound) of modified BC exhibited nearly the same level of efficiency as that of pure BC. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle for modified BC were measured to reveal the modified mechanism. It was found that the higher oil removal efficiency of the SCA-modified BC occurred due to the changed crystal structure of the BC and the increase in its surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in higher oil removal efficiency. Therefore, modified bamboo charcoal is an attractive filter candidate for oil removal in a coalescence system process. PMID:25521135

  16. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arao, Tomohito, E-mail: arao@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: > Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). > Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. > MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  17. Property Analyses of Coconut Charcoal Modified Polyester Fiber%椰炭改性涤纶纤维性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧娟; 曹秋玲; 申鼎

    2012-01-01

    Spinnability of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber was discussed, Appearance, composition, strength and elongation, hygroscopi city and elastic index of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber were tested. The result shows that the cross section of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber is four leaf shape and longitudinal groove. The infrared spectrum peak shape and peak position of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber are consistent with common polyester fiber and bamboo charcoal modified polyester fiber. Initial modulus, breaking tenacity of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber in dry state and wet state are lower than that of common polyester fiber. Breaking elongation rate of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber is same with common polyester fiber, the moisture regain and mass specific resistance are higher than that of common polyester fiber. It is considered that coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber should be pre-treated,certain processing technology measures should be adopted to ensure spinning successfully.%探讨椰炭改性涤纶纤维的可纺性.对椰炭改性涤纶纤维的外貌、组成、强伸性能、吸湿性能、弹性指标等进行了测试.结果表明:椰炭改性涤纶纤维横截面近似为四叶形,纵向有明显的沟槽;红外光谱与普通涤纶纤维、竹炭改性涤纶纤维的红外光谱峰形、峰位一致;干态、湿态断裂强度和初始模量均低于普通涤纶纤维;断裂伸长率与普通涤纶纤维相当;回潮率和质量比电阻高于普通涤纶纤维.认为:应对椰炭改性涤纶纤维进行适当预处理并采取一定工艺技术措施才能保证其顺利生产.

  18. Eastern Andean environmental and climate synthesis for the last 2000 years BP from terrestrial pollen and charcoal records of Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, G. D.; Echeverria, M. E.; Mancini, M. V.; Bianchi, M. M.; Marcos, M. A.; Bamonte, F. P.

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SWW) constitute an important zonal circulation system that dominates the dynamics of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate. Little is known about climatic changes in the Southern South America in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere due to the low density of proxy records, and adequate chronology and sampling resolution to address environmental changes of the last 2000 years. Since 2009, new pollen and charcoal records from bog and lakes in northern and southern Patagonia at the east side of the Andes have been published with an adequate calibration of pollen assemblages related to modern vegetation and ecological behaviour. In this work we improve the chronological control of some eastern Andean previously published sequences and integrate pollen and charcoal dataset available east of the Andes to interpret possible environmental and SWW variability at centennial time scales. Through the analysis of modern and past hydric balance dynamics we compare these scenarios with other western Andean SWW sensitive proxy records for the last 2000 years. Due to the distinct precipitation regimes that exist between Northern (40-45° S) and Southern Patagonia (48-52° S) pollen sites locations, shifts on latitudinal and strength of the SWW results in large changes on hydric availability on forest and steppe communities. Therefore, we can interpret fossil pollen dataset as changes on paleohydric balance at every single site by the construction of paleohydric indices and comparison to charcoal records during the last 2000 cal yrs BP. Our composite pollen-based Northern and Southern Patagonia indices can be interpreted as changes in latitudinal variation and intensity of the SWW respectively. Dataset integration suggest poleward SWW between 2000 and 750 cal yrs BP and northward-weaker SWW during the Little Ice Age (750-200 cal yrs BP). These SWW variations are synchronous to Patagonian fire activity major shifts. We found an in phase

  19. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  20. The oxidative potential of PM10 from coal, briquettes and wood charcoal burnt in an experimental domestic stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Longyi; Hou, Cong; Geng, Chunmei; Liu, Junxia; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Jones, Tim; Zhao, Chengmei; BéruBé, Kelly

    2016-02-01

    Coal contains many potentially harmful trace elements. Coal combustion in unvented stoves, which is common in most parts of rural China, can release harmful emissions into the air that when inhaled cause health issues. However, few studies have dealt specifically with the toxicological mechanisms of the particulate matter (PM) released by coal and other solid fuel combustion. In this paper, PM10 particles that were generated during laboratory stove combustion of raw powdered coal, clay-mixed honeycomb briquettes, and wood charcoal were analysed for morphology, trace element compositions, and toxicity as represented by oxidative DNA damage. The analyses included Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA). Gravimetric analysis indicated that the equivalent mass concentration of PM10 emitted by burning raw powdered coal was higher than that derived by burning honeycomb briquette. FESEM observation revealed that the coal burning-derived PM10 particles were mainly soot aggregates. The PSA results showed that the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes had a higher oxidative capacity than that from burning raw powdered coal and wood charcoal. It is also demonstrated that the oxidative capacity of the whole particle suspensions were similar to those of the water soluble fractions; indicating that the DNA damage induced by coal burning-derived PM10 were mainly a result of the water-soluble fraction. An ICP-MS analysis revealed that the amount of total analysed water-soluble elements in the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes was higher than that in PM produced by burning raw powdered coal, and both were higher than PM from burning wood charcoal. The total analysed water-soluble elements in these coal burning-derived PM10 samples had a significantly positive correlation with the level of DNA damage; indicating that the oxidative capacity of the coal burning

  1. Electron microscopic study on catalytic carbonization of biomass carbon : I. Carbonization of wood charcoal at high temperature by Al-triisopropoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, Toshimitsu; Imamura, Yuji; Nishimiya, Koei; Bronsveld, Paul; Vystavel, Tomas; Hosson, Jeff De; Kikuchi, Hikari

    2002-01-01

    Currently, carbonized materials from wood or waste have been focused upon as raw materials for carbons. These carbons are important for the production of artificial graphite. First hand observation was done on the growth of long parallel graphite structures in wood charcoal. A comparison is made bet

  2. Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike.

  3. Comparison of the Plating Efficiencies and Shelf Lives of Three Different Commercial Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract Media Supplemented with α-Ketoglutaric Acid▿

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, Paul H.; Edelstein, Martha A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The plating efficiencies and shelf lives of locally made buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with α-ketoglutaric acid (BCYEα) were compared to those of media made by BD, Hardy, and Remel. Lung homogenates from guinea pigs infected with Legionella pneumophila were plated monthly onto different medium lots. All media performed equally well and had shelf lives of at least 12 months.

  4. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  5. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charco...

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation on adaptability of charcoal beds to containment filter venting in Italian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work has been divided into three parts. The first one gives a description of the facilities under investigation during some selected accidental conditions, also described. The second part, which consists of an experimental work, tries to identify the behavior of charcoal beds in terms of pressure drop vs the aerosol mass loading and of aerosol retention efficiency. On the basis of the experimental findings, the prediction of the behavior of the real beds is carried out in the third part, as regards the pressure drop through the beds, related to the selected accident scenarios. In addition in this last part the results of a preliminary evaluation of the maximum decay power picked up by the beds without reaching the carbon self-ignition temperature have been reported

  7. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP, a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans.

  8. Process for production of wood charcoal from fine-particle lignocellulose wastes and installation for its accomplishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Perzynski, B.

    1979-05-15

    For producing wood charcoal from sawdust, shells of nuts, and other lignin-containing wastes by drying, roasting, and cooling the obtainable carbon, a multizone kiln is used, consisting of zones for drying (DZ), low-temperature carbonization (SCZ), and cooling (CZ), each of which is divided by racks into two parts. Between the zones racks having openings for feedstock charging are also arranged. In the SCZ, air nozzles are mounted, above which there is a ceramic screen. Waste gases from the SCZ and CZ pass through the heat exchanger-afterburner and are admitted into the condenser, whence they are released into the atmosphere. The temperature in the DZ is 120-60/sup 0/, and in the SCZ -- 400-600/sup 0/.

  9. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of charcoal CCB (copper, chromium and boron)-treated wood for bio-oil production: Influence of CCB salts, residence time and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydroliquefaction of CCB-treated wood charcoal is investigated using catalysts. • CCB salts increase charcoal conversion into bio-oil. • Na2CO3 increases gas yield. • Al2O3 improves both yield and quality of bio-oil. • CCB salts are distributed between bio-oil and coke products. - Abstract: Thermochemical processes offer a feasible option for wood waste management and the recovery of a variety of useful chemicals. In this paper, hydroliquefaction with the use of catalysts was optimized to provide bio-oil from CCB-treated wood by reducing gaseous emissions of copper, chromium and boron (hazardous materials). In addition, the influence of CCB salts, catalysts (Al2O3, Na2CO3, MgO and CaCO3) and residence time on the hydroliquefaction process was investigated. For this, hydroliquefaction of charcoal obtained by slow pyrolysis of CCB-treated wood was conducted under hydrogen pressure in presence of tetralin. The results showed that CCB salts and catalysts increase the yield of bio-oil compared to hydroliquefaction of charcoal from untreated wood. It was also observed, that the use of catalysts improves the residence time during the process. Among the catalysts employed, Al2O3 appears to be the most effective. Furthermore Na2CO3 promotes the formation of gaseous species particularly CH4. Analyses of hazardous materials in charcoal residue (coke) illustrate their transfer to the bio-oil with the increase of bio-oil yield and residence time except when Al2O3 was using. The bio-oil obtained contains aromatic compounds

  10. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract. Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated with activated charcoal was a cheap source of xylose and other nutrients for xylitol production by C. guilliermondii. The non-necessity of adding nutrients to the hydrolysate media would be very advantageous since the process becomes less costly.Este trabalho avaliou a produção de xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii, a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz não tratado e tratado com carvão ativo, ambos suplementados ou não com nutrientes (sulfato de amônio, cloreto de cálcio e extrato de farelo de arroz. Os resultados mostraram que tanto o rendimento como a produtividade volumétrica em xilitol diminuíram quando os nutrientes foram adicionados em ambos hidrolisados, tratado e não tratado. Em hidrolisado tratado, a eficiência de conversão de xilose em xilitol foi de 79% quando em ausência de nutrientes. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz tratado com carvão ativo é uma fonte barata de xilose e outros nutrientes, para a produção de xilitol por Candida guilliermondii. A não necessidade de adicionar nutrientes ao meio a base de hidrolisado é muito vantajosa, uma vez que o processo se torna mais econômico.

  11. IN-VITRO KINETICS, ADSORPTION ISOTHERM, AND EFFECT OF PH ON ANTIDOTAL EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeya S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol overdose has been one of the most frequent causes of drug poisoning in the recent years, especially in young adult males. In the current work, the in-vitro study on adsorption kinetics and the effect of pH on antidotal effect of activated charcoal (AC in tramadol hydrochloride intoxication were carried out. For adsorption study tramadol hydrochloride solutions of various concentrations were prepared in both simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. For kinetics study tramadol hydrochloride and charcoal in ratio 1:5 was kept in 6 different flasks and sonicated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes and analyzed spectrophotometrically. The data were plotted among two most commonly used adsorption isotherm, Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm and their coefficient of determination (R2 was compared to get the best adsorption isotherm equation. The kinetics study was done in both SGF and SIF. The result showed that AC 50 gm can adsorb 4802.692 mg tramadol hydrochloride at gastric environment and 8064.516 mg tramadol hydrochloride at intestinal environment. The R2 value in the current study is found to be more in SIF (0.986 than in SGF (0.985. In accordance to the value of R2, the pseudo second order kinetics model fit best for this study with R2 value of 0.9997 in SGF and 0.9994 in SIF. From the current study it can be concluded that 50g AC has the capacity to adsorb sufficient amount of tramadol hydrochloride and the kinetics followed during the adsorption was pseudo-second order.

  12. Simultaneous removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol and Cd from soils by electrokinetic remediation combined with activated bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Wei; Wang, Fa Yuan; Huang, Zheng Hong; Wang, Hui

    2010-04-15

    An in situ electrokinetic remediation technique was designed by combining the uniform electrokinetic technology with a new-type of bamboo charcoal as adsorbent. A bench-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the application of this technique for simultaneous removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and Cd from a sandy loam at different periodic polarity-reversals. The contaminated soil was artificially spiked with 100 mg/kg 2,4-DCP and 500 mg/kg Cd. Two modes of polarity-reversal intervals of 12 and 24 h were included. After 10.5 d of operation, about 75.97% of Cd and 54.92% of 2,4-DCP were removed from soil at intervals of 24 h, whilst only 40.13% of Cd and 24.98% of 2,4-DCP were removed at intervals of 12 h. Soil water contents under two operation modes both significantly decreased, but evenly distributed spatially. Soil pH values under two operation modes were all maintained in the range from 7.2 to 7.4, close to the initial value. The electricity consumption per day was 12.24 and 11.61 kWh/m(3)/d, respectively at polarity-reversal intervals of 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, at polarity-reversal interval of 24 h, electroremediation combined with activated bamboo charcoal was effective in simultaneous removal of 2,4-DCP and Cd from soil. Our results indicate a promising potential in in situ electroremediation of soils co-contaminated with organics and heavy metals. PMID:20006426

  13. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide

  14. Forestry and charcoal burning in the vicinity of the ironwork Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) - What do we know from historical and archaeological data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takla, Melanie; Frank, Müller; Horst, Rösler; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The former royal forest districts around Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) were used to produce charcoal for the ironwork Peitz (1554 to 1856). More than 800 archaeologically excavated ground plans of charcoal kilns give evidence of the burning activity in the study area "Jänschwalde Heide" which is only a small part of the whole forest district. The study area in the apron of the active lignite mine Jänschwalde comprises the royal forest "Jänschwalder Heide" and the surrounding community forests. Our study approach combines archaeological research, a GIS-based approach (historical maps, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, etc.) and archival studies. The charcoal kilns have been registered since 1990 and since 2005 they are systematically excavated and documented. First dendrochronological data reach from the 17th to the 19th century confirming charcoal burning during the operation period of the iron work. Moreover 5000 additional kilns were identified and digitized from Shaded Relief Maps (SRM) created from ALS data (resolution 1p m-2; height accuracy +- 15 cm). A kiln field of such a dimension has not been documented and investigated for the North German Lowlands so far. It raises the question about the effects of charcoal burning on the forests and the landscape during the last three hundred years. Here we present the evaluation of the kiln data with regard to their size, frequency and spatial distribution. Besides the large number, the kilns have also large diameters (modal value 17 m, mean 12,5 m). Outside the boundaries of the royal forest the kilns are smaller and they were probably used to produce charcoal for local handcraft. These findings are compared to historical records from the first forest inventories (18th/19th century) like forest age and area, with historical forest laws and wood consumption data of the iron work. There is growing evidence that despite of the large extent of the kiln field the wood reserves in the forest districts about 1800

  15. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns, also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up.A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57, average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1, low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1 and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC.Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks; CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10 = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2.With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  16. Did the First Iron Blacksmiths Learn to Carburize Iron? Part I: Can Iron be Carburized in a Charcoal-Fired Furnace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Pendray, A. H.; Dauksch, W. E.

    2016-08-01

    There is debate in the literature on whether or not iron can be carburized by simply inserting an iron bar into a charcoal fire. Experiments are presented here in which wrought iron bars have been held in a cylindrical enclosure filled with burning charcoal produced by air flowing up from tuyeres at the bottom with the bottom end of the bars held in the 900°C-1050°C range for 30 min. The bars carburized to a remarkable extent. Martensite case depths on a water-quenched bar were measured ranging from 0.75 mm at the hot bottom end and dropping to 0.02 mm at a distance of 295 mm (11.6 inches) up the bar. The surface of the bar was file hard over this length with measured surface hardnesses in the 60-65 Rc range.

  17. Manganese extraction from high-iron-content manganese oxide ores by selective reduction roasting-acid leaching process using black charcoal as reductant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元波; 赵熠; 游志雄; 段道显; 李光辉; 姜涛

    2015-01-01

    Reduction roasting-acid leaching process was utilized to process high-iron-content manganese oxide ore using black charcoal as reductant. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional reductant of anthracite, higher manganese extraction efficiency is achieved at lower roasting temperature and shorter residence time. The effects of roasting parameters on the leaching efficiency of Mn and Fe were studied, and the optimal parameters are determined as follows: roasting temperature is 650 °C, residence time is 40 min, and black charcoal dosage is 10% (mass fraction). Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of Mn reaches 82.37% while that of Fe is controlled below 7%. XRD results show that a majority of MnO2 and Fe2O3in the raw ore are reduced to MnO and Fe3O4, respectively.

  18. Paleosol charcoal : Reconstructing vegetation history in relation to agro−pastoral activities since the Neolithic. A case study in the Eastern French Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Marie; Bal, Marie-Claude; Rendu, Christine; Ruas, Marie-Pierre; Campmajo, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience This article uses a method that combines pedoanthracological and pedo-archaeological approaches to terraces, complemented with archaeological pastoral data, in order to reconstruct the history of ancient agricultural terraces on a slope of the Enveitg Mountain in the French Pyrenees. Four excavations revealed two stages of terrace construction that have been linked with vegetation dynamics, which had been established by analyses of charcoal from the paleosols and soi...

  19. Efficacy and safety of a herbal medicinal product containing myrrh, chamomile and coffee charcoal for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders: a non-interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Uwe; Müller, Valentina; Schneider, Berthold; Stange, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Objective This prospective observational postmarketing multicentre study was performed to collect data on the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of a licensed herbal combination of myrrh, coffee charcoal and chamomile extracts in patients with symptoms of acute diarrhoea. Material and methods Patients aged 12 years and above with symptoms of acute diarrhoea due to acute inflammatory disorders (AID) of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) or irritable bowel syn...

  20. 竹炭/纤维素纤维织物的染整加工%Wet processing of bamboo charcoal/cellulosic fiber fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关燕; 刘伟; 金晓东

    2011-01-01

    对可降解的黑、白竹炭与纤维素纤维(粘胶、棉、莱赛尔)的混纺机织物进行复合酶前处理、涂料或活性染料染色及印花、亲水性柔软整理及远红外整理,探讨了染整工艺对竹炭纤维功能性的影响,确定了合理的工艺路线和参数,开发出了能保持良好服用性能和保健功能的竹炭/粘胶纤维印染面料,其外观满足时尚需求.%Bio-pretreatment, dyeing or printing with pigments or reactive dyes, hydrophilic softening and far infrared finish are carried out on biodegradable bamboo charcoal (black and white)/cellulose fiber (viscose, cotton and Lyocell) blended woven fabrics. The influence of wet processing on properties of bamboo charcoal fiber is discussed, and reasonable process and parameters are determined. The finished bamboo charcoal/ viscose product features fashion appearance, good wearability and health care function.

  1. Development of hydroponic system using agriculture waste. 1. Characteristics of rice husk charcoal as growth medium and vegetable growth; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 1. Momigara kutan no baichi to shite no tokucho to yasai no seiiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazoe, H.; Nakaya, K.; Okano, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    Experimental researches were made on rice husk charcoals processed to be used as culture media for hydroponics. Rice husk charcoals with a size of 1 mm or larger retaining the original shape of the rice husk, and with a size of smaller than 1 mm were made for use in the experiment. In the culture media made of these rice husk charcoals, the charcoal with a particle size greater than 1 mm had more air portion than water portion at 6 cm above the water level, and the charcoal with a particle size smaller than 1 mm had poor air permeability. According to the result of immersing the rice husk charcoal in a culture solution, phosphoric acid ion and manganese in the solution decreased by about 35% and calcium by about 10% in the duration of 120 minutes, as a result of having been adsorbed into the rice husk charcoal. On the other hand, chloride ion increased by about 80% and potassium and iron by about 30%, because of having been dissolved out from the charcoal. In cultivating spinach, butterhead lettuce and radish in the rice husk charcoal culture media, the culture medium with charcoal smaller than 1 mm resulted in harvest reduced by about 75% in spinach, and about 10% in butterhead lettuce. 15 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Measurements of the equilibrium factor and radon dose in some houses in Cairo, Egypt using activated charcoal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration was measured in some houses in Cairo, Egypt using activated charcoal canisters. Equilibrium factor and radon annual equivalent dose are measured as well . The measurements were performed in closed and open ventilation rooms. The average radon concentration was found to be 11.55 Bq/m3 and 24.93 Bq/m3 in open rooms and closed rooms, respectively. The deduced values of equilibrium factor were ranging from 0.171 to 0.180 with an average of 0.175 in open rooms and ranging from 0.190 to 0.205 with an average of 0.194 in closed rooms. The average radon annual equivalent dose was found to be o.111 mSv/y and 0.267 mSv/y in open rooms and closed ones, respectively. These values are much lower than the maximum permissible dose of 1.0 mSv/y recommended by ICRP-60-1990.

