WorldWideScience

Sample records for charcoal

  1. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated Carbon, Animal Charcoal, Carbo Vegetabilis, Carbon, Carbón Activado, Charbon Actif, Charbon Activé, Charbon Animal, Charbon Médicinal, Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, ...

  2. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz; Silvana Nisgoski; Felipe Zatt Shardosin; Ramiro Faria França

    2012-01-01

    Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea gui...

  3. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  4. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  5. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  6. Position paper: Single-dose activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyka, P A; Seger, D; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2005-01-01

    Single-dose activated charcoal therapy involves the oral administration or instillation by nasogastric tube of an aqueous preparation of activated charcoal after the ingestion of a poison. Volunteer studies demonstrate that the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases with time. Data using at least 50 g of activated charcoal, showed a mean reduction in absorption of 47.3%, 40.07%, 16.5% and 21.13%, when activated charcoal was administered at 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 120 minutes and 180 minutes, respectively, after dosing. There are no satisfactorily designed clinical studies assessing benefit from single-dose activated charcoal to guide the use of this therapy. Single-dose activated charcoal should not be administered routinely in the management of poisoned patients. Based on volunteer studies, the administration of activated charcoal may be considered if a patient has ingested a potentially toxic amount of a poison (which is known to be adsorbed to charcoal) up to one hour previously. Although volunteer studies demonstrate that the reduction of drug absorption decreases to values of questionable clinical importance when charcoal is administered at times greater than one hour, the potential for benefit after one hour cannot be excluded. There is no evidence that the administration of activated charcoal improves clinical outcome. Unless a patient has an intact or protected airway, the administration of charcoal is contraindicated. A review of the literature since the preparation of the 1997 Single-dose Activated Charcoal Position Statement revealed no new evidence that would require a revision of the conclusions of the Statement.

  7. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  8. ECONOMICAL PLANS EFFECTS ON CHARCOAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira Rezende

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy is essential for human needs satisfaction. With the evolution of machinery, man becomes more and more dependent on the energy stocked in fossil fuels, comparatively to the primitive economy. Wood charcoal is a thermal-reducer used in Brazilian pig iron and steel industries, and its price is formed in an oligopsonic market. Over time, the charcoal prices have varied in function of endogenous and exogenous factors, needing, therefore, to be deflated so that they can be compared in two or more points in time. This work analyzed the variations of charcoal real prices, in national currency; compared and analyzed the real charcoal price in nominal and in real US Dollar and; analyzed the real prices of charcoal, comparatively to the real oil prices. The analyses were accomplished in the period from January 1975 to December 2002. The time series of charcoal prices, in domestic currency were deflated using IGP-DI, considering august, 1994=100, and charcoal prices were also converted to American dollar and deflated using CPI, considering the period 1982-84=100. It was compared, then, the real and nominal charcoal prices. It concluded that the real charcoal prices in Brazilian domestic currency, or in American dollar, presented a decreasing tendency along time. The inflationary disarray, in the 80´s and the first half of the 90 ´s, provoked a big price variation in the period; from the beginning the XXI century, charcoal prices were more influenced by the exchange rate; in the energy crisis period, charcoal prices suffered big changes that, however, did not persist along time.

  9. ACTIVATED CARBON (CHARCOAL OBTAINING . APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon is a microporous sorbent with a very large adsorption area that can reach in some cases even 1500sqm / gram. Activated carbon is produced from any organic material with high carbon content: coal, wood, peat or moor coal, coconut shells. The granular activated charcoal is most commonly produced by grinding the raw material, adding a suitable binder to provide the desired hardness and shape. Enabling coal is a complete process through which the raw material is fully exposed to temperatures between 600-900 degrees C, in the absence of oxygen, usually in a domestic atmosphere as gases such as nitrogen or argon; as material that results from this process is exposed in an atmosphere of oxygen and steam at a temperature in the interval from 600 - 1200 degrees C.

  10. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  11. Charcoal from jute sticks: an agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banergee, S.K.

    1980-07-01

    Charcoal is conventionally obtained by the carbonization of hardwoods. However, recent experiments carried out at the Jute Technological Research Laboratory (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Calcutta, India, have indicated that a good quality smokeless charcoal in chip form could be obtained by low temperature carbonization of jute sticks. Jute stick is the core portion of the jute plant left after the extraction of the jute fiber. Whereas the fiber portion has great commerical value, the stick portion is considered to be an agricultural waste. The actual amount of jute sticks, which is annually renewable product, is about 2-3 million tonnes a year. Due to its abundance, ready availability and cheapness, it is anticipated that jute sticks will be a more economical source for making charcoal for fuel and chemical carbon than the hardwood resources. The latter take many years to grow to maturity and need extensive reforestation plans.

  12. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    interventions 1 h post ingestion, and to determine if activated charcoal was effective in reducing the systemic absorption of a drug, when administered 2 h post ingestion. METHODS: We performed a four-limbed randomized cross-over study in 12 volunteers, who 1 h after a standard meal ingested paracetamol 50 mg....... Serum paracetamol concentrations were determined by h.p.l.c. Percentage reductions in the area under the curve (AUC) were used to estimate the efficacy of each intervention (paired observations). RESULTS: There was a significant (Pparacetamol AUC with activated charcoal at 1 h...... the two interventions (95% confidence interval for the difference -3.8, 34.0). Furthermore, we found a significant (Pparacetamol AUC when activated charcoal was administered 2 h after tablet ingestion when compared with controls (median 22.7%, 95% confidence intervals 13...

  13. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion.

  14. Thermal testing methods in determination of characterization of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守新; 张世润; 礼波宁; 朱文红

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis testing methods were used in determination of the characterization of charcoals. Thermogravimetry (TG) method was adopted to determine the composition of charcoals, which include moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and ash contents. The result showed that this method could detect the subtle change of charcoal composition, even the variation of different parts of material. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and related methods were also used to investigate reactivity of charcoals. The ignition temperature decrease with increasing carbon content was detected by these methods.

  15. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  16. Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Harriet E.

    1980-01-01

    Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

  17. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  18. Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Zackrisson, Olle

    2008-05-01

    Fire is a global driver of carbon storage and converts a substantial proportion of plant biomass to black carbon (for example, charcoal), which remains in the soil for thousands of years. Black carbon is therefore often proposed as an important long-term sink of soil carbon. We ran a 10-year experiment in each of three boreal forest stands to show that fire-derived charcoal promotes loss of forest humus and that this is associated with enhancement of microbial activity by charcoal. This result shows that charcoal-induced losses of belowground carbon in forests can partially offset the benefits of charcoal as a long-term carbon sink.

  19. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  20. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  1. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

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    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  2. Variability of mitomycin C adsorption by activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I A; Lindup, W E; McCulloch, P G

    1998-03-01

    A saline suspension of mitomycin C adsorbed on activated charcoal and administered intraperitoneally has been reported to be safe and effective in the treatment of gastric carcinoma. Activated charcoal specifically targets tumour and lymph-node tissues and the sustained higher local drug concentration is thought to be beneficial. The charcoal particles used in these suspensions have varied in size from > 147 microm to mitomycin C on activated charcoal in-vitro. Activated charcoal was ground and sieved to yield four size-fractions between 180 and 53 microm. Adsorption isotherms (n > or = 3) were constructed and applied to the Freundlich model with 0-l00 microg mL(-1) mitomycin C measured by HPLC with detection at 365 nm. Adsorption of mitomycin C by activated charcoal varied by a factor of three under identical conditions at room temperature (21 degrees C) and at 37 degrees C. The specific adsorption (microg mitomycin C (mg activated charcoal)(-1)) was generally higher at 37 degrees C than at room temperature. The variability of mitomycin C adsorption was greatly reduced by addition of the surface-active agent polyvinylpyrollidone, used to determine that adsorption of mitomycin C was independent of activated charcoal particle size. The characteristics of adsorption of mitomycin C by activated charcoal are complex and should be thoroughly investigated to discover the critical controlling factors before submitting the suspensions for further clinical evaluation.

  3. Heats of adsorption for charcoal nitrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.; Akkimaradi, B.S.; Rastogi, S.C. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group; Rao, R.R. [Government College for Boys, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Srinivasan, K. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    This paper develops an empirical equation for correlation of the loading dependence of the heat of adsorption for two samples of activated charcoal-nitrogen systems. Details are given of the use of isotherm data, the evaluation of the heat of adsorption using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the plotting of primary adsorption data, and the plotting of the heat of adsorption as a function of the loading of the two samples. The need to consider the heat of adsorption property when designing a system in which a gaseous medium is adsorbed by a solid sorbent is discussed. (UK)

  4. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  5. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  6. Leak test of the charcoal filter in the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Lee, Key Soon; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Oh, Yon Woo; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Sung Jung

    1998-06-01

    In the heating, ventilation and air conditioning(HVAC) system, pre-filter, HEPA(high efficiency particle air) filter and charcoal filter are instrumented in order to filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter at the hot cell where manipulates the nuclear fuel irradiated in the nuclear reactor is essential for shutting off the leakage of the radioiodine which is produced from the cutting procedures of nuclear fuel. Also, the leak test of installed filter should be performed perfectly. In addition, charcoal filter is instrumented to filter the radioactive gas such as radioiodine which is produced in the nuclear facility. In this technical report, the theoretical discussion, the experimental procedures and the precautions of the leak test of charcoal filter are described. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Activated charcoal: to give or not to give?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Georgina M

    2010-07-01

    There has been much debate about the use of activated charcoal in patients who have taken overdoses and then present to Emergency Departments. There are clinical trials, research and position statements that have examined the effectiveness of activated charcoal in a number of overdoses of different medications, but there is still a debate surrounding the evidence based practice of administering activated charcoal in patients who have taken a drug overdose due to lack of evidence. This article will examine on the two main guidelines on activated charcoal, one produced by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence and the second produced by American Academy of Clinical Toxicology. It will discuss the methods of administration on activated charcoal, contraindications and the difficulties or challenges in adhering to these guidelines in the clinical setting.

  8. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  9. Production of charcoal from small-dimension lignocellulosic waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perzynski, B.; Babicki, R.

    1973-01-01

    Wood charcoal could be produced in a batch furnace by the indirect heating of sawdust or oakwood chips remaining after the extraction of furfural (98-01-1). The highest yields (25.8%) were obtained from the extracted oakwood by the indirect heating of 300/sup 0/. Good charcoals were also obtained from oak sawdust at 300 to 400/sup 0/ (indirect heating) or at 270/sup 0/ (direct heating), from pine sawdust at 350 to 400/sup 0/ (indirect heating), and from beech sawdust at 270/sup 0/ (indirect heating). All these charcoals contained less than or equal to 5% ash and 10 to 20% volatile components.

  10. Studies on radon adsorption characteristics of different charcoals used as amplifiers for the track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosma, C; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    Ten sorts of charcoals were studied regarding their use as amplifier in the design of a personal dosimeter. It consists of a combination of a Makrofol detector and activated charcoal. The calibration factor for the Makrofol using the charcoals as an amplifier is about ten times higher comparing with an exposure without charcoal. The best results were obtained with Carboxen 564. The background radioactivity of charcoals must also be considered in the dosimeter's design.

  11. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  12. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed;

    2005-01-01

    acceptance by the patients without loss of efficacy. In addition, paracetamol adsorption studies were carried out in vitro to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture. METHODS: In vivo: A randomized crossover study on 15 adult volunteers, using...... capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using HPLC. RESULTS: In vivo there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the AUC of paracetamol between the two activated-charcoal preparations. Geometric mean...... charcoal--water slurry. In vitro the maximum adsorption capacity of activated charcoal with added yogurt was 544 mg paracetamol/g activated charcoal (pH 1.2), and 569 mg paracetamol/g activated charcoal (pH 7.2). CONCLUSION: The two activated-charcoal preparations showed equal (NS) absorption reduction...

  13. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Huang; Baoliang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g.,charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment.To further elucidate their interaction mechanism,sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene,m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated.The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation,and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38,being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types.After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF),both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component.The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified.The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites,partition phases,and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated.The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment.The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850℃),10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar,and 10 organic sorbates.

  14. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates.

  15. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  16. Activated charcoal for acute overdose: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juurlink, David N

    2016-03-01

    Sometimes mistakenly characterized as a 'universal antidote,' activated charcoal (AC) is the most frequently employed method of gastrointestinal decontamination in the developed world. Typically administered as a single dose (SDAC), its tremendous surface area permits the binding of many drugs and toxins in the gastrointestinal lumen, reducing their systemic absorption. Like other decontamination procedures, the utility of SDAC attenuates with time, and, although generally safe, it is not free of risk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that SDAC can reduce the absorption of drugs and xenobiotics but most such studies involve volunteers and have little generalizability to clinical practice. Few rigorous clinical trials of SDAC have been conducted, and none validate or refute its utility in those patients who are intuitively most likely to benefit. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational data have demonstrated that SDAC can elicit substantial reductions in drug absorption in acutely poisoned patients. The challenge for clinicians rests in differentiating those patients most likely to benefit from SDAC from those in whom meaningful improvement is doubtful. This is often a difficult determination not well suited to an algorithmic approach. The present narrative review summarizes the data supporting the benefits and harms of SDAC, and offers pragmatic suggestions for clinical practice.

  17. In vitro study on fluoxetine adsorption onto charcoal using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta-Politou, J; Skopelitis, I; Apatsidis, I; Koupparis, M

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro investigation was performed to study the adsorption rate constant as well as the adsorption characteristics of fluoxetine (F) to activated charcoal and its commercial formulation Carbomix powder in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) fluid environment. Ion-selective electrode (ISE) potentiometry, based on the selective, direct and continuous monitoring of F with an F-ISE constructed in our laboratory was used. The method used in the kinetic experiments consists of the rapid addition of a slurry containing the charcoal into the drug solution under stirring and continuous recording of the F-ISE potential until the establishment of equilibrium. The free ionized drug concentration at appropriate time intervals was calculated from the recorded adsorption curve and the apparent adsorption rate constant was estimated assuming pseudo first order kinetics. Within run R.S.D. of the estimates ranged from 0.24 to 11.5%, while between run R.S.D. (n=3-4) ranged from 0.90 to 13.8%. A linear relationship was found between the apparent adsorption rate constants and the amount of charcoal used with slopes (+/-S.D.) for activated charcoal and Carbomix equal to 1.14(+/-0.21) and 0.146(+/-0.009) s(-1)g(-1), respectively. Successive additions of microvolumes of F solution were made into a charcoal slurry with measurement of the F-ISE potential at equilibrium. The maximum adsorption capacity values (+/-S.D.) of activated charcoal and Carbomix were 254.8+/-1.8 and 405+/-41 mg/g, respectively while the affinity constant values (+/-S.D.) were 45.6+/-2.2 and 55.5+/-2.9 l/g, respectively. The adsorption of F to charcoals was rapid and for amounts of charcoal 10 times greater than the amount of the drug, 95% of F was adsorbed within the first 5 min. Relative to the toxic and lethal doses in cases of F intoxications, both types of charcoals tested adsorbed effectively F at gastric pH. Carbomix can be considered as appropriate charcoal formulation for medical treatment in cases of F

  18. A screening study of xylitol binding in vitro to activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, R B

    2004-12-01

    Ingestion of foods containing the sweetener xylitol by dogs results in a significant, and often sustained, insulin-mediated hypoglycemic crisis. The efficacy of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination following xylitol ingestion is unknown. This screening study examined the effect of pH and incubation time on the in vitro binding of xylitol to activated charcoal. The mean percentage activated charcoal binding ranged between 8 and 23%. Mean percentage binding of xylitol at pH 3 was significantly higher (p activated charcoal slurry. These results suggest binding of xylitol to activated charcoal is relatively low; however, activated charcoal administration may still be beneficial in some canine acute oral xylitol exposures.

  19. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi E-mail: iimoto@rcnst.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2004-09-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 deg. C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  20. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  1. A theoretical treatment of adsorption of radon gas on charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ding; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Tse, Wan-Sun [Academia Sinica, Taipei, TW (China). Inst. of Physics; Skrable, K.; Li, Kuang-Pang

    1997-09-01

    The use of an activated charcoal sampler for radon monitoring has become popular in recent years because of its passiveness and low price. Dynamics of adsorption on a passive sampler have been described with theoretical models. However, extrapolation of the measured results of radon on charcoal to the diurnal fluctuations of the ambient radon concentration is often difficult and even misleading because of the oversimplification of these models. A more generalized approach is undertaken by treating the diurnal variations in radon concentrations as poly-exponential functions and by solving for explicit particular solutions of Fick`s equation. The application of these solutions to various practical situations is explored. This includes their use for charcoal sampler calibration. Estimated values of the adsorption coefficients, k, and diffusion constant, D, appear to be agreeable with corresponding reported values. A triple-sampler protocol is also proposed for radon survey in areas of high diurnal fluctuations. (author)

  2. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  3. Isoniazid overdose: pharmacokinetics and effects of oral charcoal in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefkin, A D; Albertson, T E; Corbett, M G

    1987-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid following overdose in two patients is described. One patient was treated with haemodialysis for seizures and persistent coma without obvious immediate clinical improvement. In addition, three volunteer subjects were given isoniazid orally on two separate occasions. Isoniazid elimination pharmacokinetics were determined with and without concominant charcoal. Oral activated charcoal totally prevented the absorption of isoniazid. Current recommendations for treatment of isoniazid overdoses include intravenous pyridoxine (one gram IV pyridoxine for each gram of ingested isoniazid), intravenous diazepam or phenobarbital for continued seizures, and gastric decontamination with lavage and activated charcoal (1 g/kg). Extraordinary measures such as early haemodialysis and haemoperfusion should be reserved for those patients with persistent coma or refractory seizures.

  4. A theoretical study of radon measurement with activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezić, Dragoslav; Urošević, Vlade

    1998-02-01

    Diffusion of radon in a bed of activated charcoal is described by diffusion equations. An analytical solution of these equations is presented for the case of constant radon concentration in the atmosphere. The solutions are given separately for short term and long term exposure. An analytical form of the calibration constant f for long term exposure and constant radon concentration in air, was found to be f=kp {D}/{λ}S {sinh{λ}/{D}l }/{cosh{λ}/{D}l } A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program.

  5. Activated charcoal-a potential material in glucoamylase recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, S O; Akpan, I; Popoola, T O S; Sanni, L O

    2011-01-01

    The potential of activated charcoal in the purification of fungal glucoamylase was investigated. Various concentrations of activated charcoal (1-4% w/v) were used to concentrate crude glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus at different temperature values (30-50°C). Effects of pH (3.0-6.0) and contact time (0-60 min) on enzyme purification were also monitored. Activated charcoal (3% w/v) gave a 16-fold purification in a single-step purification at 50°C for 20 min and pH 5.5. The result of SDS-PAGE analysis of purified glucoamylase showed two major protein bands with corresponding molecular weight of 36 kDa and 50 kDa. The method is inexpensive, rapid, and simple which could facilitate downstream processing of industrial enzyme.

  6. Improved and more environmentally friendly charcoal production system using a low-cost retort-kiln (Eco-charcoal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.C. [Adam and Partner, Bahnhofstrasse 13, 82467 Garmisch (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Research into a low-cost retort-kiln, used to produce charcoal from sustainably managed forests in a more environmentally friendly way (Eco-Charcoal), has been completed and pilot units have been built in India and East Africa. The unit is called ICPS (Improved Charcoal Production System). Importantly, it has a much higher efficiency rating than traditional earth-mound kilns, which have until now been the main means of domestic charcoal production in developing nations. The efficiency of traditional charcoal production methods is about 10%-22% (calculated on using oven-dry wood with 0% water content) while the efficiency of the ICPS is approximately 30%-42%. As compared with traditional carbonisation processes, the ICPS reduces emissions to the atmosphere by up to 75%. The ICPS works in two different phases. During the first phase the ICPS works like a traditional kiln; however, waste wood is burned in a separate fire box to dry the wood. During the second phase of operation the harmful volatiles are burned in a hot 'fire chamber' meaning all resulting emissions are cleaner, minus these already reduced volatiles. The heat gained by flaring the wood gazes, is used and recycled to accelerate the carbonisation process. Unlike traditional methods the ICPS can complete a carbonisation cycle within 12 h. (author)

  7. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  8. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  9. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  10. Charcoal reactivity: comparison between eucalyptus charcoals and charcoal from native forests; Reatividade do carvao vegetal: comparacao entre carvoes de cerrado e eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Figueira, Renato Minelli [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The rates of gasification of charcoal produced from native forests and eucalyptus were compared. Using a mathematical model for heat and mass transfer between solids and gas, the effects of these different rates of gasification in blast furnace operation were investigated in terms of the degree of iron ore reduction in the upper part of blast furnace and carbon consumption. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  11. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  12. Preparation and characterization of white bamboo charcoal PET fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Shan Li; Ming Shuang Xu; Guang Ju Zhou; Li Qiu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (BC-PET) has been widely applied in home textiles, functional clothing and hydra-balance material, due to their strong adsorptivity, good resolvability, anti-statics, deodorization, antibacterial, anion releasing and far infrared emitting. But BC-PET is black and difficult to be dyed, and its application is limited. In this article, nitric acid was used to treat the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC) powder, and BC powder was modified by titanium dioxide sol to prepare white bamboo charcoal (white-BC) particle. White bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (white-BC-PET) was obtained by mixing white-BC and polyester (PET) resin in double screw extruder. Performance of fiber was tested referring to national standard GB/TI4464-2008 of common PET fiber and most of its indicators have already exceeded GB the level of excellent product. SEM photographs showed that the white-BC was uniformly distributed inside or on the surface of fiber. The white-BC-PET could absorb some aniline and had at least 90% anti-bacterial rate. The anti-bacterial rate could have almost been kept after it was washed 50 times. It was hopeful to be applied in various fields as functional fiber.

  13. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  14. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix...

  15. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nassiri

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of known percentages of four compounds of benzene, toluene, O-xylene and P-xlene. The adsorption of various parts of sampler tubes was done by a chemical method using CS2 and the final analysis was done by gas chromatography. The results obtained show that the amount of the above named compounds adsorbed by glass wool and foam in comparison to the activated charcoal isn’t significant (respectively P<0.001 & P,0.05. Also the experiments don’s show any significant differences between the total amount of adsorbed chemicals by charcoal in the back-up layer and the sample layer of the foamed tube and the amount adsorbed in the foamless tube, when treated with various compounds (P,0.001. Considering the equal adsorption of both types of tubes and the advantage of foamed tubes in controlling the time duration and the flow rate of sampling, the foamed type was recommended for production and use.

  16. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  17. Inhibition by ice cream of the antidotal efficacy of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Soda, D M; Lampman, T A

    1975-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if ice cream and sherbet interfered with the adsorption of aspirin onto activated charcoal both in vivo and in vitro. An aqueous suspension of 20 g activated charcoal decreased the absorption of 1 g aspirin by 65%; the same dose of activated charcoal with 50 g of ice cream reduced aspirin absorption by only 42% under otherwise identical conditions. In vitro tests showed that different ice creams and sherbet decrease the adsoprtion of aspirin onto activated charcoal. Thus, although ice cream is useful for preparing palatable suspensions of activated charcoal, it decreases appreciably the antidotal efficacy of the adsorbent.

  18. Apparatus for producing charcoal from fine lignocellulose wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Perzynski, B.

    1979-05-15

    A continuous retort for the production of charcoal from sawdust, nut shells, wood chips, etc. consists of a cylindrical tower separated from the top into the drying, pyrolyzing, and cooling sections. Dry feed is introduced at the top where it is spread by stirrer blades on 2 trays kept at 120 degrees and 160 degrees by external heating. The feed falls through discharge slots into a 2nd section where it is contacted with a limited supply of hot air while the temperature rises to about 600 degrees. Hot charcoal is swept by stirrer blades toward discharge slots and falls into a 3rd section where it is cooled and discharged. Off gases are used for predrying the incoming feed, scrubbed, and vented through a stack.

  19. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y.; Liu, J.; Martens, K.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D.; Yamashita, M.; Hosokawa, K.; Murata, A.; Otsuka, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kusaba, F.; Motoki, D.; Nishijima, K.; Tasaka, S.; Fujii, K.; Murayama, I.; Nakamura, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Nishitani, Y.; Takiya, H.; Uchida, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, J. S.; Xmass Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity vRn of radon and vXe of xenon in the trap with vRn/vXe=(0.96±0.10)×10-3 at -85 °C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  20. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  2. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  3. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  4. Comment on "Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Sohi, Saran

    2008-09-01

    Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only by accelerated loss of humus but also by loss of charcoal. It is also unclear whether such loss is related to mineralization to carbon dioxide or to physical export.

  5. Charcoal Morphometry for Paleoecological Analysis: The Effects of Fuel Type and Transportation on Morphological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair J. Crawford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems.

  6. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These compounds were obtained by oxidation of Eucalyptus grandis charcoal, produced at charring temperatures of 350 and 450 ºC, with 4.5 mol L-1 HNO3. The charcoal was oxidized by solubilization in acidic or alkaline medium, similar to the procedure of soil organic matter fractionation (CHox350 and CHox450. CHox was characterized by C, H, O, N contents and their respective atomic relations, by the ratio E4 (absorbance 465 nm by E6 (absorbance 665 nm, and by active acidity and total acidity (CEC. The inhibitory effect of CHox on the urease activity of Canavalia ensiformis was assessed in vitro. The NH3 volatilization from urea was evaluated with and without coating of oxidized charcoal (U-CHox350 or U-CHox450 in a closed system with continuous air flow. The pH of both CHox was near 2.0, but the total acidity of CHox350 was higher, 72 % of which was attributed to carboxylic groups. The variation in the ionization constants of CHox350 was also greater. The low E4/E6 ratios characterize the high stability of the compounds in CHox. CHox did not inhibit the urease activity in vitro, although the maximum volatilization peak from U-CHox450 and U-CHox350 occurred 24 h after that observed for uncoated urea. The lowest volatilization rate was observed for U-CHox350 as well as a 43 % lower total amount of NH3 volatilized than from uncoated urea.

  7. Detection of hidden pre-industrial charcoal kilns by high-resolution LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, systematic archaeological excavations in the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany) have revealed one of the largest, archaeologically excavated pre-industrial charcoal production area in Central Europe. Many of the charcoal kiln relics are easy to detect by survey as they lie close to the surface and charcoal pieces hint on their existence. In the excavations the remains of the charcoal kilns are distinct, black circles in the light-coloured sands. To date, in the former Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst c. 800 remains of charcoal hearths have been excavated and documented by archaeologists in an area of about 20 km2. Further c. 300 charcoal hearths are prospected by survey. Unfortunately, the spatial information about the charcoal kiln sites in Lower Lusatia (and elsewhere) is incomplete since we only have data from the archaeological excavation and prospection in the directly affected mining district. To fill this gap, we decided to test the applicability of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data for charcoal kiln prospection. The particularly improved quality of the recent high-resolution light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enabled the computer-aided detection of charcoal kilns and their evaluation using a geographical information system (GIS). Following data processing, the charcoal kilns are visible as buttons-like shapes in the shaded-relief maps (SRM). The characteristic shapes arise because the kiln plates are some centimetres to decimetres higher than the ditches around them. Numerous ground checks confirmed the applicability of the prospection by ALS data. But, we also assume that c. 10% of the charcoal kilns remain unidentified. A 26.6 km2 study area in the Tauerscher Forst, a forest about 10 km northwest of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde, was selected for prospection using a 1 m resolution ALS data set from the year 2011. Today, the area is forested with pine, and no archaeological excavation has been carried out so far

  8. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

  9. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  10. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  11. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbo

  12. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  13. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  14. Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

    1991-08-01

    The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

  15. Adsorption of mexiletine onto activated charcoal in macrogol-electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimori, K; Deshimaru, M; Furukawa, E; Nakano, M

    1993-04-01

    Adsorption studies in vitro of mexiletine onto activated charcoal were performed in macrogol (polyethylene glycol)-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS) and JP XII disintegration medium No. 2 (second medium). Mexiletine was adsorbed more extensively onto activated charcoal in PEG-ELS than that in JP XII second medium. The maximum adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for the drug was 328 and 284 mg per gram of charcoal in PEG-ELS and JP XII second medium, respectively. In addition, the equilibrium constant of activated charcoal estimated according to the Langmuir equation was 0.079 and 0.034 l per gram of charcoal in PEG-ELS and JP XII second medium, respectively. Adsorption of mexiletine onto activated charcoal was decreased by omitting macrogol, sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate from a standard PEG-ELS formulation. Oral activated charcoal will be useful in combination with whole bowel irrigation with PEG-ELS in mexiletine overdose because of its excellent adsorbability in the solution.

  16. Cryosorption pumping of He by charcoal and a compound cryopump design for TSTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Chou, T.S.; Worwetz, H.A.; Halama, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the studies of cryosorption pumping of He by charcoal at 4.2/sup 0/K and between 10 and 20/sup 0/K. We conclude that coconut charcoal at 4.2/sup 0/K is suitable for evacuating He from fusion reactors. A compound cryopump design, which utilizes cryocondensation for hydrogen isotopes and cryosorption for helium is also presented.

  17. Impact of Credit Access on Charcoal Productivity: Implication for Sustainable Development, Oyo- State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagunju, F. I.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of credit on charcoal productivity was assessed in Oyo state of southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select 140 respondents. Data used in this study were gathered from traditional charcoal producers that have access and no access to credit with the aid of interview schedule; the analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, Logit and multiple regression models. It was revealed that about 20% of the charcoal producers used loans from co-operative societies while 55% sourced their funds from personal savings. The model has a sigma square (σ2 value of 42.741 P<0.01which is an indication of a good fit and a normal distribution of the error term. About 50% of the charcoal farmers had limited access to formal funds due to insufficient collateral securities and this had negative effect on their business hence they recorded low level of farm income. The coefficient of these variables, years of experience in charcoal production, level of education, sources of credit, sources of log and their quantities were positively significant at 5% level. The multiple regression analysis revealed that frequency of extension visit, household size, amount and source of credit had a significant direct relationship with charcoal productivity. The study therefore concludes that credit acquisition by the charcoal producers had a significant impact on the charcoal productivity which brings about a sustainable development in the study area.

  18. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  19. Improved charcoal production methods using the casamance kiln in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nturanabo, F. (Makerere Univ., Kampala (Uganda), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering), e-mail: mpazi@tech.mak.ac.ug; Tumuhimbise, J. (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, Kampala (Uganda))

    2010-07-01

    Uganda's energy mix depicts heavy reliance on biomass for most of the country's energy needs. Woodfuel is the major source of energy for heating, cooking and lighting. According to the Uganda Energy Balance 2008, biomass resources account for 91,5 % of Uganda's net energy supply. Consumption of wood has been rising at the same rate as the country's population (3,6 % per year as of 2008). The solution to check the rampant deforestation and environmental degradation that result from over-exploitation of the forest resources lies in harvesting the wood sustainably by using more efficient methods. The purpose of this research was to promote use of the casamance kiln as an efficient and environment-friendly charcoal production method. The study aimed at establishing a simpler version of casamance that involves minimal capital investment for low-income producers to adopt easily. The results show that the casamance kiln is easy to operate, takes a shorter cycle time and produces higher quality charcoal. Its efficiency of yield was in the range of 24-28 %, compared to the traditional earth mound whose range was 12-16 %. A 20 m3 casamance kiln operating at 28 % efficiency for 30 weeks a year can save 85 tonnes of wood. (orig.)

  20. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  1. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  2. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Liu, J.; Martens, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); and others

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity v{sub Rn} of radon and v{sub Xe} of xenon in the trap with v{sub Rn}/v{sub Xe}=(0.96{+-}0.10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at -85 Degree-Sign C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  3. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  4. Purification of fructooligosaccharides in an activated charcoal fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Raquel Cristine; Filho, Francisco Maugeri

    2010-12-31

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are mixtures of oligosaccharides containing mono and disaccharides, therefore, the separation of these sugars results in purer products for human consumption and can be added to various food products (drinks, cookies and yogurt). The aim of this work was the purification of fructooligosaccharides from a mixture of sugars, obtained by enzymatic synthesis, containing fructooligosaccharides, glucose, fructose and sucrose using activated charcoal fixed bed column. Temperature and ethanol concentration effects were analyzed using a 2² central composite design. Good separation conditions were obtained through central composite design. The best separation coefficient between fructooligosaccharides and glucose (ES(fructoolig/gluc)) was 3.99 ± 0.07 and between fructose and fructooligosaccharides (ES(fructoolig/fruct)) was 2.89 ± 0.36 using ethanol 15% (v/v) as eluent, at 50°C. The final FOS purification degree and recovery were about 80% and 97.8%, respectively. The activated charcoal fixed bed columns were shown to be a good alternative for sugar separation, especially for rich mixtures of fructooligosaccharides.