  3. Evaluation of Tazobactam-Supplemented, Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar for Qualitative Detection of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dong Kwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is the most common confounding factor for the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. mCCDA modified by supplementation with tazobactam, an ESBL inhibitor, was evaluated for Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcass rinse with regard to isolation rate and selectivity. In total, 120 whole chicken carcasses purchased from retail stores were rinsed with buffered peptone water enriched with 2× blood-free Bolton broth at 42°C for 48 h and then inoculated onto mCCDA with and without tazobactam supplementation (mCCDA or T-mCCDA) at 42°C for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were subcultured and confirmed by colony PCR. Plates with tazobactam exhibited a higher Campylobacter isolation rate (56.7% vs. 30.8%, p < 0.05) and selectivity (0.8 vs. 83.3% plates contaminated with non-Campylobacter, p < 0.05) than mCCDA. Thus, tazobactam-supplemented mCCDA would be a useful option for qualitative detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse.

  4. Increased collagen III in culled chicken meat after feeding dietary wood charcoal and vinegar contributes to palatability and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Takenoyama, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-04-01

    We comprehensively evaluated meat quality in chickens fed a diet consisting of wood charcoal and vinegar (WCV) using food scientific and histological approaches. In culled hens, lipid and fatty acid in Musculus semimembranosus, cooking loss and sensory tests of whole thigh meat, and meat texture of breast meat were observed. In male broilers, cross section of M. semimembranosus was used for observations on muscle area, perimysium, non-collagen total protein and total collagen content, and anti-collagen I and III reactions. In frozen male broilers, conventional morphology of M. semimembranosus as well as chicken anti-collagen III reaction to selected muscles of thigh meat and breast meat were compared between the control and WCV-fed birds. Increased lipid and fatty acids, decreased cooking loss, high score in total evaluation for sensory test of thigh meat, and decreased meat texture values were observed for culled hens fed WCV. The higher values of muscle area, total collagen and collagen III were observed for broilers fed WCV. No perimysium collapse for M. semitendinosus or increased collagen III reactions of M. tensor fasciae latae, the flexor muscle group and M. pectoralis superficialis were observed for frozen muscles in the WCV group. These total results suggest that WCV produces palatable and tender meat by increasing collagen III. PMID:24450882

  5. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  6. Towards More Sustainable Ironmaking—An Analysis of Energy Wood Availability in Finland and the Economics of Charcoal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Fabritius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of fossil carbon by renewable biomass-based carbon is an effective measure to mitigate CO2 emission intensity in the blast furnace ironmaking process. Depending on the substitution rate of fossil fuels, the required amount of biomass can be substantial. This raises questions about the availability of biomass for multiple uses. At the same time, the economic competitiveness of biomass-based fuels in ironmaking applications should also be a key consideration. In this assessment, availability of energy wood, i.e., logging residues, small-diameter wood and stumps, in Finland is discussed. Since biomass must be submitted to a thermochemical process before use in a blast furnace, the paper describes the production chain, from biomass to charcoal, and economics related to each processing step. The economics of biomass-based reducing agents is compared to fossil-based ones by taking into account the effect of European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS. The assessment reveals that there would be sufficient amounts of energy wood available for current users as well as for ironmaking. At present, the economics of biomass-based reducing agents in ironmaking applications is unfavorable. High CO2 emission allowance prices would be required to make such a scheme competitive against fossil-based reducing agents at current fuel prices.

  7. 烧结温度对导电木炭特性的影响%Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Characteristics of Conductive Wood Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兰英; 胡娜娜; 傅峰

    2013-01-01

    以催化炭化工艺经高温烧结制备导电木炭,分析和探讨了烧结温度对木炭导电性能、微晶结构和石墨化度的影响.烧结温度从1 200℃升高到1 500℃时,导电木炭的电阻率降至0.052 3 Ω·cm,且导电木炭中石墨状微晶排列由无规则排列逐渐转化为有序排列.导电木炭的拉曼光谱分析结果表明,烧结温度的升高有利于增加导电木炭的石墨状微晶的含量,提高其结晶程度和石墨化度.导电木炭的X射线衍射分析结果表明,在烧结温度升高的过程中,导电木炭晶面的层间距逐渐减小,向石墨化结构转变,当烧结温度升至1 500℃时,导电木炭已部分石墨化.%The electrical resistivities,microcrystalline structure and graphitization degree of conductive wood charcoal was analyzed,in order to study the effect of sintering temperature on the characteristics of conductive wood charcoal.The results showed that when the sintering temperature increased from 1 200 ℃ to 1 500 ℃,the electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal was reduced to 0.052 3 Ω · cm,and the graphite-like microcrystalline structure gradually transformed from the irregular arrangement into the regular one.Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis implied that higher sintering temperature was beneficial to the increase of both the content of graphitelike microcrystalline and crystallinity and graphitization degree of conductive wood charcoal.In the process of high temperature sintering,the interlayer distance of microcrystalline plane decreased gradually and shifted to the structure of graphite with the increase of sintering temperature.When the sintering temperature increased to 1 500 ℃,the conductive wood charcoal was partly graphitized.

  8. Evaluation of the quality of Qualea parviflora charcoal Avaliação da qualidade do carvão vegetal de Qualea parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify the influence of the sampling longitudinal position in Qualea parviflora Mart. in the quality of charcoal and the statistical relation among the variables measured in this biofuel. Five trees were evaluated. In each one, 5 cm – thickness discs were obtained in the base, DBH (1.30 m, middle and top. The wood was carbonized in a muffle furnace, considering a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1. The yields in charcoal pyroligneous extract, in non-condensable gases and in fixed carbon and volatile matters, fixed carbon and ash contents, besides relative apparent density of the charcoal were determined. In the evaluation of the experiment, an entirely randomized design was used with five repetitions, being different sampling position considered a variation factor. Simple linear correlations between characteristics measured in the charcoal were evaluated and statistical models were proposed. Charcoal from Qualea parviflora Mart. wood presented great energetic potential. A significant influence of the sampling longitudinal position Qualea parviflora Mart. in the quality of the charcoal was not found. Fixed carbon content, gravimetric yield and volatile matter contents must be considered main characteristics related to higher heating value of the charcoal evaluated.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.295

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram verificar a influência da posição longitudinal de amostragem em Qualea parviflora Mart. na qualidade do carvão vegetal e as relações estatísticas entre as variáveis mensuradas nesse biocombustível. Foram avaliadas cinco árvores das quais foram retirados discos de 5 cm de espessura na base, DAP (1,30 m, meio e topo. A madeira foi carbonizada em uma mufla, considerando a taxa de aquecimento de 1,67 ºC min-1. Foram contabilizados os rendimentos em carvão, em líquido pirolenhoso, em gases não condensáveis e em carbono fixo e os teores de materiais voláteis, carbono fixo e cinza

  9. Stable isotope analysis of archaeological oak charcoal from eastern Anatolia as a marker of mid-Holocene climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A; Sadori, L; Baneschi, I; Siani, A M; Zanchetta, G

    2013-01-01

    Comparison between modern trees and archaeological charred wood is an under-explored method to study climate change, which may help to infer past environmental changes. The stable carbon content of deciduous oak charcoals was analysed for five periods covering more than a 1000 years (3350-2000 BC) at the site of Arslantepe, Turkey, together with modern deciduous oak specimens from five rare arboreal patches still present in the area (17-64 km from the site). In studies of past climate change it is difficult to distinguish human-induced changes from independent variations, such as the impact of past populations on the landscape and their relationship with climate changes in the mid-Holocene. Archaeology can evaluate climate signals preserved in fossil plants in light of past human life. This paper will contribute to understanding environmental changes that can be attributed to climate variation and those linked to human activities. We compared (13) C/(12) C of modern and fossil oaks in order to correlate the (13) C-content to environmental features of Arslantepe, both today and between 3350 and 2000 BC. At present, this area is semi-arid. The results show important similarities to palaeoenvironmental records for the rest of the Near East. The climate trend can be divided in three main phases: instability phase from ca. 3200 to 2900 BC; a phase of relative stability (until 2350 BC); and a final increase in aridity. The comparison of Δ(13) C values between fossil and modern plants shows that present climate is more arid than that between the end of the fourth and the whole third millennium BC. PMID:23009712

  10. The influence of pH, temperature and hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues R.C.L.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of pH, temperature and degree of hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural were almost totally removed in all the experiments, irrespective of pH and temperature and whether the charcoal was added before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Adding activated charcoal before the vacuum evaporation process favored the removal of phenolic compounds for all values of pH. Acetic acid, on the contrary, was most effectively removed when the activated charcoal was added after the vacuum evaporation process at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4. However, addition of activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4 favored the removal of both acetic acid and phenolic compounds.

  11. Experimental Study on Mercury Removal Technology Using Biomass Charcoal Reburning%生物质炭再燃脱汞技术的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家兴; 董永胜; 李明; 张超群; 刘鹏飞; 刘欣

    2014-01-01

    Controlling technology of mercury emissions for a coal-fired boiler is an important issue for environmental protection. The biomass charcoal reburning technology was researched on the coal-fired mercury removal, and biomass charcoal was sprayed into the top of furnace from a certain distance and mixed with a certain proportion of urea or slaked lime. The experimental results show that: by reburning the biomass charcoal blended with different materials,the migration ability of the mercury in the flue gas with coal combustion can be suppressed, prompting the conversion of elemental mercury (Hg0) in the flue gas to oxidation state mercury (Hg2+) or particulate mercury (HgP), so as to reduce the total content of mercury in the flue gas and to improve the content of mercury in the fly ash and slag. The experiments also discovery that the biomass charcoal blended with slaked lime has a much stronger oxidation promoting effect to the elemental mercury, and the reduction of the total mercury content in the flue gas is more obvious.%燃煤的汞排放控制技术是个十分重要的环保课题。采用生物质炭作为再燃燃料,并掺混一定比例的尿素或者消石灰,在某锅炉主燃烧器上方喷入炉膛,研究生物质炭再燃技术对燃煤脱汞的影响。试验结果表明:掺混不同物料的生物质炭进行再燃时,能够抑制煤燃烧时汞向烟气中的迁徙能力,促使烟气中的元素态汞(Hg0)向氧化态汞(Hg2+)或颗粒态汞(HgP)转化,有效降低了尾部烟气中总汞含量,提高了除尘器内飞灰和炉渣中的汞含量;试验还发现掺混消石灰的生物质炭对元素态汞的氧化促进作用更强,降低烟气总汞含量的作用更明显。

  12. Effect of Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica) and Charcoal Supplementation as Alternatives to Antibiotics on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Kim, Y J; Mun, H S; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-02-01

    A total of 150 growing ducks were assigned to five dietary treatments to study the effect of sea tangle and charcoal (STC) supplementation on growth performance and meat characteristics in a completely randomized design. There were six replicates and five ducklings in each replication. The five dietary treatments were control, antibiotic, and 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% STC supplemented diets. No significant differences were found on ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed among treatments in different weeks. The overall (0 to 3 weeks) ADFI decreased in antibiotic treatment (pduck production.

  13. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll) and Pb(ll) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam; Francis Kalu Onwu; Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde; Mgbeahuruike A. Chinedu

    2015-01-01

    The use of bamboo dust (BD) and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed ...

  14. 竹炭的特性及其应用研究进展%The Characteristics of Bamboo Charcoal and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳甜; 令狐文生

    2012-01-01

    竹炭在目前的炭材料领域研究中是一个热点,其具有吸附性,导电性,释放远红外线,负离子效应,富含微量元素等特性,在我们的生活和生产中应用十分广泛。本文在综合介绍竹炭特性的基础上,就其在家居生活、水处理、纺织品、农业以及其他方面的应用进行了综述。%Bamboo charcoal was a hot research field of the carbon materials,which had adsorb ability,conductivity,the release of far infrared,negative ion effect,rich in trace elements and other characteristics,and in our life and production it was widely used.The characteristics of bamboo charcoal were introduced,and their life in home furnishing,water treatment,textiles,agriculture and other aspects of the application were reviewed.

  15. Invstigation of activated charcoal in treatment of fulminant acute pancreatitis%活性炭应用于暴发性胰腺炎治疗的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石书伟; 田新; 李俊; 华科雷; 李瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compared with the effective of gauze pad and activated Charcoal that filled around omental sac and pancreas after FAP (Fulminant acute pancreatitis) with surgery.Methods April 2002 to July 2010,a total of 25 patients with FAP be treated,including 17 males and 8 females,aged 13-74 years,mean 40 years,21 cases were cured,4died,the cure rate was 84%.In April 2007 as a dividing line,the previous was 14 cases (Gauze pad group),the after was 11 cases (activated Charcoal group).Results The gauze pad group 2 died within seven days after surgery,the mortality rate 14.3% (2/14),1 patient died after seven days,a total of 3 patients died,with a total mortality of 21.4% (3/14).The activated charcoal group no died within seven days after surgery,1 patient died after seven days,the total mortality rate of 9% (1/11).In mortality and total mortality within seven days,Gauze pad group both higher than Activated Charcoal group.The APACHE Ⅱ score,T,P and R on the third and seventh postoperative day was significantly better than the patients on the first day after surgery (P < 0.05),but activated Charcoal was better than Gauze pad group (P < 0.05) ;Gauze pad group,the average hospital stay was (89.91 ± 9.90) days,hospitalization costs for ¥ (31.92 ± 3.70) thousand ; Activated Charcoal group,the average length of stay (79.00 ± 6.83) days,hospitalization costs for ¥ (27.38 ±2.80) thousand.Gauze pad group two sets of data were higher than activated Charcoal group (P < 0.05).Conclusions In the process of lesser sac lavage after FAP,inflammatory mediators and toxins in the body's absorption and clearance,the activated Charcoal compared to mat yarn have higher efficiency,it can reduce mortality of patients.Shorter hospital stay and reduce hospital costs.%目的 探讨暴发性胰腺炎术后小网膜囊内胰腺周围填充活性炭与棉纱垫对暴发性胰腺炎治疗的效果.方法 2002年4月至2010年7月,共收治暴发性胰腺炎25例,其中男17

  16. 添加木炭改善猪粪稻壳好氧堆肥工艺及质量%Improving pig manure and rice husk compost technology and quality by wood charcoal addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 张广杰; 张增强; 王权; 孙西宁

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote waste recycling and investigate the effect of hardwood-based biochar additives in the process of pig manure composting, the pig manure was mixed with rice husk and further amended with oak wood charcoal at 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0%in dry weight before being aerobically composted for 60 days. The parameters, such as temperature, water content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, C/N ratio, total nitrogen, NH4+-N, NO3--N, NH3, etc., were detected through chemical analysis. The organic matter degradation process was evaluated by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) methods. The FTIR analysis showed that the contents of the compounds with-OH,-CH3, and-CH2 groups decreased with time, while the contents of the compounds with-C=O, C-O-C,-COO, and aromatic groups increased with time during the 60 days of composting. The compost sample SEM analysis proved that the mixture particle size decreased with the progress of time and the amount of wood charcoal. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the organic carbon contents in all the treatments decreased 12.23%, 13.77%, 14.88%, 15.36%, and 15.86%, respectively; the C/N ratio decreased 47.80%, 54.98%, 56.97%, 60.03%, and 65.73%, respectively. Compared to the control, the addition of wood charcoal had no significant effect on pH variation, and the final compost pH kept the balance at 8.0. Wood charcoal addition extended high-temperature processing times by 2-5 days, increased the water contents, and decreased the EC value during composting. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the moisture content decreased 15.9%, 13.0%, 11.1%, 10.1%, and 7.8%, respectively; while the EC value in the wood charcoal added treatment were decreased 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 mS/cm than that of the control, respectively. Addition of oak wood charcoal additives could enhance the

  17. Development of Bamboo Charcoal Modified Polyester Combed Cotton Blended Fabric%竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺织物的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈理; 易冬芳; 刘月梅; 姚金怀

    2012-01-01

    探讨竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺织物的生产技术措施.通过测试竹炭改性涤纶纤维的性能,分析竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺纱的特点,指出:竹炭改性涤纶精梳棉混纺纱强力低、毛羽多,浆纱工序宜采用PR-Su浆料,遵循“小张力、小伸长、重加压、湿分绞、分层预烘、后上蜡、复分绞”的工艺原则;织造工序采用“大张力、早开口、小开口、中引纬、低后梁”的工艺原则,适当增大车间相对湿度.结果在喷气织机上成功生产了该织物,织机效率达到84%以上,产品质量达到了开发及生产要求.%Production technology measures of bamboo charcoal modified polyester combed cotton blended fabric were discussed. Properties of bamboo charcoal modified polyester fiber were tested, characteristics of bamboo charcoal modified polyester combed cotton blended yarn were analyzed. It is pointed out that the blended yarn strength is lower, the hairiness is much more. PR-Su size mixture should be adopted, processing of smaller tension and elongation, heavier pressure,wet lease,split-sheet predrying, later waxing and lease twice were adopted. In weaving process,processing of larger tension,earlier shed,smaller shed,middle weft-inserting,lower back beam were adopted,related humidity in workshop was increased properly. Finally the blended fabric can be produced on the air jet loom successfully, loom efficiency can be reached above 84% ,demands of production development can be reached.

  18. Aluminum modified bamboo charcoal for enhanced adsorption of phosphorous from water%铝改性竹炭的磷吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国文; 章北平; 丁兴辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the performance of phosphorous (P) adsorption onto bamboo charcoal (BC) ,a novel aluminum modified bamboo charcoal (Al-BC) was fabricated with aluminum chloride solution by aluminum salt hydrolysis coprecipitation method .The physicochemical properties before and after modified bamboo charcoal were determined .And the characteristics of P adsorption onto Al-BC and BC were investigated in batch tests .The results show that the P adsorption process can be de-scribed well as Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms ,and Freundlich equation is better fitted than Langmuir equation .Adsorption capacity of Al-BC is 10 .0 mg · g -1 ,w hich is about 1 .3 times that of BC .The adsorption well follows Lagergren-second order models .The effect of pH on P adsorption is distinct and the acidic conditions are favor for P adsorption .Humid acid has obviously negative influ-ence on P adsorption ,while NO3 -has no obvious inhibitory effect on P adsorption .%为了改善竹炭的磷吸附性能 ,以氯化铝为改性剂 ,采用铝盐水解共沉法对竹炭进行改性 ,并对改性前后竹炭物化特性进行表征 .通过批次吸附实验对比研究了改性竹炭对水溶液中磷的吸附特性 .结果表明 :Lang-muir和Freundlich等温方程能很好地描述竹炭磷吸附等温特性 ,Freundlich等温方程拟合效果更优 ,改性后竹炭磷吸附容量为10 .0 mg · g -1 ,是改性前竹炭的1 .3倍 ;铝改性竹炭磷吸附过程符合Lagergren二阶动力学模型 ;溶液pH值对磷吸附影响显著 ,酸性条件有利于磷吸附 ,腐植酸对吸附磷有明显负面作用 ,而NO3 -对吸附磷无明显抑制作用 .

  19. The Development of a Curriculum for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues for Environmental Literacy of Secondary School Students at Samaki Wittaya Municipality School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klakayan, Jagree; Singseewo, Adisak

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to (1) design a curriculum on Production of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues, (2) implement the designed curriculum, and (3) study and compare the learning achievements of Matthayomsuksa 3 students at Samakee Wittaya Municipality School in terms of knowledge, learning skills, and participation in the production of…

  20. 竹炭包膜尿素的氮素释放规律和生物利用效果研究%Study on the Nitrogen Release Law of Bamboo Charcoal-coated Urea and Its Biological Utilization Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪锐琳; 朱义年; 张爱莉; 张学洪

    2007-01-01

    [Objective]The study about the nitrngen releasing law of bamboo-charcoal coated urea and the biologic utilization effect wag to find the coated urea with high efficiency,low price and simple production technology.[Method]Two kinds of bamboo-charcoal coated urea(BCCU)with different coating thickness were made by using bambon-charcoal and macromolecule polymer as coating material.The experiments of soil eluviate,ammonia volatilization in corn field and potted plant of corn were conducted to study the nitrogen releasing law and the bidngic utilization effect of self-made BCCU.[Result]The BCCU showed some slow-release capability and their accumulated nitrogen releasing rates in 29 d were 9.93%-16.27% lower than that of norlnal urea.Compared With the normal urea,the volatilization rate of ammoniain BCCU reduced to 16.66%-31.8%,the biomass of Crn and nitrogen utilization rate increased by 12.8%-24.1%and 10.5%-16.99%,respectively.[Conclusion]Bamboo-charcoal in coated urea not only had some slow-release capabjlity.but also had some adsorbability,Which would reducethe eluviation and volatilization of nitrogen and protect environment from N pollution.