  5. Activated charcoal suppresses breeding of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Siebers, Robert; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian

    2007-04-01

    House dust mite sensitized asthmatics are advised to practice allergen avoidance. Charcoal pillows are used in Korea with unsubstantiated claims regarding their efficacy in alleviating asthma symptoms. We tested the effects of activated charcoal on breeding of house dust mites in culture. Twenty live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were inoculated, 10 replicates, on culture media containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% activated charcoal and incubated at 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 75%. After four weeks, the mean numbers of live house dust mites were 286, 176, 46, 16, 7, and 0 for the 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% charcoal-containing culture media, respectively. Thus, activated charcoal suppresses breeding of house dust mites and offers a new promising method for house dust mite control.

  6. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  7. A solid fuel which includes coal, coke and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuti, Y.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Sonetaka, K.

    1983-04-15

    A composition of solid domestic fuel is proposed with a reduced liberation of toxic gases (CO and hydrocarbon (Uv)) upon combustion. The fuel is produced from (percent) 80 mineral coal, 10 charcoal, 10 CaC03 with an additive of 2 percent methylcellulose to the charge. Briquets are made from the mixture with perforated openings which have a transverse cross section (PS) of 10 to 200 square millimeters. The ratio of the total transverse cross section of all the openings and the transverse cross section of the fuel briquet, including the area of the openings is 25 to 70. Systems for disposition of the openings in the fuel are cited, along with the cross section of a furnace with the loaded fuel and the dependencies of the CO content in the furnace gas on the properties of the fuel.

  8. The impact of charcoal production on forest degradation: a case study in Tete, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Silva, J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multitemporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADDITION ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadi Darmawan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis in 3:1 (w/w proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.

  10. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Lisboa, Sá N.

    2016-01-01

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502380

  11. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollen, Emily; Ryan, Casey M; Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Ribeiro, Natasha; Lisboa, Sá N

    2016-09-19

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  12. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol...... was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found...

  13. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  14. Performance of a partially packed charcoal pellet bioreactor for acetic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, J; Ando, K; Watanabe, S; Tada, K; Kobayashi, M; Kanno, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a partially packed charcoal pellet bioreactor was compared to that of a fully packed bioreactor for aerobic acetic acid production. In the fully packed charcoal pellet bioreactor, it was considered that the shortening of an actual retention time of the culture broth limited the bioreactor performance under high dilution rate and high aeration conditions. By reducing the filling ratio of charcoal pellets to 44%, which increased the actual retention time of the culture broth, the maximum productivity increased from 3.9 g/l/h in the fully packed bed bioreactor to 5.7 g/l/h in the partially packed bioreactor without affecting the operational stability.

  15. Development and optimization of the activated charcoal suspension composition based on a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Joanna; Kupcewicz, Bogumiła; Pałkowski, Łukasz; Krysiński, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new drug product containing activated charcoal was designed and developed. The excipient levels in the pharmaceutical formulation were optimized using a mixture design approach. The adsorption power of the activated charcoal suspension was selected as the critical quality attribute influencing the efficacy of medical treatment. Significant prognostic models (pactivated charcoal so strongly as liquid flavour. A slight increase in the content of carboxymethylcellulose sodium led to a marked decrease in adsorption power. The obtained mathematical models and response surface allowed selection of the optimal composition of excipients in a final drug product.

  16. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  17. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  18. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Li, Rende; Furuta, Yuzo; Peng, Wanxi

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2) often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO4)3's, Na2SO4's, Na2S2O8's, S's, and Na2SO3's optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO4)3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1) and 2925 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm(-1), 1060 cm(-1) and 660 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm(-1), 1060 cm(-1) and 660 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1), 2925 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1060 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1), 2925 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1060 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1060 cm(-1) achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the number of the transmissivity of

  19. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2 often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO43’s, Na2SO4’s, Na2S2O8’s, S’s, and Na2SO3’s optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO43, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 and 2925 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the

  20. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  1. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin.

  2. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  4. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  5. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  6. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  7. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  8. Temperature dependence of sorption of gases by coals and charcoals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Day, Stuart; Weir, Steve; Duffy, Greg (CSIRO Energy Technology PO Box 330 Newcastle 2300 Australia)

    2008-02-01

    Modelling the sorption properties of coals for carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions is necessary for accurate prediction of the sequestering ability of coals in seams. We present recent data for sorption curves of three dry Argonne Premium coals, for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen at two different temperatures at pressures up to 15 MPa. The sorption capacity of coals tends to decrease with increasing temperature. An investigation into literature values for sorption of nitrogen and methane by charcoal also show sorption capacities that decrease dramatically with increasing temperature. This is inconsistent with expectations from Langmuir models of coal sorption, which predict a sorption capacity that is independent of temperature. We have successfully fitted the isotherms using a modified Dubinin-Radushkevich equation that uses gas density rather than pressure. A simple pore-filling model that assumes there is a maximum pore width that can be filled in supercritical conditions and that this maximum pore width decreases with increasing temperature, can explain this temperature dependence of sorption capacity. It can also explain why different supercritical gases give apparently different surface sorption capacities on the same material. The calculated heat of sorption for these gases on these coals is similar to those found for these gases on activated carbon. (author)

  9. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  10. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites.

  11. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2010-05-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found to be of similar size compared to the control, although statistics were weak. The AUC of the 5-g dose was 59% larger than the AUC of the 50-g dose (p = 0.0003). The terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of paracetamol was 1.6 (CI 1.4-2.0) and 1.9 (CI 1.5-2.4) hr for 50 and 25 g, respectively (NS), and 2.5 (CI 1.8-3.0) hr for the 5-g dose (p = 0.003). The decrease in t(1/2) of paracetamol for the two larger activated charcoal doses indicates a possible effect of activated charcoal on paracetamol clearance and warrants further investigation. The large adsorptive reserve capacity of activated charcoal in vitro could not be reproduced for the smallest dose of activated charcoal. An activated charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1 is therefore still recommendable.

  12. Charcoal-induced granuloma that mimicked a nodal metastasis on ultrasonography and FDG-PET/CT after neck dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Won Jin; Choi, Nami; Roh, Hong Gee; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu; Chung, Hyun Woo; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Jung Hyun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Charcoal can be used for preoperative localization of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Charcoal remains stable without causing foreign body reactions during as hort period. However, foreign body reactions may develop if charcoal is left in situ for more than 6 months. We reported a case of charcoal granuloma mimicking local recurrence on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography and ultrasonography in a 47-year-old woman who had cervical lymph node dissection due to metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

  13. Chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal: how similar are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Merino, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    The enhanced chemical resistance to biological degradation of pyrogenic materials, either produced during wildfires (charcoal) or by man (biochar), makes them long-term carbon sinks once incorporated in soils. In spite of their fundamental similarities, studies comparing the chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal are scarce because analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Using solid-state 13C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we characterized the chemical recalcitrance of pyrogenic materials generated from the same unburnt feedstooks (litter and dead wood from Pinus banksiana): (a) charcoal from a high-intensity wildfire and (b) biochar obtained by slow pyrolysis [3 treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C]. For quantification, the spectra were divided into four regions representing different chemical environments of the 13C nucleus: alkyl C (0-45 ppm), O-alkyl C (45-110 ppm), olefinic and aromatic C(110-160 ppm), and carbonyl C (160-210 ppm). As an indicator of chemical recalcitrance, the degree of aromaticity (%) was calculated as follow: aromatic-C ∗ 100 / (alkyl C+ O alkyl-C + aromatic-C). The pyrogenic materials derived from wood show higher degrees of aromaticity (68 to 88%) than pyrogenic material derived from litter (40 to 88%). When comparing biochar and wildfire charcoal, biochars produced at 500 and 650°C always have higher degrees of aromaticity than wildfire charcoals, irrespective of the original feedstock. Wildfire charcoals always show a more heterogeneous chemical composition, with alkyl and O-alkyl compounds present even in charcoal generated at very high temperatures (temperatures up to 950 °C were recorded on the litter surface during the wildfire). However, biochars produced at 500 and 650 °C are mostly aromatic, and only the biochars produced at 350 °C show partial contribution of alkyl-C compounds. Our results suggest that biochar-type pyrogenic

  14. Wood and charcoal quality from planted forest in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of young Eucalyptus spp. trees, and to verify the influence of age and clone on the energy performance of these fuels. It was sampled the clones 1277 and 0321 of Eucalyptus spp. in two ages (46 and 58 months. The characteristics determined in the wood were: chemical molecular and elementary, basic density, carbon stocks and lignin by volume, the energy density and heating values (higher and lower. The charcoal was produced in an electric furnace (muffle with the final temperature of 450 °C. It was conducted the mass balance and carbonization energy, beyond the immediate evaluation of the chemical composition, apparent density and calorific value of charcoal. The clone 1277, at the age 58 months, is the most suitable for the charcoal production for steel industry and direct combustion of wood, because it showed better results for basic density, energy density, carbon stocks and lignin per unit volume and the lignin content of the wood. The clonal effect and age did not influence the content of fixed carbon and volatile materials, the calorific values, the gravimetric yield in charcoal and energy losses of carbonization.

  15. Tailoring the characteristics of carbonized wood charcoal by using different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Oh, Choong-Hyeon; Park, Byung-Ho; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the characteristics of charcoals generated from White Lauan ( Pentacmecontorta) and Punah ( Tetrameristaglabra) by using different carbonization temperatures and heating rates. The scanning electron micrographs showed vestured pits in the White Lauan and raphide crystals in Punah as their respective anatomical characteristics. A slower heating rate resulted in a lower temperature to obtain the same amount of weight loss, regardless of the species being tested. A greater charcoal yield was obtained at a higher heating rate. The specific surface area was smaller in the charcoal produced at a higher carbonization temperature, but the heating rate had little effected. For both wood species, the axial compressive strength of the charcoal increased as the carbonization temperature was increased. The X-ray diffractograms of White Lauan and Punah woods heated at 1200°C indicated thermal decomposition of the crystal structure of cellulose, but no appreciable structural changes occurred under the tested heating rate conditions. Overall, the heating rate affected the charcoal yield but not the specific surface area, compressive strength, and crystal structure.

  16. In vitro analysis of the effect of supplementation with activated charcoal on the equine hindgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, J L; Worgan, H J; Dougal, K; Girdwood, S E; Douglas, J-L; McEwan, N R

    2016-01-01

    The present study uses in vitro analytical techniques to investigate the effect of activated charcoal on the microbial community of the equine hindgut and the metabolites they produce. Incubations were performed in Wheaton bottles using a 50 ml incubation of a high-energy feed or a low-energy feed, plus bottles with no added food source, together with five levels of activated charcoal (0, 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg per bottle) and fecal samples as a bacterial inoculum. Using this method the rate of gas production, volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and pH values were analyzed and found to vary depending on the addition of feed, but the activated charcoal had no effect (P>0.05) on any of these. It is already believed that the effect of activated charcoal as a control for toxic substances is at its highest in the foregut or midgut of animals, and therefore should have little impact on the hindgut. The data presented here suggest that if any of the activated charcoal does reach the hindgut, then it has no significant impact on the microbial community present, nor on the major metabolites produced, and so should not have a detrimental effect on the principal site of fermentation in the horse.

  17. Efficacy of activated charcoal administered more than four hours after acetaminophen overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A; Winter, Mark L; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Bangh, Stacey A

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate whether administration of activated charcoal, in addition to standard N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy, after acetaminophen overdose provides additional patient benefit over NAC therapy alone, a 1-year non-randomized prospective, multi-center, observational case series was performed at three poison centers and one poison center system. Entrance criteria were all acute acetaminophen overdoses with: 1) an acetaminophen blood concentration determined to be in the toxic range by the Rumack-Matthew nomogram; and 2) all therapies, including NAC and activated charcoal, initiated between 4 and 16 h post-ingestion. There were 145 patients meeting entrance criteria, of whom 58 patients (40%) received NAC only and 87 patients (60%) received NAC and activated charcoal. Overall, 23 patients had elevations of AST or ALT greater than 1000 IU/L, of which 21 patients received NAC only (38% of total NAC only group) and 2 patients received NAC and activated charcoal (2% of total NAC+AC group). Administration of activated charcoal in this series of patients with toxic acetaminophen concentrations treated with NAC was associated with reduced incidence of liver injury, as measured by elevated serum transaminases and prothrombin times.

  18. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  19. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  20. Hydrogen storage: a comparison of hydrogen uptake values in carbon nanotubes and modified charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, H.-Y.; Chen, G. R.; Chen, D. Y.; Lue, J. T.; Yu, M. S.

    2010-11-01

    We compared the hydrogen uptake weight percentages (wt.%) of different carbonized materials, before and after modification, for their application in hydrogen storage at room temperature. The Sievert's method [T.P. Blach, E. Mac, A. Gray, J. Alloys Compd. 446-447, 692 (2007)] was used to measure hydrogen uptake values on: (1) Taiwan bamboo charcoal (TBC), (2) white charcoal (WC), (3) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) bought from CBT Inc. and (4) homemade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown on TBC. Modified samples were coated with a metal catalyst by dipping in KOH solutions of different concentrations and then activated in a high temperature oven (800 °C) under the atmospheric pressure of inert gas. The results showed that unmodified SWCNTs had superior uptake but that Taiwan bamboo charcoal, after modification, showed enhanced uptake comparable to the SWCNTs. Due to TBC's low cost and high mass production rate, they will be the key candidate for future hydrogen storage applications.

  1. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions.

  2. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  3. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  4. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  5. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Liong, Syarifuddin; Bakri, Fahrul

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH3) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO3, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  6. Evaluation of fructooligosaccharides separation using a fixed-bed column packed with activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Raquel Cristine; Mazutti, Marcio A; Albertini, Lilian Buoro; Filho, Francisco Maugeri

    2014-05-25

    Recent studies have shown that the chromatographic separation of mixtures of saccharides may be improved by making use of activated charcoal, a promising low cost material for the separation of sugars, including fructooligosaccharides. In this work, the development of a methodology to separate fructooligosaccharides from glucose, fructose and sucrose, using a fixed bed column packed with activated charcoal is proposed. The influence of temperature, eluant concentration and step gradients were evaluated to increase the separation efficiency and fructooligosaccharide purity. The final degree of fructooligosaccharide purification and separation efficiency were about 94% and 3.03 respectively, using ethanol gradient concentration ranging from 3.5% to 15% (v/v) at 40°C. The fixed bed column packed with the activated charcoal was shown to be a promising alternative for sugar separation, mainly those rich in fructooligosaccharides, leading to solutions of acceptable degrees of purification.

  7. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  8. Soil stratigraphy of charcoal kiln remains (CKR) in the Litchfield Hills, CT, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Ouimet, Will; Dethier, David

    2016-04-01

    Charcoal kiln relicts (CKRs) are small anthropogenic landforms that are often found in historic mining areas. CKRs have not been a big research topic yet but mainly were studied as by-products of archaeological excavations. In the last years newly available and very accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data have been used to identify these archaeological remains. In addition, findings of several thousands CKRs in the North German Lowland have increased the awareness that historical charcoal production may significantly contribute to Late Holocene landscape change. Besides the archaeological aspect of CKRs, potential impacts of charcoal burning on the ecology of modern soil landscapes and ecosystem processes must be considered. A relatively high density of CKRs is found in the Litchfield Hills nearby the town of West Cornwall, Litchfield County, CT, USA. The CKRs are especially well preserved on slopes of the tributary valleys of the Housatonic River and form little, circular ramparts with diameters normally less than ten meters. First, rough field surveys in Litchfield County in spring 2015 have suggested differences between soils inside and outside the CKR. Soils on the CKR seem to have relatively deep humus-rich and charcoal containing topsoils whereas the topsoils outside the CKR appear typically thinner and less rich in humus. More thorough investigations have been started in autumn 2015 to prove the hypothesis that properties, distribution and development of soils are controlled by archaeological remains of historical charcoal burning. We present preliminary results from our field studies conducted in October 2015. The stratigraphy and the extent of the 26 CKRs were studied using a sedimentological-pedological approach by coring and trenching. Our results indicate that in Litchfield County the CKRs were used twice and in quick succession. Before the second reuse, the rim of the platform was stabilized

  9. Assessing the potential of biochar and charcoal to improve soil hydraulic properties in the humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Anjeni watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayabil, H.K.; Stoof, C.R.; Lehmann, J.C.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has shown promise for restoring soil hydraulic properties. However, biochar production could be expensive in the developing world, while charcoal iswidely available and cheap. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate whether some of the charcoal made in developing countries ca

  10. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  11. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuel

  12. Vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age by using microscopic structure of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structure of charcoals was determined in two sites of Bronze Age, Chifeng area by using the scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that these charcoals are all timbers of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). It has powerful climatic indicative significance. Based on the assemblage of pollen composition, their eco-climatic index and character of community, the vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age was obtained. The reconstruction showed that the zonal vegetation was Mongolian oak forest and Chinese pine forest in the loess hills in the Chifeng area, which suggested that the climatic condition was warmer and wetter at that time than present time.

  13. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires

  14. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.

    2012-03-01

    Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the

  15. Quality of cocoa wood charcoal as a function of carbonisation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K.O. (Univ. Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Cocoa tree prunings were carbonized at terminal temperatures of 600-800[sup o]C with a holding time of 1 h and at a constant heating rate of 5[sup o]Cmin [sup -1]. As terminal temperatures increased, both yield and volatile content of the charcoal produced decreased while that of the fixed carbon content increased. The ash content decreased slightly for the terminal temperature range of 600-700[sup o]C. Improvements in charcoal quality were insignificant after achieving a carbonization temperature of about 650-700[sup o]C. (author)

  16. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KAHVECİ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the standard effective treatment method. Herein we report a 23-year-old woman with high dose carbamazepine overdose treated with high efficiency hemodialysis and charcoal hemoperfusion. We also discuss a comparison of the methods used for carbamazepine intoxication.

  17. Effect of Metal Oxide on Electrical Resistivity of Conductive Wood Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the effect of metal oxide on electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal,wood powder of Masson pine was mixed with ferric oxide (Fe_2O_3) and nickel oxide (NiO), respectively,and then the mixed powders were carbonized at high temperature in a laboratory-scale tube furnace in a nitrogen atmosphere. DCY-3 resistivity tester was used to measure electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal. When carbonization temperature was 1200 ℃, the electrical resistivity of controlsamples, Fe_2O_3 (...

  18. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan [Department of Radiological Technology, ChungTai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Tsai, Shih-Chuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160 Taichung Harbor Road, Section 3, 40705, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use {sup 67}Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with {sup 67}Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients

  19. Use of activated charcoal for the purification of neon in the CLEAN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. K.; Lippincott, W. H.; McKinsey, D. N.; Nikkel, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Passage of neon gas through activated charcoal is planned to be the primary method of removing impurities from the liquid neon scintillator in the CLEAN experiment. In order to quantify this technique, the breakout curves for hydrogen, nitrogen, argon and krypton impurities in neon-saturated activated charcoal were measured. Adsorption coefficients and the number of theoretical stages were measured for hydrogen in the temperature range between 300 and 80 K, nitrogen between 300 and 200 K, and argon between 300 and 190 K. The adsorption coefficient for krypton was measured at 300 K.

  20. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  1. Intravenous theophylline poisoning and multiple-dose charcoal in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, K W; Bar-Or, D; Rumack, B H

    1987-08-01

    Large overdoses of IV theophylline (50 to 100 mg/kg) were administered to five canines on two separate occasions. On day one, with no charcoal administered, theophylline levels were serially obtained between ten minutes and 12 hours after infusion and the animals were recovered from anesthesia. Three days later the same dose of theophylline was administered, but then 50 g activated charcoal was placed through a nasogastric tube into the duodenum every hour for eight doses. In all five animals tested, activated charcoal significantly decreased the area under the serum concentration-time curve, decreased the half-life of elimination, and increased the clearance of theophylline. This effect on pharmacokinetics was not seen when the nasogastric tube was put into the stomach instead of the small bowel because the charcoal administered did not pass beyond the pylorus. In a separate experiment in which bile theophylline concentrations were measured, it was demonstrated that enhanced elimination was not from interruption of enterohepatic circulation of theophylline. This suggests that the demonstrated physiologic mechanism is that of gastrointestinal dialysis.

  2. Pyrolysis of blended animal manures to produce combustible gas and value-added charcoal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and rye grass were pyrolyzed using a skid-mounted sytem. Produced gas composition was analyzed for major hydrocarbons and S-containing compounds. Charcoal was analyzed for its surface functional groups, contact angles, HHV, and total element contents. Some of th...

  3. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and th

  4. Comparison of Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Charcoal Versus Gas and Solar Energy Treated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment using different sources of heat on the chemical composition and microbial quality of milk was studied. Raw cow, goat and sheep milk were heated with charcoal, gas and solar energy at 99ºC for 12 min, cooled to 20ºC and chemical (fat, protein, total solids, ash (titratable acidity, vitamin C composition as well as microbiological examination (total viable bacteria count were carried out. Results showed that fat, total solids and ash contents w ere high in cow milk heated with solar energy, while protein content was high when milk was heated with gas, and the titratable acidity was high in milk heated with charcoal and gas. The fat, total solids and ash contents of goat milk w ere high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein content and titratable acidity were high when milk was heated with solar energy. The fat contents of sheep milk was high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein and total solids content were high in milk heated with solar energy, and ash content and titratable acidity were high in milk heated with charcoal. Vitamin C content was high for all milks when heated with solar energy, while the total viable bacteria count was high in milks of all species when heated with charcoal. Solar energy was shown to be suitable for heating milk from chemical view point, while heat treatment of milk with gas was found to be better microbiologically.

  5. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  6. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B Chatterjee

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 g/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  7. PURIFICATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM DURIAN PEEL’S WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Rinaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste of durian’s peel can be used to make liquid smoke and activated charcoal with pyrolysis method. To make liquid smoke for food preservative, liquid smoke must be proceeded with purification method such as distilation, purification with activated zeolit and activated charcoal. Liquid smoke characterization results from the durian’s peel from pyrolysis, distillation, purification with activated zeolite and activated charcoal purification with pH values ​​obtained successively 4.09; 3.24; 3.46; and 2.09. Acetic acid levels respectively 6.07; 7.59; 9.11; and 10.63 (mg/L. Based on the characteristics of the component compounds using GC-MS, results of pyrolysis liquid smoke was detected 17 compounds, liquid smoke distillation obtaining 12 compounds, liquid smoke purification with active zeolit obtaining 10 compounds and liquid smoke from activated charcoal purification obtaining 6 compounds with the majority component comprised of acetic acid compounds, phenols and carbonyls and do not contain carcinogenic compounds, so it can be used as a food preservative.

  8. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlon, J. R.; Kelly, R.; Daniau, A.-L.; Vannière, B.; Power, M. J.; Bartlein, P.; Higuera, P.; Blarquez, O.; Brewer, S.; Brücher, T.; Feurdean, A.; Gil-Romera, G.; Iglesias, V.; Maezumi, S. Y.; Magi, B.; Mustaphi, C. J. C.; Zhihai, T.

    2015-11-01

    The location, timing, spatial extent, and frequency of wildfires are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, producing substantial impacts on ecosystems, people, and potentially climate. Paleofire records based on charcoal accumulation in sediments enable modern changes in biomass burning to be considered in their long-term context. Paleofire records also provide insights into the causes and impacts of past wildfires and emissions when analyzed in conjunction with other paleoenvironmental data and with fire models. Here we present new 1000 year and 22 000 year trends and gridded biomass burning reconstructions based on the Global Charcoal Database version 3, which includes 736 charcoal records (57 more than in version 2). The new gridded reconstructions reveal the spatial patterns underlying the temporal trends in the data, allowing insights into likely controls on biomass burning at regional to global scales. In the most recent few decades, biomass burning has sharply increased in both hemispheres, but especially in the north, where charcoal fluxes are now higher than at any other time during the past 22 000 {years}. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to data-model comparisons, and identify areas for future research. Spatially gridded versions of the global dataset from GCDv3 are provided to facilitate comparison with and validation of global fire simulations.

  9. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment-charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlon, Jennifer R.; Kelly, Ryan; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vannière, Boris; Power, Mitchell J.; Bartlein, Patrick; Higuera, Philip; Blarquez, Olivier; Brewer, Simon; Brücher, Tim; Feurdean, Angelica; Gil Romera, Graciela; Iglesias, Virginia; Yoshi Maezumi, S.; Magi, Brian; Mustaphi, Colin J. Courtney; Zhihai, Tonishtan

    2016-06-01

    The location, timing, spatial extent, and frequency of wildfires are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, producing substantial impacts on ecosystems, people, and potentially climate. Paleofire records based on charcoal accumulation in sediments enable modern changes in biomass burning to be considered in their long-term context. Paleofire records also provide insights into the causes and impacts of past wildfires and emissions when analyzed in conjunction with other paleoenvironmental data and with fire models. Here we present new 1000-year and 22 000-year trends and gridded biomass burning reconstructions based on the Global Charcoal Database version 3 (GCDv3), which includes 736 charcoal records (57 more than in version 2). The new gridded reconstructions reveal the spatial patterns underlying the temporal trends in the data, allowing insights into likely controls on biomass burning at regional to global scales. In the most recent few decades, biomass burning has sharply increased in both hemispheres but especially in the north, where charcoal fluxes are now higher than at any other time during the past 22 000 years. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to data-model comparisons and identify areas for future research. Spatially gridded versions of the global data set from GCDv3 are provided to facilitate comparison with and validation of global fire simulations.

  10. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  11. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihoodoutcomes in Central- and WestAfrica. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of managing

  12. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of managin

  13. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  14. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Qamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  15. The effect of activated charcoal on drug exposure in healthy volunteers: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, G; Hoegberg, L C Groth; Graudal, N A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of activated charcoal (AC) administered during the first 6 h after drug intake and the effect of drug properties on drug exposure. Sixty-four controlled studies were integrated in a meta-analysis. AC administered 0-5 min after administration...

  16. Fractionation of honey carbohydrates using pressurized liquid extraction with activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Ramos, L; Martínez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2008-09-24

    This article describes the development of a new procedure that combines the use of activated charcoal and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to obtain enriched fractions of di- and trisaccharides from honey. Honey was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and packed into a PLE extraction cell. Optimum results were obtained at 10 MPa and 40 degrees C using two consecutive PLE cycles: first, 1:99 (v/v) ethanol/water for 5 min and second, 50:50 (v/v) ethanol/water for 10 min. Di- and trisaccharide fractions were enriched after PLE treatment, accounting for 73% and 8% of total carbohydrates, respectively. This procedure was also compared with other methodologies reported in the literature for the fractionation of honey carbohydrates (yeast treatment and extraction from activated charcoal). While the removal of monosaccharides was more efficient with yeast treatment, recovery of di- and trisaccharides was higher when either the PLE or the activated charcoal treatment was used. PLE was found to be the faster technique; it also required less solvent volume and minimized handling of the sample.

  17. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd contaminated soil (Vertisol using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L. was investigated. The alleviation potential of Prosopis charcoal and Coir pith on the negative effects of Cd in soil was evaluated in pot culture experiments with Vigna radiata as the test plant, a Cd accumulator. Cadmium addition to soil resulted in accumulation of Cd in all plant parts of V. radiata predominantly in roots. The influence of Cd in the presence and absence of organic amendments on the various biological and chemical parameters of the soil, on the levels of Cd accumulation and on the growth attributes of V. radiata has been assessed. Among the organic amendments, Prosopis charcoal was found to be more effective in reducing the bioavailable levels of Cd in the soil artificially spiked with Cd in graded concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg g-1 and its accumulation in V. radiata, thus resulting in an increase in the root, leaf and stem biomass. Coir pith, however, was effective in increasing the total mycorrhizal colonization of roots and second in reducing Cd levels in plants. Therefore, Prosopis charcoal was considered best for stabilization of Cd in soil.

  18. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-05-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a sustainable strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil chemico-physical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of C present in the hearths with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization. Approximately 80% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found today, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an improvement in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. Then, we focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Such study enabled the identification of peculiar morphological features of tracheids, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignine and cellulose. In order to assess the effect of soil-aging we compared the old-biochar with a modern one obtained from the same feedstock and with similar carbonization process. XRD and XRF analysis were performed on both old and modern biochar, in order to study the multiphase crystalline structure and chemical elements found. We observed mineralization and a fossilization of old biochar samples respect to the modern ones, with accumulation of several mineral oxides and a substantial presence of

  19. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Maurice, Muchinda; Mukufute M, Mukelabai; J, Scholes Robert; Waldemar, Ziegler; L, Kutsch Werner

    2010-05-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to firewood but by having higher energy densities and thus being cheaper to transport. Over the last decades, charcoal production has become a full-time employment for migrant workers, resulting in very different and no longer sustainable deforestation patterns. Strategies to reduce the pressure on the miombo woodlands have to take aspects of employment and energy demand into account. The objectives of the study were to examine above- and belowground carbon losses from an intact miombo woodland (protected forest reserve) in comparison to a highly disturbed surrounding area due to charcoal production. Detection of changes in carbon concentrations and stocks were made possible by applying biomass- and soil inventories as well as the eddy-covariance method. These local results were up-scaled to countrywide estimates of carbon lost to the atmosphere by deforestation in addition to carbon losses fossil fuel combustion. The results show, that in the worst case scenario which does not assume any regeneration, a developing country as Zambia, can easily emit as much carbon per capita as a developed Western world country such as France, when deforestation is included in the national inventory (up to 9.1 t of CO2 per capita). However, regeneration is very probably when post-harvest disturbance is low. Further studies on miombo regeneration are highly demanded.

  20. Application of activated charcoal in the downstream processing of bacterial olefinic poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampfler, Bruno; Ramsauer, Thomas; Kehl, Karl; Zinn, Manfred; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) are bacterial thermoplastic elastomers with a large potential in medical applications. The present study provides a novel process to isolate and purify poly([R]-3-hydroxy-omega-undecenoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-nonenoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-heptenoate) (PHUE) and poly([R]-3-hydroxy-omega-undecenoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-nonenoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-heptenoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHOUE) from Pseudomonas putida species. Three different types of activated charcoal were compared with regard to their capability to selectively remove impurities. The product 'Charcoal activated, powder, pure' from Merck was found to be most suitable. Using ethyl acetate as solvent, the polyesters were extracted from freeze-dried biomass at room temperature and simultaneously purified by addition of activated charcoal at the beginning of the extraction. The period of extraction was one hour and the ratio solvent to biomass was 15:1 (vol/wt). After extraction, the solids were separated by pressure filtration through a metallic lace tissue. The filtrate was again passed through the previously accumulated filter cake, followed by a second filtration through a 0.45 microm membrane to remove finest coal particles. The resulting filtrate was concentrated, thus yielding polyesters whose quality and yield depended on the quantity of activated charcoal applied. For highly pure PHUE and PHOUE with low endotoxin levels, the optimum ratio of activated charcoal to solvent for extraction (V/V) was found to be 0.5 for PHUE and 0.25 for PHOUE. The yields with regard to the raw polymers amounted to 55 wt% for PHUE and 75 wt% for PHOUE, which are acceptable for polymers that can be used for medical applications.

  1. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  3. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  4. 木炭生产技术研究进展%Research progress of charcoal production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄博林; 陈小阁; 张义堃; 郑毅骏; 刘宝庆

    2015-01-01

    木炭作为一种重要的生产、生活原料,在工业生产和家庭生活中应用广泛。现有的木炭生产技术主要有内热式炭化、外热式炭化和循环气流加热式炭化技术,本文概述了3种炭化技术与设备的研发现状,并总结了炭化工艺改进的理论研究进展:长低温停留时间,然后快速升温到高温段保温的加热工艺有利于提高木炭产率和品质,同时节省炭化时间和能量;适当提高原料湿度和炭化压力将促进木材热解,增大压力还能提高木炭得率;减小原料尺寸可以提升炭化速率,但会使得炭得率降低。最后指出当前国内木炭生产主要存在工业化水平低、理论研究滞后和缺乏相关的生产使用标准等问题,未来的木炭生产将沿着工业化、高效化和标准化方向发展。%Charcoal is widely used in industrial production and households. Charcoal production methods can be divided into three types according to different heating modes,namely internal heating, external heating and heating with recycle gas. In this paper,the research progress of charcoal production and equipmpent and theoretical study of carbonization technology improvement are summarized. Long residence time at a low temperature and then rising rapidly to a high temperature and standing for a period of time helps to increase yield and quality of charcoal as well as save time and energy. High moisture content and operation pressure can promote carbonization. Besides, pyrolysis at an elevated pressure can increase charcoal yield. Carbonization time will decrease with increasing feedstock size,however,charcoal yield will decrease as well. Finally the main problems existing in China’s charcoal production industry are lower level of industrialization,lacking theoretical research and standards for charcoal production and usage. Industrialization,high efficiency and standardization shall be the development trend of charcoal

  5. Influence of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics and the clinical features of carbamazepine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Nozha; Kouraichi, Nadia; Thabet, Hafedh; Amamou, Mouldi

    2006-07-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) poisoning has been associated with cases of severe toxicity and death. Multiple-dose activated charcoal was proposed to enhance the clearance of CBZ elimination, but there are no prospective controlled studies that demonstrated a change in clinical outcome after the use of multiple-dose activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine the CBZ elimination kinetics and the evolution of clinical features according to the dose of activated charcoal in acute poisoning patients. It is a prospective study for 6 months, from January to June 2004, including all pure acute CBZ-poisoned patients. Twelve patients were randomized to receive a multiple-dose activated charcoal (G1) or a simple dose of 1 g/kg (G2). Their mean age was 27.6+/-12.2 years; the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II), 16.37+/-8.46; and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), 8+/-3.96. They were 8 men and 4 women. The mean concentration of blood CBZ at hospital admission was of 29.42+/-6.68 mg/L. Each group includes 6 patients. The peak value of blood CBZ was comparable in the 2 groups: 33+/-3.46 mg/L (G1) vs 32.6+/-5.63 (G2) (P=.5); the requirement of mechanical ventilation was similar also (3 in each group). The duration of both coma and mechanical ventilation was significantly decreased in the first group compared with the second: 20.33+/-3.05 vs 29.33+/-4.11 hours for coma (P=.02) and 24.1+/-4.2 vs 36.4+/-3.6 hours for mechanical ventilation (P=.001). The length of stay was also significantly decreased in the first group: 30.3+/-3.4 vs 39.7+/-7.3 hours in the second group (P=.000006). Concurrently, we have noted a significant constant reduction of the half-life of CBZ from serum in the first group: 12.56+/-3.5 hours after multiple dose vs 27.88+/-7.36 hours after a simple dose (P=.0004). This decrease was correlated to the dose of charcoal. In summary, we can conclude that multiple-dose activated charcoal is more efficient than simple

  6. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pice cream was mixed with the charcoal...