  1. Evaluating the impact of water flotation and the state of the wood in archaeological wood charcoal remains: Implications for the reconstruction of past vegetation and identification of firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North (south Syria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz

    2016-01-01

    that in certain cases, hyper-fragmentation or complete destruction of charred plant macroremains occurs as soon as they come into contact with water. At the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) the destruction of wood charcoal remains was documented during the flotation process...

  2. Review of the sustainability of the forest sector to produce charcoal from planted forests; Analise da sustentabilidade do setor florestal para producao de carvao vegetal a partir de florestas plantadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Thiago Oliveira [Fundacao de Tecnologia Florestal e Geoprocessamento (NUPA/FUNTEC), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Projetos Ambientais

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the world's greater producer of charcoal and most of this production takes care of to the siderurgical sector. Thus, one understands that the Brazilian steel is produced of sustainable form. However, such sustainability is not based only on a renewable energy source. The origin of the wood for the carbonization, if proceeding from planted forests or native bushes, is crucial factor in this analysis. Beyond the ambient dimension, the sustainability of the charcoal segment also is influenced by its social, economic and technological aspects. In this context, the present article searches, through the construction and the analysis of the diagnosis of the charcoal in Brazil, to evaluate the sustainability of the sector and to consider alternatives to reach it. The current model of production of charcoal in the country is unsustainable. The main adopted systems of carbonization in Brazil are low level technological with consequent decrease production. The activity is unhealthy, beyond having many cases of enslaved and infantile work. The coal of native forests is much cheaper and the fiscalization is poor, fact that discourages its production from planted forests. But if the vegetal coal will be understood as an energy solution for the siderurgical sector measures can be taken to search a model of sustainable production. (author)

  3. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram

  4. Melhoramento genético das propriedades do carvão vegetal de Eucalyptus Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus charcoal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gaspar Botrel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar os parâmetros fenotípicos, e genotípicos, e ganhos genéticos para as propriedades do carvão vegetal e selecionar clones de Eucalyptus, por meio de características do carvão vegetal, visando à otimização da sua produção e qualidade. Foram utilizados nove clones híbridos de Eucalyptus cultivados no Município de Taiobeiras, Norte de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros fenotípicos e genéticos foram estimados a partir dos quadrados médios das características avaliadas no carvão vegetal. Estimou-se o ganho genético de todas as características que apresentaram significância. O efeito de clone foi significativo quanto ao rendimento gravimétrico do carvão, rendimento em carbono fixo e densidade básica relativa aparente do carvão. O ganho genético previsto para o rendimento gravimétrico do carvão foi de 4,51% na seleção dos clones FGA-30 e FGA-49 e de 4,16% para o rendimento em carbono fixo na seleção dos clones FGA-30 e I-249. Para densidade básica relativa aparente, o ganho genético foi de 0,03% na seleção dos clones FGA-49 e FGA-34.The objectives of this work were to estimate the phenotypic and genetic parameters and genetic gains for charcoal properties, as well as to select Eucalyptus clones on the basis of charcoal characteristics. A total of nine Eucalyptus clones, cultivated in the region of Taiobeiras, Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed. Three-meter logs were used for specimen preparation. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with three repetitions. The phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated using the expected mean squares. The genetic gain was estimated for the characteristics showing significant differences. The clone effect was significant for charcoal yield, carbon yield and apparent relative density. The obtained genetic gain predicted

  5. Study of clean up procedures using Charcoal-Alumina-Celite column, immunoaffinity column and strata x column to determine deoxynivalenol by high performance liquid chromatography in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the most common toxic fungal species affecting grains in Uruguay. Since 1977, due to favorable climate conditions, there have been harvests with prominent Fusarium Head Blight in wheat. This were in 1984, 1990, 1993, 1996 and 2001.Natural Toxin Department of Technological Laboratory of Uruguay as National Reference Laboratory, is continuously improving the analytical methods in order to have a good response to the industry requirements and to the monitoring programs for import and exports commodities. The objective of this work was to compare different clean up methods in order to select the best one for routine determination of deoxynivalenol (DON in wheat (grain and flour.  Charcoal-alumina-celite (7+5+3,  immunoaffinity columns DONPREP R-Biopharm Rhone and Strata X 33 m polymeric sorbent  Phenomenex columns were used to perform the study. Considering as reference analytical method the internal protocol  PEC.TOX.063 accredited by United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS  following the ISO 17025 requirements, and  based on AOAC method 986.17( chapter 49, 2002 for extraction and clean-up  and on J.AOAC 70(3, 1987:479-483 for the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC detection, two more clean up methods were evaluated. In all of them PEC.TOX.063 detection procedure was carried out. PEC.TOX.063 used for the clean up an in house column chromatography prepared with charcoal-alumina-celite (7+5+3 . Extraction was performed using acetonitrile- water (84+16 and an aliquot of the extract was passed through the column. Extract was dryed under vacuum and DON detected by HPLC using photodiode array detector. For the method that used immunoaffinity columns, water was the extraction solvent, and manufacture protocol was followed up. An aliquot of the extract was passed through the column. Column was washed using water and DON eluated using methanol 100%. For the method that used Strata X column for the clean up, the

  6. 竹炭对水溶液中Ni(Ⅱ)的吸附%Adsorption of Ni (Ⅱ) from Aqueous Solution by Bamboo Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊春华; 吴扬

    2012-01-01

    在NaAc-HAc缓冲体系中研究竹炭对Ni(Ⅱ)的吸附规律.结果表明:介质pH、粒径大小、初始浓度、反应时间、反应温度对吸附存有影响,在298 K、pH =3.0、初始浓度C0=0.113 mg·mL-1、反应时间为24 h、竹炭粒径为0.2 ~0.4 mm等条件下,每克竹炭的静态饱和吸附量为55.57 mg;与一级动力学相比,竹炭的动态吸附过程更符合二级吸附动力学方程,吸附平衡时间为100 min;竹炭对Ni(Ⅱ)的吸附更好地符合Langmuir吸附等温线,竹炭粒径越小,吸附量越大.吸附热力学参数为:△H =8.19 kJ·mol-1,△S =78.12 J·mol-1K-1,△G298k=-15.08 kJ·mo1-1.此外,还采用红外光谱方法探讨了吸附前后相关化学官能团的变化.研究表明,竹炭可用于去除废水中Ni(Ⅱ)离子.%The adsorption behaviors of Ni( Ⅱ ) ion on bamboo charcoal were investigated with various chemical methods in NaAc-HAc buffer system. The results showed; the sorption was controled by pH, average particle size, initial ion concentration, contact time and temperature and the statically saturated adsorption capacity of bamboo charcoal is 55. 57 mg ·g-1 when the temperature was 298 K, pH was 3. 0, C0 =0. 113 mg · mL-1, contact time was 24 h, particle size was 0. 2 —0.4 mm. Compared with pseudo-first-order kinetics, the adsorption of Ni( II ) ions fitted better with pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the equilibrium time was 100 min. The adsorption of Ni (II) obeyed the Langmuir isotherm better than Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption capacity is greater, when the particle size of bamboo charcoal is smaller. The adsorption parameters of thermodynamic were △H = 8. 19 kJ · mol-1, △S =78. 12 J·mol-1 K-1 and △G298K = — 15. 08 kJ·mol-1. What' s more, the change of chemical functional groups was examined by IR spectrometry. This study demonstrated that bamboo charcoal could be used for the removal of Ni(Ⅱ) ions in water treatment.

  7. Progress of the effect of biomass charcoal on soil environment and crop growth%生物炭对土壤环境及作物生长影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉萍; 杨晓峰; 张兆辉; 陈春宏; 王良军

    2013-01-01

    Here we reviewed biomass charcoal's properties, the effect of biomass charcoal on soil environment and crop growth. Biomass charcoal can increase soil carbon storage capacity, improve the soil pH value, besides, it has a high surface area, high nutrient retention capacity, and high water retention capacity due to its porous structure. In a certain amount of carbon, it can increase the soil anion, cation exchange capacity, reduce nutrient loss, and change soil microbial abundance and community degradation of soil pollutants. Moreover, we reviewed the effects of biomass charcoal on crop fertilizer and fertilizer efficiency mechanism, to a certain degree, it can generally increase crop biomass and yield. Thus, adding the biomass carbon to soil can not only improve soil fertility, but also increase carbon sequestration time.%综述了生物炭(biomass charcoal)特性及其对土壤环境和作物生长的影响.生物炭可提高土壤碳库容量,提高土壤pH值,同时炭具有很大的表面积,持水性、吸附性均较强.在一定量下,施炭可增加土壤阴、阳离子交换量,减少养分损失,改变土壤微生物丰度及群落,降解土壤污染物等.此外,综述了生物炭对作物的肥效及肥效机理等,在一定范围内,能增加作物生物量和产量,因此生物质炭还田是提高土壤肥力、增加碳封存时间的有效途径.

  8. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  9. 咖啡炭改性涤纶混纺织物的开发%Development of Coffee Charcoal Modified Polyester Fiber Blended Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永凤; 孙晶; 孙瑞芙

    2013-01-01

    Production points of coffee charcoal modified polyester fiber blended fabric were discussed.Coffee charcoal modified polyester fiber and yarn quality index were introduced.According to fabric design property,processing principle of middle tension and elongation was adopted in warping process.Processing line of double-dip double-pressure was adopted and S432 sizing machine was used,sizing instruction was optimized.Warp shed line was adjusted rationally in weaving process,loom speed is 575 r/min,finally loom efficiency can be reached above 80%.After testing,thermal insulation and antibacterial function of the fabric is better.%探讨咖啡炭改性涤纶混纺织物的生产要点.介绍了咖啡炭改性涤纶纤维及其成纱的质量指标.针对织物设计特点,整经工序采取中张力,中伸长的工艺原则;浆纱工序采用S432型浆纱机以及双浸双压的工艺路线,并优化浆料配方;织造工序合理调整经位置线,织机速度采用575 r/min,最终使织机效率达到80%以上.经检测,织物具有较好的抑菌、保温等功能.

  10. Characteristics of charcoal fines obtained by rapid pyrolysis process of elephant grass in fluidized bed in different operation conditions; Caracteristicas dos finos de carvao vegetal obtido pelo processo de pirolise rapida de capim elefante em leito fluidizado em diferentes condicoes de operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a study about the effect of excess air and the inert fixed bed height upon the characteristics of fine charcoal particles and the main reactor parameters. The pyrolysis process is considered as a method to concentrate carbon in fine charcoal particles and a method to reduce oxygen content in the biomass.The study concludes that the operation point which gives the highest percentage if carbon fine charcoal particles and reduces the most the oxygen in biomass corresponds to a fixed bed height of 207 mm and excess air of 8%. (author)

  11. Study on Conversion Ratio of Different Wood Species Into Charcoal%不同木材种类炭化率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施煜庭; CHRUSCIEL; L.; ZOULALIAN; A.; 周定国

    2007-01-01

    The study presented hereby is the first part of a more general investigation in Europe concerning the valorization of wood wastes by activation of carbon obtained by pyrolysis of different wood species. According to the large scale storage of wood wastes produced by wood industry and their low economical value induced by some strong defects, six different European wood species have been tested and their ability to produce charcoal has been qualified. These sik different wood species are: ash, beech, douglas, oak, white poplar and sitka spruce. Twenty-eight pyrolysis tests have been performed at different constant temperatures (390~672 ℃) during two hours. Another eight tests have been performed at two different temperatures (390℃ and 440℃) with four different wood species (oak, poplar, spruce and douglas). The pyrolysis duration is one hour. Tests on cubic wood samples have permitted to determine the dimensions variations and mass loses induced by the thermal degradation of wood during its carbonization. In particular, the conversion ratio of wood material into charcoal has been determined as a function of the wood species and the pyrolysis conditions. The experimental results show that the carbonization is complete for all the species at a temperature of 500℃ and the relative mass loss after a total carbonization is constant and tends to 25%.The shrinkage is near 30% in the tangential direction, 25% in the radial direction and 20% in the longitudinal direction. After the experimental result analysis, it shows that the conversion ratios of all the wood species are similar and they have no relationship with wood species. The theoretical porosity ratio formula is ε=100-300 ρ01, the quality of charcoal product can be predicted by this formula.%根据木材本身的材性缺陷和木材加工厂的废料存量情况,选择了岑树、山毛榉、花旗松、橡木、白杨和云杉作为研究对象,研究了这些木材在实验室热解条件

  12. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  13. Adsorption–photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal is prepared using a microwave-assisted sol–gel method. • HA degradation is achieved through synergistic BC adsorption and ZnO-TiO2 photocatalysis. • ZnO-TiO2/BC has high photodegradation efficiency for HA under visible-light irradiation. • ZnO-TiO2/BC is an effective photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water. -- Abstract: ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO2/BC) was prepared using the sol–gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption (BET), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO2 particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO2/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO2/BC was higher than that of TiO2/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC fitted well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO2/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants

  14. Adsorption–photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yin [Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal is prepared using a microwave-assisted sol–gel method. • HA degradation is achieved through synergistic BC adsorption and ZnO-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC has high photodegradation efficiency for HA under visible-light irradiation. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC is an effective photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water. -- Abstract: ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC) was prepared using the sol–gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO{sub 2} to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO{sub 2} particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO{sub 2}/BC was higher than that of TiO{sub 2}/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC fitted well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  15. Study on characteristics of elemental mercury adsorption by bamboo charcoal%竹炭脱除单质汞的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭增强; 邱建荣; 苏胜; 向军

    2012-01-01

    为了寻求廉价、高效的脱汞吸附剂,总结了竹炭的来源、制备方法、竹炭(BC)的性质以及竹炭的应用现状,并将其应用在燃煤大气污染物汞的脱除上.在小型燃煤烟气汞脱除实验台上和模拟烟气气氛下研究了低温下BC对汞吸附性能的影响因素.实验结果表明:BC对汞有较强的吸附能力,BC粒径减小增大了BC表面积和孔容,这有利于物理吸附脱汞;吸附剂质量与流量比值(W/F)的增加延长了汞与BC的接触时间,非常利于汞的吸附脱除;BC的脱汞效率随汞浓度的增大而降低;BC对汞的吸附脱除存在着最佳反应温度,实验发现60℃为最佳脱除温度;氧气会促进单质汞的氧化,从而进一步提高BC脱除汞的能力.%The purpose of the present study was to develop cost-effective carbon-based sorbent using commercial bamboo charcoal (BC) which was produced from renewable bamboo precursor. The source, preparation methods, properties and application status of bamboo charcoal were summarized. The adsorptive potential of BC for elemental mercury was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed. The effect of temperature, W/F, initial concentration and oxygen on mercury removal were analyzed. The results show that BC has strong adsorption capacity for mercury. The decrease of particle size of BC increases its BET surface area and pore volume, which can enhance its physisorption ability for elemental mercury. The increase of W/F prolongs the residence time of elemental mercury, thus improves the removal efficiency of elemental mercury. The increase of concentration of inlet mercury decreases the removal efficiency of elemental mercury. There is a best reaction temperature for the adsorption of mercury, and 60 ℃ is found to be the optimal reaction temperature. The presence of oxygen can oxidize elemental mercury and further increase the adsorption ability for

  16. Surface Modification, Surface Groups Characterization and Adsorption Properties of Bamboo-Charcoal%竹炭的表面改性、基团表征与吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启伟; 王桂仙

    2012-01-01

    Surface of ordinary bamboo-charcoal was pretreated with nitric acid and microwave heating,ammonia. Fourier transform infrared( FTIR) spectrometer, elemental analysis measurements demonstrate that the contents of O-containing groups and N-containing groups on the bamboo-charcoal surface increase via HNO3 and NH3 · H20 treatment. Results showed of adsorption that adsorption capacity of the modified bamboo-charcoal for metal ions were elevated remarkably. Among them, the mercury(Ⅱ) adsorption capacity increased by 25% , and palladium(Ⅱ) adsorption capacity increased by 32% or more. And the adsorption process was changed from the physical adsorption to the chemical adsorption. This study will expanded the applications of bamboo charcoal, and become into functional adsorption material.%通过硝酸+微波加热和氨水吸附的方法对普通竹炭进行表面改性处理,运用红外图谱和元素分析对改性前后的竹炭进行表征.结果表明:含氧基团和含氮基团的含量明显增加.吸附试验结果表明:改性后竹炭对金属离子的吸附性能明显提高,其中,汞(Ⅱ)的吸附量提高25%以上,钯(Ⅱ)的吸附量提高32%以上,且吸附过程从以物理吸附为主转化为以化学吸附为主.

  17. Influences of Particle Size and Sulfuric Acid Treatment on the Electrochemical Performance of Bamboo Charcoal%颗粒粒径与硫酸处理对竹碳电极电化学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚煜; 余爱水

    2012-01-01

    The bamboo charcoal had been milled and treated by sulfuric acid. The influence of as-prepared material particle size and sulfuric acid treatment on the electrochemical performance had been studied. The re-sult displays that the bamboo charcoal with mean particle size about 5 μm has the best first coulombic efficien-cy. Sulfuric acid treatment could raise the discharge capacity of bamboo charcoal, and the first discharge ca-pacity of 328.2 mAh·g^-1 was obtained with the bamboo charcoal treated by sulfuric acid for 18 h. Further-more, the capacity of 302.3 mAh·g^-1 could be maintained for 50 cycles, showing good cyclability.%将竹碳进行球磨和硫酸处理,比较颗粒粒径和硫酸处理时间对竹碳电极电化学性能的影响.结果表明,平均粒径5μm的竹碳电极具有较好的充放电效率,而硫酸处理可有效提高材料的放电容量.硫酸处理18h的竹碳电极首次放电比容量可达328.2mAh·g^-1,50次循环后其比容量仍保持302.3mAh·g^-1,显示小优异的循环寿命.

  18. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  19. Decolorization of crude latex by activated charcoal, purification and physico-chemical characterization of religiosin, a milk-clotting serine protease from the latex of Ficus religiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Moni; Sharma, Anurag; Jagannadham, M V

    2010-07-14

    The crude latex of Ficus religiosa is decolorized by activated charcoal. Decolorization follows the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. A serine protease, named religiosin, has been purified to homogeneity from the decolorized latex using anion exchange chromatography. Religiosin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 43.4 kDa by MALDI-TOF. Religiosin is an acidic protein with a pI value of 3.8 and acts optimally at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 50 degrees C. The proteolytic activity of religiosin is strongly inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The extinction coefficient (epsilon(1%)(280)) of religiosin is 29.47 M(-1) cm(-1)with 16 tryptophan, 26 tyrosine, and 11 cysteine residues per molecule. The enzyme shows broad substrate specificity against natural as well as synthetic substrates with an apparent K(m) of 0.066 mM and 6.25 mM using casein and Leu-pNA, respectively. MS/MS analysis confirms the novelty of the enzyme. Religiosin is highly stable against denaturants, metal ions, and detergents as well as over a wide range of pH and temperature. In addition, the enzyme exhibits milk-clotting as well as detergent activity. PMID:20560603

  20. Mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose, and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B., III; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Fires in terrestrial ecosystems produce large amounts of charcoal that persist in the environment and represent a substantial pool of sequestered carbon in soil. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on mid-infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred organic matter in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark, and pine wood) and char from these materials, created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450 ??C), were studied. Mid-infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols as determined by titration) were determined for 56 different samples (not all samples were charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature, and duration of charring. Despite the wide range of spectral changes seen with the differing materials and length/temperature of charring, partial least squares calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols were successfully created (coefficient of determination and root mean squared deviation of 0.970 and 0.380; 0.933 and 0.227; 0.976 and 0.120; and 0.982 and 0.101 meq/g, respectively), indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific material or condition of char formation. ?? 2008 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  1. Paracetamol biodegradation by activated sludge and photocatalysis and its removal by a micelle-clay complex, activated charcoal, and reverse osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Rafik; Khamis, Mustafa; Abbadi, Jehad; Amro, Ahmad; Qurie, Mohannad; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Ayyash, Fatima; Hamarsheh, Omar; Yaqmour, Reem; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Lerman, Sofia; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic studies on the stability of the pain killer paracetamol in Al-Quds activated sludge demonstrated that paracetamol underwent biodegradation within less than one month to furnish p-aminophenol in high yields. Characterizations of bacteria contained in Al-Quds sludge were accomplished. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the bacterium most responsible for the biodegradation of paracetamol to p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. Batch adsorptions of paracetamol and its biodegradation product (p-aminophenol) by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (octadecyltrimethylammonium)-clay (montmorillonite) were determined at 25°C. Adsorption was adequately described by a Langmuir isotherm, and indicated better efficiency of removal by the micelle-clay complex. The ability of bench top reverse osmosis (RO) plant as well as advanced membrane pilot plant to remove paracetamol was also studied at different water matrixes to test the effect of organic matter composition. The results showed that at least 90% rejection was obtained by both plants. In addition, removal of paracetamol from RO brine was investigated by using photocatalytic processes; optimal conditions were found to be acidic or basic pH, in which paracetamol degraded in less than 5 min. Toxicity studies indicated that the effluent and brine were not toxic except for using extra low energy membrane which displayed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC-50) value of 80%. PMID:26852629

  2. Comfort and Functional Properties of Far-Infrared/Anion-Releasing Warp-Knitted Elastic Composite Fabrics Using Bamboo Charcoal, Copper, and Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastic warp-knitted composite fabrics with far-infrared emissivity and an anion-releasing property were prepared using bamboo charcoal (BC, copper (Cu, and phase-change material (PCM. The functional composite fabric, which was composed of self-made complex yarns with various twisting degrees and material composition, were created using a rotor twister and ring-spinning technique. The fabric structure was diversified by the feeding modes of weft yarn into a crochet-knitting machine. The twist number of complex yarns was optimized by tensile tenacity, twist contraction, and hairiness, and analysis showed that twisting at 12 twists per inch produced the highest tensile tenacity and appropriate twist contraction and hairiness. Comfort evaluation showed that the elastic composite fabrics with BC weft yarns exhibited higher water–vapor transmission rate and air permeability, reaching 876 g/m2∙ day and 73.2 cm3/s/cm2, respectively. Three structures of composite fabric with various weft yarns had >0.85 ε far-infrared emissivity and 350–420 counts/cm3 anion amount. The prepared elastic warp-knitted fabrics can provide a comfortable, dry, and breathable environment to the wearer and can thus be applied as health-care textiles in the future.

  3. Preparation of highly developed mesoporous activated carbon fiber from liquefied wood using wood charcoal as additive and its adsorption of methylene blue from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Junyan; Yu, Lili; Liu, Xinyan

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon fiber (C-WACF) with super high surface area and well-developed small mesopores were prepared by liquefied wood and uses wood charcoal (WC) as additive. The characterization and properties of C-WACF were investigated by XRD, XPS and N2 adsorption. Results showed the pore development was significant at temperatures >750°C, and reached a maximum BET surface area (2604.7 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (1.433 cm(3)/g) at 850°C, of which 86.8% was from the contribution of the small mesopores of 2-4 nm. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of C-WACF were highly increased as the temperature increases from 750 to 850°C. Additionally, the reduction of graphitic layers, the obvious changes of functional groups and the more unstable carbons on the surface of C-WACF, which played important roles in the formation of mesopores, were also observed.

  4. Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Preconcentration Using the Biomass of Aspergillus niger Loaded on Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahlaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and sensitive method for determination of total arsenic in drinking water sample by ETAAS after solid phase preconcentration has been developed. The dead biomass of A. niger loaded on activated charcoal has been applied as bioadsorbent for preconcentration step. The effects of parameters such as pH, type and concentration of eluent, biosorption time, sample volume, and effect of interfering ions have also been studied. Under the optimum condition, the enrichment factor of 10 for the analyte has been obtained. The accuracy of the method has been investigated by the recovery of spiked standards and the recovery percents between 99 and 102% have been achieved. Total amount of arsenic was determined by reducing As (V to As (III with potassium iodide (KI and ascorbic acid in HCl solution. Under the optimum conditions, for 400 mL of drinking water samples, the detection limit (3σ and linear range were achieved 1 ng/mL and 5–100 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation for ten determinations of a spiked sample with concentration of 10 ng/mL As was 3.2%.

  5. Combining charcoal sediment and molecular markers to infer a Holocene fire history in the Maya Lowlands of Petén, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, Simon; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Colombaroli, Daniele; Beffa, Giorgia; Radaelli, Marta; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation changes in the Maya Lowlands during the Holocene are a result of changing climate conditions, solely anthropogenic activities, or interactions of both factors. As a consequence, it is difficult to assess how tropical ecosystems will cope with projected changes in precipitation and land-use intensification over the next decades. We investigated the role of fire during the Holocene by combining macroscopic charcoal and the molecular fire proxies levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Combining these two different fire proxies allows a more robust understanding of the complex history of fire regimes at different spatial scales during the Holocene. In order to infer changes in past biomass burning, we analysed a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, and compared our results with millennial-scale vegetation and climate change available in the area. We detected three periods of high fire activity during the Holocene: 9500-6000 cal yr BP, 3700 cal yr BP and 2700 cal yr BP. We attribute the first maximum mostly to climate conditions and the last maximum to human activities. The rapid change between burned vegetation types at the 3700 cal yr BP fire maximum may result from human activity.

  6. Preparation and characterization of functional fabrics from bamboo charcoal/silver and titanium dioxide/silver composite powders and evaluation of their antibacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fu-Chu, E-mail: yfc580629@yahoo.com.tw [Army Command Headquarters, MND, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hui [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jen-Wei [Department of Physics, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Horng, Deng-Nan; Liang, Chia-Feng [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Ming-Kuan [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) and titanium dioxide supporting silver (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) were prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution and antibacterial properties. The pore and surface properties were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered. Moreover, these composite powders were deposited via immersion coating onto fabrics (nonwoven and carbon fibers) to improve the antibacterial efficacy and to act as a biologically-protective material. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics supported by BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag were studied in zone of inhibition and plate counting tests against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ME/GM/TC Resistant, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosae (CTZ and EM and GM) Res. Clin. Isol., Escherichia coli Juhl, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that fabric-BC/Ag and fabric-TiO{sub 2}/Ag possess a strong antibacterial activity and an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bacteria and are therefore believed to have great potential for use as antibacterial fabrics.

  7. Mesoporous Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles as a New Near-Infrared Responsive Drug Carrier for Imaging-Guided Chemotherapy/Photothermal Synergistic Therapy of Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinghua; Yin, Wenyan; Yu, Jie; Dou, Ruixia; Bao, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Yan, Liang; Yong, Yuan; Su, Chunjian; Wang, Qing; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2016-07-01

    Near-infrared-(NIR)-light-triggered photothermal nanocarriers have attracted much attention for the construction of more smart and effective therapeutic platforms in nanomedicine. Here, a multifunctional drug carrier based on a low cost, natural, and biocompatible material, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs), which are prepared by the pyrolysis of bamboo followed by physical grinding and ultrasonication is reported. The as-prepared BCNPs with porous structure possess not only large surface areas for drug loading but also an efficient photothermal effect, making them become both a suitable drug carrier and photothermal agent for cancer therapy. After loading doxorubicin (DOX) into the BCNPs, the resulting DOX-BCNPs enhance drug potency and more importantly can overcome the drug resistance of DOX in a MCF-7 cancer cell model by significantly increasing cellular uptake while remarkably decreasing drug efflux. The in vivo synergistic effect of combining chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in this drug delivery system is also demonstrated. In addition, the BCNPs enhance optoacoustic imaging contrast due to their high NIR absorbance. Collectively, it is demonstrated that the BCNP drug delivery system constitutes a promising and effective nanocarrier for simultaneous bioimaging and chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of cancer.

  8. Preparation and characterization of functional fabrics from bamboo charcoal/silver and titanium dioxide/silver composite powders and evaluation of their antibacterial efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) and titanium dioxide supporting silver (TiO2/Ag) were prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag and TiO2/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution and antibacterial properties. The pore and surface properties were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag and TiO2/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered. Moreover, these composite powders were deposited via immersion coating onto fabrics (nonwoven and carbon fibers) to improve the antibacterial efficacy and to act as a biologically-protective material. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics supported by BC/Ag and TiO2/Ag were studied in zone of inhibition and plate counting tests against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ME/GM/TC Resistant, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosae (CTZ and EM and GM) Res. Clin. Isol., Escherichia coli Juhl, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that fabric-BC/Ag and fabric-TiO2/Ag possess a strong antibacterial activity and an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bacteria and are therefore believed to have great potential for use as antibacterial fabrics.

  9. 果蓬类原料致密成型特征及其机制炭质量分析%Analysis of Densification and Molding of Epiear and the Quality of Briquetted Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杭瑞; 陈顺伟; 庄晓伟; 潘圻; 章江丽

    2012-01-01

    以山核桃、油茶和板栗3类果蓬为原料,研究了此类原料与杉木、松木屑在不同配比条件下对果蓬类致密成型特征及其机制炭质量的影响。证实了果蓬类原料因纤维素含量、木质素含量与杉木、松木存在差异,且因较高的灰分含量限制,需与杉木或松木屑等原料在一定配比条件下才可实现良好的致密成型。而配比选择试验结果则表明,果蓬原料与杉木、松木屑混合原料以3:7比例配料为宜;在此条件下,制备的机制炭外形平直无裂缝,得率为33.85%-36.73%,固定碳含量79.80%-86.20%,热值28.96-31.92MJ/kg。%In this research, briquette and briquetted charcoal were made by use of epiear of Carya cathayensis, Camellia oleifera, Chestnut and sawdust of pine and China fir. The character of densification and molding, and the quality of briquetted charcoal made by different proportions of epiear and sawdust were studied. The result indicated that cellulose and lignin content were dif- ferent between epiear and sawdust of pine and China fir. Because ash contents of epiear were high, the raw stuff of briquette which has good characteristics of densification and molding must be mixed by epiear and sawdust of pine and China fir at a regular ratio. This paper also tested briquetted charcoal made by different ratio of epiear and sawdust. The result showed that the optimal ratio of epiear and sawdust was 3 : 7. In this condition, the briquetted charcoal has flat shape and no cracks. The yield of carboni- zation was 33.85 % - 36.73 % , and the fixed carbon and combustion values of briquetted charcoal were 79.80 % - 86.20 % and 28.96 - 31.92 MJ/kg, respectively.

  10. Adsorption-photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiang; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Yin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu

    2013-11-15

    ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO2/BC) was prepared using the sol-gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption (BET), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO2 particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO2/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO2/BC was higher than that of TiO2/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC fitted well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO2/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  11. Cultivo de embriões imaturos de citros em diferentes concentrações de carvão ativado e ácido giberélico Activated charcoal and giberellic acid concentrations on immature embryos culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adição de carvão ativado e giberelina no meio de cultura podem proporcionar melhores condições no desenvolvimento de embriões imaturos de citros. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de carvão ativado e GA3 (ácido giberélico no cultivo de embriões imaturos provenientes do cruzamento entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'Poncã'. Após 118 dias da polinização, frutos imaturos, com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro, foram coletados, suas sementes removidas e tratadas com álcool (70% por cinco minutos, hipoclorito de sódio (2% por 20 minutos e, posteriormente, lavadas três vezes em água destilada e autoclavada. Em condições assépticas, os tegumentos das sementes foram separados, os embriões globulares excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio MT, acrescido de carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 g L-1 e GA3 (0; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 mg L-1. Após a inoculação, os embriões permaneceram por 90 dias em sala de crescimento a 27+1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 mmol m-2 s-1. Maior comprimento da parte aérea foi obtido em meio MT, acrescido de 0,1 e 1 mg L-1 de GA3, combinado com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Maior comprimento do sistema radicular, massa da matéria fresca e número de folhas de plântulas foram obtidos em meio MT, acrescido de 0,01 mg L-1 de GA3, na ausência de carvão ativado. A adição de carvão ativado influenciou na concentração de ácido giberélico acrescido no meio de cultura.Activated charcoal and gibberelin provides better conditions on development of citrus immature embryos. Activated charcoal and GA3 (gibberelic acid on 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange x 'Poncã' mandarin immature embryos culture was evaluated. After 118 days-pollination, imature fruits with 3 to 4 cm of diameter were collected, seeds removed and treated with alcohol (70% for five min., sodium hypoclorite (2% for 20 min. and three times washed with distilled and autoclaved water. In aseptic conditions, the teguments

  12. Análise longitudinal dos preços do carvão vegetal, no Estado de Minas Gerais Longitudinal analysis of wood charcoal prices in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O carvão vegetal é um recurso energético renovável, sendo um dos insumos básicos responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento das indústrias de base florestal no Brasil. O Estado de Minas Gerais é o maior produtor e consumidor desse produto. No presente estudo, dedicou-se à análise das séries longitudinais dos preços do metro cúbico de carvão vegetal, no Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando os preços médios pagos por metro cúbico, publicados pela ABRACAVE. Para a análise da série, considerou-se o modelo SARIMA, com o objetivo de encontrar os parâmetros que forneçam melhores previsões de preço. Consideraram-se os preços do período de janeiro de 1975 a dezembro de 2002, para ajustar o modelo e o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2003 para validação das projeções. A escolha do modelo mais adequado se baseou nas análises gráficas, nos testes estocásticos e nos critérios de avaliação da ordem do modelo. Entre os modelos estudados, o SARIMA (2,0,1(0,1,112 proporcionou melhor ajuste e de forma parcimoniosa. Apesar de ter ocorrido um fator aleatório que distorceu os valores reais dos preços do carvão vegetal, as projeções fornecidas pelo modelo ficaram dentro dos limites de significância estabelecidos.Wood charcoal is a renewable energetic resource responsible for the development of the forest key industries in Brazil. The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal. This study analyzed the longitudinal series of charcoal prices, in the State of Minas Gerais. Average m³ of charcoal prices published by ABRACAVE was used. For analyzing the series, it was used the SARIMA model, in order to find the parameters and to supply better forecasts for charcoal prices. The period from January 1975 to December 2002 was considered to adjust the model and the period from January to December of 2003 for validating the projections of the model. The choice of the most appropriate model was based on graphical

  13. 硝酸处理对竹炭曝气生物滤池性能的影响%The Influence of Nitric Acid Modification on Aerated Bio-filter with Bamboo Charcoal as Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗舒君

    2015-01-01

    以硝酸处理竹炭作为曝气生物滤池填料,通过研究硝酸处理对竹炭吸附性能、表面官能团等的影响,考查硝酸处理竹炭对反应器性能的影响.结果表明,硝酸处理后竹炭表面含氧官能团增加,有利于微生物的附着,仅4d就完成挂膜, 反应器对有机负荷具有良好的去除能力, 在COD负荷为1.8和4.8 kg/(m3·d) 时, 平均去除率分别为83.3%和79.4%.%In this study, the influence of nitric acid modification on the adsorption performance and the surface functional groups of the bamboo charcoal was investigated. After that, the modified bamboo charcoal was employed as the bio-filter for wastewater treatment to study its performance on dealing with organic matter. The results indicated that the nitric acid modification increased surface oxygen functional groups of bamboo charcoal. The modification also promoted the growing of the microorganism, and shortened the mature period of bio-film to 4 days. The reactor was good at COD treatment. On condition that COD volume loaded of system was 1.8 and 4.8 kg/(m3·d), the removal efficiency can reached to 83.3%and 79.4%, respectively.

  14. ZnWO4/竹炭复合材料的制备及其光催化性能研究%Preparation and photocatalytic property of ZnWO4/bamboo charcoal composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩莉锋; 王志涛; 金恺; 张林森

    2014-01-01

    ZnWO4/bamboo charcoal (ZW/BC)photocatalysts were synthesized by the microwave assisted sol-gel method with 5(NH4)2·12WO3·5H2O as the W source,and bamboo charcoal as the support.The structured features of these materials were analyzed by TG,while their morphologies were characterized by SEM and BET.High efficiency for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB)under both UV light was ob-tained for the ZW/BC photocatalysts.The results indicated that the composites with 20%(wt)bamboo charcoal sintered in air at 400 ℃for 10 min in microwave power 640 W charactered had the better photo-catalytic ability in the UV light.%以自制竹炭为载体、仲钨酸铵为钨源,采用微波辅助溶胶-凝胶法制备了ZnWO4/竹炭复合材料。用TG,SEM,BET等分析技术对其进行了表征,并就其对罗丹明B的光降解催化作用进行了研究。结果表明:在微波功率640 W,时间10 min,400℃条件下的空气中焙烧所制备的ZnWO4/竹炭复合材料,当竹炭含量为20%时,具有较好的紫外光催化活性。

  15. 水力负荷对木炭填料生物滤池处理污水的影响%Effect of Hydraulic Loading on Charcoal Biological Aerated Filter for Treatment of Sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱姣; 陶涛; 边朝辉; 呼永锋

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal was adopted as filler in biological aerated filter and compared with ceramsite.The treatment efficiency of sewage under different hydraulic loading was investigated. The results show that change in hydraulic loading has little influence on removal of COD but has significant influence on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in both filters. The removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and TN in the charcoal filter is superior to that in ceramsite filter. When the hydraulic loading is 4 m~3/(m~3·d),the nitrogen removal efficiency is the best. Under this hydraulic loading, the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the effluent of charcoal filter and ceramsite filter is 4.7 mg/L and 7.7 mg/L with the removal rate of 80% and 65% respectively. By the comprehensive comparison of removal rates of COD, NH_4~+-N,TN and TP in the charcoal filter, the optimum hydraulic loading is 4 m~3/(m~3·d).%以木炭作为曝气生物滤池的填料,并与陶粒填料作对比,考察了其在不同水力负荷下对污水的处理效能.结果表明,改变水力负荷对两个反应器的出水COD影响不大,但对其脱氮除磷效果的影响较显著.木炭滤池对氨氮和TN的去除效果要好于陶粒滤池的,当水力负荷为4m~3/(m~3·d)时,两反应器的脱氮效果最佳,此时木炭和陶粒滤池的出水氨氮浓度分别为4.7、7.7mg/L(去除率分别为80%和65%).综合考虑木炭滤池对COD、NH_4~+-N、TN和TP的去除效果,确定其最佳水力负荷为4 m~3/(m~3·d).

  16. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  17. TiO_2/竹炭复合材料处理废水中的罗丹明B%Removal of Rhodamine B in Wastewater by TiO_2/Bamboo Charcoal Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀华; 周云龙; 胡志彪; 张著森; 钟玲

    2011-01-01

    以竹炭为载体,钛酸四正丁酯为钛源,通过溶胶-凝胶法制备TiO2/竹炭复合材料,研究材料对罗丹明B溶液的暗室吸附规律和光降解性能。实验结果表明:材料对罗丹明B的吸附属于物理吸附,能较好地符合Freundlich吸附等温模型;材料对罗丹明B的降解率高,且随溶液pH的变化而有明显改变。此光催化反应可用一级反应动力学方程进行描述。%TiO2/bamboo charcoal composite was prepared by sol-gel technique with tetra-n-butyl tinanate as the titanium source,and bamboo charcoal as the support.The adsorption behavior and the photocatalytic degradation processes of Rhodamine B were studied.The results indicated that the adsorption of Rhodamine B on the composites was physical adsorption and adsorption law of Rhodamine B on the composites fits in well with Freundlich model.The photocatalytic degradation here fit in with the first-order kinetic order.

  18. Dating of the humin fraction of soil organic matter and its comparison with {sup 14} C ages of fossil charcoal; Datacao da fracao humina da materia organica do solo e sua comparacao com idades {sup 14} C de carvoes fosseis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, Susy Eli Marques; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Aravena, Ramon [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    The radiocarbon dating of the organic matter (SOM) is a polemic subject, due mainly to the complexity of the formation of the soils and to the variable contamination from several sources. Soil samples from 4 different Brazilian localities were submitted to physical and chemical pre-treatment for the extraction of humin fraction, which is the most stable organic compound and theoretically the oldest and representative of the age of the SOM. The radiocarbon dating obtained from the total SOM and their humin fractions are compared to the {sup 14} C ages from buried charcoals at similar depths. The radiocarbon ages obtained from such charcoals are, in most of the cases, concordant within the experimental errors of those obtained on humin fractions, or are in average 10% higher, with one exception. Thus, the ages on humin fractions could be assumed as the minimum ages for the associated soils, while the results obtained on total SOM, even at depths until 200 cm, exhibit pronounced contamination effect by modern carbon, rejuvenating their ages. (author)

  19. 竹炭对粉煤灰陶瓷砖结构及性能的影响%Effect of Bamboo Charcoal on Microstructure and Performance of Fly Ash Ceramic Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 李文彦; 郭兴忠; 涂志龙

    2011-01-01

    With fly ash and gold tailings as raw materials, bamboo charcoal as additive, fly ash ceramic tiles were prepared by drying pressing-firing method, and the effect of bamboo charcoal's addition and firing temperature on the properties, compositions and microstructure of the ceramic tiles were studied. The results show that the fly ash ceramic tile can be prepared with high mechanical strength and high porosity, and it has porous structure with quartz and mullite as main phases. When m(bamboo charcoal):m(fly ash) is 5:70 and the firing temperature is 1 250℃, the ceramic tile has excellent comprehensive properties, its fracture strength is 600. 1 N, water absorption is 8. 29%, and apparent porosity is 16. 02%. The comprehensive properties can meet the requirement set forth in GB/T 4100-2006 BⅡ, and it also possesses specific surface area of 11. 1 m2/g. It is indicated that the material is expected to be a new functional indoor decoration material.%采用粉煤灰、黄金尾矿为主要原料,添加不同掺量的竹炭,通过干压成型-高温烧成法制得粉煤灰陶瓷砖,分析了竹炭掺量及烧成温度对粉煤灰陶瓷砖的物化性能、物相组成及显微结构的影响规律.结果表明:以粉煤灰、黄金尾矿和竹炭可以制备出显气孔率和强度较高、吸水率较低的粉煤灰陶瓷砖,其物相主要为石英相与莫来石相;在m(竹炭)∶m(粉煤灰)为5∶70,烧成温度为1 250℃时,陶瓷砖具有较好的综合性能,其破坏强度可达600.1 N,吸水率为8.29%,显气孔率为16.02%,达到GB/T 4100-2006附录K中对BⅡ类炻质砖的性能要求,且该材料的比表面积为11.1 m2/g,具备一定的吸附功能,有望成为一种新型的内墙功能装饰材料.