  7. Effect of Activated Charcoal Fibers on the Survival of the House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Young-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight culture dishes preequilibrated at room temperature (n = 4) and 70% humidity (n = 4) containing house dust mite food and active charcoal fibers. At 10 minute intervals, live and dead house dust mites were counted. All house dust mites instantly attached to the activated charcoal fibers and started to shrink almost immediately. There were no live house dust mites present as early as 40 minutes in some dishes while after 190 minutes all house dust mites were dead. In conclusion, activated charcoal fibers, if incorporated into bedding items, have the potential to control house dust mites in the indoor environment.

  8. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Zhu, Guoying; Jia, Xiuying; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Mi; Gao, Qing; Hu, Ciming; Xu, Shuying

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased. The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6:4, and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr. The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9337). Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM). Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9. Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 = 0.089 cm(-1)) in drinking water. This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Lime-bassanite-charcoal Amendment on the Immobilization of Cadmium in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shunhong; Yang, Yi; Li, Qian; Su, Zhen; Yuan, Cuiyu; Ouyang, Kun

    2017-03-01

    The effects of amendments, such as lime, bassanite, sodium phosphate, steel slag and charcoal, and their compounds on the immobilization of cadmium (Cd) are investigated. The lime-bassanite-charcoal compound shows the best remediation performance compared to other agents in conducted experiments. The optimum condition for lime-bassanite-charcoal application in contaminated soil is lime-bassanite-charcoal with a mass ratio of 1:1/3:2/3, a dose of 2% of the soil weight, and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 35%-40%; additionally, the agents should be added before water addition. The highest Cd removal rate was 58.94% (±1.19%) with a ∆pH of 0.23, which is much higher than the rates reported in previous studies. The compound amendment was used in a field experiment, demonstrating a Cd removal efficiency of 48.78% (±4.23), further confirming its effectiveness.

  10. Anthropogenic Charcoal Deposits: Analogues for the Long-Term Functioning and Stability of Biochar in European Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, Ian; Street-Perrot, Alayne; Santín, Cristina; Denman, Huw

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic charcoal deposits, characterised by thick charcoal-rich soil horizons, offer an invaluable Late Quaternary record of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) additions to soils. A traditional source of archaeological, anthracological and palaeoecological data, the potential contribution of anthropogenic charcoal deposits to soil science and assessment of carbon (C) sequestration is often overlooked. If addition of biochar to soils is to form a key component of a low-C economy, crucial questions must be addressed relating to its longevity and behaviour in the soil environment. With rare exceptions, previous studies have focussed on short-term incubation experiments and field or pot trials, often neglecting important natural soil and environmental processes. This study addresses these issues by comparing the physicochemical properties of European anthropogenic charcoal-rich deposits, with 14C ages ranging from > 43 ka to Modern, to native soils (nearby control sites). We will present results from a study of 23 charcoal-rich soil cores, collected from a 'Pre-historic' ditch mound, a Bronze Age burnt mound, a Roman furnace, and post-mediaeval and Modern Meilers, situated along a climatic gradient from Mediterranean (Southern Italy) to Humid Temperate (South Wales). The ability of charcoal to alter fertility and retain plant-available nutrients was assessed by measuring soil cation- exchange capacity. Retention of refractory C by the charcoal deposits was evaluated from their total organic C (TOC) contents, atomic H:C and O:C ratios, and residues after acid- dichromate oxidation. Picked charcoal fragments were also compared with modern biochars and biomass using: 1) their thermogravimetric recalcitrance (R50) indices (Harvey et al. 2012); and 2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR data, to gauge the development of functional groups linked to the long-term oxidation of the particle surfaces. Radiocarbon dating was used to assess the ages of the deposits. Our study

  11. NMR-based estimates of the molecular dimensions in wildfire charcoal: Implications for predictions of biochar residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, William; Kane, Evan; Huang, Rixiang; Von Bargen, Justin; Davis, Rebecca; Ohlson, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to energy and fuels generates charcoal as a co-product. Charcoals derived from sustainable biomass sources—biochars—are an inherently stable form of carbon, relatively long residence times in the environment. Biochars can have potentially beneficial properties as soil fertility amendments, which has further stimulated research on the use of biochars for soil carbon sequestration as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, it is challenging to assess the long-term stability of biochar carbon using laboratory or field incubations because these are comprised of short-term observations. In this study, we make use of ancient charcoals from the boreal forests of Alaska and Scandanavia. We have deliberately selected charcoals from organic soil horizons, as to investigate the inherent biological and chemical stability of charcoal C without the protective influence of soil minerals. We use 14C radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the charcoals, differential scanning calorimetry to assess thermal stability, and solid-state 13C NMR to assess the chemical structure. Specifically, we employ C-H dipolar-dephasing NMR experiments to estimate the relative abundance and molecular dimensions of condensed aromatic domains and aliphatic structures. We test the hypothesis that the environmental stability, as determined by apparent 14C age and thermal stability, is related to the extent of ring condensation in the charcoal structure. Preliminary results suggest that the dimension of the condensed aromatic ring clusters may be an important molecular parameter to include in algorithms used to model/predict the residence time of charcoal and biochar C in soil.

  12. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal which was made with babassu nut shell and designed for utilization in the steel industry in the function of the final carbonization temperature. All three layers of babassu nut shell (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp were used together. The initial temperature of the test was 100ºC and the final temperatures were: 450ºC, 550ºC, 650ºC, 750ºC and 850ºC. For the charcoals produced, the following properties were determined: apparent relative density, energy density and fixed carbon stock, in addition to chemical compositions (immediate and elemental and heating values (higher and lower. Charcoal made of babassu nut shell showed high values of apparent density and energy density, and has a potential to replace coal and wood charcoal in the steel industry. The effect of the final carbonization temperature was expressed for all characteristics evaluated, except for the nitrogen content. Babassu nut shell must be carbonized at temperatures higher than 550ºC, so that the charcoal produced can be used in steel-making blast furnaces.

  13. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil: I- anatomical characterization of corymbia and eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Gonçalves,Thaís Alves; Wagner Ballarin,Adriano; Nisgoski, Silvana; Bolzon de Muñiz,Graciela Inés

    2014-01-01

    Charcoal is one of the main forestry products and Brazil is the world’s largest producer. Its production from native species is estimated at 30-35% of total output. One of the major problems of the iron and steel industry is charcoal consumption, especially in terms of environmental and social aspects. Therefore, the use of reforestation species must be increased. Considering most of the energy forests in Brazil are planted with eucalyptus, the present work aims to contribute to the ide...

  14. Workers' postural conditions in the charcoal production proccess based on vertical metallic cylynders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ivana Márcia Oliveira; Francisco, Antonio Carlos de

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of posture to the workers' health in the production of charcoal, this paper presents an ergonomic research based on a biomechanical focus that aims to evaluate the posture adopted by these workers on the production of charcoal in vertical metallic cylinders. Thus, it was verified the incidence of pain and/or musculoskeletal injuries to these workers. Also, it was evaluated the weight carried by them and the positions taken in their daily tasks. Applying the Ergonomic Analysis of Labor, the data collection was done by directly observing the workers, registering images, by interviews, and posture analysis based on the OWAS method. The main results of the research show that there are postures with risks in the four levels of musculoskeletal injuries classified by OWAS, concluding that the method is imperative for ergonomic recommendations for minimization or eradication of suffering injury and worker's postural constraints.

  15. Simple and rapid method for the isolation of forskolin from Coleus forskohlii by charcoal column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A M; Dhasan, P B; Rafiullah, M R M

    2006-01-06

    A simple, safe, rapid and economical method was developed for the isolation of high-purity forskolin from Coleus forskohlii roots using activated charcoal as an adsorbent in a column. The elution was carried out under reduced pressure to make the process rapid. Activated charcoal acted as a reversed phase adsorbent and allowed elution of forskolin without much impurities. The residue, obtained from the eluate was purified and crystallized using different solvent mixtures to obtain pure forskolin. The forskolin isolated was analyzed and characterized by UV, IR, RP-HPLC, electrospray ionization MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The yield was 0.097% w/w (RSD 5.6%). The purity was 96.9% w/w (RSD 0.3%) as determined by RP-HPLC. The present method enables researchers to produce high-purity forskolin in their labs by using common chemicals.

  16. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  17. Comparative study of cultivation of feces in vermiculite or charcoal to obtain larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared feces culturing in charcoal or vermiculite to obtain Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae. Methods Feces (5g from infected rats was mixed with vermiculite (10g or coal (10g in plastic cups and incubated at 28°C for 48h. Larvae were recovered using Baermann-Moraes method. Results Significantly higher number of positive larval cultures were recovered from vermiculite than from charcoal (15/17 and 4/17, respectively; p < 0.001; 990.6 ± 307.5 and 215 ± 78.1 larvae, p = 0.027. Conclusions Vermiculite yields more larvae and provides cleaner pellets, improving larvae identification and facilitating their use for other purposes.

  18. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle [CIRAD and Sao Paulo University (Economic Department and Environmental Science Program) (Brazil)]|[Universidade de Sao Paulo - FEA - Avenida Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 908 CEP: 05 508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wichert, Marcos [Sao Paulo University, ESALQ, Forestry Science, Avenida Padua Dias, 11 CP 9 Piracicaba, SP, CEP 13418-900 (Brazil); Fallot, Abigail [CIRAD, 73 rue Jean-Francois Breton, TA B-42/16 (Bat. 16, Bur. 26), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aimola, Luis [Sao Paulo University, Environmental Science Program, Brazil, PROCAM-USP Rua do Anfiteatro, 181 Colmeia, Favo 15, CEP 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, SP (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  19. Hybrid mode-locked fiber ring laser using graphene and charcoal nanoparticles as saturable absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2016-05-01

    A fiber ring laser which implements hybrid mode locking technique has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to generate pulse train at 20 GHz repetition rate with ultrashort pulse width. Graphene and charcoal nano-particles acting as passive mode lockers are inserted into a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser to improve the performance. With graphene saturable absorbers, the pulse duration is shortened from 5.3 ps to 2.8 ps, and with charcoal nano-particles, it is shortened to 3.2 ps. The RF spectra show that supermode noise can be removed in the presence of the saturable absorbers. Numerical simulation of the pulse transmission has also been carried out, which shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    of different anatomic elements of the wood, which binds the cells and may increase resistance to mechanical damage during processes as flotation. This may explain why vitrification was better represented in the roof samples processed by flotation, since water might have destroyed weaker wood charcoal remains....... In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120...... such as vitrification and those related to decay. The results showed large differences in the taxonomic and taphonomic composition of wood remains retrieved in situ and through flotation. While Amygdalus had same proportions in both assemblages, in those derived by flotation, there were greater proportions of Pistacia...

  1. A comparative study of carbon dioxide adsorption on multi-walled carbon nanotubes versus activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S.; Ghoreyshi, A. A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Davoodi, M.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the quilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were experimentally investigated at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The maximum storage capacity for both materials was obtained at lowest temperature and highest pressure under study. The amount of CO2 adsorbed on MWCNT is 2 times higher than that of activated Charcoal whereas the specific surface area of activated carbon is aboute 2 times higher than MWNT. The experimental data of CO2 adsorption have been analyzed using different model isotherms such as the Freundlich and Langmuir. Heat of adsorption evaluated from a set of isotherms based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation indicated physical nature of adsorption mechanism.

  2. Fructo-oligosaccharides purification from a fermentative broth using an activated charcoal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C; Teixeira, J A; Rodrigues, L R

    2012-02-15

    In this study, a simple and efficient process to purify fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from a fermentative broth was proposed using a single activated charcoal column. The FOS adsorption onto the activated charcoal was modeled by a pseudo-second order model. Several volumes and concentrations of water/ethanol were studied to optimize the selective desorption of sugars from the broth mixture at 25°C. Mixtures containing 50.6% (w/w) of FOS (FOS content in the fermentative broth) were purified to 92.9% (w/w) with a FOS recovery of 74.5% (w/w). Moreover, with the proposed process, fractions with purity up to 97% (w/w) of FOS were obtained. This purification process was also found to be efficient in the desalting of the fermentative broth.

  3. Charcoal-Oil Mixture as an Alternative Fuel: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast depletion of fuel oil and continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. The world energy consumption is projected to grow at an average of 2.7-3.7% from 1996 to 2010. Therefore search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus this study presents the results on the characteristic of charcoal-oil mixture as an alternative fuel. The calorific value, ash content and stability of the mixture are determined.

  4. Charcoal in Peatlands: A Review%泥炭地炭屑研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟静静; 赵海洋; 张振卿; 吕宪国; 王国平

    2012-01-01

    Charcoal abundance in peatlands has been widely recognized as a fossil indicator of fire activity. It provides a useful index of "fire history". The status quotation of related researches at home and abroad was reviewed in this paper. The unique advantages of charcoal in peatlands as an indicator of fire events were summarized. The paper pointed out that the peat was a good carrier to discuss the relationship between the charcoal, climate change, vegetation and human activities. The paper also put forward the prospect of charcoal studies based on the problems on present combined with related researches at home and abroad.%泥炭地炭屑记录作为火演化的代用指标已经被广泛认可,可以用于反演历史时期火事件.综述了国内外利用泥炭地炭屑记录进行火事件以及人类活动效应研究的进展;总结了泥炭地炭屑作为火事件代用指标的独特优势,指出泥炭是探讨气候变化、植被类型与人类活动之间关系的良好载体;针对目前泥炭地炭屑研究存在的问题,结合国内外研究现状,对今后泥炭地炭屑研究进行了展望.

  5. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  6. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models.

  7. Activated Charcoal Does Not Reduce Duration of Phenytoin Toxicity in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumpston, Kirk; Stromberg, Paul; Wills, Brandon K; Rose, S Rutherfoord

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin toxicity frequently results in a prolonged inpatient admission. Several publications avow multidose activated charcoal (MDAC) will enhance the elimination of phenytoin. However, these claims are not consistent, and the mechanism of enhanced eliminaiton is unproven. The aim of this investigation is to compare the time to reach a clinical composite end point in phenytoin overdose patients treated with no activated charcoal (NoAC), single-dose activated charcoal (SDAC), and MDAC. This was a retrospective study using electronic poison center data. Patients treated in a health care facility with phenytoin concentrations >20 mg/L were included. Patients were grouped by use of SDAC, MDAC, and NoAC. The primary end points were either time to resolution of symptoms, hospital discharge, or the case was closed by a toxicologist. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 132 cases were included for analysis. There were 88 NoAC, 13 SDAC, and 31 MDAC cases. The groups were similar in symptomatology, age, and chronicity of expsoure. Mean peak phenytoin concentrations (SD) were 42 mg/L (12), 41 mg/L (11), and 42 mg/L (11) for NoAC, SDAC, and MDAC, respectively. Mean time to reach the study end point was 39 hours [95% confidence interval (CI), 31-48], 52 hours (95% CI, 36-68), and 60 hours (95% CI, 45-75) for NoAC, SDAC, and MDAC, respectively. The groups appeared similar with respect to peak phenytoin concentrations and prevalence of signs and symptoms. In this observational series, the use of activated charcoal was associated with increased time to reach the composite end point of clinical improvement.

  8. Adsorption of H2, Ne, and N2 on Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. K.; Tward, E.; Boudaie, K. I.

    1986-01-01

    9-page report presents measured adsorption isotherms of hydrogen, neon, and nitrogen on activated charcoal for temperatures from 77 to 400 K and pressures from 1 to 80 atmospheres (0.1 to 8.1 MPa). Heats of adsorption calculated from isotherms also presented. Report gives expressions, based on ideal-gas law, which show relationship between different definitions of volume of gas adsorbed and used in describing low-pressure isotherms.

  9. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  10. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan.

  11. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B. [Building and Industrial Minerals Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO{sub 2} did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  12. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  13. Holocene elemental, lead isotope and charcoal record from peat in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tudyka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mid-resolution elemental, isotopic and charcoal record from 10700 BC to AD 500 in a peat core located in Żyglin (southern Poland. The objective is to give insight into the proxies with emphasis on lead (Pb sources in this minerogenic peat deposit. During the Early Holocene (10700–7550 BC the average 206Pb/207Pb quotient was around 1.196. This isotopic signature is consistent with natural dust derived from long-distance soil and rock weathering. The Mid-Holocene period (7550–3200 BC shows a significant change in the peat accumulation conditions. The growth rate is approximately 0.04 mm yr-1 and the 206Pb/207Pb quotients are shifted toward values that are found in local galena ores. This is simultaneous with a significantly increased lead flux which further confirms local sources of material in this peat deposit. In the Late Holocene period (3200 BC–AD 500 a large quantity of charcoal particles with diameters ranging from 2 mm up to 3 cm is found; also, Pb, Zn and Cu fluxes reach their highest values. This period corresponds to the Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, and human impact is recorded as charcoal.

  14. Energy potential of biomass and charcoal of Jatropha curcas peel and pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas, are produced residues in the peel and of pie form. One alternative use of these residues is in the energy production. The present work analyzed the energy potential of the peel and the pie of Jatropha curcas in the following conditions: in natura and charcoal, determining: the moisture content (VITAL, 1997; the ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (ABNT NBR 8112/86; the density and the gravimetric yield. The peel presented: moisture of 18,9%; density of 100kg/m3; volatile matter of 72,6%, fixed carbon of 13% and 14,4% of ashes and heat combustion of 3.641kcal/kg. The carbonized peel produced 38.1% of charcoal, with: 29% of volatile matter, 45% of fixed carbon and 25% of ashes; and heat combustion of 3.954kcal/kg. The pie presented: moisture of 2.41%, 601kg/m3 of density; volatile matter of 77.84%, fixed carbon 14.21% and 7,95% ashes and 5.122kcal/kg of heat combustion. In the carbonization of the pie, 32% of charcoal was produced containing: 18.27% of volatile matter, 71.29% of fixed carbon, 10.43% of ashes and heat combustion of 6.234kcal/kg. The high ashe contents are related to the fertilization of the plant.

  15. Development and characterization of charcoal filled glass-composite materials made from SLS waste glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Zaleha; Ismail, Mohd Ikwan; Juoi, Jariah Mohd; Shamsudin, Zurina; Rosli, Zulkifli M.; Fadzullah, Siti Hajar Sheikh Md; Othman, Radzali

    2015-07-01

    Glass-composite materials were prepared from the soda lime silicate (SLS) waste glass, ball clay and charcoal powder at various carbon content, of 1wt. % C, 5wt.% C and 10 wt.% C, fired to temperature of 850 °C as an alternative method for land site disposal method as well as effort for recycling waster glass. The effect of charcoal powder on the porosity, water absorption and hardness properties were studied. Phase analysis studies revealed the present of quartz (ICDD: 00001-0649, 2θ = 25.6° and 35.6°), cristobalite (ICDD 00004-0379, 2θ = 22.0° and 38.4°) and wollastonite (ICDD 00002-0689, 2θ = 30.1° and 26.9°). The results showed that the composite prepared from the mixture of 84 wt.% SLS, 1 wt.% of charcoal and 15 wt.% ball clay containing average pore size of 10 µm has projected optimized physical and mechanical properties. It is observed this batch has projected lowest water absorption percentage of 0.76 %, lowest porosity percentage of 1.76 %, highest 4.6 GPa for Vickers Microhardness.

  16. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wanxi; Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Furuta, Yuzo

    2017-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people's health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO4)3 and 60 min or 100 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had five characteristic peaks of S-S stretch, H2O stretch, O-H stretch, C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 O stretch or CC stretch, and NO2 stretch at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1), respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Fe2(SO4)3, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 120 min. For S, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1) and 3740 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min, the peaks at 1630 cm(-1) and 1530 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. It proved that bamboo charcoal could remove sulfur powder from air to restrain sulfur allergies.

  17. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  18. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal.

  19. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Belcher

    Full Text Available Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  20. Production and characterization of charcoal from species and varieties of bamboos; Producao e caracterizacao do carvao vegetal de especies e variedades de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Tomazello Filho, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Barros Salgado, A.L. de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    Samples of bamboo culms (B. vulgaris var. vittata, B vulgaris, B. tuldoides. Dendrocalamus, Guandua angustifolia) were collected in three longitudinal positions from adult culms and carbonized in laboratory conditions. Eucalypt (E. urophilla hybrid) wood was used as a comparative parameter. Differences between the charcoal from the bamboo species and Eucalypt were observed. The bamboo culms presented higher values of lignin and holorcelulose in relation to wood samples. The bamboo culms provided higher charcoal yields and non-condensable gases.The bamboo charcoal was denser and with higher ash content in relation to wood charcoal. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Ancient charcoal as a natural archive for paleofire regime and vegetation change in the Mayumbe, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubau, Wannes; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Kitin, Peter; Mees, Florias; Baert, Geert; Verschuren, Dirk; Nsenga, Laurent; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2013-09-01

    Charcoal was sampled in four soil profiles at the Mayumbe forest boundary (DRC). Five fire events were recorded and 44 charcoal types were identified. One stratified profile yielded charcoal assemblages around 530 cal yr BP and > 43.5 cal ka BP in age. The oldest assemblage precedes the period of recorded anthropogenic burning, illustrating occasional long-term absence of fire but also natural wildfire occurrences within tropical rainforest. No other charcoal assemblages older than 2500 cal yr BP were recorded, perhaps due to bioturbation and colluvial reworking. The recorded paleofires were possibly associated with short-lived climate anomalies. Progressively dry climatic conditions since ca. 4000 cal yr BP onward did not promote paleofire occurrence until increasing seasonality affected vegetation at the end of the third millennium BP, as illustrated by a fire occurring in mature rainforest that persisted until around 2050 cal yr BP. During a drought episode coinciding with the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly', mature rainforest was locally replaced by woodland savanna. Charcoal remains from pioneer forest indicate that fire hampered forest regeneration after climatic drought episodes. The presence of pottery shards and oil-palm endocarps associated with two relatively recent paleofires suggests that the effects of climate variability were amplified by human activities.

  2. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  3. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Masaki; Togashi, Masahiro; Saito, Tetsuya; Preti, George; Cashman, John R; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-16

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to oxidize and convert dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This disorder has been relatively well-documented in European and North American populations, but no reports have appeared regarding patients in Japan. We identified seven Japanese individuals that showed a low metabolic capacity to convert TMA to its odorless metabolite, TMAO. The metabolic capacity, as defined by the concentration of TMAO excreted in the urine divided by TMA concentration plus TMAO concentration, in these seven individuals ranged from 70 to 90%. In contrast, there were no healthy controls examined with less than 95% of the metabolic capacity to convert TMA to TMAO. The intake of dietary charcoal (total 1.5 g charcoal per day for 10 days) reduced the urinary free TMA concentration and increased the concentration of TMAO to normal values during charcoal administration. Copper chlorophyllin (total 180 mg per day for 3 weeks) was also effective at reducing free urinary TMA concentration and increasing TMAO to those of concentrations present in normal individuals. In the TMAU subjects examined, the effects of copper chlorophyllin appeared to last longer (i.e., several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU.

  4. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  5. Radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of indoor pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino Torres, Leopoldo Leonardo

    1998-12-01

    A number of recent studies have reported that activated charcoals can adsorb significant amounts of volatile organic compounds at concentration levels generally encountered indoors. In this study, a fundamental understanding of radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of water vapor and various indoor volatile organic compounds has been presented. A dynamic adsorption system was designed and constructed to study adsorption of radon both as a pure component (when present alone in a gas mixture with nitrogen) and in the presence of water vapor and some selected indoor air pollutants. The air pollutants investigated in this study include carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The experimental data were obtained in the form of breakthrough curves. The data were used to verify several existing models for both pure component radon adsorption and its adsorption from binary mixtures. As expected, radon adsorption capacity by charcoal decreased in the presence of water vapor. However, a decrease of about 9% was observed when the relative humidity of the nitrogen stream was below 40%. A sharp decrease in the adsorption capacity, about 40%, was noted if the relative humidity was above 50%. The adsorption capacity for radon decreased by 10% to 20% in the presence of toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The decrease was about 2% to 6% when carbon dioxide or formaldehyde was present in the gas mixture. The capacity for radon also decreased by about 40% during adsorption from the multicomponent mixtures. However, this reduction in the capacity was due mainly to the water vapor. Therefore it may be concluded that radon measurements would be affected significantly in the presence of various indoor pollutants. The models used in this study provided excellent agreement with the experimental data for both pure radon (when present alone in the nitrogen stream) and when present in binary mixtures with water vapor and other indoor pollutants.

  6. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  7. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  8. Binding Potency of Heparin Immobilized on Activated Charcoal for DNA Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhkova, E A; Tridon, A; Evrard, B; Nikolaev, V G; Uvarov, V Yu; Tsimbalyuk, R S; Ivanuk, A A; Komov, V V; Sakhno, L A

    2016-02-01

    In vitro experiments showed that heparin adsorbed on activated charcoal can bind antibodies raised against native and single-stranded DNA in a diluted sera pool with a high level of these DNA. Thus, heparin used as anticoagulant during hemosorption procedure can demonstrate supplementary therapeutic activity resulting from its interaction with various agents involved in acute and chronic inflammatory reactions such as DNA- and RNA-binding substances, proinflammatory cytokines, complement components, growth factors, etc. Research and development of heparin-containing carbonic adsorbents for the therapy of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems to be a promising avenue in hematology.

  9. Significant interaction between activated charcoal and antiretroviral therapy leading to subtherapeutic drug concentrations, virological breakthrough and development of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Alice L; la Porte, Charles; Salit, Irving E

    2013-01-01

    A 42-year-old, treatment-experienced woman, virologically suppressed on tenofovir/emtricitabine and boosted atazanavir, experienced virological breakthrough, drop in CD4(+) T-cell count and undetectable drug concentrations. Adherence to treatment was confirmed, but repeat testing yielded similar results. After 2 months, the patient stated that she had been taking activated charcoal to manage gastrointestinal symptoms associated with her combination antiretroviral therapy, but she had recently discontinued the charcoal. Atazanavir concentrations were therapeutic but the patient's viral load rebounded and genotype testing revealed new reverse transcriptase mutations. The patient was changed to zidovudine, lamivudine, and boosted darunavir and achieved viral suppression. At 1 year follow-up, her viral load remained activated charcoal and atazanavir/ritonavir leading to virological breakthrough and development of resistance.

  10. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Chand Thakur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of agricultural soil which is attributed to the use of pesticides containing lead by using activated charcoal. Material and Methods: The lead contamination in agricultural soil and plant dry mass samples which increases due to the effect of pesticides was detected by using Field Portable X-Ray Fluroscence (FP-XRF spectrophotometer. Soil was taken in plastic trays and the plants were grown and watered daily. The collected ground water was also tested. For the estimation of lead in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS was employed. Results: This study suggested the remediation of soil lead content by using activated charcoal. The study also revealed that activated charcoal not only adsorbs lead but also inhibits the accumulation of lead in ground water. Conclusion: This study promotes a cost effective process to treat agricultural lands polluted with leaded pesticides. Water purifiers, refrigerator etc. contain varying amounts of activated charcoal, after usage of these appliances it can be recycled and used as a source of activated charcoal. This can be applied in pesticide contaminated fields either in the form of slurry or by spraying.

  11. Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

  12. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  13. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pasquale, G. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Impagliazzo, S., E-mail: stefania.impagliazzo@unina.i [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Lubritto, C. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Marziano, M. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Passariello, I. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Ermolli, E. Russo [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  14. Charcoal kiln sites, associated landscape attributes and historic forest conditions: DTM-based investigations in Hesse (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An examination of the distribution of ancient charcoal kiln sites in the forest landscape seems to be worthwhile, since general trends in the selection of suitable kiln site locations in the past might become obvious. In this way forest landscape elements with a more intense usage by charcoal burning can be identified. By doing this, we can expect to gain information on the former condition and tree species composition of woodland. Investigations on the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in relation to landscape attributes are sparse, however, probably due to the high on-site mapping effort. The outstanding suitability of LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs for the detection of charcoal kiln sites has been recently proved. Hence, DTM-based surveys of charcoal kiln sites represent a promising attempt to fill this research gap. Methods: Based on DTM-based surveys, we analyzed the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in two forest landscapes in the German federal state of Hesse: Reinhardswald and Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. In doing so, we considered the landscape attibutes "tree species composition", “water supply status”, “nutrient supply status”, “soil complex classes”, “altitude”, “exposition”, and “inclination”. Results: We found that charcoal kiln sites were established preferably on hillside locations that provided optimal growing and regeneration conditions for European beech (Fagus sylvatica due to their acidic brown soils and sufficient water supply. These results are in line with instructions for the selection of appropriate kiln site locations, found in literature from the 18th to the 19th century. Conclusions: We conclude that there were well-stocked, beech-dominated deciduous forest stands in northern Hesse before 1800, particularly at poorly accessible hillside locations. These large stocks of beech wood were utilized by the governments of the different Hessian

  15. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  16. Effects of Particle Size on the Thermal Properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal Briquettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokan, A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal briquettes were studied as a function of particle size. The particle sizes were 300, 425, 600, 1180 and 2000µm. The sieved materials were compressed into briquettes and pellets. The pellets were 12.5mm diameter and 13mm in length. The properties determined were moisture content, ash content and calorific value. The calorific value for Sawdust particle were 300µm =16.04MJ/kg and 2000µm = 17.82MJ/kg which indicates an increased with increase in particle size. For Corncobs the calorific value also rises from 16.63MJ/kg to 17.51MJ/kg for 300 µm and 2000 µm respectively. In the same vain Prosopis Africana charcoal gives 24.94MJ/kg for 300µm size and 29.67MJ/kg for 2000µm. It was observed that for all the materials investigated, an increase in particle size was accompanied by higher energy output.

  17. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  18. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7) for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8) for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7) for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide (p suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors. PMID:27754453

  19. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  20. Microstructure of carbon derived from mangrove charcoal and its application in Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tao [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Ruiying, E-mail: ryluo@buaa.edu.c [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Qiao Wenming [College of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the microstructure of mangrove-charcoal-derived carbon (MC) was studied using XRD, STM and TEM. MC was found to consist of aligned quasi-spherical structural units with diameters of around 5-20 nm. It shows typical hard carbon characteristics, including a strongly disoriented single graphene layer and BSU, formed by two or three graphene layers stacked nearly parallel. Some curved and faceted graphene layers, especially closed carbon nanoparticles with fullerene-like, were observed in the as-prepared samples. MC was also evaluated as an anodic material for Li-ion batteries. MC carbonized at 1000 deg. C possessed the highest available discharge capacity (below 0.5 V) of 335 mAh g{sup -1}, the high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 73.7%, good rate and cyclic capability and PC-based electrolyte compatibility. {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of fully lithiated mangrove charcoal-derived carbons indicated the co-existence of three Li species.

  1. The effect of activated charcoal on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Badreldin H; Alza'abi, Mohamed; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa I; Beegam, Sumaya; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Brand, Susanne; Schupp, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) is a sorbent that has been shown to remove urinary toxins like urea and indoxyl sulfate. Here, the influence of AC on kidney function of rats with experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) is investigated. CRF was induced in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%) for four weeks. As an intervention, AC was added to the feed at concentrations of 10%, 15% or 20%. Adenine treatment impaired kidney function: it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vanin-1. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, phosphate and uric acid. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were adversely affected. Most of these changes were significantly ameliorated by dietary administration of AC at a concentration of 20%, while effects induced by lower doses of dietary AC on adenine nephrotoxicity were not statistically significant. The results suggest that charcoal is a useful sorbent agent in dietary adenine-induced CRF in rats and that its usability as a nephroprotective agent in human kidney disease should be studied.