  20. Research on the Photocatalytic Degradability of Methylene Blue Solution by Photocatalysis Bamboo Charcoal Fiber Knitted Fabric%光催化竹炭纤维针织物光催化降解亚甲基蓝的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣稳; 王秋美; 刘淑英; 邹志伟; 徐雪梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop new functional fabrics, the photocatalytic degradabilltys of methylene blue solution by photocatalysis bamboo charcoal fiber knitted fabric was researched. The relationships were analyzed between the removal rate and the response time, the initial concentration and pH value of methylene blue solution, the distance between the ultraviolet light centre and liquid level. The results were as follows : it indicated an obvious photocatalytic degradation effect of methylene blue solution by photocatalysis bamboo charcoal fiber knitted fabric under UV-irradiation. And the removal rate could reach 67. 02%. When the initial concentration of methylene blue solution is lower, the pH value of methylene blue solution is higher,and the distance between light centre and liquid level is shorter, the effect was better. It indicated that the photocatalysis bamboo charcoal fiber knitted fabric could be used as filter materials and wastewater treatment materials.%为了开发新型功能型织物,研究了光催化竹炭纤维织物对亚甲基蓝溶液的光催化降解效果,分析了反应时间、亚甲基蓝溶液的初始浓度、pH值、光源中心与液面间距离等因素对亚甲基蓝溶液光催化降解效果的影响.结果表明,光催化竹炭纤维针织物在紫外线的照射下对亚甲基蓝溶液产生明显的降解效果,其去除率可达67.02%;亚甲基蓝溶液的初始浓度越低,降解效果越好;亚甲基蓝溶液的初始pH值越高,降解效果越好;光源中心与液面间距较小时织物的光催化降解效果较好.因此,光催化竹炭纤维针织物可用作过滤、污水处理材料等.

  1. Concentrações de citocinina e carvão ativado na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino Cytokynin concentrations and activated charcoal on black pepper micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ferreira Moura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum tem grande importância para a economia do Norte do Brasil. A pimenta-do-reino é propagada principalmente por estaquia que, além de ser pouco eficiente, pode possibilitar a propagação da doença fusariose. Dessa forma, testes para verificar a eficiência da micropropagação são pertinentes. O objetivo do trabalho foi testar concentrações de BAP - 6-benzilaminopurina (0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 4,5mg L-1 e a adição de carvão ativado a 0,2% ao meio de cultura na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino. O meio de cultura foi composto de sais e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog, 3% de sacarose e 8g L-1 de ágar. Foram utilizados como explantes ápices caulinares de plântulas da cultivar "Bragantina" germinadas in vitro. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em esquema fatorial 4x2, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 45 dias no estabelecimento, foi avaliado o número de brotos, mas não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, considerando-se os dois fatores e a interação entre eles. Após 45 dias no primeiro subcultivo, foram avaliados o número de brotos e de explantes (segmentos nodais. A interação entre BAP e carvão ativado teve efeito significativo para número de brotos e de explantes, sendo que o carvão influenciou o efeito das concentrações de BAP. A concentração de 0,5mg L-1 de BAP na ausência de carvão ativado gerou maior número de brotos e de explantes. O carvão ativado não é necessário na fase de proliferação de gemas de pimenta-do-reino da cultivar "Bragantina".Black pepper (Piper nigrum has great importance for the Northern Brazil’s economy. Black pepper is mainly propagated by mass propagation, which is not very efficient and may spread fusariosis. Thus, micropropagation efficiency tests are pertinent. The objective of this research paper was to test BAP - 6-benzilaminopurine concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg L-1 and activated charcoal at 0.2% addition to

  2. Estrutura anatômica da madeira e qualidade do carvão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir Anatonical structure and charcoal quality of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas características anatômicas e dimensões de fibras, elementos dos vasos, células do parênquima e dos raios da madeira da Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Determinaram-se, ainda, a fração parede das fibras e o porcentual das fibras, dos vasos, dos raios e das células parenquimatosas, bem como a densidade, rendimento e propriedades do carvão vegetal. Conclui-se que a madeira de Mimosa tenuiflora possui poros predominantemente solitários, geminados e múltiplos em agrupamento radial; poros distribuídos em porosidade difusa uniforme; parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico, vasicêntrico confluente, aliforme e aliforme confluente; raios multisseriados, bisseriados e, menos freqüentemente, unisseriados; e fibras de parede espessa e muito curtas. Obteve-se um rendimento de 39,68% em carvão vegetal, com teor de carbono fixo de 71,70%, densidade igual a 0,51g/cm³, carbono fixo de 71,79 e poder calórico de 6.866 cal/g.The objective of this work was to determine anatomical characteristics, and dimensions of fibers, vessels and parenchyma and ray cells of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir wood. Fibers wall fraction, the percentage of fibers, vessels and ray and parenchyma cells, as well as density and charcoal production and properties were determined. The wood of Mimosa teniflora presents predominantly solitary, geminated and multiple porous in radial groups; porous distributed in uniform diffuse porosity; axial parenchyma paratracheal vasicentric, confluent vasicentric, aliform and confluent aliform; multiseriate, biseiat rays and, less frequently, uniseriate ones; very short fibers with thick walls. Charcoal yield was 39.68% with a 0.51g/cm³ density, 71.79% carbon content and 6886cal/g calorific value.

  3. Interaction Effect of Isothermal Co-pyrolysis of Coal Coke and Salix psammophila Charcoal blends%煤半焦和沙柳炭混合物恒温共热解作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武彦伟; 高学艺; 王克冰; 安书琪

    2016-01-01

    采用先混合原沙柳和煤粉再制焦的次序,利用热重分析法研究了4种煤半焦和沙柳炭混合物的恒温共热解作用。从胜利煤的变温热解中,选定恒温共热解的温度400、500和600℃来研究温度对沙柳炭和胜利煤半焦混合物共热解作用的影响,结果显示400和600℃表现为协同作用,500℃表现为抑制作用,通过分析选择600℃作为恒温共热解温度。在600℃时,研究了沙柳炭与不同种类煤半焦在不同掺混比例下的恒温共热解,显示沙柳炭对挥发逸出能力较强或较低的煤半焦(霍林河煤和准格尔煤)均表现为抑制作用,对挥发分逸出能力中等的煤半焦(胜利煤和宝日希勒褐煤)表现为协同作用;受煤种的影响,掺混比例对共热解的作用效果大小无固定的排序。%Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the interaction effects of isothermal co-pyrolysis of Salix psammophila ( Bsl) charcoal and 4 kinds of coal cokes. The isothermal co-pyrolysis temperatures 400, 500 and 600℃ were selected from the temperature-programmed pyrolysis of Shengli lignite ( SL) to study the effects of temperature on the co-pyrolysis of Bsl charcoal and SL coal coke. The results showed that the interactions was synergy effect at 400 and 600℃,and the interaction was inhibition effect at 500℃. By analysis, the selected temperature of co-pyrolysis was 600℃. At 600℃, the isothermal co-pyrolysises of Bsl charcoal and coal cokes of different coal types at different blending ratios were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the interactions were inhibition effects for coal cokes with high content of volatilization ( Huolinhe lignite and Zhunge′er coal) and synergy effect for coal cokes with medium content of volatilization( Shengli lignite and Baorixile lignite) . The interaction effect of coke mixture at different blending ratios had no fixed order for different coal types.

  4. Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different places seeking to the production of vegetal charcoal Avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus em diferentes locais visando à produção de carvão vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Andrade Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aim to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of three Eucalyptus clones planted at different places and to verify the existent functional relations between the basic density and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. Three Eucalyptus clones were evaluated and four trees were sample for each clone and place. It was determined the depth of penetration of a Pilodyn pin at 1.30 m of height of the soil (DBH, average basic density (DBm, the basic density at DBH, the calorific value, lignin, total extractive, ashes and holocellulose contents and elemental chemical analysis (C, H, N and O. The wood was carbonized and the charcoal produced was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In the evaluation of the wood characteristics a completely randomized design disposed in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 was used. A linear model was adjusted between DBm and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. It was possible to conclude that the clones present potential to be used for energy. The charcoal produced may be used in siderurgy. The linear model adjusted between DBm and the penetration of the Pilodyn pin was satisfactory.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a qualidade da madeira e do carvão vegetal de três clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais e verificar a relação funcional existente entre a densidade básica e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foram avaliados três clones de Eucalyptus e amostradas quatro árvores por clone em cada local. Determinou-se a profundidade de penetração de um pino de aço do Pilodyn a 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP, a densidade básica média (DBm, a densidade básica no DAP, o poder calorífico superior e os teores de lignina, extrativos totais, cinzas, holocelulose e a análise química elementar (C, H, N e O. A madeira foi carbonizada e o carvão produzido foi avaliado quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Na avalia

  5. 越南红河流域沉积物的镜下碳屑分析实验室处理方法对比研究%COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTS OF EXTRAVTING CHARCOALS FROM SEDIMENT WITH MICROSCOPE IN THE RED RIVER BASIN,VIETNAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆岸青; 李珍; 李杰; Xuan Phong Dang; Eiji Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs four comparative experiments of extracting charcoals from sediment.These experiments are based on nine samples from different sedimentary environments along the Red River Drainage area,Vietnam,and three samples from Virgin Forest,three from floodplain,and others from subaqueous delta.The four experiments are respectively named dispersed by(NaPO3)6 method(method A),dispersed by HCI method(method B),HF treatment method(method C)and mixture of acetic anhydride and high concentrations of H2SO4 treatment method(method D).Results show that methods C and D are easier for counting charcoals and making the charcoal shapes clearer after preparation by HF treatment than other methods because of less impurity.But method D has the process of using mixture of acetic anhydride and concentrated sulfuric acid(9:1)to remove celluloses and dye pollen,which could cause some cellulose to be carbonized,and it is proved by the experiment data.So it is less difficult to draw a conclusion that HF treatment method(method C)is the best.In addition,different treatments also influence charcoal grain size and further to calculated concentration result.Thus,it is very important to choose a suitable treatment for charcoal extraction.As for charcoal counting,we manage to use software of NIS-Elements Br 3.0 to measure the charcoal parameters statistically in serial photos instead of manual counting under microscope.This counting method not only reduces artificial inaccuracy,but also realize the multi-parameter measurement and output,which benefit to interpret more information about palaeoenviroment,paleoclimate,vegetation.%本文设计4个不同的实验方法,以越南红河流域原始森林区、河漫滩区和水下三角洲区3个不同沉积环境下的9个样品为实验对象,对镜下碳屑不同的实验室处理方法进行对比研究,实验发现样品用六偏磷酸钠分散法(方法A)和盐酸分散法(方法B)处理后,镜下碳屑形态不易分辨,杂质多,

  6. Corncob and active charcoal in the Laccase and Basidiome production of Pleurotus spSabugo de milho e carvão ativado na produção de Lacase e Basidiomas de Pleurotus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Maria Andrade-Nobrega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn cob as a lignocellulosic feedstock could be a viable option for edible mushroom production by fungi of the genus Pleurotus considering that there are enormous amounts of this agricultural waste in the State of Parana, as well in the whole Brazil territory. This work evaluated three strains of Pleurotus sp., Pleurotus ostreatus (white and CCB, P. Eryngii (salmon, as laccase producers using liquid extract of corn cob, and solid medium based on corn cob without adding other nutritional sources. A strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (white produced the highest titres of laccase in liquid medium (1.2 U L-1 and also on solid medium (~ 2.8 U kg-1 among the three strains evaluated. The additon of active charcoal increased the biological efficency (30.3 % of P. eryngii (salmon when compared in its absence (12.7 %. However, the strain of P. ostreatus (white did not present statistical difference among the treatments demonstrating that the addition of active charcoal to the solid medium for mushroom production can promote an increase in the biological efficiency depending upon the fungal strain used.O sabugo de milho é uma matéria prima lignocelulósica que pode ser uma opção viável para a produção de cogumelos comestíveis por fungos do gênero Pleurotus, considerando-se que existe uma enorme quantidade deste resíduo agrícola no Estado do Paraná e em todo o Brasil. Este trabalho avaliou três linhagens de Pleurotus sp., Pleurotus ostreatus (branco e CCB e P. Eryngii (Salmão, como produtoras de lacase utilizando-se extrato líquido de sabugo de milho e em meio sólido à base de sabugo de milho, sem adicionar outras fontes de nutrientes. A linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus (branco produziu os maiores títulos de lacase no meio líquido (1,2 U L-1 e também no sólido (~ 2,8 U kg-1 dentre as três linhagens avaliadas. A adição de carvão ativo aumentou a eficiência biológica (30,3 % do P. eryngii (salmão quando comparada com a ausência do

  7. Study on the Preparation of Water-borne Polyurethane/Bamboo Charcoal Antistatic Coating%水性聚氨酯/竹炭抗静电涂膜的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 戴李宗

    2011-01-01

    选择环保型水性聚氨酯(WPU)作成膜物、低成本竹炭(BC)作功能助剂,通过BC改性及优化配方制备了WPU/BC高性能抗静电涂膜,研究了BC改性剂种类、用量,BC用量、粒度及分散时间等因素对该功能涂膜电性能的影响.结果表明,硅烷偶联剂γ-APFTES是效果最好的BC改性剂,γ-APTES改性的WPU/BC功能涂膜的适宜制备工艺条件为:γ-APTES用鼍为BC的2%,25μm BC的用量为20份,分散40 min,此条件下制备的涂膜体积电阻率为1.7×104Ω·cm,铅笔硬度为4H,冲击强度为72 kg·cm,耐洗刷性为11350次.%Water-borne polyurethane (WPU) was filled with bamboo charcoal (BC) forming antistatic paint film. The effect of BC loading, BC modifier, BC granularity, and mixing time on the properties of the film was investigated. Y-APTES was found a good modifier for BC. When the content of y-APTES was 2 wt % of BC, BC content was 20 phr, BC granularity was 25μm, and mixing time was 40 min, the obtained WPU/BC film had a volume resistivity of 1. 7×104Ω, · cm, a pencil hardness of 4H, an impact strength of 72 kg · cm, a washability of 11350 times.

  8. Pirólise de resíduos do coco-da-baía (Cocos nucifera Linn e análise do carvão vegetal Pyrolysis of coconut residues (Cocos nucifera L. and analysis of charcoal

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    Azarias Machado de Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou realizar a pirólise de resíduos do coco-da-baía (Cocos nucifera Linn e efetuar a análise química imediata do carvão vegetal produzido. Carvão vegetal, líquido pirolenhoso e gases não-condensáveis foram produzidos sob as temperaturas máximas de destilação de 350, 450 e 550 ºC. Submeteram-se à pirólise o coco inteiro e o seu endocarpo (verde e maduro, adotando como referência o carvão derivado do lenho de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. O rendimento gravimétrico do carvão do coco inteiro, pirolisado na temperatura máxima de 350 ºC, foi estatisticamente superior aos dos demais tratamentos. Os maiores rendimentos em gases condensáveis foram obtidos a partir da pirólise do endocarpo verde, sob as três temperaturas máximas de pirólise analisadas. Os maiores teores de carbono fixo foram apresentados pelos carvões derivados do endocarpo do coco maduro, pirolisados nas temperaturas máximas de 450 e 550 ºC. Houve a equiparação estatística dos rendimentos em carbono fixo dos carvões do endocarpo do coco maduro e do lenho de eucalipto, pirolisados sob as três temperaturas máximas ora analisadas, e do coco inteiro destilado a 450 e 550 ºC.The objective of this work was to carry out the pyrolysis of coconut residues (Cocos nucifera Linn and to perform the chemical analysis of charcoal. Charcoal, pirogalyc liquid and non-condensed gases were produced under maximum temperatures of 350ºC, 450ºC and 550ºC. The whole coconut and its endocarp were pyrolysed (ripe and unripe, having as reference the charcoal derived from eucalyptus log (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. The gravimetrical yield of whole coconut charcoal pyrolysed under maximum temperature of 350ºC, was superior to the other treatments. The largest yields of condensed gases were obtained from pyrolysis of unripe endocarp under the three pyrolysis temperatures. The highest levels of fixed carbon were given by charcoal derived

  9. Efeito da interação entre carvão ativado e N6-benzilaminopurina na propagação in vitro de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA Interaction effect between activated charcoal and N6-benzylaminopurine in the in vitro propagation of banana, cultivar Grand Naine (AAA

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    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O carvão ativado possui a propriedade de adsorver os compostos fenólicos liberados pela oxidação dos tecidos lesionados durante o cultivo in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da interação entre o carvão ativado e diferentes concentrações de N6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro da bananeira, cv. Grande Naine (AAA. O meio de cultura utilizado foi o MS, solidificado com 5 g.L-1 de ágar. O cultivo foi mantido em sala de crescimento a 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 30 mmol.m-2s-1. Foram avaliadas a presença e a ausência de carvão ativado (0 e 3 g.L-1 e quatro concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 6 mg.L-1 no meio de cultura. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em um sistema fatorial 2x4. Os explantes foram avaliados a cada 30 dias, por um período de quatro subcultivos. Após cada subcultivo, o comprimento de brotações, a taxa de multiplicação, o vigor, o nível de oxidação das brotações emitidas e o número de raízes formadas foram avaliados. Independentemente das concentrações de BAP, o carvão ativado influenciou significativamente em todas as variáveis analisadas. De maneira geral, a adição de carvão ativado afetou negativamente a taxa de multiplicação, embora tenha melhorado o vigor e o número de raízes e diminuído a oxidação dos explantes. Na ausência de carvão ativado, o BAP proporcionou as maiores taxas de multiplicação das brotações.Active charcoal has the capacity to fix phenolic compounds released by the oxidation of manipulated tissues during in vitro cultivation. The present work objective was to evaluate the interaction effects between active charcoal, combined to different BAP concentrations in the in vitro banana propagation, cv. Grand Nain (AAA. The culture medium used was the MS, solidified with 5 g.L-1 agar. Cultures were kept in a growth room at 25 ± 2ºC with a photoperiod of 16 h at 30 mmol

  10. Effects of Wheat Straw Bio -Charcoal Supplement to Fodder on Growth,Slaughter Performance and Lipid Metabolism of Broilers%饲料添加小麦秸秆生物质炭对肉鸡生长、屠宰性能和脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付潘潘; 王家芳; 俞欣妍; 董娟; 李恋卿; 张源淑; 潘根兴; 张旭辉; 郑聚锋; 郑金伟; 刘晓雨

    2015-01-01

    The effects of wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement to ration on growth,slaughter performance and lipid metabolism of broilers for the potential of bio -charcoal used as animal ration supplement were studied.Four random groups of 100 broilers each of Rose 308 (22 -day -old,body weight about 670 g each,in good health) were risen for 33 days respectively under treatments with 1%,5% and 10% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement to their basal ration.Compared to the control group without bio -charcoal supplement,a 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement significantly (P <0.05)increased the daily weight gain by 10.12% and the breast muscle rate by 23. 42%(P <0.05).However,broiler abdominal fat was reduced by 31.44% and 23.02%(P <0.05)under treatment of 5% and 10% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement respectively.Furthermore,the treatment of 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement significantly decreased the contents of serum total cholesterol (P <0.05)compared to the control group.Moreover,the contents of serum triacylglycerol of the tested broilers was all significantly (P <0.05) decreased,and the contents of serum glucose,high -density lipoprotein -cholesterol and low -density lipoprotein -cholesterol did not chang under the supplement treatments,over the control.Finally,the overall cost of feed per kilo-gram of broilers was significantly (P <0.05)decreased by 8% and 6% over the control,respectively under treat-ments of 1% and 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement,which slightly increased ration cost.Therefore,a sup-plement of 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal to basal ration could be a potential to improve health breeding,slaughter performance and growth performance of broiler.%旨在研究小麦秸秆生物质炭对肉鸡生产性能、屠宰性能和脂质代谢的影响。试验选用100只22日龄、健康状况良好、体重670 g 左右的罗斯308肉鸡,随机分成4组。对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组分别饲喂添加1%、5%和10%小麦秸秆