  2. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F; Polo, Aldino N B; Benedetti, Angélica M; Leão, Mônica M D; Slusarski-Santana, Veronice; Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R C

    2013-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb2O5 catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb2O5/NaX, Nb2O5/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  3. Oral iodinated activated charcoal improves lung function in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogvall, Staffan; Erjefält, Jonas S; Olin, Anders I; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 8 weeks treatment with oral iodinated activated charcoal (IAC) on lung function of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was examined in a double blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group study with 40 patients. In the IAC group, patients showed a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 baseline by 130 ml compared to placebo, corresponding to 8.2% improvement (p = 0.031*). Correlation statistics revealed that the improvement of FEV1 baseline was significantly correlated both to FEV1 post-bronchodilator (p = 0.0020**) and FEV1 post-exercise (0.033*) values. This demonstrates that the improved baseline lung function by IAC did not inhibit a further beta2-adrenoceptor relaxation, and thus that patients did not reach a limit for maximal improvement of the lung function after IAC treatment. Eight patients in the IAC group developed abnormal thyroid hormone levels transiently during the treatment. This side effect was not correlated to improvement of lung function (p = 0.82). No serious adverse effects directly related to the treatment were recorded. In summary, this study demonstrates that iodinated activated charcoal surprisingly and significantly improved lung function of patients with moderate COPD. The underlying mechanism of action is unclear, but is likely to be different from the drugs used today. The immediate conclusion is that further studies are now justified in order to determine clinical efficacy of IAC in COPD and explore possible mechanisms of action.

  4. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L* in the topmost soil material (0–1, 1–2.5 and 2.5–5 cm depths before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0–1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg−1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87** and SOC (r=−0.94** in samples 0–5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  5. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-02-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i) only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0-1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in samples 0-5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  6. MIXTURE OF CHARCOAL KAYU GALAM (Melaleuca leucadendron LINN AND SHELL CANDLENUT (Aleurites moluceana WILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUSYIANI LUSYIANI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT.  The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mixture composition Galam wood with walnut shells to the quality of the resulting charcoal briquettes. The results and analysis of variance showed that the treatment given very real effect on the moisture content, ash content, the levels of substances fly, carbon residue, and the calorific value and significantly affect the density. The addition of hazelnut shell causes an increase in moisture content, ash content, and levels of substances that reduce the amount of carbon fly and the rest of the calorific value generated. The addition of hazelnut shells up to 50% (treatment A3 results in a briquette charcoal briquettes are still compliant imports (Japanese standard. Based on the results of the test, the charcoal briquettes produced have physical and chemical properties as follows: the average water content of 7.949%, the average ash content of 2.855%, the average levels of substance flew 29.510%, the average carbon remaining 67.652%, average the average density of 0.779 gram/cm3, and the average calorific value of 6202.6594 cal / gram. Keywords: moisture content, ash content, carbon residue, ABSTRAK.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh komposisi campuran kayu galam dengan tempurung kemiri terhadap kualitas briket arang yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian dan analisis sidik ragam menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan yang diberikan berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap kadar air, kadar abu, kadar zat terbang, karbon sisa, dan nilai kalor serta berpengaruh nyata terhadap kerapatan. Penambahan tempurung kemiri menyebabkan kenaikan kadar air, kadar abu, dan kadar zat terbang sehingga mengurangi jumlah karbon sisa dan nilai kalor yang dihasilkan. Penambahan tempurung kemiri sampai 50% (perlakuan A3 menghasilkan briket arang yang masih memenuhi standar briket impor (standar Jepang. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian, briket arang yang dihasilkan mempunyai sifat fisik dan kimia sebagai

  7. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  8. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CHARCOAL-MAKING KILNS IN THAILAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measurements of airborne emissions, during typical operating conditions, from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in the developing world. The kilns tested were of five types: brick beehive, mud beehive, earth mound, rice husk mound, and single (oil) d...

  9. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  10. Registration of DT99-16864 soybean germplasm line with moderate resistance to charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich, is a disease that is a world-wide problem in soybean production for which no highly resistant cultivars are currently available. Soybean germplasm line DT99-16864, a maturity group V line, was developed by the U.S. Department of Ag...

  11. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  12. Wildfire history and fire ecology of the Swiss National Park (Central Alps): new evidence from charcoal, pollen and plant macrofossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stähli, M.; Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.; Allgöwer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic (> 10 mm) and macroscopic (> 200 mm) charcoal particles were analysed in sediments from two mires in subalpine coniferous forests at c. 1800 m a.s.l. in southeastern Switzerland. Pollen and plant macrofossils suggest that since 6000 BC, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata (DC) Domin (‘upright mount

  13. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hangjun Zhang; Guoying Zhu; Xiuying Jia; Ying Ding; Mi Zhang; Qing Gao; Ciming Hu; Shuying Xu

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water.Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased.The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6∶4,and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr.The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 =0.9337).Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM).Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9.Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 =0.089 cm-1) in drinking water.This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  14. Carbon emissions due to deforestation for the production of charcoal used in Brazil’s steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J.; Barrett, Damian J.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2015-04-01

    Steel produced using coal generates 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually. Opportunities exist to substitute this coal with carbon-neutral charcoal sourced from plantation forests to mitigate project-scale emissions and obtain certified emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. This mitigation strategy has been implemented in Brazil and is one mechanism among many used globally to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions; however, its potential adverse impacts have been overlooked to date. Here, we report that total CO2 emitted from Brazilian steel production doubled (91 to 182 MtCO2) and specific emissions increased (3.3 to 5.2 MtCO2 per Mt steel) between 2000 and 2007, even though the proportion of coal used declined. Infrastructure upgrades and a national plantation shortage increased industry reliance on charcoal sourced from native forests, which emits up to nine times more CO2 per tonne of steel than coal. Preventing use of native forest charcoal could have avoided 79% of the CO2 emitted from steel production between 2000 and 2007; however, doing so by increasing plantation charcoal supply is limited by socio-economic costs and risks further indirect deforestation pressures and emissions. Effective climate change mitigation in Brazil’s steel industry must therefore minimize all direct and indirect carbon emissions generated from steel manufacture.

  15. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  16. Impact of Plasma Surface Treatment on Bamboo Charcoal/silver Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, K.; Vijayalakshmi, K. A.; Karthikeyan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) accompanied silver (Ag) nanocomposite is synthesized through sol-gel method. The produced BC/Ag nanocomposite was surface modified by air and oxygen plasma treatments. Silver ions (Ag+) will serve to improve the antibacterial activity as well as the surface area of BC. Plasma treatment has improved the surface functional groups, crystalline intensity and antibacterial activity of the prepared nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that Ag nanoparticles have good agreement with BC and the particle size has a mean diameter of 20-40nm. We observe the carboxyl functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover surface area and adsorption were analyzed by using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  17. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the

  18. Analogies between the cracking noise of ethanol-damped charcoal and earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Alves, L G A; Santoro, P A; Picoli, S; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S

    2015-01-01

    We report on an extensive characterization of the cracking noise produced by charcoal samples when damped with ethanol. We argue that the evaporation of ethanol causes transient and irregularly distributed internal stresses that promotes the fragmentation of samples and mimic some situations found in mining process. The results show that, in general, the most fundamental seismic laws ruling earthquakes (Gutenberg-Richter law, unified scaling law for the recurrence times, Omori's law, productivity law and Bath's law) hold under the conditions of the experiment. Some discrepancies were also identified (a smaller exponent in Gutenberg-Richter law, a stationary behavior in the aftershocks rates for long times and a double power-law relationship in productivity law) and related to the different loading condition. Our results thus corroborate to elucidate the parallel between seismic laws and fracture experiments caused by a more complex loading condition that also occurs in natural and induced seismicity (such as ...

  19. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief ud Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin (AR based electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorporation of AC particles leads to systematic change in the morphology of composites especially the formation of porous structure. The dielectric measurements show that 30 wt% AC loading composite display higher relative permittivity value (~79 compared to pristine AR (~5. Further, the porous structure, electrical conductivity, and permittivity value contribute towards EMI shielding effectiveness value of −36 dB (attenuation of >99.9% of incident radiation for these composites, thereby demonstrating their suitability for making efficient EMI shielding coatings.

  20. Kinetics studies of d-glucose hydrogenation over activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muthanna J.

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic hydrogenation of d-glucose to produce d-sorbitol was studied in a three-phase laboratory scale reactor. The hydrogenation reactions were performed on activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst in the temperature range 25-65°C and in a constant pressure of 1 atm. The kinetic data were modeled by zero, first and second-order reaction equations. In the operating regimes studied, the results show that the hydrogenation reaction was of a first order with respect to d-glucose concentration. Also the activation energy of the reaction was determined, and found to be 12.33 kJ mole-1. A set of experiment was carried out to test the deactivation of the catalyst, and the results show that the deactivation is slow with the ability of using the catalyst for several times with a small decrease in product yield.

  1. Ozone facilitated dechlorination of 2-chloroethanol and impact of organic solvents and activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Asogan N; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2013-10-01

    The ozone-initiated oxidation of 2-chloroethanol was followed by monitoring the consumption of the halogenated organic substrate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the ozonated products showed an increase in conversion from about 1 % after 3 h of ozone treatment to about 22 % after 12 h. The yields of major ozonated products identified and quantified namely acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and chloride ion increased proportionately as a function of ozone treatment time. The percent conversion of 2-chloroethanol in the presence of acetic acid or ethyl acetate were found to be higher than those under solvent-free conditions with similar products obtained. The use of activated charcoal during the ozonolyis of 2-chloroethanol showed a significant increase in the percent conversion of the substrate compared to solvent free ozonation. Based on the experimental findings, the overall mechanism for the reaction between 2-chloroethanol and ozone is described.

  2. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of metformin using copper-loaded activated charcoal modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2013-07-01

    A simple and sensitive carbon paste electrode has been developed for the electrochemical trace determination of metformin (MET). This sensor was designed by Copper(II)-loaded activated charcoal (Cu-AC) in the carbon paste electrode (CPE), which provides remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for the electrochemical stripping assay of MET. The drug was accumulated on the surface of the electrode through formation of a coordination complex with copper ions, which enhanced the sensitivity of the method. The effects of various copper(II) salts and oxidation states of copper (within the carbon paste electrode) on MET oxidation behavior were also investigated. The calibration graph was linear over the concentration range of 50 nM to 60 μM MET, and the detection limit was calculated as 9 nM. The proposed electrode was used successfully for MET determination in real matrices.

  3. Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

  4. Enteral exsorption of acetaminophen after intravenous injection in rats: influence of activated charcoal on this clearance path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Florian; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Schulz, Roswitha; Steiner, Kurt; Ladstetter, Bernhard; Poethko, Thorsten; Henke, Julia; Zilker, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    The fate of acetaminophen after intravenous injection in whole bowel-irrigated rats (n = 40) and the influence of activated charcoal on the kinetics were investigated. After randomization to four groups (n = 10, each group), plasma concentration and the quantities of acetaminophen and metabolites excreted into bile, urine and intestine were determined using an in vivo model with or without orally administered activated charcoal and with or without bile duct cannulation. The cumulative amount of acetaminiphen and metabolites exsorbed into the small intestine within 3.5 hr after intravenous injection was about 20% of dose in the animals with bile duct cannulation and about 7% of dose in the animals without. Correspondingly, about 13% of dose was detected in the externalized bile. Activated charcoal did not influence the amount exsorbed into the small intestine. Terminal half-life in plasma ranged from 35 to 51 min. within the four treatment groups without statistically significant difference (P = 0.152). Correspondingly, the area under the curve did not vary much and ranged between 2.6 and 3.3 g/min./l (P = 0.392). Deposition of acetaminophen and metabolites in liver and kidney after 3.5 hr was marginal and ranged between 0.02% and 0.6% of the dose within all groups. The excretion of acetaminophen and metabolites into urine varied strikingly between 31% and 56% of the dose within all groups and correlated with diuresis. The lack of effect of activated charcoal on the elimination of acetaminophen and metabolites may be due to the small amount of the drug being exsorbed into the intestine or the reduced adsorbent capacity of activated charcoal to acetaminophen and metabolites, which also could be influenced by inadequate luminal stirring.

  5. Stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates affected by application of apatite, lime, and charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Ma, Kaiqiang; Fan, Yuchao; Peng, Xinhua; Mao, Jingdong; Zhou, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhongbin; Zhou, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates after soil treatments to reduce the availability of heavy metals. In this study, apatite (22.3 t ha(-1)), lime (4.45 t ha(-1)), and charcoal (66.8 t ha(-1)) were applied to a heavy metal-contaminated soil for 4 years. The stability and heavy metal distribution of soil aggregates were investigated by dry and wet sieving. No significant change in the dry mean weight diameter was observed in any treatments. Compared with the control, three-amendment treatments significantly increased the wet mean weight diameter, but only charcoal treatment significantly increased the wet aggregate stability. The soil treatments increased the content of soil organic carbon, and the fraction 0.25-2 mm contained the highest content of soil organic carbon. Amendments' application slightly increased soil total Cu and Cd, but decreased the concentrations of CaCl2 -extractable Cu and Cd except for the fraction 2 and 0.25-2 mm contained the highest concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd, accounted for about 74.5-86.8 % of CaCl2-extractable Cu and Cd in soil. The results indicated that amendments' application increased the wet soil aggregate stability and decreased the available Cu and Cd. The distribution of available heavy metals in wet soil aggregates was not controlled by soil aggregate stability, but possibly by soil organic carbon.

  6. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  7. CHARCOAL PRICE ANALYSIS IN FOUR REGIONS OF MINAS GERAIS STATE-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal, that is used as term-reducer of iron ore,for producing pig iron. This study analyzed the time series of charcoal prices in four regions of Minas Gerais State. For the analysisof the price series, the SARIMA model was used, for finding a model that better forecasts prices for the four studied areas. The mostappropriate models were chosen using graphical analyses of the standardized residues, autocorrelation functions and partialautocorrelations, stochastic tests and criteria of evaluation of the order of the model. It concluded that: the differences of charcoalprices occur, basically, due to the geographical location; the analyses of domain of the time and domain of the frequency showed thatthere is difference in the price series of the four studied areas; the areas of Sete Lagoas and Belo Horizonte, giving that they are closelylocated, possess similar prices and they generated similar model; the studied areas presented differentiated models and supplied goodadjustments for the observed series. The best models were SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Belo Horizonte; SARIMA (2,0,0x(2,1,212,for Divinópolis; SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Sete Lagoas and SARIMA (1,1,1x(1,1,112, for Vertentes. Such models presented in aparsimonious way, containing a small number of parameters. All models SARIMA (p,d,q (P,D,Qs, for the four studied areas,presented white noise and supplied adequate price forecast.

  8. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  9. Effects of Straw Biomass Charcoal on Enzyme Activity in Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yi-jie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Selected straw biomass charcoal as raw material for the simulation, this study mainly explore the effect of different amount of biomass charcoal applied on different categories of Cd contaminated soil enzyme activity. The results showed that when the soil Cd content was 5 mg·kg-1 and soil carbon cycle enzymes was with different amount of biomass carbon, the FDA hydrolase and protease were more sensi-tive to Cd contaminated soil; and under soil oxidoreductase in the Cd polluted soil condition with different amount of biomass carbon into soil, urease enzyme and phosphatase enzyme were more sensitivitive. Phosphatase was more significant which changed 79.40% compared soil without Cd. At the same time, calculated the geometric mean of carbon cycle enzymes, oxidoreductase enzymes and the two types of the over-all enzyme were as a measure of its synthesis enzymes activity. Among them, the comprehensive index of the soil carbon cycle enzymes activi-ty lay between 0.071~0.235, and when biomass carbon intake was 2.5%, the value was 0.174, which was higher 7.4%and 19.5%respectively than the enzyme without biomass and biomass carbon dosage was 5%; the comprehensive index of the oxidoreductase enzyme lay between 0.093~0.202, and when biomass carbon intake was 2.5%, the value was 0.131, which was higher 18.50% and 28.90% respectively than the enzyme without biomass and biomass carbon dosage was 5%; the comprehensive index of the soil composite enzyme index lay between 0.077~0.167, and when biomass carbon intake was 2.5%, the value was 0.108, which was higher 16.26% and 28.57% respectively than the enzyme without biomass and biomass carbon dosage was 5%.

  10. Infliximab attenuates activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol aspiration-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Aygül; Günaydin, Mithat; Güzel, Ahmet; Alaçam, Hasan; Murat, Naci; Gacar, Ayhan; Güvenç, Tolga

    2012-04-01

    Aspiration is a serious complication of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination procedure. Studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockers have beneficial effects on lung injury. Therefore, the authors investigated the attenuation by infliximab (INF) on activated charcoal (AC)- and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced lung injury in rat model. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into 1 of 6 groups: saline (NS), activated charcoal (AC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), NS+INF treated, AC+INF treated, and PEG+INF treated. All materials were aspirated into the lungs at a volume of 1 mL/kg. Before aspiration, the rats were injected subcutaneously with INF. Seven days later, both lungs and serum specimens in all groups were evaluated histopathologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Following aspiration of AC and PEG, evident histopathological changes were assigned in the lung tissue that were associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), increased serum levels of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], surfactant protein-D [SP-D], TNF-α), and decreased antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px]) activities. INF treatment significantly decreased the elevated serum MDA and TNF-α levels and increased serum GSH-Px levels. Furthermore, the current results show that there is a significant reduction in the activity of iNOS in lung tissue and increased serum SP-D levels of AC and PEG aspiration-induced lung injury with INF treatment. These findings suggest that INF attenuates lung inflammation and prevents GI decontamination agent-induced lung injury in rats.

  11. Lead(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by raw and activated charcoals of Melocanna baccifera Roxburgh (bamboo)--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalhruaitluanga, H; Jayaram, K; Prasad, M N V; Kumar, K K

    2010-03-15

    Melocanna baccifera (Poaceae) is the most abundant and economically important non-timber product in state of Mizoram, India. The communities of the region use this potential resource in many ways, charcoal production is one of them. Bamboo charcoal has application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Activated charcoal was prepared from M. baccifera charcoal by chemical pretreatment in order to make better use of this abundant biomass material. Batch experiments were conducted under varying range of pH (2.0-6.0), contact time (15-360 min) and metal ion concentrations (50-90 mg L(-1)). The optimum conditions for lead biosorption are almost same for M. baccifera raw charcoal (MBRC) and M. baccifera activated charcoal (MBAC)-pH 5.0, contact time 120 min, adsorption capacity q(max) 10.66 mg g(-1) and 53.76 mg g(-1), respectively. However, the biomass of MBAC was found to be more suitable than MBRC for the development of an efficient adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions. FTIR analysis revealed that -OH, C-H bending, C=O stretching vibration and carbonyl functional groups were mainly responsible for Pb(II) biosorption. Thus, this study demonstrated that both the charcoal biomass could be used as adsorbents for the treatment of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

  12. Minor changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations detected in a temperate deciduous forest a year after an experimental slash-and-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-06-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. We investigated the effects of slash-and-burn at a long-term experimental burning site and determined soil organic carbon and charcoal carbon concentrations as well as the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year later. The main results are that (i) only a few of the charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix, presumably by soil mixing animals. In the 0-1 cm layer, during one year, the charcoal C concentration increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentration increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness decreased significantly in the topmost soil layer and correlated well with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in the samples from the 0-5 cm layer. We concluded that Holocene biomass burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2006-12-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal yielded conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in an RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal (SDAC and MDAC, respectively) compared with no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated with a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups by determining the area under the curve for each patient in the 24 hours following admission, the 24-hour mean residence time, and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points, adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9 hours. There was a reduction in 24-hour mean residence time and in the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal, versus the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favorably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning and may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, these mechanistic data support the need for further studies to determine whether a particular subgroup

  14. The wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba at the end of the Middle Ages: an example of exploitation of the Mediterranean mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López Rider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate and explain, the practice of wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba during the Middle Ages Period. In the absence of anthracological studies; the documentary sources reveal the typology of existing charcoals, how this raw material was obtained, which its uses were, how it was transported to the city and in wich ways it was commercialized. Thanks to all this information we come to understand the importance of wood charcoal production for our ancestors, who have left us a carboniferous legacy we still use.

  15. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  16. Effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as antibiotic alternatives on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora population in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gyo Moon; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Hoi Yun; Ha, Ji Hee; Kim, Jong Hyun; Jung, Min Seob; Lee, Shin Ja; Song, Yuno; Ibrahim, Rashid Ismael Hag; Cho, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Sung Sill; Song, Young Min

    2013-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as alternatives of antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs and their influence on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. Crossed pigs (n = 144, 79 kg body weight) were divided into 12 heads per pen, four diets and three replications. The basal diet (negative control: NC) was supplemented with 0.3% antibiotics (positive control: PC), 0.3% bamboo charcoal (BC) and 0.3% bamboo vinegar (BV). Average daily weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (P bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar as antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs leads to a better growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. The results of the present study suggest that bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar could be a potential additives in animal production as an alternative to antibiotics.

  17. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7.......2 (intestinal environment), and with and without 10% ethanol. METHODS: Activated charcoal, at both gastric or intestinal pHs, and paracetamol were mixed, resulting in activated charcoal-paracetamol ratios from 10:] to 1:1. In trials with ethanol, some of the gastric or intestinal fluid was replaced...

  18. Records of natural fire and climate history during the last three glacial-interglacial cycles around the South China Sea Charcoal record from the ODP 1144

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The history of natural fire and its relationship to climate during the last three gla cial-interglacial cycles in the Southern coast areas of China and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea (SCS) are discussed based on the statistic study of charcoal particles and associated pollen data from ODP 1144 Site (20° 3′N, 117° 25′E, 2037 m in water depth). Accord ing to the results of the charcoal and pollen study, the sediments from the upper 225 m are divided into 8 zones (C1-8), which might be correlated with the Marine Isotope Stage 1-8 (MIS1-8)respectively. Our study indicates that during the last glacial period (MIS2, 4), the influx of charcoal particle was much higher than that from the interglacial period, suggesting strong occurrence of natural fire and dry climate. During MIS 6 and MIS 8 (C6, C8), although the influx of fine charcoal particles was quite high, the influx of the coarse and medium charcoal particle were much low,which might be due to the smaller source area of fire probably resulting from the limited exposure of the continental shelf before MIS5. During the interglacial period (MIS1, 5, 7), the influxes of charcoal particles were much lower, implying dropping of intensity of the natural fire and then a humid climate. Another reason is that the continental shelf was submerged into the sea during the interglacial periods, and the source areas of fire were reduced then. Although the influx of the fine charcoal particles was much lower during MIS3, the influx of the coarse and medium charcoal par ticles were almost equal to those of MIS4 (C4), which suggests that the intensity of the natural fire remained quite high and the climate was considerably dry during that period.

  19. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  20. Imitative suicide by burning charcoal in the southeastern region of Korea: the influence of mass media reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Gi Yeong; Jo, Gam Rae; Kim, Kwang Hoon; Ahn, Yong Woo; Lee, Sang Yong

    2009-04-01

    We describe seven cases of imitative suicide, unintentionally affected by mass media reporting of an accidental death by burning charcoal. After the first report on accidental death by burning charcoal, three cases occurred in 3 months in 2007, and another four cases in the same season in 2008 in the southeastern region of Korea. The age range of the victims was 24-35 years. Five cases were attempted inside of cars and two cases were attempted indoors. The reporting and portrayal of the unusual accidental deaths, as well as the reporting of the means used in the suicide may have potentially led younger people exposed to such stimuli to unexpectedly facilitate suicidal acts by the method described in the media.

  1. Effects of haemoperfusion through charcoal or XAD-2 resin on an animal model of fulminant liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M. J.; Gazzard, B. G.; Buxton, B. H.; Winch, J.; Machado, A. L.; Flax, H.; Williams, Roger

    1974-01-01

    In a group of dogs in whom fulminant liver failure had been induced, perfusion of blood through activated charcoal resulted in a significantly longer survival than that of a similar group of dogs whose blood was not so treated. An otherwise progressive rise in blood ammonia concentration was halted in the treatment group. In another group of dogs with fulminant liver failure perfusion of blood through the resin Amberlite XAD-2 was associated with a fall in the serum bilirubin concentration and complete clearance from the blood of 14C-labelled sodium glycocholate. Survival in this group of animals was not significantly prolonged. This was due at least in part to the occurrence of haemorrhage due to thrombocytopenia. Platelets adhere to the resin but do not adhere to the same degree to charcoal coated with a thin layer of polymer. PMID:4851751

  2. Adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal: influence of temperature on the kinetics of the adsorption process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QADEER Riaz

    2005-01-01

    Influence of temperature on ruthenium adsorption on activated charcoal from 3 mol/L HNO3 solutions was investigated in the temperature range of 288 K to 308 K. It was observed that the rise in temperature increases the adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal and follows the kinetics of first order rate law with rate constant values 0.0564-0.0640 min-1 in the temperature range of 288 K to 308 K respectively. The activation energy for the adsorption process was found to be 1.3806kJ/mol. Various thermodynamics quantities namely △H, △S and △G were computed from the equilibrium constant KC values. The results indicated a positive heat of adsorption, a positive △S and a negative △G.

  3. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  4. Microscopic charcoal and tar (CHAT particles in peat: a 6500-year record of palaeo-fires in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Malmgren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat stratigraphies of eleven raised bogs in southern Sweden were investigated. Measurements included the occurrence of charcoal and various tar particles. Most of the particles found were microscopic, i.e. 5–100 µm in diameter. Two distinctly different groups of particles were distinguished: (A charred fragments of plant tissue and (B objects formed from tar, which were classified into five sub-groups on the basis of morphology. Both charcoal and tar are indicative of mire and forest fires. We suggest that it is possible to use the different groups of particles as fire regime indicators. Hence, the high frequency of charcoal and tar (CHAT in the lower parts of the stratigraphies, i.e. in the lower strongly decomposed fen and carr peats that were formed before ca. 4000 cal 14C BP, could be indicative of intense and frequent local fires. The decreasing abundance of CHAT and the lower relative share of Type A particles within the lower strongly decomposed Sphagnum peat ca. 4000–2500 cal 14C BP signify a transition from local to regional fires. With a few exceptions, the uppermost weakly decomposed ombrotrophic peats formed after ca. 2500 cal 14C BP, in which both charcoal and tar are rare, indicate a period of low fire frequency at both local and regional scales. There is no regional variation in the lower material, and it seems that wildfires were common phenomena throughout southern Sweden during the first few thousand years after peat formation began 6–8000 years ago. From a climatological point of view, the mass occurrence of CHAT in the lower parts of the profiles indicates a warm and dry Mid Holocene with frequent and widespread wildfires, and a moist and cool Late Holocene with more sporadic fires. Spectral analysis of the entire dataset shows significant periodicities of 610, 70, 30, 21, 17 and 14 years, the two most significant being 14 and 70 years.

  5. Determination of the structural and chemisorption characteristics of granulated active charcoal on the basis of coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Dragan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater purification and the acquirement of drinking water from water streams that are in most cases recipients of various industrial plants, present a significant problem nowadays. The structural characteristics of granulated active charcoal (GAC obtained by the carbonization of coconut shells and activated by steam are presented in this paper. The established kinetics of suspending cyanide from aqueous solution using GAC impregnated with copper(II acetate were studied and a mathematical model estabkusged by a regression - correlation analysis.

  6. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  7. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  8. Seromucosal transport of intravenously administered carbamazepine is not enhanced by oral doses of activated charcoal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Florian; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Witte, Andreas; Poethko, Thorsten; Henke, Julia; Zilker, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The fate of carbamazepine after intravenous injection in rats (n = 24) and the influence of activated charcoal on the kinetics was investigated. After randomization to four groups (n = 6, each), plasma concentration and the quantities of carbamazepine and metabolites excreted into bile, urine and intestine were determined using an in situ perfusion model of the small intestine (Ringer's solution) with or without orally administered activated charcoal (AC+; AC-) and with or without bile duct cannulation (BD+; BD-). The cumulative amount of carbamazepine and metabolites exsorbed into the small intestine within 3.5 hr after intravenous injection was about 15% in BD- animals and about 3% in BD+ animals. About 20% of the dose was detected in the externalized bile. Activated charcoal did not influence the amount exsorbed into the small intestine. Terminal half-life in plasma ranged from 159 min. to 194 min. within the four treatment groups without statistical significant difference (P = 0.751). Correspondingly, the area under the curve did not vary significantly and ranged between 1.13 and 1.41 g/min./l (P = 0.378). Excretion of carbamazepine and metabolites into urine varied between 3% and 6% of dose within all groups and showed close correlation with diuresis. In an identical experimental approach using a 2-fold intestinal perfusion rate (50 ml/hr; n = 8), no fundamental changes compared to the main experiment regarding pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine were observed. The lack of effect of activated charcoal on the elimination of carbamazepine and metabolites must be contributed to the small amount of the drug being exsorbed into the intestine and may be further influenced by reduced intestinal permeability of carbamazepine and metabolites or inadequate luminal stirring.

  9. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  10. A cell sorter with modified bamboo charcoal for the efficient selection of specific antibody-producing hybridomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Chen; Ni, Mei-Hui; Chang, Yu-Chung; Yeh, Hsiu-Lun; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been proven useful in research and clinical applications. However, the generation of mAbs by conventional hybridoma technology is time-, cost- and labor-consuming. Here we developed a simplified procedure for efficient generation and selection of antibody-producing hybridomas within 1 h, using a particular cell sorter design, a cytoflow reactor-based cell sorter (CBCS) which consists mainly of the "cytoflow reactor" that comprises two components, a reaction chamber and a glass tubing for air and medium exchange by gravity, and the "sorting material", human EGFR-conjugated bamboo charcoal, for specific B-cell enrichment. The high surface area and porous structure of bamboo charcoal greatly increased cell density and protein production. Moreover, from Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and IFA analysis, the carboxylation and immobilization of bamboo charcoal can be introduced easily by nitric acid treatment and conjugated handily with human EGFR using EDC/NHS. Other evidences, such as IFA, showed that the specific hybridomas generated in this study could secrete specific anti-human EGFR antibodies. Our design allows the production of mAbs while avoiding time-consuming steps, such as large numbers of limiting dilutions and screening assays, and demonstrates that the CBCS could be a powerful tool for monoclonal antibody production.

  11. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  12. Micropropagation of orchid hybrids in knudson culture medium with addiction of vitamins of ms culture medium, benzilaminopurine and activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The genera Cattleya and Brassavola, naturally occurring in Brazil, are widely used in hybridization to obtain better shape of the lip in the hybrids. This demand creates the need to develop more effective propagation to meet the market and contributing to avoid the extinction of these plants. This study aimed to test BAP concentrations, activated charcoal, culture medium Knudson and culture medium MS’s vitamins in subculture of Brassocattleya Pastoral x Laeliocattleya Amber Glow orchids plants. There were used seedlings from in vitro germination, with 1-1.5 cm length, undergoing standardization in the culture medium Knudson for three months. The experiment were performed using concentrations of culture medium Knudson (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200%, combined with concentrations of culture medium MS’s vitamins (0%, 50%, 100% and 200% and BAP concentrations (0; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 versus activated charcoal (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, incorporated in a culture medium Knudson. In each flask of 250 mL containing approximately 50 mL of culture medium, four seedlings were placed under aseptic conditions. It was concluded that can use 129% of Knudson, supplemented with 137.5 mg L-1 activated charcoal, 104% of vitamin MS medium without addition of BAP as the best composition for culture medium of hybrid orchid in vitro propagation. The Knudson culture medium does not promote increase in the root system.

  13. Accuracy improvement in leak detection of charcoal adsorbers by halide pulse integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Due to the phaseout of the supply of R-11, which is used as a charcoal adsorber leak-testing agent, several new substitutes have been suggested and tested. Pulse testing using agents with higher boiling points produced longer response times (due to prolonged evaporation and dispersion times). This longer evaporation time alters the pulse shape and lowers the peak concentration. Since the dispersion and evaporation time under different ambient condition are unpredictable, the peak concentration becomes unpredictable as well. One way to eliminate this unpredictability is to determine the area under the curve (of concentration versus time) after test-agent injection rather than the peak concentration (height). This value should be independent of the injection time and evaporation rate as long as the volume of the test agent injected remains constant. Thus, tests were performed with a constant volume injection of test agent but with different injection times and evaporation rates. The area under the curve of concentration versus time was then compared with the peak concentration for each injection. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent.

  15. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  16. Removal of Organic Dyes by Nanostructure ZnO-Bamboo Charcoal Composites with Photocatalysis Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of nanostructure zinc oxide (nano-ZnO and bamboo charcoal (BC were successfully prepared via impregnation-precipitation method. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDS. Rhodamine B (RhB and acid fuchsin (AF were selected as the organic dyes of photocatalysis degradation under the irradiation of ultraviolet light (UV. The influence of particle size of BC, irradiation time, pH value of the solution, and additive amount of H2O2 on removal of the dyes has been studied. The results show that smaller particle size of BC in the composites has a better removal effect. The composites possess the highest removal capacity for RhB and AF under the conditions of pH = 2 and pH = 5.4, respectively. The optimum additive amount of H2O2 for 5 mL RhB and AF was 0.050 mL and 0.1 mL, with a removal rate of 93% and 99%, respectively.

  17. Effects of p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, arabinogalactan, and activated charcoal on microspore embryogenesis in kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, R Q; Zhang, Y; Tong, Y; Liu, Z Y; Wang, Y H; Feng, H

    2015-04-27

    To improve embryogenesis in microspore cultures of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), arabinogalactan (AG), p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), and activated charcoal (AC) were added to the medium using four varieties of kale. The results showed that the addition of AG (0.1-0.2 g/L), AC (0.1-0.2 g/L) or a combination of 6-BA (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and NAA (0.1-0.2 mg/L) promoted embryo-genesis. Adding 40 μM PCIB or a combination of 40 μM PCIB and 0.2 g/L AC to NLN-13 medium at pH 5.8 effectively enhanced embryogenesis. Treatment with a combination of 40 μM PCIB and 10 mg/L AG gave the highest rate of embryonic induction, especially in genotype "Y007," which showed a twelve-fold increase in yield.

  18. The high performance of tungsten carbides/porous bamboo charcoals supported Pt catalysts for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-an; Xu, Chenbin; Shi, Meiqin; Song, Guanghui; Lang, Xiaoling

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a kind of environmental friendly and cost-effective bamboo charcoal (BC) is used as catalyst support in DMFCs instead of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is toxic and expensive. After special treatments, we obtain a sponge-like three-dimensional (3D) BC, which can provide high specific surface area (1264.5 m2 g-1) and porous matrices. Then, tungsten carbide (WC) and Pt are loaded on the BCs with microwave-assisted technique and 3D structural Pt/WC/BCs electro-catalyst is finally fabricated. Subsequently, the catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the further electrochemical investigation, it was found that Pt/WC/BCs catalyst has higher performance (2.76 mA cm-2) and better CO-tolerance for methanol oxidation compared with Pt/WC/CNTs and commercial Pt/C. Herein, we believe that the as-synthesized 3D Pt/WC/BCs catalyst has great promising application in DMFCs.

  19. Carbon dioxide captured by multi-walled carbon nanotube and activated charcoal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available this study, the equilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal (AC and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated. Experiments were performed at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The obtained results indicated that the equilibrium uptakes of CO2 by both adsorbents increased with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. In spite of lower specific surface area, the maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by MWCNT at 298K and 40 bars were twice of CO2 capture by AC (15 mmol.g-1 compared to 7.93 mmol.g-1. The higher CO2 captured by MWCNT can be attributed to its higher pore volume and specific structure of MWCN T such as hollowness and light mass which had greater influence than specific surface area. The experimental data were analyzed by means of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. Following a simple acidic treatment procedure increased marginally CO2 capture by MWCNT over entire range of pressure, while for AC this effect appeared at higher pressures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption were evaluated based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation showed the physical nature of adsorption mechanism. The high amount of CO2 capture by MWCNT renders it as a promising carrier for practical applications such as gas separation.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  1. Microbial Contamination of Ice Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration Systems in a City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Although microbial contamination of ice machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of ice produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of ice. We compared microbial contamination in ice samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the ice machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from ice machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the ice machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the ice was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. Ice machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for ice contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of ice in healthcare facilities are necessary.

  2. Activated charcoal based diffusive gradients in thin films for in situ monitoring of bisphenols in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-Lun; Guan, Dong-Xing; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William; Cui, Xin-Yi; Wang, Lian-Hong; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-01-06

    Widespread use of bisphenols (BPs) in our daily life results in their elevated concentrations in waters and the need to study their environmental impact, which demands reliable and robust measurement techniques. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is an in situ passive sampling approach which provides time-integrated data. In this study we developed a new methodology, based on DGT with activated charcoal (AC) as a binding agent, for measuring three BPs (BPA, BPB, and BPF) which incorporated and tested its performance characteristics. Consistent elution efficiencies were obtained using methanol when concentrations of BPs were low and a methanol-NaOH mixture at high concentrations. The diffusion coefficients of BPA, BPB, and BPF in the diffusive gel, measured using an independent diffusion cell, were 5.03 × 10(-6), 5.64 × 10(-6), and 4.44 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at 25 °C, respectively. DGT with an AC binding gel had a high capacity for BPA, BPB, and BPF at 192, 140, and 194 μg/binding gel disk, respectively, and the binding performance did not deteriorate with time, up to 254 d after production. Time-integrated concentrations of BPs measured in natural waters using DGT devices with AC gels deployed in situ for 7 d were comparable to concentrations measured by an active sampling method. This study demonstrates that AC-based DGT is an effective tool for in situ monitoring of BPs in waters.

  3. Activated charcoal-magnetic nanocomposite for remediation of simulated dye polluted wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Juned K; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a straightforward way to fabricate activated charcoal-magnetic nanocomposite (AC-MNC) by chemical precipitation for the sequestration of methylene blue (MB) from a simulated solution. The synthesised nanocomposite was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. A good uniformity in the spherical AC-MNC particles is observed from a TEM image with an average particle size diameter of around 25 nm. AC-MNC possesses a specific surface area of 387.28 m2 g(-1) with easy dispersibility and magnetic separation. The nanocomposite demonstrates an MB sequestration capacity of 147.71 mg g(-1). The high efficiency of the nanocomposite is rationalised on the basis of H-bonding and electrostatic interaction between the electropositive N-atom of MB and electronegative oxygen-containing functional groups on the composite surface. Moreover, the exhausted AC-MNC can be efficiently regenerated by microwave irradiation followed by elution with methanol. The renewed nanocomposite showed good reusability. Thus, the synthesised AC-MNC proved to be an interesting and potential material for the remediation of MB-contaminated aqueous solution.

  4. Adsorptive desulphurization study of liquid fuels using Tin (Sn) impregnated activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Sikandar; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Ahmad, Waqas

    2016-03-05

    Keeping in view the growing concern regarding desulphurization of petroleum products, the present study was under taken to investigate the efficiency of tin impregnated activated charcoal (Sn-AC) as a potential adsorbent for the desulphurization of model and real commercial straight run kerosene and diesel oil samples. The adsorbent Sn-AC was prepared by wet impregnation process in the laboratory and characterized by SEM, EDX and surface area analysis. Initial experiments were carried out using model oil, which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in cyclohexane, the optimum conditions for desulfurization were found to be, 60°C temperature, 1h contact time and adsorbent dosage of 0.8g, under which about 99.4% of DBT removal was attained. Under optimized conditions the desulfurization of real oil i.e., kerosene and diesel oil was also investigated. Kinetic studies revealed that DBT adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics and the data best fits in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm as compared to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorbent could be easily regenerated simply by washing with toluene for a multiple cycles and reused without losing its efficiency.

  5. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  6. Accumulation of Heavy Metal Ions from Tanneries Wastes: An Approach For Chromium Removal Using Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The environment is under increasing pressure from solid and liquid wastes emanating from the leather industry. These are inevitable by-products of the leather manufacturing process and causes significant pollution unless treated in some way prior to discharge. The tanneries wastes samples were collected from Lahore Pakistan. The samples were digested by wet oxidation method and the concentrations of metals: Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Mn, Zn, Ni and Pb were estimated in sediments and liquid waste samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show that the concentrations of these metals were higher than the values given by the national environmental quality standards. Selective separation of Cr ion from other metals was investigated in sediment sample TS2 by adsorption method using low cost natural adsorbent activated charcoal. The adsorption studies were carried out under the optimized conditions of adsorption like pH, shaking time and amount of adsorbent. The concentration of Cr after removal was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in adsorption isotherm equations like: Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations at temperatures ranges from 303 to 318 K. Thermodynamic parameters ∆H, ∆S and ∆G were also calculated. The values of sorption free energy were estimated by employing D-R equation. The percent removal data show that about 99% removal was achieved by employing low cost adsorbent. This method can be employed on industrial scale for the treatment of solid and liquid waste before discharge into the main streams.

  7. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  8. Effects of Bentonite, Charcoal and Corncob for Soil Improvement and Growth Characteristics of Teak Seedling Planted on Acrisols in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Kayama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When teak (Tectona grandis L. f. is planted on acrisols in Northeast Thailand, its growth is suppressed by low pH, infertility, and low water holding capacity. To examine materials capable of increasing water holding capacity in soil and improving teak growth, we conducted an experiment with teak seedlings. We selected bentonite, charcoal, and corncob and added these materials at a rate of 4% to sandy soil from northeast Thailand. Teak seedlings were potted on these soils and raised from July 2013 to July 2014. We compared growth, photosynthetic rates, leaf water potential, and concentrations of elements in plant organs among bentonite, charcoal, corncob, and no addition (control treatments. Water content in the soils was increased for the bentonite and charcoal treatments. Teak seedlings potted in these two conditions did not suffer from drought stress. Comparing the growth traits of the teak seedlings, the charcoal treatment produced larger root growth and promoted the uptake of phosphorus and potassium, whereas the bentonite treatment did not show positive effects on growth or nutrient acquisition. In contrast, the corncob treatment decreased water content in the soil, and teak seedling growth was suppressed. We concluded that charcoal was a useful material to improve teak growth in sandy soils.

  9. Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and crea-tinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day. None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use signi-ficant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emer-gency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively.

  10. Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, C G; Michelangelo, H; Reynaldi, J; Martinez, B; Vidal, F; Quevedo, M; Parot, M; Waisman, G; Algranati, L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and creatinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day). None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use significant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emergency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively.

  11. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  12. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  13. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email: jmarcelo@cetesb.sp.gov.br; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  14. 活性炭脱硫影响因素的分析%Analysis of Factors Influencing on Desulphurization by Activated Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝凌云

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports influences of oxygen content of gas, liquidamonia adding quantity, tar content of gas, and regenerating effect on desulphurization by activated charcoal. And the optimum method improving desulphrization effect by activated charcoal was found out to improve service life of activated charcoal, gas quality, and reduce operation cost much.%分析了采用活性炭法脱除硫化氢时煤气中氧含量、液氨加入量、煤气中焦油含量以及再生效果等方面的影响,找到了提高活性炭脱硫效率和延长活性炭使用寿命的方法。

  15. Detection of 5 CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce using activated charcoal and real-time PCR without enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Lim; Levin, Robert E

    2011-05-01

    A sample treatment method which separates Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce and removes PCR inhibitors allowing 5 CFU/g of target cells to be detected using real-time PCR is described. Lettuce leaves inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 were rinsed with 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In this study, there were two major factors that strongly affected the recovery of E. coli O157:H7 during sample preparation, the amount of bentonite coated activated charcoal used to remove PCR inhibitors and the agitated contact time of the samples with the coated charcoal. When 3.0 g of activated carbon coated with bentonite were mixed with target cell suspensions (30 ml) derived from 50 g of lettuce, a high recovery of E. coli O157:H7 (93%) was obtained. Sample agitation with bentonite coated activated charcoal for 15 min resulted in 95% recovery of E. coli O157:H7. When a commercial DNA purification resin was used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 without the use of the bentonite treated charcoal, the real-time PCR (Rti-PCR) failed to detect 1 × 10(2) CFU/g. In contrast, with the use of use of bentonite coated activated charcoal and a commercial DNA purifying resin together, Rti-PCR was able to detect 5 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/g of lettuce which was equivalent to 2.8 CFU/Rti-PCR. Such a successful detection level was the result of the bentonite coated activated charcoal's ability to absorb the PCR inhibitors released from seeded lettuce during detachment. A standard curve was generated by plotting the Ct values against the log of CFU of target bacterial cells. A linear range of DNA amplification was exhibited from 5.0 × 10(0) to 1.0 × 10(4) CFU/g by using Rti-PCR.

  16. 生物质成型炭的制备及其性能研究%Preparation and Properties of Formed Biomass Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辛成; 蒋剑春; 孟中磊; 孙康; 谢新苹

    2013-01-01

    Formed biomass charcoal was prepared by powder charcoal from biomass. The influences of category, dosage of adhesive and temperature of the heat treatment on the properties of the formed biomass charcoal were studied. It was found that formed biomass charcoal prepared using carboxymethylcellulose as an adhesive has a better performance than that from amylum. The optimum technological process is that the dosage of adhesive is 6 % and heat treatment at 200℃ for one hour. Physical and chemical properties of the formed charcoal were also studied. The results showed that the formed biomass charcoal has the fixed carbon content of 88.95 % , heat value of 30.6 kJ/g and abrasion resistance of 99. 83 % .%以生物质炭粉为原料制备成型炭燃料,考察了黏结剂种类、用量以及热处理温度对成型炭性能的影响.结果表明:羧甲基纤维素用作黏结剂制备得到的成型炭性能优于以淀粉为黏结剂制备的成型炭,并且得到最优的工艺条件为黏结剂添加量为6%,在200℃下热处理1h.测定了制备得到的成型炭的理化性能,其固定碳质量分数可达到88.95%,热值为30.6 kJ/g,强度为99.83%.

  17. Property Analyses of Coconut Charcoal Modified Polyester Fiber%椰炭改性涤纶纤维性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧娟; 曹秋玲; 申鼎

    2012-01-01

    Spinnability of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber was discussed, Appearance, composition, strength and elongation, hygroscopi city and elastic index of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber were tested. The result shows that the cross section of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber is four leaf shape and longitudinal groove. The infrared spectrum peak shape and peak position of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber are consistent with common polyester fiber and bamboo charcoal modified polyester fiber. Initial modulus, breaking tenacity of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber in dry state and wet state are lower than that of common polyester fiber. Breaking elongation rate of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber is same with common polyester fiber, the moisture regain and mass specific resistance are higher than that of common polyester fiber. It is considered that coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber should be pre-treated,certain processing technology measures should be adopted to ensure spinning successfully.%探讨椰炭改性涤纶纤维的可纺性.对椰炭改性涤纶纤维的外貌、组成、强伸性能、吸湿性能、弹性指标等进行了测试.结果表明:椰炭改性涤纶纤维横截面近似为四叶形,纵向有明显的沟槽;红外光谱与普通涤纶纤维、竹炭改性涤纶纤维的红外光谱峰形、峰位一致;干态、湿态断裂强度和初始模量均低于普通涤纶纤维;断裂伸长率与普通涤纶纤维相当;回潮率和质量比电阻高于普通涤纶纤维.认为:应对椰炭改性涤纶纤维进行适当预处理并采取一定工艺技术措施才能保证其顺利生产.

  18. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production.

  19. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  20. Charcoal and Total Carbon in Soils from Foothills Shrublands to Subalpine Forests in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sanford

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperate conifer forests in the Colorado Front Range are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term soil charcoal C (CC pools result from the combined effects of wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. We measured CC pools in surface soils (0–10 cm at mid-slope positions on east facing aspects in five continuous foothills shrubland and conifer forest types. We found a significant statistical effect of vegetation type on CC pools along this ecological gradient, but not a linear pattern increasing with elevation gain. There is a weak bimodal pattern of CC gain with elevation between foothills shrublands (1.2 mg CC ha−1 and the lower montane, ponderosa pine (1.5 mg CC ha−1 and Douglas-fir (1.5 mg CC ha−1 forest types prior to a mid-elevation decline in upper montane lodgepole pine forests (1.2 mg CC ha−1 before increasing again in the spruce/subalpine fir forests (1.5 mg CC ha−1. We propose that CC forms and accumulates via unique ecological conditions such as fire regime. The range of soil CC amounts and ratios of CC to total SOC are comparable to but lower than other regional estimates.

  1. Study of variations in soil water potential with the incorporation of charcoal and carbon nanotubes through infrared thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Hernández, Víctor H.

    2016-09-01

    Different concentrations of charcoal and carbon nanotubes were incorporated in different mix types of soil samples, these were previously chemically characterized, and physically grain standardized, then the water potential was measured by traditional procedures, which need to consider the water composition and the soil salinity to achieve an accurate measurement, and by infrared thermal images where the water potential was correlated with the superficial emissivity. It was observed that the organic incorporation increases the water potential but it depends of soil gradation, a biggest increment of the water potential was observed in a poorly graded soil than that observed in a well graded soil; the nanotubes in low concentrations do not present considerable changes in the water potential, and in high concentrations the cost is not profitable. It was analyzed the minimum concentration changes of charcoal and nanotubes in the soil that can be measured with thermal emissivity, and the deepness at which the infrared thermal images can measure, also it was studied the rate of water drain in the different soils, and the ability of follow this with thermal sequence of images.

  2. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    within the trench (located ~12 meters to the SW from the rim crest of the main crater) and at different depths in respect to the ejecta-till boundary were processed separately. 14C dating was per-formed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator at the University of Vienna (Austria). The calibrated (95,4% probability) time ranges of eight out of ten samples span the time interval from ~1650 BC to ~1400 BC. This age is based on dating charcoal within the ejecta blanket which makes it directly linked with the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. References: Aaloe et al. 1963. Eesti Loodus 6:262-265. Moora et al. 2012. Geochronometria 39: 262-267. Raukas et al. 1995. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci., Geology 44:177-183. Rasmussen et al. 2000. MAPS 35:1067-1071. Saarse et al. 1991. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 63:129-139. Veski et al. 2007. Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Hu-man Society:265-275. Veski et al. 2001. MAPS 36:1367-1376. Veski et al. 2004. Veg Hist Archaeobot 13:197-206. Zanetti et al. 2015. 46th LPSC.

  3. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  4. Efficacy of four phosphate-mobilizing bacteria applied with an animal bone charcoal formulation in controlling Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Clematis, F.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Someus, E.

    2013-01-01

    Four taxonomically different bacteria, with the ability to mobilize phosphate (P) and to colonize animal bone charcoal (ABC), were tested for their capacity to control plant pathogens. Tests were performed in the greenhouse with young tomato plants in (potting) soil and in rockwool. Plants were infe

  5. The efficiency of different types of wood charcoal on increasing carbon content on surfaces of low carbon steel in the pack carburizing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narongsak Thammachot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare the efficiency of five types of wood charcoal, eucalyptus, coconut shell, tamarind, bamboo and cassava root in increasing carbon content on surfaces of low carbon steel by the pack carburizing process. The experiment for pack carburized low carbon steel (grade AISI 1020 was conducted by using the different wood charcoals as carburizers, mixed with 10% limestone (by weight as the energizer. The carburizing temperature of 950°C, and carburizing times of 2, 4 and 6 hours were used in the experiment. After grinding, the specimens in each case were checked for carbon content by optical emission spectroscopy. Micro-Vickers hardness testing and microstructure inspections were carried out. The results of the experiment showed that the efficiency of eucalyptus charcoal as the carburizer (for increasing carbon content on surfaces of low carbon steel was higher than that of tamarind, cassava root, coconut shell and bamboo charcoals. The averages for carbon content were: 1.16, 1.06, 0.97, 0.83 and 0.77% respectively.

  6. Metal oxides, clay minerals and charcoal determine the composition of microbial communities in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-10-01

    Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike.

  7. Electron microscopic study on catalytic carbonization of biomass carbon : I. Carbonization of wood charcoal at high temperature by Al-triisopropoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, Toshimitsu; Imamura, Yuji; Nishimiya, Koei; Bronsveld, Paul; Vystavel, Tomas; Hosson, Jeff De; Kikuchi, Hikari

    2002-01-01

    Currently, carbonized materials from wood or waste have been focused upon as raw materials for carbons. These carbons are important for the production of artificial graphite. First hand observation was done on the growth of long parallel graphite structures in wood charcoal. A comparison is made bet

  8. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  9. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP, a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans.

  10. [Biochemical effects of chronic peroral administration of carbon nanotubes and activated charcoal in drinking water in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripach, L V; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhajlova, R I; Knyazeva, T D; Koganova, Z I; Zhelezniak, E V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; Kameneckaya, D V; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revazova, T L

    2014-01-01

    Chronic 6-month experiment was carried out in rats, which received drinking water with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), diameter of 15-40 nm, length ≥ 2 mkm) or activated charcoal (AC, diameter of 10-100 mkm), blood samples of the animals were used for assessment of biochemical markers. Both coal compounds induced the appearance of signs of oxidative stress 2 weeks after the beginning of the experiment and alteration of serum markers of liver and renal damage, as well as changes of cortisol and protein serum concentrations later Thus, despite of known high (asbest-like) inhalation toxicity of carbon nanotubes in comparison with other carbon allotrops (fullerenes and black carbon), we have found similar effects of MWCNTs and carbon microparticles in orally treated rats.

  11. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)], E-mail: iimoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Akasaka, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Koike, Yuya [Radioisotope Center, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kosako, Toshiso [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    A simple system to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m{sup -3}/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 deg. C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  12. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-04-01

    A simple system to evaluate the 222Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m(-3)/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 degrees C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  13. Multifunctional properties of Ag/TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal composites: Preparation and examination through several characterization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas, E-mail: kritapasl@gmail.com; Pookboonmee, Sudarat

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials consisting of silver, titanium dioxide, and bamboo charcoal have been prepared from stepwise methods including sol–gel synthesis, wet impregnation, and electrochemical deposition. These as-fabricated composites are investigated for the possibility in multi-application that includes adsorption, photocatalysis, and anti-microorganism. Characterization methods such as scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, gas adsorption, and X-ray diffraction are employed to prove the existence of all three components and their hybrid structure. The adsorption and photocatalysis are determined as the methylene blue molecules are removed continually under the absence and presence of 366 nm UV light. Bactericidal efficacy is also studied to demonstrate the disinfection potential for hygienic purpose.

  14. Process for production of wood charcoal from fine-particle lignocellulose wastes and installation for its accomplishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Perzynski, B.

    1979-05-15

    For producing wood charcoal from sawdust, shells of nuts, and other lignin-containing wastes by drying, roasting, and cooling the obtainable carbon, a multizone kiln is used, consisting of zones for drying (DZ), low-temperature carbonization (SCZ), and cooling (CZ), each of which is divided by racks into two parts. Between the zones racks having openings for feedstock charging are also arranged. In the SCZ, air nozzles are mounted, above which there is a ceramic screen. Waste gases from the SCZ and CZ pass through the heat exchanger-afterburner and are admitted into the condenser, whence they are released into the atmosphere. The temperature in the DZ is 120-60/sup 0/, and in the SCZ -- 400-600/sup 0/.

  15. Continuous acetic acid production by a packed bed bioreactor employing charcoal pellets derived from waste mushroom medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, J; Tabata, K; Kanno, T; Kobayashi, M

    2000-01-01

    A packed bed bioreactor using charcoal pellets produced from waste mushroom medium by thermal carbonization was developed and applied to continuous acetic acid production. The pellets were characterized by their high specific surface area (200 m2/g) with numerous micropores (2-10 microm). The continuous acetic acid fermentation started up smoothly after seeding and was successfully operated for about 180 d under various retention times. The maximum acetic acid productivity was about 3.9 g/l/h using normal aeration and 6.5 g/l/h using air enriched with 40% O2. The pellets are expected to prove useful as a new packing material for bioreactor in terms of their bacterial affinity, high specific surface area with appropriate pore sizes for bacteria, as well as the operational stability of the system and the low production cost.

  16. Multifunctional properties of Ag/TiO2/bamboo charcoal composites: Preparation and examination through several characterization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas; Pookboonmee, Sudarat

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials consisting of silver, titanium dioxide, and bamboo charcoal have been prepared from stepwise methods including sol-gel synthesis, wet impregnation, and electrochemical deposition. These as-fabricated composites are investigated for the possibility in multi-application that includes adsorption, photocatalysis, and anti-microorganism. Characterization methods such as scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, gas adsorption, and X-ray diffraction are employed to prove the existence of all three components and their hybrid structure. The adsorption and photocatalysis are determined as the methylene blue molecules are removed continually under the absence and presence of 366 nm UV light. Bactericidal efficacy is also studied to demonstrate the disinfection potential for hygienic purpose.

  17. Effect of fermentation inhibitors in the presence and absence of activated charcoal on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee; Song, Se Hee; Wee, Young-Jung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2013-06-01

    The acidic hydrolysis of biomass generates numerous inhibitors of fermentation, which adversely affect cell growth and metabolism. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of fermentation inhibitors on growth and glucose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also conducted in situ adsorption during cell cultivation in synthetic broth containing fermentation inhibitors. In order to evaluate the effect of in situ adsorption on cell growth, five inhibitors, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid, were introduced into synthetic broth. The existence of fermentation inhibitors during cell culture adversely affects cell growth and sugar consumption. Furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid were the most potent inhibitors in our culture system. The in situ adsorption of inhibitors by the addition of activated charcoal to the synthetic broth increased cell growth and sugar consumption. Our results indicate that detoxification of fermentation media by in situ adsorption may be useful for enhancing biofuel production.

  18. An early industrial charcoal production area in Lower Lusatia (Germany) - a GIS-based reconstruction of past land use and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takla, M.; Müller, F.; Nicolay, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.

    2012-04-01

    As by-product of systematic archaeological research in the prefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Lower Lusatia, Germany) archaeologists of the Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum (BLDAM) revealed Germanýs probably largest investigated charcoal production area. Until know c. 700 ground plans of circular upright kilns are excavated and additional c. 300 kilns are prospected. The numerousness of charcoal kilns and in particular the large diameters of the ground plans (up to 20 m and more) suggest an industrial charcoal production for the smelter at Peitz nearby where bog iron ore was processed since 1567. The investigation of this early industrial charcoal production is part of the collaborative work between geomorphologists, soil scientists and historians of the Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus (BTU) and archaeologists of the BLDAM. A core piece of the interdisciplinary research is the development of a new paleoenvironmental model based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The model uses airborne laser scanning data with an accuracy of 1 m, archaeological finds, geographical data like topography, soils, geology, hydrology and land use, but also historical maps from the 18th century onwards, information from historical archives as well as data from absolute and relative age determinations. The location of the charcoal hearths and other finds are examined with regard to physio-geographical settings and land tenure. The model has a scale of 1:10000 and will be calibrated and supplemented with data from ongoing archaeological, geomorphological and pedological investigations. We present the status of our model approach as well as first results. Special emphasis is given on the reconstruction of past landforms and geomorphic processes documented by buried soils and late Holocene eolian sediments. Due to the excellent outcrop situation in the open-cast mine our model results are very well proven and

  19. IN-VITRO KINETICS, ADSORPTION ISOTHERM, AND EFFECT OF PH ON ANTIDOTAL EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeya S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol overdose has been one of the most frequent causes of drug poisoning in the recent years, especially in young adult males. In the current work, the in-vitro study on adsorption kinetics and the effect of pH on antidotal effect of activated charcoal (AC in tramadol hydrochloride intoxication were carried out. For adsorption study tramadol hydrochloride solutions of various concentrations were prepared in both simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. For kinetics study tramadol hydrochloride and charcoal in ratio 1:5 was kept in 6 different flasks and sonicated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes and analyzed spectrophotometrically. The data were plotted among two most commonly used adsorption isotherm, Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm and their coefficient of determination (R2 was compared to get the best adsorption isotherm equation. The kinetics study was done in both SGF and SIF. The result showed that AC 50 gm can adsorb 4802.692 mg tramadol hydrochloride at gastric environment and 8064.516 mg tramadol hydrochloride at intestinal environment. The R2 value in the current study is found to be more in SIF (0.986 than in SGF (0.985. In accordance to the value of R2, the pseudo second order kinetics model fit best for this study with R2 value of 0.9997 in SGF and 0.9994 in SIF. From the current study it can be concluded that 50g AC has the capacity to adsorb sufficient amount of tramadol hydrochloride and the kinetics followed during the adsorption was pseudo-second order.

  20. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract. Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated with activated charcoal was a cheap source of xylose and other nutrients for xylitol production by C. guilliermondii. The non-necessity of adding nutrients to the hydrolysate media would be very advantageous since the process becomes less costly.Este trabalho avaliou a produção de xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii, a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz não tratado e tratado com carvão ativo, ambos suplementados ou não com nutrientes (sulfato de amônio, cloreto de cálcio e extrato de farelo de arroz. Os resultados mostraram que tanto o rendimento como a produtividade volumétrica em xilitol diminuíram quando os nutrientes foram adicionados em ambos hidrolisados, tratado e não tratado. Em hidrolisado tratado, a eficiência de conversão de xilose em xilitol foi de 79% quando em ausência de nutrientes. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz tratado com carvão ativo é uma fonte barata de xilose e outros nutrientes, para a produção de xilitol por Candida guilliermondii. A não necessidade de adicionar nutrientes ao meio a base de hidrolisado é muito vantajosa, uma vez que o processo se torna mais econômico.

  1. Clarifying the role of activated charcoal filters in preparing an anaesthetic workstation for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmen, J G; Gillies, R I

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening condition caused by exposure of susceptible individuals to volatile anaesthetics or suxamethonium. MH-susceptible individuals must avoid exposure to these drugs, so accurate and reproducible processes to remove residual anaesthetic agents from anaesthetic workstations are required. Activated charcoal filters (ACFs) have been used for this purpose. ACFs can reduce the time for preparing an anaesthetic workstation for MH patients. Currently, the only commercially available ACFs are the Vapor-Clean$trade; (Dynasthetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) filters which retail at approximately AUD$130 per set of two, both of which are to be used in a single anaesthetic. Anaesthetic workstations were saturated with anaesthetic vapours and connected to a Miran ambient air analyser (SapphRe XL, ThermoScientific, Waltham, MA, USA) to measure vapour concentration. Various scenarios were tested in order to determine the most economical configurations of machine flushing, component change and activated charcoal filter use. We found that placement of filters in an unprepared, saturated circuit was insufficient to safely prepare an anaesthetic workstation. Following flushing of the anaesthetic workstation with high-flow oxygen for 90 seconds, a circuit and soda lime canister change and the placement of an ACF on the inspiratory limb, we were able to safely prepare a workstation in less than three minutes. A single filter on the inspiratory limb was able to maintain a clean circuit for 12 hours, with gas flows dropped from 10 lpm to 3 lpm after 90 minutes or removal of the filter after 90 minutes if high gas flows were maintained.

  2. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide

  3. Development of a charcoal gasification system of 5-10 kw for water pumping; Desarrollo de un sistema de gasificacion de carbon vegetal de 5-10 KW para bombeo de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, J.; Marcial, J. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (Ecuador). Centro de Investigacion Experimental en Tecnologia Energetica

    1990-12-31

    A charcoal gasifier system for water pumping was designed, built and tested. The methodology for the engine construction and the experimental tests are reported. The results are also presented. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Manganese extraction from high-iron-content manganese oxide ores by selective reduction roasting-acid leaching process using black charcoal as reductant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元波; 赵熠; 游志雄; 段道显; 李光辉; 姜涛

    2015-01-01

    Reduction roasting-acid leaching process was utilized to process high-iron-content manganese oxide ore using black charcoal as reductant. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional reductant of anthracite, higher manganese extraction efficiency is achieved at lower roasting temperature and shorter residence time. The effects of roasting parameters on the leaching efficiency of Mn and Fe were studied, and the optimal parameters are determined as follows: roasting temperature is 650 °C, residence time is 40 min, and black charcoal dosage is 10% (mass fraction). Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of Mn reaches 82.37% while that of Fe is controlled below 7%. XRD results show that a majority of MnO2 and Fe2O3in the raw ore are reduced to MnO and Fe3O4, respectively.

  5. A forest of vestiges: social metabolism and charcoal makers activity on the XIX and XX centuries in Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of landscape, what can be considered nowadays as "natural" may be a paleo-territory used by previous populations.In the Pedra Branca Massive, on the west side of Rio de Janeiro, despite being covered by forests, there can found evidences of houses foundations and of historical charcoal kilns. This paper is a survey of these remains done randomly from existing trails and pre-defined transects all georeferenced. We found a total of 168 charcoal kilns and 33 ruins of foundations made with piled irregular rocks. Besides the "natural" aspects of changes in the structure and functioning of ecosystems, we discuss the process of social metabolism that links, in the landscape, the forest to the city.

  6. Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Experimental Amitriptyline Poisoning in Pigs - The Effect on Amitriptyline Plasma Concentration and Hemodynamic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Petersen, Henrik; Malskaer, Cecilie M;

    2016-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal hemoperfusion (CAC-HP) is a well-known treatment modality. Case reports have revealed conflicting results about the efficacy of CAC-HP in the treatment of amitriptyline (AT) poisoning, and no randomised clinical trials have been identified in the literature. This study...... aimed at quantifying the efficacy of modern CAC-HP as an adjunctive treatment of AT intoxication compared to standard care alone. Fourteen female Danish landrace pigs were randomized to either standard care or standard care plus 4 hr of CAC-HP. The pigs were anaesthetized and vital parameters were...... continuously recorded. Amitriptyline infusion (7.5 mg/kg) was completed in 20 min. Thirty minutes following AT infusion, activated charcoal was instilled orally in both groups. In the intervention group, CAC-HP was initiated 60 min. after AT infusion. Blood and urine samples were collected as were vital...