  11. Effects of Wheat Straw Bio -Charcoal Supplement to Fodder on Growth,Slaughter Performance and Lipid Metabolism of Broilers%饲料添加小麦秸秆生物质炭对肉鸡生长、屠宰性能和脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付潘潘; 王家芳; 俞欣妍; 董娟; 李恋卿; 张源淑; 潘根兴; 张旭辉; 郑聚锋; 郑金伟; 刘晓雨

    2015-01-01

    旨在研究小麦秸秆生物质炭对肉鸡生产性能、屠宰性能和脂质代谢的影响。试验选用100只22日龄、健康状况良好、体重670 g 左右的罗斯308肉鸡,随机分成4组。对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组分别饲喂添加1%、5%和10%小麦秸秆生物质炭的基础日粮,试验期33 d。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,添加5%的小麦秸秆生物质炭肉鸡的平均日增重增加10.12%(P <0.05);胸肌率提高23.42%(P <0.05);添加5%和10%的小麦秸秆生物质炭肉鸡的腹脂率分别降低31.44%和23.02%(P <0.05);试验组肉鸡的料重比均在一定程度上低于对照组,但无显著差异(P >0.05);2)与对照组相比,添加5%的小麦秸秆生物质炭显著降低肉鸡血清总胆固醇含量(P <0.05);试验组显著降低肉鸡血清Í酰甘油含量(P <0.05),但对肉鸡血清葡萄糖、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量没有显著影响(P >0.05);3)虽然添加小麦秸秆生物质炭增加了单位饲料成本,但添加1%和5%小麦秸秆生物质炭试验组每千克肉鸡增重饲料成本分别比对照组降低8%和6%。因此,饲料添加一定量的小麦秸秆生物质炭可以减少肉鸡腹脂沉积,降低血清总胆固醇和Í酰甘油含量,在一定程度上有助于改善肉鸡的屠宰性能和生产性能。%The effects of wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement to ration on growth,slaughter performance and lipid metabolism of broilers for the potential of bio -charcoal used as animal ration supplement were studied.Four random groups of 100 broilers each of Rose 308 (22 -day -old,body weight about 670 g each,in good health) were risen for 33 days respectively under treatments with 1%,5% and 10% wheat straw bio -charcoal supplement to their basal ration.Compared to the control group without bio -charcoal supplement,a 5% wheat straw bio -charcoal

  12. 氯化锌改性竹炭脱除单质汞的特性与机理分析%Performance and mechanism for elemental mercury removal by bamboo charcoal modified by ZnCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭增强; 邱建荣; 向军; 孙路石; 刘子红; 曾汉才; 张盛诚

    2011-01-01

    Elemental mercury from coal combustion has become an increasingly environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and it has been found that activated carbon adsorption is an effective mercury-control method, but there exists high-cost limit. An important precursor for activated carbon is bamboo, a renewable bioresource, and bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as a low-cost sorbent used for mercury controlling. In this paper, the adsorptive potential of modified BC using ZnCl2 (Cl-BC) for elemental mercury was investigated in a bench-scale bed. Their pore structure and surface chemical properties were characterized by BET and XPS. The results suggested that Cl-BC had excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing Cl content. There was an optimum ZnCl2 concentration for impregnation. The increase of performance of Cl-BC is probably due to the increase of active sites for mercury adsorption. The kind of Cl functional groups on the original and ZnCl2-modified BC was found to be different, the latter is of the active site for mercury adsorption and oxidation, and for the former it is negligible. There is an optimum Cl content on the ZnCl2-modified BC for elemental mercury removal, and mercuric chloride could be formed during mercury sorption.%@@ 引言 燃煤排放的汞是人为汞污染的主要来源之一,燃煤烟气中的汞主要以单质汞(Hg)、二价汞化合物(HgO、HgCl)和颗粒态汞3种形式存在,其中单质汞因其高挥发性、不溶于水等特点最难控制.由于汞的剧毒性,目前汞的排放控制已经引起广泛的研究[1-4],目前对汞的排放控制可分为燃烧前控制、燃烧中控制和尾部烟气控制3种,已有的研究发现活性炭吸附除汞是尾部烟气汞控制中最有前途的技术之一,美国目前已将该技术用于垃圾焚烧炉,并取得较好的效果.

  13. 论素描%On Charcoal Drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚应军

    2008-01-01

    早在人类“结绳记事”时期,一种记事手段和娱乐方式就产生了,这便是那些古老岩洞上的岩画和象形符号.美术史专家们称之为人类文化艺术的起源.而我更以为这是素描的起源。虽然那时“素描”这个名称还没有诞生,但作为素描的雏形已经产生了。那些原始岩壁上的图像符号就是人类视网膜上视像和想象的合成体,那些简洁朴素的描绘正是人类祖先对自然界的真实感受.也是素描的本质所在。

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the charcoal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grill Howard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of malignant melanoma metastasis to the heart presenting as complete heart block. The highlight of the case is to demonstrate that silent cardiac metastasis is not uncommon and CMR has the potential to characterize these cardiac metastases and should be used routinely as a screening tool for those cancers with a high chance of cardiac involvement.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the charcoal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Grill Howard; Yamrozik June; Williams Ronald B; Rathi Vikas K; Biederman Robert WW

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of malignant melanoma metastasis to the heart presenting as complete heart block. The highlight of the case is to demonstrate that silent cardiac metastasis is not uncommon and CMR has the potential to characterize these cardiac metastases and should be used routinely as a screening tool for those cancers with a high chance of cardiac involvement.

  16. Sintomas respiratórios em trabalhadores de carvoarias nos municípios de Lindolfo Collor, Ivoti e Presidente Lucena, RS Respiratory symptoms in charcoal production workers in the cities of Lindolfo Collor, Ivoti and Presidente Lucena, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Machado de Souza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios e tabagismo, assim como parâmetros de função pulmonar, em trabalhadores da produção de carvão vegetal em três municípios do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo observacional com 67 indivíduos, no qual os dados foram obtidos através de entrevistas e espirometria. RESULTADOS: Do total de 67 trabalhadores, 50 (75,0% eram homens; média de idade = 46,52 ± 13,25 anos; média de IMC = 25,7 ± 3,85 kg/m²; VEF1 = 3,24 ± 0,82 L (93,2 ± 16,0% do previsto; CVF = 4,02 ± 0,92 L (95,5 ± 14,3% do previsto; e VEF1/CVF = 80,31 ± 9,82. Os sintomas de vias aéreas superiores mais frequentes foram espirros e secreção nasal, em 24 trabalhadores (35,82%, enquanto o das vias aéreas inferiores foi tosse, em 15 (22,38%. Dos 67 trabalhadores, 21 (31,34% eram tabagistas. Os tabagistas apresentaram mais tosse (OR = 5,00; p = 0,01, obstrução nasal (OR = 3,50; p = 0,03, prurido nasal (OR = 8,80; p = 0,01 e sibilância (OR = 10,0; p = 0,03, assim como menor VEF1 (2,93 ± 0,80 L vs. 3,38 ± 0,80 L; p = 0,04 que os não tabagistas. Rinite ocupacional foi detectada em 14 trabalhadores (20,85%, asma brônquica em 4 (5,97% e DPOC em 4 (5,97%. CONCLUSÕES: A ocorrência dos sintomas respiratórios e a redução do fluxo aéreo foram maiores nos trabalhadores tabagistas. O controle da pirólise não aumentou a ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios nos trabalhadores de carvoarias.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and smoking, as well as pulmonary function parameters among charcoal production workers in three cities in southern Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational study including 67 individuals. Data were obtained by means of interviews and spirometry. RESULTS: Of the 67 workers, 50 (75.0% were male; mean age, 46.52 ± 13.25 years; mean BMI, 25.7 ± 3.85 kg/m²; FEV1, 3.24 ± 0.82 L (93.2 ± 16.0% of predicted; FVC, 4.02 ± 0.92 L (95.5 ± 14.3% of predicted; and

  17. Datação da fração humina da matéria orgânica do solo e sua comparação com idades 14C de carvões fósseis Dating of the humin fraction of soil organic matter and its comparison with 14C ages of fossil charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Eli Marques Gouveia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiocarbon dating of the soil organic matter (SOM is a polemic subject, due mainly to the complexity of the formation of the soils and to the variable contamination from several sources. Soil samples from 4 different Brazilian localities were submitted to physical and chemical pre-treatment for the extraction of humin fraction, which is the most stable organic compound and theoretically the oldest and representative of the age of the SOM. The radiocarbon dating obtained from the total SOM and their humin fractions are compared to the 14C ages from buried charcoals at similar depths. The radiocarbon ages obtained from such charcoals are, in most of the cases, concordant within the experimental errors of those obtained on humin fractions, or are in average 10% higher, with one exception. Thus, the ages on humin fractions could be assumed as the minimum ages for the associated soils, while the results obtained on total SOM, even at depths until 200 cm, exhibit pronounced contamination effect by modern carbon, rejuvenating their ages.

  18. Palinomorfos e partículas de carvões nos sedimentos holocênicos na região do alto rio Paraná e sua aplicação nas reconstruções paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas = Palynomorphs and charcoal particles in Holocene sediments of the upper Paraná river area: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Medeanik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as amostras de dois perfis num horizonte de paleossolo da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, sendo processada uma datação pelo método 14C na profundidade de 1,95 m, atingindo idade de 1.700 ± 70 anos AP. Foram avaliados pólen e esporos de plantas terrestres juntamente com as partículas de carvão. Dois estágios, no desenvolvimento paleoambiental, foram estabelecidos com respeito ao desenvolvimento da vegetação. Um estágio mais antigo é caracterizado pela distribuição limitada das florestas ripárias e predomínio de campo nas condições de clima mais seco. Quantidade notável de partículas de carvão encontradas nas amostras deste estágio sugere ocorrência de queimadas locais ou regionais durante um clima seco. No estágio mais novo, a expansão das ripárias emresposta ao aumento das precipitações atmosféricas ocorreu. Pólen de plantas cultivadas, daninhas e invasoras, encontrado nos sedimentos, indica o desenvolvimento da agricultura neste estágio. Maior freqüência de partículas de carvão em mesmos sedimentos provavelmenteindique ocorrência de queimadas locais associadas ao desmatamento da região. The samples from two profiles of flood plain deposits of the Paraná River were studied. One sample at the depth of 1.95 m was dated by 14C as 1,700 ± 70 yr BP. Palynological data and charcoal particles were obtained from fluvial sediments and paleosoil. Two principal stages in paleoenvironmental development were established. The early stage is characterized by the limited distribution of riparian forests and predominance of mesophyllous grassland under a condition of relatively dry climate. The deposition of charcoal particles in such predominant quantity was the result of local or regional burns.During the more recent stage, a natural enlargement of riparian forests occurred in conjunction with an increase in rainfall. Land use of that region may be confirmed by relatively frequent presence of

  19. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de carvão ativo na destoxificação de hidrolisado de palha de arroz para produção de xilitol Evaluation of different kinds of activated charcoal used for rice straw hydrolysate detoxification for xylitol production

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    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz foi tratado com cinco tipos de carvão ativo (pó e granulado com o objetivo de remover, por adsorção, compostos tóxicos que podem agir como inibidores no processo de bioconversão de xilose em xilitol, por Candida guilliermondii. Os valores máximos de fator de rendimento em xilitol (Y P/S = 0,67g g-1 e produtividade volumétrica (Q P = 0,61g L-1 h-1 foram atingidos quando o hidrolisado foi tratado com carvão ativo em pó de partículas de tamanho pequeno (0,043mm, baixa granulometria (32% retidos em peneira de 325mesh e grande área superficial (860m² g-1, características as quais favoreceram a adsorção dos compostos tóxicos.Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was treated with five kinds of activated charcoal (powdered and granulated in order to remove, by adsorption, toxic compounds that can be act as inhibitors in the bioconversion of xylose to xylitol, by Candida guilliermondii. Maximum values of xylitol yield factor (Y P/S= 0.67g g-1 and volumetric productivity (Q P=0.61g L-1h-1 were provided by powdered activated charcoal with small particles size (0.043mm, low granulometry (32% restrained in 325mesh and large surface area (860m² g-1, characteristics which favoured the toxic compounds adsorption.

  20. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  1. THE RESEARCH ON THE START-UP OF CAMPUS SEWAGE TREATMENT WITH TWO-STAGE BAMBOO CHARCOAL BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTER%2级竹炭曝气生物滤池处理校园污水的启动性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雷; 季芳芳; 江小林

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the start rule of the two-stage bamboo charcoal biological up-flow aerated filters in the treatment of campus domestic wastewater. Using the two levels of biological aerated filters connected in series, The compound inoculation is used to start the BAF. The design time is 31 d to accomplished the forming bio-film and discuss the removal performance of COD, BOD, and NH3-N. Because the bamboo charcoal has certain adsorption, so do the blank test to verify the adsorption efficiency of COD. The results show that: after 15 d, the COD and BOD, removal efficiency can reach stability above 80%.The change in the content of NHrN with further research, the removal rate is above 70%. The result of the experiment shows that the biological film starting is successfully.%研究了上流式2级竹炭曝气生物滤池(UBAF)处理校园生活污水的启动规律.利用2级曝气生物滤池串联的方式,采用复合式接种挂膜的方法对曝气生物滤池进行挂膜启动.设计挂膜时间为31d,探讨了挂膜过程中COD、BOD5以及NH3-N随时间的变化规律.由于竹炭本身具有一定吸附性,因此以空白试验验证其对COD的吸附效率.结果表明,在挂膜开始的第15天,COD与BOD5的去除率均达到80%以上,进一步以NH3-N含量变化研究,其去除率达到70%以上.表明此时曝气生物滤池挂膜启动成功.

  2. 竹炭有机肥对有机卷心菜叶绿素荧光特性和相对叶绿素含量的影响%Effect of bamboo charcoal organic fertilizer on chlorophyll fluores-cence characteristics and relative chlorophyll content of organic cab-bage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锦丽; 黄鹤凤; 江洪; 舒海燕; 张金梦; 吴丹娜; 孙文文; 吴孟霖; 方成圆; 陈晓峰

    2015-01-01

    Selecting organic cabbage in Chongming of Shanghai dol y farm as the research object, and set up three bamboo charcoal organic fertilizer processing:BC180 (180 kg/20 m × 20 m), BC60 (60 kg/20 m × 20 m), CK (control), During July(Rosette period) and August(Fruit period) in 2014, its chlorophyl fluorescence kinetics parameter and relative chlorophyl content is determined by a random and relative method, in order to analyze the influence of bamboo charcoal organic fertilizer on the organic cabbage.The results showed that different growth period under the same processing, organic cabbage leaf blade light systemⅡ(PSⅡ), initial fluorescence (F0), the largest fluorescence (Fm), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), potential photosynthetic activity (Fv/F0), the actual photochemical efficiency (Yield) were rosette period > fruit period; Apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) and relative chlorophyl content (SPAD) was fruit period>rosette period. The same growth period under different processing, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Yield, ETR, qP were increasing as fertilizer rate increasing, NPQ increases during rosette period, and became lower during knot bal period. Different growth period and fertilizer's interaction on Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, NPQ were very significant (P结球期;表观光合电子传递速率(ETR)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)、相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)为结球期>莲座期。同一生长期不同处理下,Fv/Fm、Fv/F0、Yield、ETR、qP均是随着施肥量增加而增加,NPQ则为莲座期增加,结球期又降低。不同生长期不同施肥量交互作用对Fm、Fv/Fm、Fv/F0、NPQ影响极显著(P<0.01),对qP影响显著(P<0.05)。这说明增施竹炭有机肥对有机卷心菜叶绿素荧光指标和相对叶绿素含量有显著影响,且BC60处理下更有助于其光合固碳,增加产量,符合低碳有机农业宗旨。

  3. Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi Ayodele

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charcoal site soil (CSS and adjacent field soils (AFS. These samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat, bulk density, total porosity, soil texture and color. Infiltration, surface albedo and soil surface temperature were also measured in both CSS and AFS. Measured properties were used as entries in a rainfall runoff simulation experiment on a smooth (5 % slope plot of 25 x 25 m grids with 10 cm resolutions. Typical rainfall intensities of the study watershed (high, moderate and low were applied to five different combinations of Ks distributions that could be expected in this landscape. The results showed significantly (p O impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, a resposta ao deflúvio e a suscetibilidade do solo à erosão foram estudados em experimentos de campo e de simulação. Amostras indeformadas e compostas de 12 locais aleatoriamente selecionados dentro do reservatório de Kotokosu foram coletadas na camada de 0-10 cm no solo sob carvão (CSS e no solo adjacente (AFS. Essas amostras foram usadas para determinar a condutividade hidráuli7ca saturada (Ksat, densidade do solo, porosidade total, textura e cor do solo. A infiltração, o albedo de superfície e a temperatura de superfície do solo também foram medidos no CSS e AFS. Os parâmetros medidos foram usados como entrada nos experimentos de simulação de deflúvio em uma parcela uniforme (5 % de declividade de 25 x 25 m, com grides de 10 cm de resolução. Altas, moderadas e baixas intensidades de chuva, típicas da bacia em estudo, foram aplicadas em cinco diferentes combinações de Ksat, que poderiam ser esperadas nessa

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO-STAGE BAMBOO CHARCOAL MEDIA BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTER IN THE TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE%2级竹炭曝气生物滤池处理生活污水试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雷; 裴玉娇

    2011-01-01

    Two-Stage bamboo charcoal media biological aerated filter could be used in the treatment of domestic wastewater by studying the characteristics of it.When the first stage air/water ratio was 4:1, the second stage air/water ratio was 1:1, the hydraulic loading was 0.5 m3·m-2·h-1, and the water temperature was 25.8 to 33.4 ℃ ,the treatment efficiency of the system was high, Removal efficiencies of COD, turbidity, NH3-N, TN, TP reached 88.24%, 92.80%, 81.69%, 40.30%, respectively.The effluent of COD less than 50 mg·L-1, the turbidity less than 10 NTU,ρ (NH3-N)< 15 mg·L-l, the treated effluent met the water reusing standard.%研究了以竹炭为填料的2级上向流曝气生物滤池工艺处理生活污水的性能及污染物沿滤池高度的降解规律,确定了该工艺以竹炭为填料的可行性和运行参数.结果表明,当一级、二级气水体积比分别为4:1、1:1,水力负荷为0.5m3·m-2·h-1,温度为25.8~33.4℃,COD、浊度、氨氮、TN去除率分别为88.24%、92.80%、81.69%、40.30%.出水COD<50mg·L-1,浊度均<10NTU,氨氮的质量浓度<15mg·L-1,满足中水回用标准.

  5. Avaliação do perfil de trabalhadores e de condições ergonômicas na atividade de produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quente" Evaluation of worker profiles and ergonomic conditions of the charcoal production activity in a line of surface kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida no ambiente de trabalho da produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quent"e, localizado na latitude de 17·27' oeste e longitude de 45º11' sul no Estado de Minas Gerais, nos meses de março a junho de 2003. O objetivo geral foi avaliar o perfil de trabalhadores e as condições ergonômicas na atividade de produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quente". Os objetivos específicos foram: a avaliar as características pessoais, sociais, econômicas e profissionais do operador; b estudar o clima do local de trabalho (temperatura; e c analisar a capacidade aeróbica do trabalhador. A metodologia empregada foi a proposta por Couto (1996 Apud (1987 e Sant'anna (1998. Pela análise dos dados, pôde-se concluir que o indivíduo da amostra era jovem, mestiço, casado, com poucos filhos e poucos dependentes financeiros, baixo nível de escolaridade, estatura média de 171,40 cm e média de peso corporal de 68,40 kg, 20% de analfabetos, de origem predominantemente rural e que professava a religião Católica. O valor do Indice de Bulbo Úmido Termômetro de Globo (IBUTG encontrado no ambiente de produção de carvão vegetal estava de acordo com a NR 15. A capacidade aeróbica em mililitros de oxigênio por quilograma por minuto apresentou valor médio igual a 35,17 (ml02/kg/min; o menor valor foi igual a 30,56 (ml 02/kg/min e o maior, igual a 39,23 (ml02/kg/min.This investigation was developed in the work environment of charcoal production in a line of surface kilns located at 17º 27' w latitude and 45º 11' 5 longitude in the state of Minas Gerais from March to June 2003. The general objective of this work was to evaluate the worker profile and ergonomic conditions of the charcoal production activity in a line of surface kilns. The specific objectives of this work were: a to evaluate the individual, social, economic and professional

  6. Microstructure of wood charcoal prepared by flash heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosaki, F; Ishimaru, K; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Kobayashi, E; Imamura, Y

    2003-01-01

    Carbonized wood prepared by flash heating at 800 degreesC for I h shows a different microstructure and surface chemical structure than char formed after slow heating at 4 degreesC/min to 800 degreesC for I h. Flash heating produces pores that are surrounded by aggregates of carbon structures 25 to 1

  7. 40 CFR 59.208 - Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide poisoning and the reduction of oxygen.) (2) Test structure components. The following test... digital air velocity meter, DavisΔ DTA 4000 vane anemometer, or equivalent to method 1A of 40 CFR part 60... ring—Rigid metal cylinder 21.6 centimeters (8.5 inches) in diameter with indicators to determine...

  8. SORPTION HYSTERESIS OF BENZENE IN CHARCOAL PARTICLES. (R825959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. First Report of Charcoal Rot of Sunflower in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...

  10. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    OpenAIRE

    Josiah A. Adeyemo; Fred A.O. Otieno; George M. Ochieng; Olufisayo A. Olufayo; Onyeka I. Nkwonta

    2010-01-01

    Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was ...

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AiPENG; Fan-qingMENG; Lan-fangSUN; Zhan-shengJI; Yu-huiLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos(DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±4) to(7±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE II Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale(P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) mL/min and 44 %±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  12. Hydrogen water deuterium exchange studies on palladium on activated charcoal hydrophobic catalyst (Preprint No. CA-20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium exchange between hydrogen gas and water is one of the most promising processes for heavy water production. In production of heavy water, separation factor and energy cost are two main parameters which govern the economic effectiveness of a process. Out of the chemical exchange process, H2-H2O exchange has higher separation factor at a given temperature. Even though the separation factor is high, major disadvantage in the process is that a catalyst is required. Group VIII metals are most suitable catalysts for hydrogenation, dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis because of their ability to chemisorb H2 dissociatively. Even among VIII2 triad, Pt has the highest activity. A highly active Pt catalyst has a reported half life of 4 seconds. As Pd is cheaper than Pt, studies have been carried out using active Pd as catalyst for H2-H2O exchange. It is observed that: (1)at metal concentration of 0.3%, Pd shows the optimum catalytic activity, (2)a highly active Pd is found to have a half life of 5 minutes, and (3)addition of α-alumina enhances the catalytic activity. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Marco Said I Look like Charcoal: A Puerto Rican's Exploration of Her Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Yarma Velazquez

    2008-01-01

    When race is so self-evident that it becomes "unspoken," it becomes a text that can be arbitrarily read or not read at all. When race is thought of as shades or textures of color that paint the already loaded canvas of our ethnicities, it is the reader who has the power of interpretation, opening the possibility for multiple readings that will…

  14. Can N-rich charcoal be used as an efficient N-fertilizer?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Arranz, José M. de la; Knicker, Heike

    2013-01-01

    2 pages, 1 figure, 2 references.-- Comunicación oral presentada en la Session 3. Effects of pyrogenic C on soil organic matter, en European Science Foundation-Exploratory Workshop, celebrado del 5-7 de noviembre 2013, en Sevilla, España.

  15. Terra Pretas: Charcoal Amendments Influence on Relict Soils and Modern Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricigliano, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Most soils found in the Amazon region are characterized by highly weathered profiles that are incapable of longterm agricultural production. However, small patches of highly fertile relict soil referred to as Terra Pretas, are also found in the Amazon region, and have maintained their integrity for thousands of years. These soils were…

  16. Using Charcoal as Base Material Reduces Mosquito Coil Emissions of Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Lin ZHANG; Jiang, Zhikuan; Tong, Jian; Wang, Zhongcai; Han, Zhaojiu; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito coils are used to prevent mosquito exposures indoors by ~ 2 billion people worldwide. However, the smoldering of organic matters used as base materials of mosquito coils emits particulate and gaseous toxic compounds. A previous study indicates that emission rates of toxic compounds depend on types of base materials and can be high enough to generate room concentrations markedly higher than health based standards or references. The objective of the present study is to evaluate a new t...

  17. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in the

  18. Synthesis of Flurbiprofen via Suzuki Reaction Catalyzed by Palladium Charcoal in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flurbiprofen 1, an excellent nonsteroidal an tiinflammatory drug, was synthesized in 5steps in 69% overall yield. The key step of constructing the biaryl fragment was successfully achieved via Pd/C-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction in water using sodium tetraphenylborate as phenylation reagent.

  19. Neem (Azadirachta indica) in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

    OpenAIRE

    C. Devakumar; Usha Dev

    2011-01-01

    (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010)   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK), cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatile fract...

  20. Comparison between carbonization of wood charcoal with Al-triisopropoxide and alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, P; Hata, T; Vystavel, T; DeHosson, J; Kikuchi, H; Nishimiya, K; Imamura, Y

    2006-01-01

    A comparison was made between the catalytic carbonization of biomass carbon suspended in Al-triisopropoxide and in biomass carbon mixed with 40 mu m sized Al2O3 particles. Both types of samples were plasma sintered during 5 min under an argon pressure of 50 MPa at temperatures up to 2200 degrees C.

  1. Characterization of sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded carbon in wood charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Nishizawa, Takashi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) preheated at 700 degrees C was subsequently heated to 1800 degrees C and characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The degree of disorder of carbon crystallites and the amount of amorphous phase decreased considerably

  2. REDUCTION OF CO & HC EMISSION OF GASOLINE ENGINE WITH CHARCOAL - OIL SILENCER

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Krishnaji Bawane

    2015-01-01

    The automobiles play an important role in the transport system. With an increase in population and living standard, the transport vehicles as well as car population is increasing day by day. In addition to thi s there is steep increase in the number of two wheelers during the last two decades. All these are increasing exhaust pollution and particularly in metros as density of these vehicles in metros are very high. Lot of efforts are made to reduce the air...

  3. Non-fumigant approaches for controlling Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot of strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. Anaerobic s...

  4. Theoretical study of the diffusion 222Rn gas on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 222Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing activated carbon's ability to adsorb 222Rn . In this work, it has been determined the 222Rn coefficient adsorption for 222Rn activated carbon detectors. Scintillation vials were used as detectors. The measurement of the 222Rn activity adsorbed in activated carbon was made by a liquid scintillation measurement of its alpha-beta progeny decay. On the other hand, in this work a diffusion and adsorption model has been developed for the transport of 222Rn in an activated carbon porous bed. The equation that describes these processes is a partial differential equation, of the second order with respect to axial coordinate, and the first order with respect to time. The equation was numerically solved using a finites differences method. With this model the 222Rn activity adsorbed in the detector, for several situations, was calculated. The results were tested with the data obtained from series of experiences made in our laboratories. (author)

  5. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

  6. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Marton; M. G. A. Felipe; J. B. Almeida e Silva; A. Pessoa Júnior

    2006-01-01

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting...

  7. Preliminary Study Skullcap Charcoal Quality Control Standards%黄芩炭质量控制标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉茵; 朱琼花; 孟江

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立黄芩炭药质量控制的评价标准.方法:通过紫外分光光度法测定并比较黄芩药材及不同炮制程度黄芩炭的吸附力、鞣质含量;以及测定pH值及电导率的变化,探讨其变化规律.结果:黄芩及其不同炮制程度黄芩炭的吸附力、鞣质含量、电导率及pH值变化有一定规律性.结论:吸附力、鞣质、电导率及pH值的变化规律可以作为黄芩炭质量控制的参考依据.

  8. Gastrointestinal transit measurements in mice with 99mTc-DTPA-labeled activated charcoal using NanoSPECT-CT

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Grosse, Johannes; Asad, Abu Bakar Md Ali; Radda, George K.; Golay, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Direct consequences are obstipation or diarrhea as opposite aspects of the irritable bowel syndrome, and more indirectly, alteration of appetite, feeling of fullness, flatulence, bloatedness, and eventually leading to altered absorption of nutrients. Moreover, GI retention and passage times have been recognized as important factors in determining the release ...

  9. Sprouting productivity and allometric relationships of two oak species managed for traditional charcoal making in central Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, R.; Ghilardi, A.; Vega, E.; Skutsch, M.; Oyama, K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production systems for woodfuels in developing countries require basic information on tree productivity, and particularly on their coppicing productivity under current forms of management. We report biomass equations and sprouting productivity of two oak species (Quercus castanea and Que

  10. From the Charcoal Square to the Milky Way%从卡尔广场到银河

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丹麦保利方建筑师事务所; 荷兰K&B景观事务所; 舒婷婷

    2008-01-01

    在丹麦科马格街道、郝斯广场和卡尔广场改造国际设计竞赛中,由荷兰K&B景观事务所、丹麦保利方建筑师事务所、丹麦奥拉夫·乔根森工程公司和乌瑞卡·布兰迪照明设计公司共同设计的作品《从卡尔广场到银河》一举中标。

  11. Environmental changes in two lakes of Northern Patagonia (Chile): A 1000 yr reconstruction based on pollen and charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Vargas; Laura, Torres; Alberto, Araneda; Fabiola, Cruces; Fernando, Torrejón; Denisse, Alvarez; G, Bizama; Nathalie, Fagel; Roberto, Urrutia

    2010-05-01

    We aim to reconstruct the environmental changes experimented in Patagonian ecosystems during the last 1000 years. We analyze sediment cores from two lakes (Thompson and Burgos), located in Aysen Region, Southern Chile. The samples were obtained using a gravity corer and sampled at intervals of 1 cm to 30 cm depth and every 5 cm until the end of the core. Thompson lake sediment core was sampled every 5 cm. Age model is based on radiocarbon datings on bulk sediments and macroremains. In Burgos lake we evidence two main climatic changes. A wet period between 876-1444 AD is marked by the presence of Pteridophytes. A colder and dryer period is then evidenced by an increase of Berberis sp between 1444 and 1656 AD. From 1834 AD to Present the sediment record is mainly affected by human activities. High concentrations of carbon particles and a sharp change in pollen assemblage (increase of Poaceae, decrease of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type) are indicators of two large fire events. The lacustrine sediment of Thompson is characterized by a wetter period, between 874 - 1168 AD, with abundance of Pteridophytes. Then from 1168 AD to Present the environmental conditions of the watershed were characterized by lower ferns and fire events. Two major fires were evidenced between 1850 AD and Present. Like in Burgos they are marked by major changes in plant associations (sharp increase in Poaceae, drastic loss of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type). Wet periods identified in both lakes at the base of the sediment record could correspond to manifestations of a warm climate anomaly like the Medieval Warm Period. The dry and cold period, especially obvious in the Burgos record, could be associated to a cold climate anomaly. Finally the great changes in vegetation that occurred from the year ~ 1830 in the basin of the two lakes were directly related to human activities (forest cutting) developed during the ninetheenth and twentieth centuries. This research is funded by both Chilean and Belgian projects (Fondecyt project N° 1070508; WBI Wallonie-Chile cooperation project, FNRS and ULg fundings).

  12. A Charcoal- and Blood-Free Enrichment Broth for Isolation and PCR Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. is a Gram negative bacterium and is the major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% O2 for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. This is achieved with the addition to the enrichment media of ...

  13. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  14. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  15. Comparison of nitrogen utilization of bamboo charcoal coated fertilizers%竹炭包膜氮肥的利用率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟雪梅; 朱义年; 刘杰; 纪锐琳

    2006-01-01

    采用土壤溶出和盆栽试验的方法,研究了尿素、塑料包膜肥、矿物包膜肥和自制的竹炭包膜肥对氮素溶出率和玉米盆栽的生物效应的影响.结果表明:尿素施加到土壤中后淋失比较严重,矿物包膜肥、竹炭包膜肥、塑料包膜肥的氮溶出率均低于尿素(p均低于0.1),其中塑料包膜肥、竹炭包膜肥的溶出率显著低于尿素对照(p<0.01).尿素经过竹炭等包膜材料包膜处理后,在盆栽情况下,其氮素利用率可提高10%~25%,减少氮素溶出损失,有助于减轻对水体的污染.

  16. Near infrared spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B., III; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on near infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred carbon in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark and pine wood) and char from these materials created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450??C) were studied. Near infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols as determined by titration) were available for 56 different samples (Not all samples charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature and duration of charring. Examination of spectra and correlation plots indicated that changes in the constituents of the materials in question, such as loss of OH groups in carbohydrates, rather than direct determination of typical products produced by charring, such as carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols, were the basis for the spectral changes. Finally, while the spectral changes resulting from charring appeared to be relatively unique to each material, PLS calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols were successfully created (with R2 of 0.991, 0.943, 0.931 and 0.944, respectively) indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific set of charring conditions (i.e. material, temperature and time of heating). ?? IM Publications 2007.

  17. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    OpenAIRE

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Preston, Caroline M; Schmidt, Michael W I; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2003-01-01

    [1] In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor of Siberian Scots pine forests by comparing the bulk elemental composition, molecular structure (13C-MAS NMR), ...

  18. 新型竹炭功能性鞋垫的设计与开发%The Design and Development of New Style Bamboo-charcoal Functional Insoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章瓯雁

    2004-01-01

    一双设计合理的鞋垫可以使双足健康、舒适.该文是关于竹炭产品深加工并结合纺织品功能性面料的技术完成的新型竹炭功能性鞋垫产品设计,对竹炭的深加工进入纺织品以及家纺产品领域有现实的指导意义.

  19. Characteristic of Charcoal Drawing in Arts College of LieBing%列宾美术学院素描教学的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永康

    2006-01-01

    列宾美术学院深厚的教学传统在现实主义的道路中培养出许多项尖的艺术人才,但大一统的美术体制也同样限制着一些学生的个性.因此,在学习、借鉴和吸收经验的同时,探索自己的美术基础教育是我们美术教育的必由之路.

  20. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S.

    1995-12-31

    To maintain market share, new uses must be found for Illinois coals in the largest end use area, namely power generation. To this end, the suitability of Illinois coal for high efficiency power plants like combined cycles must be investigated. This approach involves partial gasification of the coal to produce fuel gas for the topping cycle gas turbines, while the residual char is burnt in the gas turbine exhaust to produce steam for the Rankine bottoming cycle. This project seeks to improve the combustion characteristics of the residual char by pelletizing it with waste coal in order to improve its combustor residence time and carbon conversion efficiency. At the same time, attempts are made to reduce pollutant emissions. During this quarter, the residual char produced by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in their pyrolyzer has been pelletized with Illinois gob coal in various proportions. Combustion tests have been performed in a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed combustor. Preliminary results show that the pellets are much easier to burn and exhibit high carbon conversion efficiencies. Further combustion tests are in progress.

  1. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Illinois coals are prime candidates for use in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants because of their high volatility and good char reactivity. In these plants, partial gasification of the coal in the presence of limestone eliminates the major portion of the sulfur species in the product gases, which are used as fuel for the topping cycle. The char produced is high in ash content, the major portion of which is calcium sulfide. It is also low in volatiles and of low density, compared to the parent coal. The economic success of the gasification route depends on the subsequent utilization of the residual char for raising steam for use in a Rankine cycle bottoming plant and/or preheating the air to the gasifier. Fluidized bed combustion of the char appears an attractive way of utilizing the char. Areas of concern in the fluidized bed combustion of the high ash, low volatility char are: attainment of high carbon conversion efficiencies; reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions; reduction/elimination of corrosive chlorine species; reduction/elimination of sodium and other alkali species; and efficient usage of the calcium present in the ash to reduce sulfur compounds. The aim of the present project is to investigate ways of improving the carbon conversion efficiency, sulfur capture efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction during the fluidized bed combustion by pelletizing the low density char with coal and coal wastes using cornstarch or wood lignin as binder. During this first quarter, the parent coals and the chars to be tested have been analyzed. Particle size distributions have been measured. Sample pellets have been made evaluation of their properties.

  2. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    High efficiencies can be obtained from combined cycle power plants where fuel gas produced in a carbonizer is used to power the topping cycle turbines, while the residual char is burnt to raise steam for the bottoming Rankine cycle plant. Illinois coals are excellent fuels for these high efficiency power plants as the sulfur in the fuel gas is removed in the carbonization process by adding dolomite, thus producing a clean burning fuel gas. The residual char has essentially no volatiles, and is of low density. Because of these characteristics the char requires a longer residence time for efficient combustion. This research is directed towards improving the residence time of the char by pelletizing it with a waste coal, while at the same time reducing the sulfur dioxide emissions from the char combustion. During this quarter, extensive experimentation has been performed to determine the char-gob waste proportions necessary for forming pellets with desirable compression strength for feeding into the circulating fluidized bed combustor. Carbonizer char-gob coal pellets have been made with 5, 10 and 15 weight percent of cornstarch binder. Based on the test data presented, it is concluded that 10--15% weight percent of binder will be required when pelletizing char-gob coal waste mixtures containing 30-40 percent by weight of gob coal. During the next quarter, these pellets will be made in larger quantities and their combustion and emissions properties will be evaluated in a bench scale 4-inch diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor.

  3. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). PMID:23294646

  4. Study of interfacial phenomena of organo-chlorinated steam adsorption on a microporous adsorbent. Case of tri chloro-1,1,1 ethane on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involves the construction and the perfecting of a test system for evaluating the service life of organic vapor cartridges versus 1,1,1 -trichloroethane. Thermogravimetric measurements were carried on in order to suggest a field method to reactive these cartridges, using hot air flow system. Assessment of adsorption rate during experiment is measured with a new electrical method. (author)

  5. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it faile...

  6. Drug: D03251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03251 Drug Medicinal carbon (JP16); Charcoal, activated (USP); Medicinal carbon (T...nts 231 Antidiarrheals, intestinal regulators 2319 others D03251 Medicinal carbon...NAL ADSORBENTS A07BA Charcoal preparations A07BA01 Medicinal charcoal D03251 Medicinal carbon (JP16); Charcoal, activated (USP) CAS: 16291-96-6 PubChem: 17397404 ...

  7. The influence of chlorine on the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, C. von; Struis, R.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Chlorides of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc inhibit the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal. This is observed either by impregnation the wood with the salts before pyrolysis or by mechanically mixing the salts with the charcoal before gasification. Charcoal impregnated or mixed with ammonium chloride reacts more slowly than untreated charcoal. Treating the charcoal with HCl also influences negatively the gasification reactivity, indicating that chlorine plays an important role in the gasification. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Studies on Senko Hanabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimuzu, T. [Koa Fireworks Co., (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of spark production in Senko-Hanabi, one of the curious fireworks which have been used to produce spark flowers, is discussed. Based on experimental work, it was determined that spark production was a function of the mixing ratio of several types of carbon. Results of the experiments with paulownia charcoal, pine charcoal, Taiwan hemp charcoal, Mitsumata charcoal and Japanese oak charcoal, showed that best results were obtained by mixing an easily burning charcoal such as paulownia with carbon such as Nureha Black in proportions wherein the mixing ratio depends upon the desired effect. For example paulownia charcoal and Nureha Black mixed in the ratio of 0.3 : 1.2 produced the largest sparks, albeit of short duration. Using graphite in place of Nureha Black , or Nureha Black and one of the other charcoals produced a variety of spark flowers, however, all considerably smaller in diameter than the paulownia charcoal + Nureha Black combination. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  9. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  10. 活性炭血液灌流对重度敌敌畏中毒的治疗作用%Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艾; 孟凡青; 孙兰芳; 季占胜; 李玉会

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos (DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574 vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±±4) to (7±±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE Ⅱ Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale (P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) Ml/min and 44 %±±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  11. Effects of Carya cathayensis Epiear's Addition on Combustion Performance of Charcoal Briquettes%山核桃果蓬添加量对机制炭燃烧性能影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顺伟; 庄晓伟; 潘炘; 朱杭瑞; 章江丽

    2015-01-01

    以木屑机制炭为对照,对山核桃果蓬添加量为10%、20%、30%和50%共4个添加山核桃的木屑机制炭试样的理化特征分析结果表明,山核桃果蓬添加量低于30%时,机制炭外形和理化性能较佳,其固定碳含量和燃烧热值分别高于80%和30 MJ/kg;利用TG-DTG-DSC热分析联用技术对果蓬炭燃烧性能测试结果则表明,随山核桃果蓬添加量由10%增至50%,燃烧失重开始的温度逐渐降低;燃烧速率峰值和放热曲线峰值及其相对应温度则随山核桃果蓬添加量的增加而减小和降低,分别从1.0 mg/min降至0.7 mg/min、95.12 W/g降至82.18 W/g、580℃降至462.5℃.此外,试验也证实了随着山核桃果蓬添加量的增加,机制炭着火温度、最大燃烧速率和着火后最大失重速率、及其相应温度、最大释热量等5个参数均呈逐渐变小趋势;其中木屑机制炭着火温度比50%山核桃果蓬木屑机制炭高105.6℃;木屑机制炭和20%山核桃果蓬木屑机制炭的可燃性指数相对较小,相应的前期燃烧反应能力相对较弱.