  7. Soil organic matter dynamics and microbial activity in a cropland and soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, B.; Fonturbel, M. T.; Vega, J. A.; Balboa, M. A.; Merino, A.

    2012-04-01

    Wood ash is generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, and can be applied to soil to improve nutritional status and crop production. The application of mixed wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, may also improve the SOM content and quality. The charcoal contained in mixed wood ash is a pyrogenic organic material, a heterogeneous mixture of thermally altered polymers with aromatic domains. This structure may favour oxidation, facilitating further microbial attack and generation of new SOM compounds. In addition, accelerated C mineralization of this material may also be due to the priming effect of the rhizosphere, which may even enhance the decomposition of more recalcitrant SOM. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last few decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %). The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash, 16 Mg mixed wood ash and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark. The changes in SOM were monitored over two years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Both 13 C-CPMAS NMR spectra and DSC curves revealed that the SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds. However, both methods also revealed increases in other labile C compounds. Microbial biomass and soil respiration increased significantly as a result of these effects and possibly also due to a priming effect. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils

  8. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns, also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up.A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57, average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1, low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1 and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC.Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks; CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10 = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2.With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation and adsorption of methylene blue via TiO2 nanocrystals supported on graphene-like bamboo charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangjun; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Jielong; Li, Jinzhen; Zhou, Wuyi; Fang, Yueping; Zhang, Shuting; Li, Xin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel efficient photocatalytic nanomaterial, TiO2 nanocrystals supported on graphene-like bamboo charcoal, has been successfully synthesized via a facile multi-step process. The structural and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL), Raman spectra and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities under sunlight were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results indicated that the ternary hybrid photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities toward the degradation of MB than the pure TiO2 under UV light irradiation. Moreover, the optimum weight content of graphene-like bamboo charcoal in composite photocatalysts was 6 wt% for achieving the maximum photocatalytic degradation rate. The apparent rate constant of the best sample (0.0509 min-1) was about 3 times greater than that of the commercial P25 (0.0170 min-1). The adsorption and degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the pseudo-first-order model and apparent first-order kinetics model, respectively. The highly enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the synergetic effect of graphene-like carbon and bamboo charcoal, which lead to the promoted charge separation and reduction reaction of oxygen, and enhanced adsorption capacities of MB, respectively. The composite photocatalysts displayed a high photochemical stability under repeated irradiation. This work may provide new insights and understanding on the graphene-like bamboo charcoal as an excellent support for photocatalyst nanoparticles to enhance their visible-light photocatalytic activity.

  10. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives : implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles >0.2 mu m(2) remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after therma...

  11. Effects of charcoal-enriched goat manure on soil fertility parameters and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in a sandy soil from northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Willich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of charcoal feeding on manure quality and its subsequent application to enhance soil productivity has received little attention. The objectives of the present study therefore were to investigate the effects of (i charcoal feeding on manure composition, and (ii charcoal-enriched manure application on soil fertility parameters and growth of millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.. To this end, two experiments were conducted: First, a goat feeding trial where goats were fed increasing levels of activated charcoal (AC; 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9% of total ration; second, a greenhouse pot experiment using the manure from the feeding trial as an amendment for a sandy soil from northern Oman. We measured manure C, N, P, and K concentrations, soil fertility parameters and microbial biomass indices, as well as plant yield and nutrient concentrations. Manure C concentration increased significantly (P<0.001 from 45.2% (0% AC to 60.2% (9% AC with increasing dietary AC, whereas manure N, P, and K concentrations decreased (P<0.001 from 0% AC (N: 2.5%, P: 1.5%, K: 0.8% to 9% AC (N: 1.7%, P: 0.8%, K: 0.4%. Soil organic carbon, pH, and microbial biomass N showed a response to AC-enriched manure. Yield of millet decreased slightly with AC enrichment, whereas K uptake was improved with increasing AC. We conclude that AC effects on manure quality and soil productivity depend on dosage of manure and AC, properties of AC, trial duration, and soil type.

  12. The immobilized NaHSO4·H2O on activated charcoal: a highly efficient promoter system for N-formylation of amines with ethyl formate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Zeynizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The immobilized NaHSO4·H2O on activated charcoal was used as a highly efficient promoter system for facile N-formylation of amines with ethyl formate. All reactions were carried out in refluxing ethyl formate (54 ºC under mild conditions within 10-100 min to afford the product formamides in high to excellent yields (80-94%.

  13. Development of hydroponic system using agriculture waste. 1. Characteristics of rice husk charcoal as growth medium and vegetable growth; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 1. Momigara kutan no baichi to shite no tokucho to yasai no seiiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazoe, H.; Nakaya, K.; Okano, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    Experimental researches were made on rice husk charcoals processed to be used as culture media for hydroponics. Rice husk charcoals with a size of 1 mm or larger retaining the original shape of the rice husk, and with a size of smaller than 1 mm were made for use in the experiment. In the culture media made of these rice husk charcoals, the charcoal with a particle size greater than 1 mm had more air portion than water portion at 6 cm above the water level, and the charcoal with a particle size smaller than 1 mm had poor air permeability. According to the result of immersing the rice husk charcoal in a culture solution, phosphoric acid ion and manganese in the solution decreased by about 35% and calcium by about 10% in the duration of 120 minutes, as a result of having been adsorbed into the rice husk charcoal. On the other hand, chloride ion increased by about 80% and potassium and iron by about 30%, because of having been dissolved out from the charcoal. In cultivating spinach, butterhead lettuce and radish in the rice husk charcoal culture media, the culture medium with charcoal smaller than 1 mm resulted in harvest reduced by about 75% in spinach, and about 10% in butterhead lettuce. 15 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Pollen and charcoal analyses from Lake Etu-Mustajärvi, Southern Finland, with special reference to an early Holocene Urtica pollen maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmaja-Korjonen, K.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of a small lake, Etu-Mustajärvi, in southern Finland, were studied with respect to their fossil pollen and charcoal content. Pollen analysis showed a typical development of vegetation from the earliest Holocene onwards, since the isolation of the lake from the Baltic Ice Lake. The emerged land was first colonised by herbs and bushes, and for the first time in Finland an Urtica maximum of 4 % is reported for this period. It is considered possible that Urtica may have been a commoner part of the pollen flora of newly emerged land in south Finland than has been previously thought. Charcoal analysis was undertaken to examine the Holocene history of forest fires in the area. At least in the Lammi area, charcoal seems to have been most abundant about 8000-6000 BP, a result which is in apparent disagreement with the general concept that the period was moist and thus forest fire frequency could not have been high.

  15. MALDI-TOF identification of Gram-negative bacteria directly from blood culture bottles containing charcoal: Sepsityper® kits versus centrifugation-filtration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Kathleen; Cruz, Kristian; Shemes, Stephen; Szpunar, Susan; Fishbain, Joel T

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry has dramatically altered the way microbiology laboratories identify clinical isolates. Direct blood culture (BC) detection may be hampered, however, by the presence of charcoal in BC bottles currently in clinical use. This study evaluates an in-house process for extraction and MALDI-TOF identification of Gram-negative bacteria directly from BC bottles containing charcoal. Three hundred BC aliquots were extracted by a centrifugation-filtration method developed in our research laboratory with the first 96 samples processed in parallel using Sepsityper® kits. Controls were colonies from solid media with standard phenotypic and MALDI-TOF identification. The identification of Gram-negative bacteria was successful more often via the in-house method compared to Sepsityper® kits (94.7% versus 78.1%, P≤0.0001). Our in-house centrifugation-filtration method was further validated for isolation and identification of Gram-negative bacteria (95%; n=300) directly from BC bottles containing charcoal.

  16. Critical-point universality in adsorption: the effect of charcoal on a mixture of isobutyric acid and water near the consolute point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, Timothy J; Chou, Alan S; McFeeters, Robert L; Baird, James K; Barlow, Douglas A

    2011-06-01

    The mixture of isobutyric acid and water has a consolute point at a temperature of 25.75 °C and mole fraction 0.1148 isobutyric acid. When charcoal is added to this mixture, the concentration of isobutyric acid is reduced by adsorption. We have measured the action of charcoal on solutions of isobutyric acid and water as a function of isobutyric acid mole fraction at temperatures of 25.85 and 32.50 °C. At the higher temperature, the specific adsorption density (y(2)(α)/m) satisfies the Freundlich equation (y(2)(α)/m)=KX(2)(1/n), where y(2)(α) is the mass of isobutyric acid adsorbed, m is the mass of charcoal, X(2) is the equilibrium mole fraction of isobutyric acid, n is the Freundlich index, and K=K(T) is an amplitude that depends upon the temperature T. At 25.85 °C, a critical endpoint is located at an isobutyric acid mole fraction X(2)(ce)=0.09. When compared with the Freundlich equation at this temperature, a plot of the specific adsorption density as a function of X(2) in the vicinity of the critical-endpoint composition assumes a shape which is reminiscent of the derivative of a Dirac delta function. Using critical-point scaling theory, we show that this divergent pattern is consistent with the principle of critical point universality.

  17. Bamboo charcoal as a novel solid-phase microextraction coating material for enrichment and determination of eleven phthalate esters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia

    2013-05-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of bamboo charcoal as a novel and inexpensive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating material for enrichment and determination of organic pollutants in water samples. Bamboo charcoal was prepared and used as a SPME coating material. Eleven phthalate esters (PAEs) were used as model analytes, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for separation and detection. Important extraction conditions (ionic strength, stirring rate, and extraction time) and desorption conditions (desorption temperature and time) were systematically investigated and optimized. Linearity of 0.1-100 μg L(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9992-0.9998 were obtained under optimum conditions. Inter-day and intra-day repeatability were 2.15-9.93 % and 1.89-9.85 %, respectively, and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was 5.42-9.66 %. On the basis of a chromatographic signal-to-baseline noise ratio of three, the limits of detection reached 0.004-0.023 μg L(-1). Satisfactory results were achieved when the bamboo coating was used for determination of 11 PAEs in real water samples. The experimental results indicate that bamboo charcoal has significant potential as a SPME coating material for rapid enrichment and sensitive determination of organic pollutants in environmental samples.

  18. 竹炭/纤维素纤维织物的染整加工%Wet processing of bamboo charcoal/cellulosic fiber fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关燕; 刘伟; 金晓东

    2011-01-01

    对可降解的黑、白竹炭与纤维素纤维(粘胶、棉、莱赛尔)的混纺机织物进行复合酶前处理、涂料或活性染料染色及印花、亲水性柔软整理及远红外整理,探讨了染整工艺对竹炭纤维功能性的影响,确定了合理的工艺路线和参数,开发出了能保持良好服用性能和保健功能的竹炭/粘胶纤维印染面料,其外观满足时尚需求.%Bio-pretreatment, dyeing or printing with pigments or reactive dyes, hydrophilic softening and far infrared finish are carried out on biodegradable bamboo charcoal (black and white)/cellulose fiber (viscose, cotton and Lyocell) blended woven fabrics. The influence of wet processing on properties of bamboo charcoal fiber is discussed, and reasonable process and parameters are determined. The finished bamboo charcoal/ viscose product features fashion appearance, good wearability and health care function.

  19. Determination of trace elements in medicinal activated charcoal using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with low vaporization temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in medicinal activated charcoal by ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) was described. EDTA was used as the modifier to enhance the volatility of elements studied. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were studied. A relatively low vaporization temperature of 1000°C was used, which separated the analyte from the major matrix components that improved ion signals. The method has been applied to determine Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in an NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash reference material and three brands of medicinal activated charcoal capsules using isotope dilution and standard addition calibration methods. The concentrations that are in ng g(-1) levels were in good agreement between different calibration methods. The precision between sample replicates was better than 7% with USS-ETV-ICP-MS technique. The method detection limit estimated from standard addition curves was 0.4, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.04 and 0.9 ng g(-1) for Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb, respectively, in original medicinal activated charcoal.

  20. Evaluation of Tazobactam-Supplemented, Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar for Qualitative Detection of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dong Kwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is the most common confounding factor for the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. mCCDA modified by supplementation with tazobactam, an ESBL inhibitor, was evaluated for Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcass rinse with regard to isolation rate and selectivity. In total, 120 whole chicken carcasses purchased from retail stores were rinsed with buffered peptone water enriched with 2× blood-free Bolton broth at 42°C for 48 h and then inoculated onto mCCDA with and without tazobactam supplementation (mCCDA or T-mCCDA) at 42°C for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were subcultured and confirmed by colony PCR. Plates with tazobactam exhibited a higher Campylobacter isolation rate (56.7% vs. 30.8%, p < 0.05) and selectivity (0.8 vs. 83.3% plates contaminated with non-Campylobacter, p < 0.05) than mCCDA. Thus, tazobactam-supplemented mCCDA would be a useful option for qualitative detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse.

  1. Removal of elemental mercury by bamboo charcoal impregnated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengqiang Tan; Jianrong Qiu; Hancai Zeng; Hao Liu; Jun Xiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2011-04-15

    Mercury emission from coal combustion is an increasing environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and activated carbon (AC) adsorption has been proven an effective mercury-control method, with high-cost limit. The renewable bioresource of bamboo constitutes an important precursor for activated carbon, and the bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as low-cost sorbent used in the mercury-control. The adsorptive potential of BC and modified BC using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for elemental mercury was investigated for the first time through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed. The effects of pore structure and surface chemistry were investigated based on BET, XPS. Which suggest that BC materials have excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury, especially after modified by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The modification using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} altered the physical and chemical properties of BC materials, making the sorbents more effective in mercury adsorption even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. 32 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  3. Analysis and identification of bamboo-charcoal viscose fiber%竹炭粘胶纤维的分析与鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明双; 李青山; 周光举

    2011-01-01

    由于竹炭微粉的加入,竹炭粘胶纤维与普通粘胶纤维的性能存在明显差异.为解决二者鉴别困难的问题,通过密度法、燃烧法、溶解法、扫描电镜法、热分析法、吸附法、抗菌检测法和负离子测定法对竹炭粘胶纤维进行分析和鉴别.结果表明:8种方法均能有效地将竹炭粘胶纤维和普通粘胶纤维鉴别开来.其中:密度法、燃烧法和溶解法适用于简单鉴别;扫描电镜法、热分析法、吸附法、抗菌检测法和负离子测定法适用于复杂的定性鉴别.同时,进一步分析竹炭扫描电镜照片证明,竹炭粘胶纤维确实具有较高的吸附性.%Due to the addition of bamboo charcoal micro-powder, obvious differences exist between bamboo-charcoal viscose fiber and ordinary viscose fiber. In order to solve identification problem between them, this study used density-based method, combustion method, dissolution method, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, adsorption method, antibacterial testing method and anion measurement to identify bamboo-charcoal viscose fiber. The results showed that any of the above 8 test methods can distinguish bamboo-charcoal viscose fiber from ordinary viscose fiber, in which, the density-based method, combustion method and dissolution method are suitable for simple identification, whereas scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, adsorption method, antibacterial testing method and anion measurement fit for complex qualitative identification. Analysis of scanning electron microscope photographs of bamboo charcoal verifies that the bamboo viscose fiber has higher adsorptivity.

  4. Process of Waste Cupric Ion Water with Activated Peanut Shell Charcoal%花生壳活性炭处理含铜离子废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 刘毅

    2011-01-01

    Using the microwave method to prepare activated peanut shell charcoal to adsorb Cu2+ . With scaning electron microscope, it was discovered that many thin stripes appeared at the activated charcoal surface, and there were massive pores with average grain diameter of 50μm. In the activated charcoal, the O and C combined and released in the form of CO2, thus caused other elements content to rise relatively, which led the K content to rise most obviously. The adsorptive capacity was the highest when temperature was 30℃, the monolayer adsorption was saturated in 60min and the polymolecular layer adsorption started after 90min. Under the same condition, the activated charcoal adsorption speed and the adsorptive capacity for the highly concentrated Cu2+ solution were more than that of the low concentration solution, and the Cu2+ quantity was more adsorbed obviously in the activated charcoal unit area. Responding speed and the adsorptive capacity were proportional. It showed to be the physical adsorption while the adsorption temperature was between 30 - 50℃, and the adsorption condition transformed to chemical adsorption when the temperature surpassed 60℃.%利用微波法制备花生壳活性炭吸附铜离子,扫描电镜发现活性炭表面出现许多细条纹,有大量微孔,平均粒径为50μm。活性炭中O与C结合,以CO2的形式释放出去,从而使其他元素的含量相对上升,其中以K元素含量上升最为明显。30℃时吸附量最高,在60min内达到单分子层吸附饱和,90min后开始多分子层吸附。在同等条件下,活性炭对高浓度的Cu2+溶液的吸附速率和吸附量比低浓度的溶液大,活性炭单位面积上吸附的铜离子量显然要多;反应速率和吸附量成正比。当吸附温度处于30-50℃之间时,属于物理吸附;温度超过60℃后,吸附状态转变为化学吸附。

  5. 适量木炭粉改善环氧树脂复合材料热/力学性能%Suitable charcoal loadings improving heat-resistance and mechanical properties of epoxy resins composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋剑斌; 黄彪; 袁全平; 刘学莘; 杨文斌

    2015-01-01

    为了充分利用木材炭化物,扩大其在复合材料等方面的应用范围,该文采用炭化后的木粉(木炭粉)和环氧树脂,通过模压工艺制备了木炭/环氧树脂复合材料.借助扫描电镜、万能材料试验机、动态热机械分析仪和维卡软化点测量仪等研究木炭粉质量分数对木炭/环氧树脂复合材料弯曲性能、冲击强度、动态力学性能以及耐热性的影响.在环氧树脂中,环氧树脂、反应性稀释剂和固化剂质量比为 3:2:5;在木炭/环氧树脂复合材料中,木炭粉质量分数分别为 0, 5%,10%,20%,30%和40%.复合材料固化温度和时间分别设定为100℃和3 h.结果表明,添加木炭粉能有效增强环氧树脂力学性能:与纯环氧树脂相比,弯曲强度和冲击强度最高增加了278%和135%.动态力学性能结果证实随着木炭粉质量分数的增加,复合材料的储能模量和玻璃化转变温度(Tg)也逐渐增加.此外当木炭粉质量分数从0增加到40%时,复合材料的耐热性逐渐提高;维卡软化点从81.2℃提高到274℃.研究结果为,当木炭粉质量分数在10%时,环氧树脂/木炭复合材料具有较佳的力学性能和较好的耐热性能,为木炭在复合材料领域中的应用提供有益的借鉴.%Wood-plastics composite (WPC) is a new kind of composite material, booming at home and abroad in recent years. It includes 2 types: one is the composite produced directly using extrusion and injection methods based on biomass materials such as wood powder, bamboo powder and hemp fiber; the other is based on carbonized biomass materials, which is fabricated by carbonizing biomass materials at high temperature and then compounding with polymer. The former has been studied in detail, but the latter is scarce. So in this paper, we prepared the charcoal/epoxy composites using compressing method. The effects of charcoal content on the mechanical properties and the heat resistance of charcoal/epoxy composites were

  6. Efficiency of membrane technology, activated charcoal, and a micelle-clay complex for removal of the acidic pharmaceutical mefenamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Samer; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of sequential advanced membrane technology wastewater treatment plant towards removal of a widely used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) mefenamic acid was investigated. The sequential system included activated sludge, ultrafiltration by hollow fibre membranes with 100 kDa cutoff, and spiral wound membranes with 20 kDa cutoff, activated carbon and a reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of mefenamic acid from spiked wastewater samples. The activated carbon column was the most effective component in removing mefenamic acid with a removal efficiency of 97.2%. Stability study of mefenamic acid in pure water and Al-Quds activated sludge revealed that the anti-inflammatory drug was resistant to degradation in both environments. Batch adsorption of mefenamic acid by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (otadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA)-clay (montmorillonite) was determined at 25.0°C. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the data with Qmax of 90.9 mg g(-1) and 100.0 mg g(-1) for activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration experiment by micelle-clay columns mixed with sand in the mg L(-1) range revealed complete removal of the drug with much larger capacity than activated carbon column. The combined results demonstrated that an integration of a micelle-clay column in the plant system has a good potential to improve the removal efficiency of the plant towards NSAID drugs such as mefenamic acid.

  7. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Bamboo Charcoal Pottery Composites%竹炭陶土复合材料的制备和结构性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文标; 李文珠; 章卫钢; 涂志龙

    2011-01-01

    The composite material of bamboo charcoal pottery (BCP) was made from pottery and bamboo charcoal powder as the major materials, which was manufactured by mixing, shaping, drying, calcining, testing and analying process.BCP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared radiation, raman spectroscopy, and specific surface area test to get the crystal structure, pore structure, adsorption, infrared emissivity, and others. The results showed that: Bamboo charcoal particles embedded in the clay matrix and kept their origin mesoporous structure. In addition the Bamboo charcoal particles bear the structure characterization of graphite. The BCP prepared in this manuscript possesses larger specific surface area and its pore structure is dominated by mesoporous. It could be absorb noxious gases such as formaldehyde and benzene efficiently. A certain amount of bamboo charcoal can improve the far-infrared emissivity of BCP. It is higher than the pottery and bamboo charcoal. Through analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we can conclude that the essence of BCP with high infrared emissivity is due to the double-frequency absorption, molecular group vibrations, rotation and lattice vibration.%以竹炭粉、陶土为主要原料,经混合、成型、干燥和煅烧等工艺制得竹炭陶土复合材料(以下称竹炭陶),采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)仪、拉曼光谱测试仪(Raman)、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)和比表面积测试仪等仪器,对竹炭陶的微晶构造、孔隙结构、吸附和红外辐射性能等进行表征.结果表明:竹炭微粒镶嵌在陶土基体中,保留原有以中孔为主的孔隙结构和类石墨化晶体结构,获得的竹炭陶具有较大的比表面积和中孔为主的孔隙结构,能有效地吸附甲醛、苯等有害气体.加入一定量的竹炭能提高竹炭陶的远红外发射率,其红外发射率均高于陶土和竹炭,结合红外吸收光谱谱

  8. “竹炭革”的配方特点、生产工艺及相关检测%Formula Characteristics and Technological Processes of the"Bamboo -Charcoal Leather" and the Related Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启伟; 王桂仙; 管宁章

    2013-01-01

      简单介绍了“竹炭革”的原料配方特点及生产工艺原理,并根据皮革检测标准对“竹炭革”作了相关检测,结果显示“竹炭革”中不含有害物质,使用安全。吸附实验表明,“竹炭革”对有害气体(如甲醛)具有良好的吸附性能,可去除环境中的有害气体。%The formula characteristics and technological processes of the "Bamboo -Charcoal Leather"were briefly introduced.. The "Bamboo-Charcoal Leather" was determined based on the related standards, and the results showed that "Bamboo-Charcoal Leather" did not contain harmful substances. Adsorption of formaldehyde by the "Bamboo -Charcoal Leather" was studied. The results showed that "Bamboo-Charcoal Leather" had good adsorption ability for formaldehyde, so it can be used to remove harmful gases in environment.

  9. The influence of pH, temperature and hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.L.B. Rodrigues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of pH, temperature and degree of hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural were almost totally removed in all the experiments, irrespective of pH and temperature and whether the charcoal was added before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Adding activated charcoal before the vacuum evaporation process favored the removal of phenolic compounds for all values of pH. Acetic acid, on the contrary, was most effectively removed when the activated charcoal was added after the vacuum evaporation process at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4. However, addition of activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4 favored the removal of both acetic acid and phenolic compounds.

  10. Effect of Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica) and Charcoal Supplementation as Alternatives to Antibiotics on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Kim, Y J; Mun, H S; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-02-01

    A total of 150 growing ducks were assigned to five dietary treatments to study the effect of sea tangle and charcoal (STC) supplementation on growth performance and meat characteristics in a completely randomized design. There were six replicates and five ducklings in each replication. The five dietary treatments were control, antibiotic, and 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% STC supplemented diets. No significant differences were found on ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed among treatments in different weeks. The overall (0 to 3 weeks) ADFI decreased in antibiotic treatment (pduck production.

  11. 竹炭固定化微生物对土壤中阿特拉津的降解研究%Biodegradation of Atrazine in Soils by Bamboo Charcoal Immobilized A Degradation Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉超; 刘文文; 司友斌; 崔红标

    2011-01-01

    采用环境友好材料竹炭为主要载体,壳聚糖和海藻酸钠为辅助载体,固定从污泥中分离出的阿特拉津降解菌株,研究不同固定材料对降解菌生长的影响,以及固定化微生物对土壤中阿特拉津的降解效果.结果表明,竹炭对阿特拉津降解菌具有较强的吸附固定能力,且竹炭粒径越小,固定化效果越好.利用壳聚糖和海藻酸钠交联并加固阿特拉津降解菌,增大了固定化空间,显著增加了降解菌的生物量,并提高了阿特拉津的降解效率.1%壳聚糖+5%海藻酸钠+竹炭+降解菌颗粒对阿特拉津降解菌的固定化效果最佳,施用该微生物固定化颗粒28天后,砂姜黑土及红壤中阿特拉津残留率分别为48.07%和47.23%.%Bamboo charcoal was selected as the principal carrier, and chitosan and sodium alginate as the secondary carrier for the immobilization a degradation bacterium which was isolated from activated sludge. The growth of immobilized microorganism on bamboo charcoal and atrazine degradation in soils were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal had a large capacity of immobilized microorganism. The smaller the particle size of bamboo charcoal, the more the microorganism immobilized. The strains grew well on bamboo charcoal, and reached logarithmic phase at 48 h. Chitosan and sodium alginate were used for cross-linking microorganism on bamboo-charcoal, which enlarged the space for the cell growth, significantly increased the biomass of bacterium. 1% chitosan + 5% sodium alginate + bamboo charcoal were suggested for the optimum formulations of microorganism immobilization. The degradation rate of atrazine in soil was larger significantly when adding immobilized microorganism by bamboo charcoal. After 28 d, the residues of atrazine in vertisol and red soil were 48.07% and 47.23%, respectively.

  12. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction.

  13. CHANGES IN MICROBIAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES ASSOCIATE WITH CHARCOAL PRODUCTION IN TEMPERATE FOREST (QUERCUS SPP IN SANTA ROSA, GTO. MEXICO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Gómez Luna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The temperate forest of Quercus spp. Santa Rosa is one ofthe most extensive forests in central Mexico. In this forest,charcoal is produced traditionally by rural communities.This study evaluated the impact of the activity of charcoalproduction in three sampling sites of the forest, soil fromthe impact site, land adjacent to the site of charcoalproduction and control soil without charcoal productionactivity on physicochemical and microbiological properties.We determined pH, concentration of macro-and microelementswas performed by calculating microbial colonyforming units (CFU of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes andpromoting growth of plants rhizobacteria (PGPR. Finally,we determined microbial biomass by fumigation-incubationmethod. On the floor of coal production, an increase in pH,the concentration of cations forming bases (Ca2 + and K+and a high regard microbial fungi, bacteria andactinomycetes, but the microbial biomass and organicmatter content was higher in the control soil, in terms ofRPCP only isolated in the soil adjacent to coal productionsite and the control soil. The physicochemical changesproduced by the warming effect of soil significantlyaffected the microbial community favoring the reduction orelimination of dominant groups sensitive to hightemperatures that are actively involved in the dynamics ofsoil processes

  14. Inhibition of mammalian DNA polymerases and the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses by tyrosol from used activated charcoal waste generated during sake production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Yoshiaki; Onodera, Takefumi; Kuriyama, Isoko; Sakamoto, Yuka; Nishikori, Shu; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio

    2014-08-06

    The components adsorbed onto activated charcoal following the fermentation process of the Japanese rice wine "sake" have been studied with the aim of identifying suitable applications for this industrial food waste product. The absorbed materials were effectively extracted from the charcoal, and inhibited the activity of several mammalian DNA polymerases (pols). Subsequent purification of the extract afforded tyrosol [4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol] as the active component, which selectively inhibited the activity of 11 mammalian pols with IC50 values in the range of 34.3-46.1 μM. In contrast, this compound did not influence the activities of plant or prokaryotic pols or any of the other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Tyrosol suppressed both anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects in vivo, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, and immunoglobulin E-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice. These results suggested that this byproduct formed during the sake-brewing process could be used as an anti-inflammatory and/or antiallergic agent.

  15. Utilization of radioanalytical methods for the determination of isotopes of U, Pu and Am in activated charcoal from IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: bgeraldo@ipen.br, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a radioactive waste arising from the water purification system of the nuclear research reactor. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to identify and quantify the existing radionuclides, including those known as 'difficult-to-measure radionuclides' (RDM). The analysis of these RDM usually involves complex radiochemical costly and time consuming procedures for the purification and separation of them. The objective of this work was to define a methodology of sequential analysis of isotopes of U, Pu and Am, present in activated charcoal, evaluating chemical recovery, analysis time, quantity of radioactive waste generated and cost. Ion exchange and the chromatographic extraction methodologies were compared. Both methods showed high chemical recoveries, ranged from 74 and 100% for U, 76 and 100% for Pu and 87 and 100% for Am, demonstrating that these methods provide accurate and reliable results. However, chromatographic extraction method is more suitable for the determination of the radionuclides because it generates the smaller volume of waste and is more cost-effectively. (author)

  16. Invstigation of activated charcoal in treatment of fulminant acute pancreatitis%活性炭应用于暴发性胰腺炎治疗的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石书伟; 田新; 李俊; 华科雷; 李瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compared with the effective of gauze pad and activated Charcoal that filled around omental sac and pancreas after FAP (Fulminant acute pancreatitis) with surgery.Methods April 2002 to July 2010,a total of 25 patients with FAP be treated,including 17 males and 8 females,aged 13-74 years,mean 40 years,21 cases were cured,4died,the cure rate was 84%.In April 2007 as a dividing line,the previous was 14 cases (Gauze pad group),the after was 11 cases (activated Charcoal group).Results The gauze pad group 2 died within seven days after surgery,the mortality rate 14.3% (2/14),1 patient died after seven days,a total of 3 patients died,with a total mortality of 21.4% (3/14).The activated charcoal group no died within seven days after surgery,1 patient died after seven days,the total mortality rate of 9% (1/11).In mortality and total mortality within seven days,Gauze pad group both higher than Activated Charcoal group.The APACHE Ⅱ score,T,P and R on the third and seventh postoperative day was significantly better than the patients on the first day after surgery (P < 0.05),but activated Charcoal was better than Gauze pad group (P < 0.05) ;Gauze pad group,the average hospital stay was (89.91 ± 9.90) days,hospitalization costs for ¥ (31.92 ± 3.70) thousand ; Activated Charcoal group,the average length of stay (79.00 ± 6.83) days,hospitalization costs for ¥ (27.38 ±2.80) thousand.Gauze pad group two sets of data were higher than activated Charcoal group (P < 0.05).Conclusions In the process of lesser sac lavage after FAP,inflammatory mediators and toxins in the body's absorption and clearance,the activated Charcoal compared to mat yarn have higher efficiency,it can reduce mortality of patients.Shorter hospital stay and reduce hospital costs.%目的 探讨暴发性胰腺炎术后小网膜囊内胰腺周围填充活性炭与棉纱垫对暴发性胰腺炎治疗的效果.方法 2002年4月至2010年7月,共收治暴发性胰腺炎25例,其中男17

  17. Determination of trace triclosan in environmental water by microporous bamboo-activated charcoal solid-phase extraction combined with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Yi, Chun-Liang; Zhao, Ru-Song; Wang, Xia; Jiang, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Xi-Kui

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and efficient analytical method for triclosan (TCS) determination in water, which involves enrichment with bamboo-activated charcoal and detection with HPLC-ESI-MS, was developed. The influence of several operational parameters, including the eluant and its volume, the flow rate, the volume andacidity of the sample, and the amount of bamboo-activated charcoal, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linearity of the method was observed in the range of 0.02-20 μg/L, with correlation coefficients (r(2) ) >0.9990. The limit of detection was 0.002 μg/L based on the ratio of chromatographic signal to baseline noise (S/N = 3). The spiked recoveries of TCS in real water samples were achieved in the range of 97.6-112.5%. The proposed method was applied to analyze TCS in real aqueous samples. All the surface water samples collected in Xiaoqing River had detectable levels of TCS with concentrations of 42-197 ng/L.