  12. 木炭蚊香可减少有毒物质的释放(详细摘要)%Using charcoal as base material reduces mosquito coil emissions of toxins(Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Zhang; 郑卫青; 王莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 前期报道燃烧一盘蚊香所产生的细颗粒等于75~135支香烟的事实,是基于蚊香特定的基料(锯末或椰子壳)得出的结论.本项后续研究检测了当前市场上几种品牌蚊香(包括新型木炭无烟蚊香,由中国环境标志认定)的颗粒物和气相污染物排放速率.结果,木炭基料能减少5~10倍的细颗粒排放,以及显著减少甲醛和多环类芳烃等污染物的排放.

  13. Sintomas respiratórios em trabalhadores de carvoarias nos municípios de Lindolfo Collor, Ivoti e Presidente Lucena, RS Respiratory symptoms in charcoal production workers in the cities of Lindolfo Collor, Ivoti and Presidente Lucena, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Machado de Souza; Fabiana Michelsen de Andrade; Angela Beatrice Dewes Moura; Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar a ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios e tabagismo, assim como parâmetros de função pulmonar, em trabalhadores da produção de carvão vegetal em três municípios do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo observacional com 67 indivíduos, no qual os dados foram obtidos através de entrevistas e espirometria. RESULTADOS: Do total de 67 trabalhadores, 50 (75,0%) eram homens; média de idade = 46,52 ± 13,25 anos; média de IMC = 25,7 ± 3,85 kg/m²; VEF1 = 3,24 ±...

  14. Effect of torrefaction temperature on the properties of three types of torrefied bamboo charcoal%焙烧温度对3种竹材焙烧炭性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙毅; 张文标; 林启晨; 梁广元; 李文珠; 汪孙国

    2016-01-01

    为研究焙烧温度对竹材焙烧炭性能的影响,以毛竹、绿竹和雷竹3种竹材为原料,采用一体化程控高温炉在不同焙烧温度、保温时间30 min条件下制备得到焙烧炭,并对产品进行性能指标、元素含量、热值、可研磨性等相关参数的测定和分析.结果表明:随着焙烧温度的提高,所得到的竹材焙烧炭的得率下降,其灰分含量增加、挥发分含量下降、固定碳含量增加,可研磨性能提高.综合3种竹材焙烧炭的表现,随着焙烧温度的提高,热值会随之增加,通过线性拟合发现固定碳含量和热值成正比关系;温度对其元素变化的影响主要为C元素的增加和0元素的减少,S元素含量极少,在0.1%~0.2%的范围内且远低于煤,因此,竹材焙烧炭是一种清洁能源.通过对失重率和热值增量比值的分析对比可以发现,在保温时间30 min下毛竹加工剩余物的最适宜焙烧温度为260℃,比值为1.14;绿竹的最适宜焙烧温度为260℃,比值为0.92;雷竹的最佳焙烧温度为300℃,比值为1.05.

  15. Remediation of Heavy Metals Polluted Sediment by Electrokinetics and Bamboo Charcoal%重金属污染河涌底泥的电动-竹炭联合修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国樑; 王德汉; 林丹妮

    2009-01-01

    以柠檬酸预处理、竹炭吸附、电极周期性切换作为强化手段,采用电动修复技术,设计了非竹炭吸附区、竹炭吸附区、竹炭吸附区联合电极切换等3个处理,分析了试验过程中电流及电渗流的变化,以及试验完成后土壤pH和电导率的迁移分布,并对每组试验中重金属的去除效率和各截面重金属的迁移分布进行了探讨.结果表明:柠檬酸预处理能降低底泥初始pH,提高底泥电导率,有利于重金属的去除;添加竹炭,有利于重金属从底泥中迁出,显著提高重金属的去除率,本试验条件下,重金属Zn、Ni的平均去除率分别可达80.95%、68.26%;周期性切换电极可以维持底泥中的pH和电导率,防止重金属在两极的富集,提高重金属的迁移效率.

  16. Development of the Virtual Instrument for the Active Charcoal Canister Used in Vehicle with Petrol Engine%汽油车用活性炭罐性能测试系统的虚拟仪器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴冰; 刘长良; 许善珍; 耿松亮

    2007-01-01

    为了更好地执行国家标准HBC 32-2004《环境保护产品认定技术要求汽油车燃油蒸发污染物控制系统》,利用虚拟仪器开发平台LabVIEW7.1研制一套汽油车用活性炭罐性能测试系统,实现了系统的自动测控.

  17. Effects of activated charcoal nano-particles on anti-cancer action of cisplatin%纳米活性炭对顺铂抗肿瘤作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀娟; 赵修南; 迟晓丽; 周文霞; 付晓敏; 阮金秀; 张永祥

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察纳米活性炭(ACN)与顺铂合用对顺铂抗肿瘤作用及荷瘤小鼠免疫功能的影响.方法 采用平板克隆形成法初步观察ACN对顺铂抑制人胃癌BGC823细胞克隆形成的影响;制备荷S180肉瘤和H22肝癌小鼠模型,观察ACN对顺铂抑制移植瘤生长的影响;采用ELISA法检测脾细胞培养上清IgG水平;采用流式细胞术检测脾T淋巴细胞亚群.结果 ACN单独应用对BGC823细胞克隆形成无明显影响,与顺铂合用则明显增强顺铂对BGC823细胞克隆形成的抑制作用,也明显增强顺铂对S180肉瘤及H22肝癌移植瘤生长的抑制作用;与顺铂组相比,ACN与顺铂合用明显提高脾细胞培养上清IgG水平,使CD4+细胞百分比明显升高,CD8+细胞百分比明显下降,从而使CD4+/CD8+比值明显升高.结论 ACN对顺铂抗肿瘤作用具有明显的增效作用,同时对荷瘤小鼠的细胞免疫和体液免疫反应均有一定的改善作用.

  18. Thermolysis of wood of Hemicyclia sepiaria from Ceylon in laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Piotrowski, Z.

    1973-01-01

    This article gives results of studies on the chemical composition and thermal distillation of wood of H. sepiaria. The yield of charcoal was 34.5%, but the material did not meet the standards for generator charcoal.

  19. Investigation of thermal decomposition of bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczak, B.; Babicki, R.

    1978-01-01

    Destructive distillation of Scots pine bark in the laboratory yielded poor quality charcoal. Processing of liquid distillates was not economically justified. The charcoal could be upgraded by demineralization followed by briquetting but this would considerably increase costs. (Refs. 5).

  20. Growth and phenotypic characterization of Legionella species on semisolid media made with washed agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, J E; Jones, G. W.; Engleberg, N C

    1993-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila (and 28 Legionella species) grew efficiently on charcoal-free, buffered yeast extract medium made with washed agar and without apparent loss of infectivity for U937 cells. Because charcoal-free, buffered yeast extract is transparent, it is a suitable base for indicator media and pigment detection. In standard media, charcoal apparently prevents agar contaminants from inhibiting Legionella growth.

  1. The impact of a celebrity's suicide on the introduction and establishment of a new method of suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Chee Hon; Fu, King-Wa; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lee, Won Jin; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other East Asian countries, South Korea has until recently experienced relatively few charcoal burning suicides. We investigated trends in charcoal burning suicide immediately following the suicide by charcoal burning of the South Korean celebrity-Ahn Jae-Hwan-in September 2008. In the study, we compared the weekly number charcoal burning suicides 1 year before and after the celebrity's death. Before Ahn Jae-Hwan's suicide, charcoal burning accounted for young male predominance) and location (inside cars) of the charcoal burning suicides further supported a copy-cat effect. Ahn Jae-Hwan's death appears to have triggered a rapid and sustained adoption of charcoal burning as a method of suicide in South Korea. PMID:24620837

  2. Two African woodfuel markets: urban demand, resource depletion, and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines charcoal markets in two African cities: Mogadishu, Somalia and Kigali, Rwanda. Economic theory dictates that if woodfuel resources become scarce, their real price will increase commensurately with the interest rate. Although Rwanda and Somalia represent drastically different physical environments, both are considered to be wood-scarce. But neither market has demonstrated straightforward depletion effects. In Mogadishu, the price first rose and then fell in reaction to shifts in the structure of the charcoal market, relaxed regulations, and economic contraction. In Rwanda, the price began rising only after the closing of the Bugasera Region to charcoal producers. Charcoal must be increasingly produced from private farmland. These two case studies highlight the importance of agricultural land clearance, conflicting government regulations, and shifts in market structure in determining whether or not charcoal prices will demonstrate depletion effects, and whether or not charcoal production will lead to local environmental degradation. (author)

  3. Pressure equalization system in PWR-fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure equalization system, developed on the basis of activated charcoal, is capable of reducing the internal pressure rise in fuel rods by adsorption of the fission gases. He-prepressure does not affect the system and Helium will not be adsorbed. Irradiation does not reduce the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal down to an unacceptable limit. Shaped activated charcoal is a suitable material which can be well defined and characterized. Feasible techniques of activating and assembling methods can be proposed. (orig.)

  4. マイクロウェーブ法による高品質下水汚泥肥料の開発研究

    OpenAIRE

    高島,正信; Takashima, Masanobu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, microwave drying was examined to dry and fertilize dewatered sewage sludge. Microwave drying was suitable to dry dewatered sewage sludge with lower water contents, and was an easy and fast method. Rice husk charcoal or buckwheat husk charcoal as an auxiliary material was able to enhance the potassium and phosphorus content of the fertilizer produced. The fertilizer combing dewatered sewage sludge and rice husk or buckwheat husk charcoal was thus rich in nutrient content and wel...

  5. Pembuatan Komposit Busa Poliuretan Dengan Mikrobentonit Dan Arang Aktif Cangkang Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Bahan Penyaring Dalam Pengolahan Air Bersih DAS Belawan

    OpenAIRE

    Manik, Deni Reflianto

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports the preparation of polyurethane foam composite with microbentonite and activated charcoal of palm kernel shells as filters for water treatment of Belawan watershed. This study consists of six stages, namely preparation of microbentonite, preparation of activated charcoal of palm kernel shells, preparation of polyurethane foam, preparation of polyurethane foam composite with microbentonite and activated charcoal of palm kernel shells filler, polyurethane foam composit...

  6. Optimalisasi Gabungan Filter Arang Tempurung Kelapa, Zeolit, Dan Pasir Kuarsa Untuk Penjernihan Air Sungai Tamiang Dengan Elektrokoagulasi

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhanan, Witri Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and quartz sand is a material that is often used as an adsorption media, especially in water purification. In general, coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and quartz sand still contain organic impurities and inorganic pore cover, so as to increase the absorption capacity must be done prior activation. This study aims to determine the effect of the activation temperature, the absorption, moisture content and porosity. Coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and quartz sand ...

  7. 40 CFR 60.16 - Priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Resins: Polyethylene 19. Charcoal Production 20. Synthetic Rubber (a) Tire manufacture (b) SBR.... Textile Processing 45. Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture 46. Brick and Related...

  8. 75 FR 80849 - Notice of Initial Determination Revising the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... that while children previously worked under forced labor conditions in charcoal production, there is no... the sentence: ``This information indicates that while children previously worked under forced...

  9. 49 CFR 387.301 - Surety bond, certificate of insurance, or other securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in bulk. Cement, building blocks. Charcoal. Chemical fertilizer. Cinder blocks. Cinders, coal. Coal... of metals. Slag, derived aggregates—cinders. Slate, crushed or scrap. Slurry, as waste material....

  10. Experimental Studies on Micro in Macro Gelatin Coated Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Poisoning Due to Organic Phosphate Insecticides%活性炭血液灌流治疗有机磷农药中毒的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Xinyu

    1983-01-01

    @@ 活性炭血液灌流是近年发展的一项新的治疗技术,它以活性炭为吸附剂,可直接清除血液中的有毒物质,用以治疗安眠药,解热镇痛药中毒,已取得了肯定的疗效.用于治疗有机磷农药中毒,国外虽有少量成功的报道(1)(2),但病例数较少,疗效尚难评价.

  11. A method to simultaneously determining the reduction in PAH dissolved concentrations and bioaccessibility in carbon amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E. C.; Rein, Arno;

    In order to investigate the potential of different soil amendments (activated charcoal (AC), charcoal (biochar), compost) to sorb PAHs and their effect on bioaccessibility and biodegradation of PAHs in soil, a method was developed that can determine simultaneously the changes in PAH dissolved con...

  12. APLIKASI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KEMIRI SEBAGAI KOMPONEN MEDIA TUMBUH SEMAI MELINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mody Lempang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of activated charcoal in agriculture will give advantage for plant growth because will enrich nutrients, mantain soil properties, enhance root development and increase microorganism propagation and activities that would support the plant growth. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of Candlenut shell activated charcoal addition into culture medium on seedling growth of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Candlenut shell (Aleurites moluccana Willd was carbonised in drum kiln to produce charcoal, then the charcoal was activated in electrical retort which generates steam with heating duration of 120 minutes at temperature of 7500 C. The activated charcoal was applied into culture medium of G. arborea seedling with concentration of 5, 10 and 15% by weigth of culture medium. The results showed that addition of the activated charcoal into culture medium significantly increased heigth, stem diameter and biomass dryweigth of G. arborea seedling. The addition of 15% activated charcoal into the culture medium has given the best results with the increased heigth, stem diameter and biomass dryweigth respectively 8.2, 45.95 and 58.82%.Keywords : Activated charcoal, candlenut shell (Aleurites moluccana, culture medium, seedling, Gmelina arborea

  13. Morphological, chemical and physical changes during charcoalification of wood and its relevance to archaeological contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Poole, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wood exposed to a heat source can be transformed into charcoal if subject to conditions of carbonisation (in the absence of air) or charring (in restricted air). Charcoal recovered from archaeological sites can yield fundamental information to our understanding of human economic and cultural develop

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DAS PROPRIEDADES QUÍMICAS E DA RELAÇÃO SIRINGIL/GUAIACIL DA MADEIRA DE EUCALIPTO NA PRODUÇÃO DE CARVÃO VEGETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the chemical properties (elemental composition, levels of extractives, lignin total and holocellulose and the syringyl/guaiacyl, wood of different Eucalyptus genetic materials in the production of charcoal. It was used in the study four hybrid clones, at age of 7 years, 6 trees per clone, totaling 24 sampling units. There was significant difference, at 5% significance, between treatments for elemental composition, levels of extractives, lignin total and holocellulose and the wood syringyl/guaiacyl, as well as for gravimetric yields in charcoal, condensable gases and non-condensable gases, levels of fixed carbon and volatiles, and for the higher calorific value of charcoal. For the ash content and relative apparent density of charcoal were not observed significant differences at the same level of significance. Concluded that there is variability in the wood quality of four evaluated genetic materials, having the same, distinct correlations, thus the yield and the quality of charcoal. All genetic material presented satisfactorily gravimetric yield in charcoal and quality. The woods of clones with low syringyl/guaiacyl ratio showed an increase in yield in charcoal. The chemical composition of woods from the four clones, in general, showed no significant correlations, the 5% significance level, at the yield and quality of charcoal.

  15. SiC/C composites prepared from wood-based carbons by pulse current sintering with SiO2 : Electrical and thermal properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Furuno, T; Imamura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A powder mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 was sintered into a SiC/C composite. The heat treatment temperatures were 1400-1800 degreesC, the SiO2 concentration 0, 10, 30 and 50 wt.% with respect to the dry weight of wood charcoal. The microstructure, electrical resistance and thermal conductivity were s

  16. A dry element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.; Ota, A.

    1983-08-11

    The agglomerate for the element is made from activated charcoal powder, an electrically conducting additive and a neutral electrolyte. The activated charcoal makes up 30 to 50 percent of the weight of the agglomerate. It is a mixture of hydrophobized and unhydrophobized powder in a ratio of 85 to 70 to 15 to 30. The element has high discharge characteristics.

  17. Effects of Syn-pandemic Fire Reduction and Reforestation in the Tropical Americas on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During European Conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    A new reconstruction of the Late Holocene biomass burning history of the tropical Americas is consistent with expanding fire use by Mesoamerican and Amazonian agriculturalists from 2000-500 BP and a subsequent period of fire reduction due to indigenous demographic collapse. Our reconstruction synthesizes published data from 50 charcoal accumulation records obtained from stratified lacustrine sediments and from soils, including soil charcoal records recovered from archeological sites. Synthesis of stratigraphic charcoal records yields indexes of the mean rate of regional charcoal accumulation and of variability in charcoal accumulation among sites during 500-year increments since 3500 BP. The age distribution of dated soil charcoal particles from non-archeological sites provides an independent measure of variation in regional charcoal accumulation; whereas age distribution of soil charcoal dates from archeological sites records variation in charcoal accumulation related to anthropogenic biomass burning. We observe that the charcoal accumulation indexes derived from stratigraphic records begin to increase at 2000 BP, remain high until 500 BP, and then decline to near-minimum values during the 500-year period subsequent to European contact. Similarly, the age distributions of soil charcoal dated from both non-archeological and archeological sites indicate increases in charcoal accumulation from 2000 to 500 BP followed by decline. An index of the inter- site variability in charcoal accumulation obtained from the stratigraphic records attains a maximum during the time period between 1000 and 500 BP and a near-minimum value afterward. We interpret the covariation between measures of charcoal accumulation derived from archeological and non-archeological sites as a consequence of the expansive influence of anthropogenic activity on the regional fire regime. Increases in regional charcoal accumulation apparent in both the stratigraphic and soil charcoal records beginning at

  18. Trapping radiodine, in the form of methyl iodide, on nuclear carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacapricha, D. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Taylor, C. [John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Studies have been performed on potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoals of the type used in the nuclear industry for trapping radioiodine released during nuclear fission. The effects of various parameters on the trapping efficiency of methyl iodide have been investigated. A variation in particle size within a bulk charcoal caused poor precision in K value measurements because of differences in surface area, pore volume, and bed density, leading to differences in the deposition of the impregnant. Precision is improved by sieving the charcoal to a narrower size because smaller particles have a higher porosity. This finding is supported by surface area and pore measurements. Two methods of impregnation are compared by measuring K values and the deposition of potassium iodide. Charcoal impregnated by rotary evaporation exhibits both higher K values and higher potassium iodide contents than sprayed charcoal. Two designs of spraying drum are compared: a drum with helical vanes allows more efficient deposition and more uniform distribution of impregnant than a drum with axial vanes. A decrease in the K value with increasing humidity correlates with the available surface area. A similar correlation exists between water content and available pore volume. Aging of potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoal, caused by the formation of oxygen complexes on the surface, is associated with significant falls in K value. K values of charcoals also can be restored to at least their original values by heat treatment in the absence of air. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Home-made carbonaceous adsorbents for the iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming, that at the moment, an activated charcoal is the most widely used adsorbent in off-gas cleaning systems for elemental iodine removal, it was analyzed how to improve the adsorption properties of this filter material for removing the organic iodine compounds, especially in the presence of high relative humidity. Three different indigenous activated charcoals were selected for studies: two kinds of charcoal, designated as type A and N, as well as the charcoals used for flue gas desulfurization, as the third type S. These charcoals were impregnated with tin iodide (SnI2), potassium iodide (KI) and triethylenediamine (TEDA). Considering the results of the laboratory tests of the efficiency methyl iodide retention by the impregnated charcoals, it was concluded, that the carbonaceous adsorbent containing 1+1.5% KI showed efficient retention of the methyl iodide (CH3I), compared with, for example, foreign activated charcoals, as, NORIT-CGI 1% KI (West Germany) and GA-1 0.5% KI (Czechoslovakia). (author)

  20. Estimation of Filtration Potential of an Effective Biosand Filter for Removal of Iron, Turbidity From Various Sources of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Sarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted for designing, constructing and evaluating of an effective biosand filter. Different types of charcoal mixture such as bamboo, coconut and wood and carbon mat as an important filter media was used for the modification of biosand filter. The filter had seven layers with gravel, sand, carbon mat and charcoal which were responsible for filtration process. The filtered water analysed in every 20 min interval. The raw ground water pH was 6.12 while it passes through bamboo, coconut and wood mixture filter, the filtered water showed higher pH value. The filter in which mixture of charcoal used as filter media showed better removal efficiency of turbidity compared to control filter without charcoal and mat. The value of turbidity in filtered water of charcoal mixture filter was below 2 NTU which is the permissible limit of drinking water according to World Health Organization but for control it was average 14 NTU. Initially the flow rate was higher and gradually decreases with time. The flow rate of the Biosand filtered water decreases significantly with increase in turbidity. The charcoal based filter showed better removal of iron (II (95-98% compared to control (73-76%. The charcoal based filter resulted tastier water by enriching of water with mineral like sodium and potassium.