  18. RoadTrip Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apple iPod系列产品最让人遗憾的地方,就是缺少对于调频收音机的支持。所以我们只好通过各种配件为它增加功能。这款RoadTrip“巧克力”,不仅能让iPod增加收音机的功能,还可以通过调频把iPod中的音乐发出出来。

  19. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Williamson, David; Bard, Edouard; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Beaufort, Luc; Cachier, Hélène

    2010-07-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles > 0.2 µm 2 remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments is quantified as black carbon (BC). The obtained pyrogenic carbon records from three sediment core-based case studies, (i) the Late Pleistocene equatorial Pacific Ocean, (ii) the mid-Holocene European Lake Lucerne, and (iii) the Late Holocene African Lake Masoko, are interpreted as proxy records of regional transportation mechanisms and biomass burning activities. The results show that the burial of dark carbon-rich particles in the 360 kyr-long record from the west equatorial Pacific is controlled by the combination of sea-level changes and low-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns (summer monsoon dynamics). However, the three fold increases in charcoal and BC sediment influxes between 53-43 and 12-10 kyr BP suggest that major shifts in fire activity occur synchronously with human colonization in the Indo/Pacific region. The coarse charcoal distribution from a 7.2 kyr record from Lake Lucerne in Switzerland closely matches the regional timing of major technical, land-use, and socio-economic changes during the Neolithic (between ca. 5.7 and 5.2 kyr BP and 4.9-4.5 kyr BP), the Bronze and Iron Ages (at ca. 3.3 and 2.4 kyr BP, respectively), and the industrialization (after AD 1838), pointing to the key impact of human activities on the sources, transportation processes and reservoirs of refractory carbon during the Holocene. In the tropical Masoko maar lake in Tanzania, where charcoal and BC records are highly sensitive to the local climate

  20. 添加木炭改善猪粪稻壳好氧堆肥工艺及质量%Improving pig manure and rice husk compost technology and quality by wood charcoal addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 张广杰; 张增强; 王权; 孙西宁

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote waste recycling and investigate the effect of hardwood-based biochar additives in the process of pig manure composting, the pig manure was mixed with rice husk and further amended with oak wood charcoal at 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0%in dry weight before being aerobically composted for 60 days. The parameters, such as temperature, water content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, C/N ratio, total nitrogen, NH4+-N, NO3--N, NH3, etc., were detected through chemical analysis. The organic matter degradation process was evaluated by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) methods. The FTIR analysis showed that the contents of the compounds with-OH,-CH3, and-CH2 groups decreased with time, while the contents of the compounds with-C=O, C-O-C,-COO, and aromatic groups increased with time during the 60 days of composting. The compost sample SEM analysis proved that the mixture particle size decreased with the progress of time and the amount of wood charcoal. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the organic carbon contents in all the treatments decreased 12.23%, 13.77%, 14.88%, 15.36%, and 15.86%, respectively; the C/N ratio decreased 47.80%, 54.98%, 56.97%, 60.03%, and 65.73%, respectively. Compared to the control, the addition of wood charcoal had no significant effect on pH variation, and the final compost pH kept the balance at 8.0. Wood charcoal addition extended high-temperature processing times by 2-5 days, increased the water contents, and decreased the EC value during composting. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the moisture content decreased 15.9%, 13.0%, 11.1%, 10.1%, and 7.8%, respectively; while the EC value in the wood charcoal added treatment were decreased 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 mS/cm than that of the control, respectively. Addition of oak wood charcoal additives could enhance the

  1. Evaluating the impact of water flotation and the state of the wood in archaeological wood charcoal remains: Implications for the reconstruction of past vegetation and identification of firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North (south Syria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz

    2016-01-01

    that in certain cases, hyper-fragmentation or complete destruction of charred plant macroremains occurs as soon as they come into contact with water. At the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) the destruction of wood charcoal remains was documented during the flotation process...

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of activated charcoal as a poison antidote by high-performance liquid chromatography. I: Derivation and validation of an equation for Gibbs free energy of liquid-solid adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, W P; Bailey, L C

    1988-06-01

    An in vitro method utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed in order to investigate the adsorptive process between activated charcoal and various drugs and toxic chemicals by measuring their Gibbs free energy of adsorption from various acetonitrile:water mobile phases. This report details the derivation and validation of the equation for calculating the Gibbs free energy of liquid-solid adsorption via HPLC. The derived equation incorporates the following experimental parameters: specific surface area of the adsorbent, specific retention volume of the solute, molar volume of the mobile phase, and surface concentration of the solute in a predefined standard state. This equation was validated by means of a closed thermodynamic cycle composed of three segments. Each segment represents a different physical process: gas-solid adsorption of methyl iodide on activated charcoal, gas-liquid solution of methyl iodide in n-hexadecane, and liquid-solid adsorption of methyl iodide on activated charcoal from n-hexadecane. The Gibbs free energy for each of these thermodynamic processes was determined by the appropriate chromatographic technique. Since the cycle did not balance because it did not account for the interaction of n-hexadecane and activated charcoal, it was altered to include a gas-liquid-solid chromatographic technique. When the Gibbs free energies of solution and gas-solid adsorption determined by this chromatographic technique were incorporated into the cycle, the resulting imbalance was only 0.213 kJ/mol (1.1%), thereby validating the derived equation.

  3. 竹炭包膜尿素的氮素释放规律和生物利用效果研究%Study on the Nitrogen Release Law of Bamboo Charcoal-coated Urea and Its Biological Utilization Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪锐琳; 朱义年; 张爱莉; 张学洪

    2007-01-01

    [Objective]The study about the nitrngen releasing law of bamboo-charcoal coated urea and the biologic utilization effect wag to find the coated urea with high efficiency,low price and simple production technology.[Method]Two kinds of bamboo-charcoal coated urea(BCCU)with different coating thickness were made by using bambon-charcoal and macromolecule polymer as coating material.The experiments of soil eluviate,ammonia volatilization in corn field and potted plant of corn were conducted to study the nitrogen releasing law and the bidngic utilization effect of self-made BCCU.[Result]The BCCU showed some slow-release capability and their accumulated nitrogen releasing rates in 29 d were 9.93%-16.27% lower than that of norlnal urea.Compared With the normal urea,the volatilization rate of ammoniain BCCU reduced to 16.66%-31.8%,the biomass of Crn and nitrogen utilization rate increased by 12.8%-24.1%and 10.5%-16.99%,respectively.[Conclusion]Bamboo-charcoal in coated urea not only had some slow-release capabjlity.but also had some adsorbability,Which would reducethe eluviation and volatilization of nitrogen and protect environment from N pollution.

  4. The Development of a Curriculum for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues for Environmental Literacy of Secondary School Students at Samaki Wittaya Municipality School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klakayan, Jagree; Singseewo, Adisak

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to (1) design a curriculum on Production of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues, (2) implement the designed curriculum, and (3) study and compare the learning achievements of Matthayomsuksa 3 students at Samakee Wittaya Municipality School in terms of knowledge, learning skills, and participation in the production of…

  5. Review of the sustainability of the forest sector to produce charcoal from planted forests; Analise da sustentabilidade do setor florestal para producao de carvao vegetal a partir de florestas plantadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Thiago Oliveira [Fundacao de Tecnologia Florestal e Geoprocessamento (NUPA/FUNTEC), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Projetos Ambientais

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the world's greater producer of charcoal and most of this production takes care of to the siderurgical sector. Thus, one understands that the Brazilian steel is produced of sustainable form. However, such sustainability is not based only on a renewable energy source. The origin of the wood for the carbonization, if proceeding from planted forests or native bushes, is crucial factor in this analysis. Beyond the ambient dimension, the sustainability of the charcoal segment also is influenced by its social, economic and technological aspects. In this context, the present article searches, through the construction and the analysis of the diagnosis of the charcoal in Brazil, to evaluate the sustainability of the sector and to consider alternatives to reach it. The current model of production of charcoal in the country is unsustainable. The main adopted systems of carbonization in Brazil are low level technological with consequent decrease production. The activity is unhealthy, beyond having many cases of enslaved and infantile work. The coal of native forests is much cheaper and the fiscalization is poor, fact that discourages its production from planted forests. But if the vegetal coal will be understood as an energy solution for the siderurgical sector measures can be taken to search a model of sustainable production. (author)

  6. Isolation and identification of dieldrin-degrading Pseudonocardia sp. strain KSF27 using a soil-charcoal perfusion method with aldrin trans-diol as a structural analog of dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Futa; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Ryota; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Sato, Yuuki; Okada, Sanae

    2011-07-22

    We isolated a novel aerobic dieldrin-degrading bacterium from an enrichment culture in a soil-charcoal perfusion system. Enrichment culture using a soil-charcoal perfusion system was an effective way to obtain microorganisms that degrade recalcitrant compounds. The soil-charcoal perfusion was performed using aldrin trans-diol, which was a metabolite of dieldrin. Aldrin trans-diol had higher bioavailability (2.5 mg/l) than dieldrin (0.1-0.25 mg/l), therefore it is possible for microorganisms to utilize it as a substrate in soil. After 100 days of circulation and three exchanges of the medium, the enriched charcoal was harvested and a bacterium isolated. The isolate was designated as strain KSF27 and was found to be closely related to Pseudonocardia spp. as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Strain KSF27 degraded aldrin trans-diol by 0.05 μmol/l from an initial concentration of 25.5 μmol/l. The metabolite of aldrin trans-diol was detected by HPLC/MS and determined to be aldrindicarboxylic acid based on retention time and the MS fragment. Moreover, strain KSF27 degraded dieldrin from 14.06 μmol/l to 2.01 μmol/l over a 10-day incubation at 30°C. This strain degraded dieldrin and other persistent organochlorine pesticides, such as α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and chlordecone.

  7. Melhoramento genético das propriedades do carvão vegetal de Eucalyptus Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus charcoal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gaspar Botrel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar os parâmetros fenotípicos, e genotípicos, e ganhos genéticos para as propriedades do carvão vegetal e selecionar clones de Eucalyptus, por meio de características do carvão vegetal, visando à otimização da sua produção e qualidade. Foram utilizados nove clones híbridos de Eucalyptus cultivados no Município de Taiobeiras, Norte de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros fenotípicos e genéticos foram estimados a partir dos quadrados médios das características avaliadas no carvão vegetal. Estimou-se o ganho genético de todas as características que apresentaram significância. O efeito de clone foi significativo quanto ao rendimento gravimétrico do carvão, rendimento em carbono fixo e densidade básica relativa aparente do carvão. O ganho genético previsto para o rendimento gravimétrico do carvão foi de 4,51% na seleção dos clones FGA-30 e FGA-49 e de 4,16% para o rendimento em carbono fixo na seleção dos clones FGA-30 e I-249. Para densidade básica relativa aparente, o ganho genético foi de 0,03% na seleção dos clones FGA-49 e FGA-34.The objectives of this work were to estimate the phenotypic and genetic parameters and genetic gains for charcoal properties, as well as to select Eucalyptus clones on the basis of charcoal characteristics. A total of nine Eucalyptus clones, cultivated in the region of Taiobeiras, Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, were analyzed. Three-meter logs were used for specimen preparation. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with three repetitions. The phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated using the expected mean squares. The genetic gain was estimated for the characteristics showing significant differences. The clone effect was significant for charcoal yield, carbon yield and apparent relative density. The obtained genetic gain predicted

  8. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram

  9. WO3-Doped TiO2 Coating on Charcoal Activated with Increase Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Properties Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Sangchay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WO3-doped TiO2 coating on charcoal activated (CA was prepared by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The samples calcined at the temperature of 500°C for 2 h with a heating rate of 10°C/min were characterized by XRD, EDS, and SEM. The photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of WO3-doped TiO2 coating on CA were investigated by means of degradation of a methylene blue (MB solution and against the bacteria E. coli, respectively. The effects of WO3 concentration were discussed. The 1% WO3-doped TiO2 coated CA seems to exhibit the higher photocatalytic and antibacterial activity than other samples. The WO3-doped TiO2 coated on CA are expected to be applied as a photocatalyst for water purification.

  10. 竹炭对水溶液中Ni(Ⅱ)的吸附%Adsorption of Ni (Ⅱ) from Aqueous Solution by Bamboo Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊春华; 吴扬

    2012-01-01

    在NaAc-HAc缓冲体系中研究竹炭对Ni(Ⅱ)的吸附规律.结果表明:介质pH、粒径大小、初始浓度、反应时间、反应温度对吸附存有影响,在298 K、pH =3.0、初始浓度C0=0.113 mg·mL-1、反应时间为24 h、竹炭粒径为0.2 ~0.4 mm等条件下,每克竹炭的静态饱和吸附量为55.57 mg;与一级动力学相比,竹炭的动态吸附过程更符合二级吸附动力学方程,吸附平衡时间为100 min;竹炭对Ni(Ⅱ)的吸附更好地符合Langmuir吸附等温线,竹炭粒径越小,吸附量越大.吸附热力学参数为:△H =8.19 kJ·mol-1,△S =78.12 J·mol-1K-1,△G298k=-15.08 kJ·mo1-1.此外,还采用红外光谱方法探讨了吸附前后相关化学官能团的变化.研究表明,竹炭可用于去除废水中Ni(Ⅱ)离子.%The adsorption behaviors of Ni( Ⅱ ) ion on bamboo charcoal were investigated with various chemical methods in NaAc-HAc buffer system. The results showed; the sorption was controled by pH, average particle size, initial ion concentration, contact time and temperature and the statically saturated adsorption capacity of bamboo charcoal is 55. 57 mg ·g-1 when the temperature was 298 K, pH was 3. 0, C0 =0. 113 mg · mL-1, contact time was 24 h, particle size was 0. 2 —0.4 mm. Compared with pseudo-first-order kinetics, the adsorption of Ni( II ) ions fitted better with pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the equilibrium time was 100 min. The adsorption of Ni (II) obeyed the Langmuir isotherm better than Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption capacity is greater, when the particle size of bamboo charcoal is smaller. The adsorption parameters of thermodynamic were △H = 8. 19 kJ · mol-1, △S =78. 12 J·mol-1 K-1 and △G298K = — 15. 08 kJ·mol-1. What' s more, the change of chemical functional groups was examined by IR spectrometry. This study demonstrated that bamboo charcoal could be used for the removal of Ni(Ⅱ) ions in water treatment.

  11. The Isothermal Equation of Adsorption in Medium-aperture Activated Charcoal%中孔活性炭吸附等温式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘银春

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of BET's adsorption theory and Yang' s adsorption theory of real gas,this paper obtains the isothermal equation of ad sorption in medium-aperture activated charcoal with the method of interpolation .The agreement between theoretical and experiment isotherms of medium-aperture is satisfied.Then ,the mechanism of isothermal eguation of adsorption is studied.%在BET吸附理论和杨氏气体吸附理论的基础上,应用内插法拟合,找到了与实验曲线相吻合 的中孔活性炭吸附等温式,并对其机理进行探讨.

  12. Progress of the effect of biomass charcoal on soil environment and crop growth%生物炭对土壤环境及作物生长影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉萍; 杨晓峰; 张兆辉; 陈春宏; 王良军

    2013-01-01

    Here we reviewed biomass charcoal's properties, the effect of biomass charcoal on soil environment and crop growth. Biomass charcoal can increase soil carbon storage capacity, improve the soil pH value, besides, it has a high surface area, high nutrient retention capacity, and high water retention capacity due to its porous structure. In a certain amount of carbon, it can increase the soil anion, cation exchange capacity, reduce nutrient loss, and change soil microbial abundance and community degradation of soil pollutants. Moreover, we reviewed the effects of biomass charcoal on crop fertilizer and fertilizer efficiency mechanism, to a certain degree, it can generally increase crop biomass and yield. Thus, adding the biomass carbon to soil can not only improve soil fertility, but also increase carbon sequestration time.%综述了生物炭(biomass charcoal)特性及其对土壤环境和作物生长的影响.生物炭可提高土壤碳库容量,提高土壤pH值,同时炭具有很大的表面积,持水性、吸附性均较强.在一定量下,施炭可增加土壤阴、阳离子交换量,减少养分损失,改变土壤微生物丰度及群落,降解土壤污染物等.此外,综述了生物炭对作物的肥效及肥效机理等,在一定范围内,能增加作物生物量和产量,因此生物质炭还田是提高土壤肥力、增加碳封存时间的有效途径.

  13. Adsorption and Desorption of Formaldehyde by "Bamboo - Charcoal Leather"%“竹炭革”对甲醛的吸附、脱附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启伟; 王桂仙; 管宁章

    2012-01-01

    研究了自制“竹炭革”对甲醛的吸附性和脱附性能。包括吸附温度、甲醛浓度对吸附平衡时间和平衡吸附量的影响;“竹炭革”用量对比吸附量和总吸附量的影响。试验结果表明:“竹炭革”不仅本身不含甲醛,而且对甲醛具有良好的吸附性,吸附后的甲醛易脱附,温度越高,其脱附效率越高。用一定量的“竹炭革”对汽车内的甲醛进行实用性吸附,取得较好的吸附效果。因此,“竹炭革”不仅具有皮革的功能,同时对环境中的有害气体有去除功效。%Adsorption and desorption properties of formaldehyde by the self-made "bamboo -charcoal leather" were studied. Parameters studied include the relations among adsorption amount, equilibrium time and adsorption temperature, formaldehyde concentration etc. The relations among adsorption amount and "bamboo - charcoal leather" amount were studied. Results show that "bamboo - charcoal leather" does not contain formaldehyde, it has a good adsorption ability for formaldehyde. Desorption of formaldehyde is easy, the efficiency of desorption increased with increases in temperatures. Adsorption text of formaldehyde by certain amount of "bamboo - charcoal leather" were studied in car, and achieved better results. Therefore, the" bamboo - charcoal leather" has a good function of the leather, and has a good function of removal harmful gases moreover

  14. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  15. 咖啡炭改性涤纶混纺织物的开发%Development of Coffee Charcoal Modified Polyester Fiber Blended Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永凤; 孙晶; 孙瑞芙

    2013-01-01

    Production points of coffee charcoal modified polyester fiber blended fabric were discussed.Coffee charcoal modified polyester fiber and yarn quality index were introduced.According to fabric design property,processing principle of middle tension and elongation was adopted in warping process.Processing line of double-dip double-pressure was adopted and S432 sizing machine was used,sizing instruction was optimized.Warp shed line was adjusted rationally in weaving process,loom speed is 575 r/min,finally loom efficiency can be reached above 80%.After testing,thermal insulation and antibacterial function of the fabric is better.%探讨咖啡炭改性涤纶混纺织物的生产要点.介绍了咖啡炭改性涤纶纤维及其成纱的质量指标.针对织物设计特点,整经工序采取中张力,中伸长的工艺原则;浆纱工序采用S432型浆纱机以及双浸双压的工艺路线,并优化浆料配方;织造工序合理调整经位置线,织机速度采用575 r/min,最终使织机效率达到80%以上.经检测,织物具有较好的抑菌、保温等功能.

  16. Occupational exposure to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: desorption from activated charcoal using accelerated solvent extraction can replace carbon disulfide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero

    2013-01-01

    A desorption study of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been conducted by use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different solvents were tested to extract activated charcoal tubes with the objective of replacing carbon disulfide, used in official methods, because of its highly toxic health and environmental effects. Extraction conditions, for example temperature and number of cycles, were investigated and optimized. The definitive extraction procedure selected was use of acetone at 150 °C and two consecutive extraction cycles at a pressure of 1,500 psi. Considering a sample volume of 0.005 Nm(3), corresponding to a sampling time of 8 h at a flow rate of 0.01 L min(-1), the method was validated over the concentration range 65-26,300 μg Nm(-3). The lowest limit of quantification was 6 μg Nm(-3), and recovery for the 93 % of analytes ranged from 65 to 102 %. For most of the compounds, relative standard deviations were less than 15 % for inter and intra-day precision. Uncertainty of measurement was also determined: the relative expanded uncertainty was always below 29.6 %, except for dichlorodifluoromethane. This work shows that use of friendlier solvent, for example acetone, coupled with use of ASE, can replace use of CS(2) for chemical removal of VOCs from activated charcoal. ASE has several advantages over traditional solvent-extraction methods, including shorter extraction time, minimum sample manipulation, high reproducibility, and less extraction discrimination. No loss of sensitivity occurs and there is also a salutary effect on bench workers' health and on the smell of laboratory air.

  17. Characteristics of charcoal fines obtained by rapid pyrolysis process of elephant grass in fluidized bed in different operation conditions; Caracteristicas dos finos de carvao vegetal obtido pelo processo de pirolise rapida de capim elefante em leito fluidizado em diferentes condicoes de operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a study about the effect of excess air and the inert fixed bed height upon the characteristics of fine charcoal particles and the main reactor parameters. The pyrolysis process is considered as a method to concentrate carbon in fine charcoal particles and a method to reduce oxygen content in the biomass.The study concludes that the operation point which gives the highest percentage if carbon fine charcoal particles and reduces the most the oxygen in biomass corresponds to a fixed bed height of 207 mm and excess air of 8%. (author)

  18. Fe3+/TiO2改性竹炭催化降解甲醛%Catalytic Degradation of Formaldehyde with Fe3+/TiO2 Modified Bamboo Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文标

    2012-01-01

    In this study, bamboo charcoal was modified with Fe3+/TiO2 through percolation and high-temperature roasting treatments, and the final product was characterized by SEM and XRD. In the above-mentioned process, bamboo charcoal powder was used as carrier, and TiO2 sol was prepared by a sol-gel method and then intermingled wilh Fe 3+ . Both a single factor test and an orthogonal experiment were applied in the investigation to explore the effects of the baking temperature, the Fe 3+ content and the number of loading layers on the removal rate of formaldehyde. Based on the data analysis, an optimum process of Fe3+/TiO2 modified bamboo charcoal was then determined. The results showed that bamboo charcoal,TiO2 sol and Fe 3+ can be well compounded according to SEM observation and XRD analysis. Among the three chosen factors, baking temperature had the most significant effect on the formaldehyde removal rate. The optimal preparation parameters for the modified bamboo charcoal were as follows: the baking temperature was 450 ℃ , the number of load layers were 2, and the Fe content was 1% to achieve the highest formaldehyde removal rate of 61% . This rate is higher than those of bamboo charcoal itself, and modified bamboo charcoal with TiO2 only, which indicates that bamboo charcoal,Fe3+ and TiO2 have a synergistic reaction driving the degradation of formaldehyde.%以竹炭为载体,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备TiO2溶胶,并掺杂Fe3+,经浸渍过滤和高温焙烧制备Fe3+/TiO2改性竹炭,并用SEM和XRD进行表征.采用单因素和正交组合试验探究焙烧温度、Fe3+掺杂量、负载层数三因子对改性竹炭去除甲醛效果的影响,从而确定制备Fe3 +/TiO2改性竹炭的最优工艺.从SEM和XRD图谱表征可知,竹炭、TiO2溶胶和Fe3+三者之间能够较好地复合在一起.三因子中焙烧温度因子最为显著,其次是负载层数和Fe3+掺杂量.制备Fe3+/TiO2改性竹炭最佳工艺参数为焙烧温度450℃、负载层数2层、Fe3

  19. Adsorption–photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yin [Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal is prepared using a microwave-assisted sol–gel method. • HA degradation is achieved through synergistic BC adsorption and ZnO-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC has high photodegradation efficiency for HA under visible-light irradiation. • ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC is an effective photocatalyst for the removal of organic pollutants from water. -- Abstract: ZnO coupled TiO{sub 2}/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC) was prepared using the sol–gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO{sub 2} to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO{sub 2} particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO{sub 2}/BC was higher than that of TiO{sub 2}/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC and TiO{sub 2}/BC fitted well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO{sub 2}/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  20. Study on characteristics of elemental mercury adsorption by bamboo charcoal%竹炭脱除单质汞的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭增强; 邱建荣; 苏胜; 向军

    2012-01-01

    为了寻求廉价、高效的脱汞吸附剂,总结了竹炭的来源、制备方法、竹炭(BC)的性质以及竹炭的应用现状,并将其应用在燃煤大气污染物汞的脱除上.在小型燃煤烟气汞脱除实验台上和模拟烟气气氛下研究了低温下BC对汞吸附性能的影响因素.实验结果表明:BC对汞有较强的吸附能力,BC粒径减小增大了BC表面积和孔容,这有利于物理吸附脱汞;吸附剂质量与流量比值(W/F)的增加延长了汞与BC的接触时间,非常利于汞的吸附脱除;BC的脱汞效率随汞浓度的增大而降低;BC对汞的吸附脱除存在着最佳反应温度,实验发现60℃为最佳脱除温度;氧气会促进单质汞的氧化,从而进一步提高BC脱除汞的能力.%The purpose of the present study was to develop cost-effective carbon-based sorbent using commercial bamboo charcoal (BC) which was produced from renewable bamboo precursor. The source, preparation methods, properties and application status of bamboo charcoal were summarized. The adsorptive potential of BC for elemental mercury was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed. The effect of temperature, W/F, initial concentration and oxygen on mercury removal were analyzed. The results show that BC has strong adsorption capacity for mercury. The decrease of particle size of BC increases its BET surface area and pore volume, which can enhance its physisorption ability for elemental mercury. The increase of W/F prolongs the residence time of elemental mercury, thus improves the removal efficiency of elemental mercury. The increase of concentration of inlet mercury decreases the removal efficiency of elemental mercury. There is a best reaction temperature for the adsorption of mercury, and 60 ℃ is found to be the optimal reaction temperature. The presence of oxygen can oxidize elemental mercury and further increase the adsorption ability for

  1. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandraboss, V.L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S., E-mail: dr_senthilvel@yahoo.co.in

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Particle size and band gap of TiO{sub 2} is decreased upon Bi doping. • Methylene blue is successfully degraded over Bi/TiO{sub 2} and AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2}. • AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} is more active photocatalyst than TiO{sub 2} and Bi/TiO{sub 2}. • AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} led to a maximum extension of the spectral wavelength. • AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} with enhanced photocatalytic activity produced much more reactive ·OH. - Abstract: In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi{sup 3+} into the TiO{sub 2} lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO{sub 2} to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO{sub 2}. AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO{sub 2} and undoped TiO{sub 2} for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi{sup 3+} has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO{sub 2}. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2}. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by

  2. Surface Modification, Surface Groups Characterization and Adsorption Properties of Bamboo-Charcoal%竹炭的表面改性、基团表征与吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启伟; 王桂仙

    2012-01-01

    Surface of ordinary bamboo-charcoal was pretreated with nitric acid and microwave heating,ammonia. Fourier transform infrared( FTIR) spectrometer, elemental analysis measurements demonstrate that the contents of O-containing groups and N-containing groups on the bamboo-charcoal surface increase via HNO3 and NH3 · H20 treatment. Results showed of adsorption that adsorption capacity of the modified bamboo-charcoal for metal ions were elevated remarkably. Among them, the mercury(Ⅱ) adsorption capacity increased by 25% , and palladium(Ⅱ) adsorption capacity increased by 32% or more. And the adsorption process was changed from the physical adsorption to the chemical adsorption. This study will expanded the applications of bamboo charcoal, and become into functional adsorption material.%通过硝酸+微波加热和氨水吸附的方法对普通竹炭进行表面改性处理,运用红外图谱和元素分析对改性前后的竹炭进行表征.结果表明:含氧基团和含氮基团的含量明显增加.吸附试验结果表明:改性后竹炭对金属离子的吸附性能明显提高,其中,汞(Ⅱ)的吸附量提高25%以上,钯(Ⅱ)的吸附量提高32%以上,且吸附过程从以物理吸附为主转化为以化学吸附为主.

  3. Use pretreated active charcoal to confect metronidazole injection for avoiding precipitating after sterilization%用预处理活性炭配制甲硝唑注射液避免灭菌后沉淀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚金泉; 费国良; 杨水新

    2001-01-01

    目的为了解决甲硝唑注射液贮存时出现的浑浊现象,提高甲硝唑注射液的稳定性。方法活性炭预处理:取一级注射用炭,经湿润,加水煮沸,用钛滤棒2除去水分,干燥,120℃活化2h。用经预处理活性炭来配制甲硝唑注射液。结果用经预处理活性炭配制的甲硝唑注射液放置1年后仍未出现甲硝唑注射液浑浊现象。结论用预处理活性炭配制甲硝唑注射液可提高其稳定性,防止成品出现浑浊。%Obiective To deal with the problem of rpecipitation when keeping metronidazole injection and improve the stability of the metronicdazole injection.Method The first class injectable charcoal are pretreated through a series of programmes,and the pretreated active charcoal is used to confect the metronidazole injection.Resule There never find any precipitation in metronidazole injection confected with pretreated active charcoal during the period when it is kept for one year.Conclusion It can improve the stability of metronidazole injection and keep the finished product from precipitating when the injection is confected with pretreated active charcoal.

  4. Sensitive determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction with bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black fibers prior to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Long; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples. Bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black was prepared and used as a solid-phase microextraction coating material, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used for detection. Several important factors affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the experimental data exhibited wide linear range over the range 0.2-1000 ng/L and low limits of detection in the range of 4.7-22.2 pg/L. The novel coating was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in real environmental water samples. All these results indicated that bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black-based headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was an excellent alternative for the sensitive analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls at ultratrace levels in the environment.

  5. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  6. 颗粒状复合炭肥的生产设想%Thought on the Production of Granular Charcoal-Based Compound Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔亦周

    2013-01-01

    Given the current situation of human living environment and development conditions of fertilizer industry , the paper proposes the production of a kind of granular charcoal-based compound fertilizer and analyzes its characteristics as well as feasibility of its production and market promotion . The newly developed fertilizer is not only conductive to reducing CO 2 emission and purifying underground water system , but also improving barren soil and raising utilization ratio of chemical fertilizer.By effectively using plant straw , negative effect caused by straw returning to soil or direct burning could be reduced .%从人类生存环境和化肥行业发展现状出发,设想了一种颗粒状复合炭肥,并分析了该肥料的特点及其生产和推广的可行性。颗粒状复合炭肥不仅有利于CO2减排、净化地下水系,而且可以改良贫瘠土壤、提高化肥养分利用率等,并可有效利用植物秸秆,从而减少植物秸秆还田或直接焚烧所带来的危害。

  7. Process for purification of monoclonal antibody expressed in transgenic Lemna plant extract using dextran-coated charcoal and hexamer peptide affinity resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Amith D; Menegatti, Stefano; Reese, Hannah R; Gurgel, Patrick V; Carbonell, Ruben G

    2012-10-19

    The production of therapeutic proteins using transgenic plants offers several advantages, including low production cost, absence of human pathogens, presence of glycosylation mechanisms, and the ability to fold complex therapeutic proteins into their proper conformation. However, impurities such as phenolic compounds and pigments encountered during purification are quite different from those faced during purification from mammalian cell culture supernatants. This paper deals with the development of a pretreatment and affinity separation process for the purification of a monoclonal antibody from transgenic Lemna plant extract. A pretreatment step is described using dextran-coated charcoal for the removal of pigments and phenolic compounds without reducing the antibody concentration. Then, the peptide affinity ligand HWRGWV coupled to a commercial polymethacrylate resin is used for the capture and purification of MAb from the pretreated plant extract. The final yield and purity of the MAb obtained were 90% and 96% respectively. The performance of the hexamer peptide resin after the pretreatment step was found to be similar to that obtained with a commercial Protein A resin.

  8. Restoring the selectivity of modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar for the isolation of Campylobacter species using tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; McGill, Kevina; Gibbons, James; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli have emerged as a contaminant on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) when attempting to selectively isolate Campylobacter spp. from poultry. E. coli are particularly problematic given their ability to grow under microaerophilic conditions and have been shown to outcompete Campylobacter species making Campylobacter detection or enumeration difficult. This paper recommends a novel method for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA using tazobactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The method significantly inhibited ESBL E. coli growth in spiked or naturally contaminated broiler caecal samples (p≤0.01) when compared to conventional mCCDA. This effect was seen at concentrations as low as 1mg/L tazobactam. TmCCDA(1) was found to inhibit up to 8 log10 CFU/mL of ESBL E. coli in mixed pure cultures and 7.5 log10 CFU/mL in caecal samples. Furthermore TmCCDA concentrations up to 10 mg/L had no statistically significant inhibitory effect (p≥0.05) on the recovery of a panel of 27 Campylobacter jejuni and 5 Campylobacter coli isolates when compared to conventional mCCDA. From this study it is suggested that tazobactam, which is more chemically stable than clavulanic acid or sulbactam, is more suitable for restoring the selectivity of mCCDA for the detection or isolation of campylobacters.

  9. Mineralization of melamine and cyanuric acid as sole nitrogen source by newly isolated Arthrobacter spp. using a soil-charcoal perfusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Sakakibara, Futa; Ito, Koji; Takasu, Eiichi; Naokawa, Takuji; Fujii, Kunihiko

    2015-05-01

    Melamine belongs to the s-triazine family, and industrially used as raw product in many ways all over the world. Melamine has been reported for human harmful effects and detected from some crops, soil and water. To remove melamine from the polluted environment, the efficient melamine-mineralizing microorganisms have been needed. We newly isolated three melamine-degrading bacteria from the same upland soil sample using soil-charcoal perfusion method. These bacteria were classified as Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP and Microbacterium sp. ZEL by 16S rRNA genes sequencing analysis. Both Arthrobacter species completely degraded melamine within 2 days, and consumed melamine as a sole nitrogen source. Both strains also grew in cyanuric acid as sole nitrogen source, and released small quantities of ammonium ions. These strains are the first identified bacteria that can mineralize both melamine and cyanuric acid as sole initial nitrogen source in Arthrobacter sp. Although ammeline and ammelide intermediates were detected, these strains possess none of the known genes encoding melamine degrading enzymes. Since the Arthrobacter strains also degraded melamine in a high pH liquid medium, they present as potential bioremediation agents in melamine-polluted environments.

  10. Mesoporous Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles as a New Near-Infrared Responsive Drug Carrier for Imaging-Guided Chemotherapy/Photothermal Synergistic Therapy of Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinghua; Yin, Wenyan; Yu, Jie; Dou, Ruixia; Bao, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Yan, Liang; Yong, Yuan; Su, Chunjian; Wang, Qing; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2016-07-01

    Near-infrared-(NIR)-light-triggered photothermal nanocarriers have attracted much attention for the construction of more smart and effective therapeutic platforms in nanomedicine. Here, a multifunctional drug carrier based on a low cost, natural, and biocompatible material, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs), which are prepared by the pyrolysis of bamboo followed by physical grinding and ultrasonication is reported. The as-prepared BCNPs with porous structure possess not only large surface areas for drug loading but also an efficient photothermal effect, making them become both a suitable drug carrier and photothermal agent for cancer therapy. After loading doxorubicin (DOX) into the BCNPs, the resulting DOX-BCNPs enhance drug potency and more importantly can overcome the drug resistance of DOX in a MCF-7 cancer cell model by significantly increasing cellular uptake while remarkably decreasing drug efflux. The in vivo synergistic effect of combining chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in this drug delivery system is also demonstrated. In addition, the BCNPs enhance optoacoustic imaging contrast due to their high NIR absorbance. Collectively, it is demonstrated that the BCNP drug delivery system constitutes a promising and effective nanocarrier for simultaneous bioimaging and chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of cancer.

  11. Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Preconcentration Using the Biomass of Aspergillus niger Loaded on Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahlaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and sensitive method for determination of total arsenic in drinking water sample by ETAAS after solid phase preconcentration has been developed. The dead biomass of A. niger loaded on activated charcoal has been applied as bioadsorbent for preconcentration step. The effects of parameters such as pH, type and concentration of eluent, biosorption time, sample volume, and effect of interfering ions have also been studied. Under the optimum condition, the enrichment factor of 10 for the analyte has been obtained. The accuracy of the method has been investigated by the recovery of spiked standards and the recovery percents between 99 and 102% have been achieved. Total amount of arsenic was determined by reducing As (V to As (III with potassium iodide (KI and ascorbic acid in HCl solution. Under the optimum conditions, for 400 mL of drinking water samples, the detection limit (3σ and linear range were achieved 1 ng/mL and 5–100 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation for ten determinations of a spiked sample with concentration of 10 ng/mL As was 3.2%.

  12. Preparation of highly developed mesoporous activated carbon fiber from liquefied wood using wood charcoal as additive and its adsorption of methylene blue from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Junyan; Yu, Lili; Liu, Xinyan

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon fiber (C-WACF) with super high surface area and well-developed small mesopores were prepared by liquefied wood and uses wood charcoal (WC) as additive. The characterization and properties of C-WACF were investigated by XRD, XPS and N2 adsorption. Results showed the pore development was significant at temperatures >750°C, and reached a maximum BET surface area (2604.7 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (1.433 cm(3)/g) at 850°C, of which 86.8% was from the contribution of the small mesopores of 2-4 nm. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of C-WACF were highly increased as the temperature increases from 750 to 850°C. Additionally, the reduction of graphitic layers, the obvious changes of functional groups and the more unstable carbons on the surface of C-WACF, which played important roles in the formation of mesopores, were also observed.

  13. Preparation and characterization of functional fabrics from bamboo charcoal/silver and titanium dioxide/silver composite powders and evaluation of their antibacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fu-Chu, E-mail: yfc580629@yahoo.com.tw [Army Command Headquarters, MND, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hui [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jen-Wei [Department of Physics, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Horng, Deng-Nan; Liang, Chia-Feng [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Ming-Kuan [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) and titanium dioxide supporting silver (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) were prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution and antibacterial properties. The pore and surface properties were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered. Moreover, these composite powders were deposited via immersion coating onto fabrics (nonwoven and carbon fibers) to improve the antibacterial efficacy and to act as a biologically-protective material. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics supported by BC/Ag and TiO{sub 2}/Ag were studied in zone of inhibition and plate counting tests against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ME/GM/TC Resistant, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosae (CTZ and EM and GM) Res. Clin. Isol., Escherichia coli Juhl, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that fabric-BC/Ag and fabric-TiO{sub 2}/Ag possess a strong antibacterial activity and an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bacteria and are therefore believed to have great potential for use as antibacterial fabrics.

  14. Combining charcoal sediment and molecular markers to infer a Holocene fire history in the Maya Lowlands of Petén, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, Simon; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Colombaroli, Daniele; Beffa, Giorgia; Radaelli, Marta; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation changes in the Maya Lowlands during the Holocene are a result of changing climate conditions, solely anthropogenic activities, or interactions of both factors. As a consequence, it is difficult to assess how tropical ecosystems will cope with projected changes in precipitation and land-use intensification over the next decades. We investigated the role of fire during the Holocene by combining macroscopic charcoal and the molecular fire proxies levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Combining these two different fire proxies allows a more robust understanding of the complex history of fire regimes at different spatial scales during the Holocene. In order to infer changes in past biomass burning, we analysed a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, and compared our results with millennial-scale vegetation and climate change available in the area. We detected three periods of high fire activity during the Holocene: 9500-6000 cal yr BP, 3700 cal yr BP and 2700 cal yr BP. We attribute the first maximum mostly to climate conditions and the last maximum to human activities. The rapid change between burned vegetation types at the 3700 cal yr BP fire maximum may result from human activity.

  15. Oral DAV131, a Charcoal-Based Adsorbent, Inhibits Intestinal Colonization by β-Lactam-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Cefotaxime-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massias, Laurent; Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Sayah-Jeanne, Sakina; Ducrot, Nicolas; Chachaty, Elisabeth; de Gunzburg, Jean; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract, such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, disrupt the indigenous microflora, affect colonization resistance (CR), and promote intestinal colonization by resistant bacteria. We tested whether oral DAV131, a charcoal-based adsorbent, would prevent colonization by a cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (PUG-2) in CTX-treated mice. Mice received CTX, saline, CTX and DAV131, or saline and DAV131 for 3 days before oral challenge with 106 CFU of PUG-2. The fecal CTX concentrations and counts of PUG-2 were assayed. Fecal CTX disappeared when DAV131 was given concomitantly with CTX (P < 0.05), and the area under the curve of PUG-2 fecal density was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In conclusion, reducing intestinal antibiotic exposure with DAV131 may reduce colonization by resistant strains during treatment compared to treatment with CTX only. This might open new possibilities for decreasing the impact of antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota during treatments. PMID:23959311

  16. Mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose, and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Fires in terrestrial ecosystems produce large amounts of charcoal that persist in the environment and represent a substantial pool of sequestered carbon in soil. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on mid-infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred organic matter in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark, and pine wood) and char from these materials, created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450 ??C), were studied. Mid-infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols as determined by titration) were determined for 56 different samples (not all samples were charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature, and duration of charring. Despite the wide range of spectral changes seen with the differing materials and length/temperature of charring, partial least squares calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols were successfully created (coefficient of determination and root mean squared deviation of 0.970 and 0.380; 0.933 and 0.227; 0.976 and 0.120; and 0.982 and 0.101 meq/g, respectively), indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific material or condition of char formation. ?? 2008 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  17. Electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process using a new type of nanosized TiO₂/activated charcoal plate electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil; Khataee, Alireza; Alipour, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an activated charcoal (AC) plate was prepared by physical activation method. Its surface was coated with TiO₂ nanoparticles by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined approximately 28 nm. The nature of prepared electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement before and after immobilization. The electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process was investigated in degradation of Lanasol Red 5B (LR5B), and the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte concentration, pH, voltage, and contact time was optimized and modeled using response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The dye concentration of 30 mg L(-1), Na₂SO₄ concentration of 4.38 g L(-1), pH of 4, voltage of 250 mV, and contact time of 120 min were determined as optimum conditions. Decolorization efficiency increased in combined process to 85.65% at optimum conditions compared to 66.03% in TiO₂/AC photocatalytic, 20.09% in TiO₂/AC electrosorption, and 1.91% in AC photocatalytic processes.

  18. Treatment of fulminant hepatic failure with infusions of Co-factors and mannitol and charcoal-hemoperfusions during Forty-one days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölen, H; Bianchi, L; Ulrich, J; Heierli, C; Ritz, R

    1979-09-17

    The clinical course of a 26 year old female patient with acute liver necrosis and coma due to hepatitis B is reported. The disturbances of conciousness had improved. The patient survived 41 days after the beginning of the coma and developed liver cell regeneration and an acute post-hepatitic liver cirrhosis. As a grave complication a septicemia with aspergillus was observed. The patient died because of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. At autopsy there were no signs of brain edema. The treatment consisted in: daily infusions with coenzyme A, nicotinamid-adenin-dinucleotide, alpha lipoic acid and cocarboxylase to improve the metabolic disorders and the clinical picture; mannitol intravenously to prevent and to treat cerebral edema; 33 charcoal-hemoperfusions to remove toxic substances of acute liver failure. Treatment of the aspergillus infection with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericine B and infusion of concentrated ascites led to a decompensation of liver functions. From this observation the following conclusions can be drawn: after an acute viral hepatic necrosis, new synthetic functions and improvements of the disturbed intermediary metabolism in regenerated liver-cells can eventually be seen only after twenty-four to thirty days. With systematically applicated mannitol infusions it is possible to treat cerebral edema effectively.

  19. Oral DAV131, a charcoal-based adsorbent, inhibits intestinal colonization by β-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in cefotaxime-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Nathalie; Massias, Laurent; Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Sayah-Jeanne, Sakina; Ducrot, Nicolas; Chachaty, Elisabeth; de Gunzburg, Jean; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract, such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, disrupt the indigenous microflora, affect colonization resistance (CR), and promote intestinal colonization by resistant bacteria. We tested whether oral DAV131, a charcoal-based adsorbent, would prevent colonization by a cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (PUG-2) in CTX-treated mice. Mice received CTX, saline, CTX and DAV131, or saline and DAV131 for 3 days before oral challenge with 10(6) CFU of PUG-2. The fecal CTX concentrations and counts of PUG-2 were assayed. Fecal CTX disappeared when DAV131 was given concomitantly with CTX (P < 0.05), and the area under the curve of PUG-2 fecal density was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In conclusion, reducing intestinal antibiotic exposure with DAV131 may reduce colonization by resistant strains during treatment compared to treatment with CTX only. This might open new possibilities for decreasing the impact of antibiotics on the intestinal microbiota during treatments.

  20. Paracetamol biodegradation by activated sludge and photocatalysis and its removal by a micelle-clay complex, activated charcoal, and reverse osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Rafik; Khamis, Mustafa; Abbadi, Jehad; Amro, Ahmad; Qurie, Mohannad; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Ayyash, Fatima; Hamarsheh, Omar; Yaqmour, Reem; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Lerman, Sofia; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic studies on the stability of the pain killer paracetamol in Al-Quds activated sludge demonstrated that paracetamol underwent biodegradation within less than one month to furnish p-aminophenol in high yields. Characterizations of bacteria contained in Al-Quds sludge were accomplished. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the bacterium most responsible for the biodegradation of paracetamol to p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. Batch adsorptions of paracetamol and its biodegradation product (p-aminophenol) by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (octadecyltrimethylammonium)-clay (montmorillonite) were determined at 25°C. Adsorption was adequately described by a Langmuir isotherm, and indicated better efficiency of removal by the micelle-clay complex. The ability of bench top reverse osmosis (RO) plant as well as advanced membrane pilot plant to remove paracetamol was also studied at different water matrixes to test the effect of organic matter composition. The results showed that at least 90% rejection was obtained by both plants. In addition, removal of paracetamol from RO brine was investigated by using photocatalytic processes; optimal conditions were found to be acidic or basic pH, in which paracetamol degraded in less than 5 min. Toxicity studies indicated that the effluent and brine were not toxic except for using extra low energy membrane which displayed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC-50) value of 80%.

  1. Comfort and Functional Properties of Far-Infrared/Anion-Releasing Warp-Knitted Elastic Composite Fabrics Using Bamboo Charcoal, Copper, and Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastic warp-knitted composite fabrics with far-infrared emissivity and an anion-releasing property were prepared using bamboo charcoal (BC, copper (Cu, and phase-change material (PCM. The functional composite fabric, which was composed of self-made complex yarns with various twisting degrees and material composition, were created using a rotor twister and ring-spinning technique. The fabric structure was diversified by the feeding modes of weft yarn into a crochet-knitting machine. The twist number of complex yarns was optimized by tensile tenacity, twist contraction, and hairiness, and analysis showed that twisting at 12 twists per inch produced the highest tensile tenacity and appropriate twist contraction and hairiness. Comfort evaluation showed that the elastic composite fabrics with BC weft yarns exhibited higher water–vapor transmission rate and air permeability, reaching 876 g/m2∙ day and 73.2 cm3/s/cm2, respectively. Three structures of composite fabric with various weft yarns had >0.85 ε far-infrared emissivity and 350–420 counts/cm3 anion amount. The prepared elastic warp-knitted fabrics can provide a comfortable, dry, and breathable environment to the wearer and can thus be applied as health-care textiles in the future.

  2. Adsorption-photodegradation of humic acid in water by using ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiang; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Yin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Bu, Yunjie; Zhao, Jianfu

    2013-11-15

    ZnO coupled TiO2/bamboo charcoal (ZnO-TiO2/BC) was prepared using the sol-gel method combined with microwave irradiation. The ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption (BET), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS). The ZnO dopant promoted the transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile phase, and a significant red shift of absorption edge was brought out due to the interfacial coupling effect between ZnO and TiO2 particles. The BET specific surface area and total pore volume decreased with ZnO doping, indicating that some micropores were blocked. SEM studies indicated that ZnO was almost uniformly deposited on the surface of the ZnO-TiO2/BC. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that the photo-degrade efficiency for Zno-TiO2/BC was higher than that of TiO2/BC, and for both composites, the removal efficiency of HA increased as pH decreased from 10.0 to 2.0. The degradation of HA by ZnO-TiO2/BC and TiO2/BC fitted well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics model, and HA degradation was achieved through a synergistic mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis. ZnO-TiO2/BC could be used as an effective and alternative photocatalyst for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  3. Cultivo de embriões imaturos de citros em diferentes concentrações de carvão ativado e ácido giberélico Activated charcoal and giberellic acid concentrations on immature embryos culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adição de carvão ativado e giberelina no meio de cultura podem proporcionar melhores condições no desenvolvimento de embriões imaturos de citros. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de carvão ativado e GA3 (ácido giberélico no cultivo de embriões imaturos provenientes do cruzamento entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'Poncã'. Após 118 dias da polinização, frutos imaturos, com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro, foram coletados, suas sementes removidas e tratadas com álcool (70% por cinco minutos, hipoclorito de sódio (2% por 20 minutos e, posteriormente, lavadas três vezes em água destilada e autoclavada. Em condições assépticas, os tegumentos das sementes foram separados, os embriões globulares excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio MT, acrescido de carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 g L-1 e GA3 (0; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 mg L-1. Após a inoculação, os embriões permaneceram por 90 dias em sala de crescimento a 27+1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 mmol m-2 s-1. Maior comprimento da parte aérea foi obtido em meio MT, acrescido de 0,1 e 1 mg L-1 de GA3, combinado com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Maior comprimento do sistema radicular, massa da matéria fresca e número de folhas de plântulas foram obtidos em meio MT, acrescido de 0,01 mg L-1 de GA3, na ausência de carvão ativado. A adição de carvão ativado influenciou na concentração de ácido giberélico acrescido no meio de cultura.Activated charcoal and gibberelin provides better conditions on development of citrus immature embryos. Activated charcoal and GA3 (gibberelic acid on 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange x 'Poncã' mandarin immature embryos culture was evaluated. After 118 days-pollination, imature fruits with 3 to 4 cm of diameter were collected, seeds removed and treated with alcohol (70% for five min., sodium hypoclorite (2% for 20 min. and three times washed with distilled and autoclaved water. In aseptic conditions, the teguments

  4. Análise longitudinal dos preços do carvão vegetal, no Estado de Minas Gerais Longitudinal analysis of wood charcoal prices in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O carvão vegetal é um recurso energético renovável, sendo um dos insumos básicos responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento das indústrias de base florestal no Brasil. O Estado de Minas Gerais é o maior produtor e consumidor desse produto. No presente estudo, dedicou-se à análise das séries longitudinais dos preços do metro cúbico de carvão vegetal, no Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando os preços médios pagos por metro cúbico, publicados pela ABRACAVE. Para a análise da série, considerou-se o modelo SARIMA, com o objetivo de encontrar os parâmetros que forneçam melhores previsões de preço. Consideraram-se os preços do período de janeiro de 1975 a dezembro de 2002, para ajustar o modelo e o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2003 para validação das projeções. A escolha do modelo mais adequado se baseou nas análises gráficas, nos testes estocásticos e nos critérios de avaliação da ordem do modelo. Entre os modelos estudados, o SARIMA (2,0,1(0,1,112 proporcionou melhor ajuste e de forma parcimoniosa. Apesar de ter ocorrido um fator aleatório que distorceu os valores reais dos preços do carvão vegetal, as projeções fornecidas pelo modelo ficaram dentro dos limites de significância estabelecidos.Wood charcoal is a renewable energetic resource responsible for the development of the forest key industries in Brazil. The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal. This study analyzed the longitudinal series of charcoal prices, in the State of Minas Gerais. Average m³ of charcoal prices published by ABRACAVE was used. For analyzing the series, it was used the SARIMA model, in order to find the parameters and to supply better forecasts for charcoal prices. The period from January 1975 to December 2002 was considered to adjust the model and the period from January to December of 2003 for validating the projections of the model. The choice of the most appropriate model was based on graphical

  5. 硝酸处理对竹炭曝气生物滤池性能的影响%The Influence of Nitric Acid Modification on Aerated Bio-filter with Bamboo Charcoal as Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗舒君

    2015-01-01

    以硝酸处理竹炭作为曝气生物滤池填料,通过研究硝酸处理对竹炭吸附性能、表面官能团等的影响,考查硝酸处理竹炭对反应器性能的影响.结果表明,硝酸处理后竹炭表面含氧官能团增加,有利于微生物的附着,仅4d就完成挂膜, 反应器对有机负荷具有良好的去除能力, 在COD负荷为1.8和4.8 kg/(m3·d) 时, 平均去除率分别为83.3%和79.4%.%In this study, the influence of nitric acid modification on the adsorption performance and the surface functional groups of the bamboo charcoal was investigated. After that, the modified bamboo charcoal was employed as the bio-filter for wastewater treatment to study its performance on dealing with organic matter. The results indicated that the nitric acid modification increased surface oxygen functional groups of bamboo charcoal. The modification also promoted the growing of the microorganism, and shortened the mature period of bio-film to 4 days. The reactor was good at COD treatment. On condition that COD volume loaded of system was 1.8 and 4.8 kg/(m3·d), the removal efficiency can reached to 83.3%and 79.4%, respectively.

  6. Effect of Activated Charcoals and a Coupled Biochar on Growth of Crops%活性木炭材料及生物耦合炭对植物生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余仲东; 任争争; 彭少兵; 张帅

    2014-01-01

    选用活性石炭、椰壳活性炭和杉木活性炭3种活性木炭与杨凌地区3种不同利用型土壤(农耕土、雪松林下土和桃园土)组合测定生菜种苗萌发情况。然后用筛选出的杉木活性炭与内生细菌Bacillus sp.进行耦合,并测定该耦合炭的制备条件及对小麦生长的影响。结果表明:3种类型的土壤对生菜胚根均有一定的化感抑制作用,活性木炭及活性木炭-土壤交互作用对生菜生长影响差异显著,以杉木活性炭对农耕土和老桃园土改良效果显著,胚轴/胚根净炭作用率分别为178.8%/90.9%、178.9%/106.1%,酸性的活性石炭对雪松林下土生菜胚轴的生长有轻微抑制作用,净炭作用率为-120.7%。在此基础上,筛选出优良杉木活性木炭,并与内生细菌Bacillus sp.在40℃下热耦合30 min,再在27℃恒温培养1 d,获得优良的生物耦合炭。该生物耦合炭有较强的土壤持水能力,对小麦在质量分数为1%的高盐浓度下生长有显著促进作用。1250 g农耕土,加入3 g耦合炭处理组10 d高度生长促进率最大(37.3%,α=0.05);加入6 g耦合炭处理组20 d生物量促进率最大(18.8%,α=0.05),6 g处理组对小麦生长促进效果最好。%Seedlings growth of Chinese lettuce were dated under combination of 3 kinds of activated charcoal and 3 use patterns of soil respectively in Yangling region. An activated fir charcoal was picked up for making coupled biochar with endophytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. , and the coupled fir biochar was further tested in pot planting with winter wheat. Results showed that of three charcoals, activated coal, activated coconut carbon and activated fir charcoal, significantly affected the growth of Chinese lettuce, as well as interactions between charcoal and soil. Fir charcoal showed 178. 8%/90. 9% and 178. 9%/106. 1% net carbon rate of promotion on hypocotyl/radicle of lettuce seedlings in agriculture soil and peach orchard soil respectively. Whereas, the

  7. 多次活性炭灌胃对大鼠血浆敌敌畏浓度的影响%Therapeutic effects of multi-dose activated charcoal on the acute dichlorvos poisoning in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽; 王娜娜; 代恒; 韩振坤; 赵敏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effects of activated charcoal on the acute dichlorvos poisoning in rats. Method Thirty male clean grade Wistar rats were randomly (random number) divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 10), single dose activated charcoal group (group B, n = 10) and multi-dose activated charcoal (group C, n=10). The rats of group A were suffered from 35 mg/kg dichlorvos exposure by oral without activated charcoal and senna. The rats of group B received 35 mg/kg dichlorvos exposure by oral with 175 mg/kg activated charcoal given immediately after dichlorvos exposure and 35 mg/kg senna given half an hour later. In the group C, 35 mg/kg dichlorvos was given to rats by oral with 175 mg/kg activated charcoal given immediately after dichlorvos exposure and 35 mg/kg senna given half an hour later and then every four hours. Blood samples were collected from the carotid artery at different intervals after exposure. DDVP concentration and total blood acetyl-cholinesterase activity were detected. Differences in serum DDVP concentration, Cmax, AUC (0→∞ ), MRT and acetylcholinesterase among three groups were calculated by using ANOVA. Results Serum DDVP levels in single dose group and in multi-dose group were significantly different from those in control group (P 0.05). Another four hours later, no differences in acetylcholinesterase were found a-mong three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions The peak concentrations of dichlorvos in blood are lower in group B and group C, and the blood acetylcholinesterase inhibition is quelled by activated charcoal. Therefore, the effects of multi - dose of activated charcoal is better than that of single dose of activated charcoal.%目的 探讨活性炭灌胃对急性有机磷农药中毒的治疗作用.方法 30只雄性清洁级Wistar大鼠随机(随机数字法)分成3组:对照组(A组)、单次活性炭番泻叶组(B组)和多次活性炭番泻叶组(C组),每组10只.A组按35 mg/kg剂量经口敌敌

  8. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  9. TiO_2/竹炭复合材料处理废水中的罗丹明B%Removal of Rhodamine B in Wastewater by TiO_2/Bamboo Charcoal Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀华; 周云龙; 胡志彪; 张著森; 钟玲

    2011-01-01

    以竹炭为载体,钛酸四正丁酯为钛源,通过溶胶-凝胶法制备TiO2/竹炭复合材料,研究材料对罗丹明B溶液的暗室吸附规律和光降解性能。实验结果表明:材料对罗丹明B的吸附属于物理吸附,能较好地符合Freundlich吸附等温模型;材料对罗丹明B的降解率高,且随溶液pH的变化而有明显改变。此光催化反应可用一级反应动力学方程进行描述。%TiO2/bamboo charcoal composite was prepared by sol-gel technique with tetra-n-butyl tinanate as the titanium source,and bamboo charcoal as the support.The adsorption behavior and the photocatalytic degradation processes of Rhodamine B were studied.The results indicated that the adsorption of Rhodamine B on the composites was physical adsorption and adsorption law of Rhodamine B on the composites fits in well with Freundlich model.The photocatalytic degradation here fit in with the first-order kinetic order.

  10. Research on the Photocatalytic Degradability of Methylene Blue Solution by Photocatalysis Bamboo Charcoal Fiber Knitted Fabric%光催化竹炭纤维针织物光催化降解亚甲基蓝的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣稳; 王秋美; 刘淑英; 邹志伟; 徐雪梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop new functional fabrics, the photocatalytic degradabilltys of methylene blue solution by photocatalysis bamboo charcoal fiber knitted fabric was researched. The relationships were analyzed between the removal rate and the response time, the initial concentration and pH value of methylene blue solution, the distance between the ultraviolet light centre and liquid level. The results were as follows : it indicated an obvious photocatalytic degradation effect of methylene blue solution by photocatalysis bamboo charcoal fiber knitted fabric under UV-irradiation. And the removal rate could reach 67. 02%. When the initial concentration of methylene blue solution is lower, the pH value of methylene blue solution is higher,and the distance between light centre and liquid level is shorter, the effect was better. It indicated that the photocatalysis bamboo charcoal fiber knitted fabric could be used as filter materials and wastewater treatment materials.%为了开发新型功能型织物,研究了光催化竹炭纤维织物对亚甲基蓝溶液的光催化降解效果,分析了反应时间、亚甲基蓝溶液的初始浓度、pH值、光源中心与液面间距离等因素对亚甲基蓝溶液光催化降解效果的影响.结果表明,光催化竹炭纤维针织物在紫外线的照射下对亚甲基蓝溶液产生明显的降解效果,其去除率可达67.02%;亚甲基蓝溶液的初始浓度越低,降解效果越好;亚甲基蓝溶液的初始pH值越高,降解效果越好;光源中心与液面间距较小时织物的光催化降解效果较好.因此,光催化竹炭纤维针织物可用作过滤、污水处理材料等.

  11. Processo sustentável de produção de carvão vegetal quanto aos aspectos: ambiental, econômico, social e cultural Sustainable charcoal production process focusing the environmental, economical, social and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli de Fátima de Oliveira Miranda Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente 1/3 da produção mundial de carvão vegetal e sua quase totalidade é destinada à produção brasileira de ferro-gusa, ferro ligas e silício metálico. Quase 75% desse carvão ainda é produzido artesanalmente, utilizando-se principalmente a lenha de mata nativa. A pressão por sistemas produtivos sustentáveis tem dirigido a busca por tecnologias mais limpas e eficientes. A partir de pesquisa numa unidade industrial produtora de carvão vegetal pelo processo de carbonização em cilindros metálicos verticais, localizada no Paraná, este artigo objetiva mostrar que os aspectos de sustentabilidade deste processo estão no atendimento aos requisitos básicos de ser ecologicamente correto, economicamente viável, socialmente justo e culturalmente aceito. Este processo mostrou um potencial de economizar em torno de 25% de lenha, o atendimento à legislação trabalhista vigente e o atendimento aos anseios da sociedade, ao proporcionar aos trabalhadores condições dignas de trabalho e inserção social, quando comparado ao processo artesanal.Brazil accounts for approximately one third of the world's charcoal production, and around ninety percent of that is destined to the Brazilian production of pig-iron, alloys iron, pure silicon, among others. Almost 75% of the charcoal is still produced through the traditional handcraft method, and almost half of firewood still derives from native forests. The pressure for ecologically-right, socially fair and economically feasible production has driven the search for cleaner and more efficient technologies. Researching a metallic vertical cylinder at an industrial charcoal production unit and a traditional handcraft unit, both located on the State of Parana, this paper intends to show that the industrial production process can replace the traditional one. According to the sustainability pillars, this industrial process may enable the saving of 25% of firewood, pointing to

  12. 在高湿度环境下用活性炭盒测量氡浓度的研究%STUDY ON RADON CONCENTRATION MONITORING USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL CANISTERS IN HIGH HUMIDITY ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月兴; 王海军; 杨翊方; 秦思昌; 王震涛; 张振江

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied.Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal,and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%,80%,88% and 96% (28℃),respectively.The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny).The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity.There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity.In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%,the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree) rise in humidity.The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days.%本文研究了在高湿度环境中使用活性炭盒测量氡浓度时湿度对灵敏度的影响.所用的活性炭盒为圆柱形,每一个盒内装80 g活性炭.活性炭盒在相对湿度为68%、80%、88%和96%环境中(28℃)暴露48 h和72 h.在盒内被吸收的氡的量用氡子体214 Ph和214 Bi的γ射线计数确定.实验结果表明,在湿度相同情况下,计数随湿度的增高而降低,两个变量之间呈现负线性相关.在相对湿度68%到96%之间,湿度每增加1%,吸收氡的灵敏度减少约2.4%.在高湿度环境中,活性炭盒的暴露时间不宜超过3天.

  13. Experimental Research on Gas Chromatographic Determination for Butyl Ether Collected by Activated Charcoal in the Workplace Air%炭管采集气相色谱法测定空气中丁醚的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐以盛; 董玉香; 徐景; 顾大全; 马毅; 芮振荣; 余菊芬; 徐春兰; 唐春元

    2001-01-01

    [Objective] GC analytical method for butyl ether in the workplace air using sampling by charcoal tube was studied. [Method] Adsorption on charcoal,thermal desorption and analysis by GC(FID) were performed. [Results] The coefficient of variation for the whole analytical method in the range of 269~1077mg/m3 was 1.1%.Regression formula was y=96.1+17.79x,r=0.9998.Detection limit was 4.4×10-3μg(injection for 2ml).Desorption efficiency was 97.3%,breakthrough volume was 14.1mg.After taking 1077μg of butyl ether with the charcoal tube,it could be stabilized in seven days,its recovery efficiency was 93.7%.The upper detection limit of the method is dependent on the adsorptive capacity of the charcoal tube.This capacity varies with the concentration of butyl ether and other substances as ethers in the air. [Conclusion] The method can also be used to determine butyl ether and the simultaneouly presented ethers of two or more substances in the workplace air by simply changing gas chromatographic conditions from isothermal to a temperature programmed mode of operation.%[目的] 研究炭管采集空气中丁醚的气相色谱分析方法。[方法] 活性炭吸附空气中丁醚,样品经加热解吸,色谱检测。[结果] 当空气中丁醚浓度范围在269~1 077 mg/m3(参照美国标准100 ppm,相当于533 mg/m3)时,其方法的变异系数为1.1 %,回归方程式y=96.1+17.79x,r=0.999 8,最低检测限4.4×10-3μg(进样2 ml)。平均解吸效率为97.3 %;穿透容量(BTV)14.1 mg。活性炭吸附1 077 μg丁醚后,样品放置一周,回收率仍可达93.7 %。本法的测定范围上限取决于炭管的吸附量,而该吸附量可随空气中丁醚的浓度及其它物质(醚类)而变化。[结论] 本方法可应用于车间环境中丁醚浓度的测定。

  14. Concentrações de citocinina e carvão ativado na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino Cytokynin concentrations and activated charcoal on black pepper micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ferreira Moura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum tem grande importância para a economia do Norte do Brasil. A pimenta-do-reino é propagada principalmente por estaquia que, além de ser pouco eficiente, pode possibilitar a propagação da doença fusariose. Dessa forma, testes para verificar a eficiência da micropropagação são pertinentes. O objetivo do trabalho foi testar concentrações de BAP - 6-benzilaminopurina (0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 4,5mg L-1 e a adição de carvão ativado a 0,2% ao meio de cultura na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino. O meio de cultura foi composto de sais e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog, 3% de sacarose e 8g L-1 de ágar. Foram utilizados como explantes ápices caulinares de plântulas da cultivar "Bragantina" germinadas in vitro. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em esquema fatorial 4x2, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 45 dias no estabelecimento, foi avaliado o número de brotos, mas não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, considerando-se os dois fatores e a interação entre eles. Após 45 dias no primeiro subcultivo, foram avaliados o número de brotos e de explantes (segmentos nodais. A interação entre BAP e carvão ativado teve efeito significativo para número de brotos e de explantes, sendo que o carvão influenciou o efeito das concentrações de BAP. A concentração de 0,5mg L-1 de BAP na ausência de carvão ativado gerou maior número de brotos e de explantes. O carvão ativado não é necessário na fase de proliferação de gemas de pimenta-do-reino da cultivar "Bragantina".Black pepper (Piper nigrum has great importance for the Northern Brazil’s economy. Black pepper is mainly propagated by mass propagation, which is not very efficient and may spread fusariosis. Thus, micropropagation efficiency tests are pertinent. The objective of this research paper was to test BAP - 6-benzilaminopurine concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg L-1 and activated charcoal at 0.2% addition to

  15. Estrutura anatômica da madeira e qualidade do carvão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir Anatonical structure and charcoal quality of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas características anatômicas e dimensões de fibras, elementos dos vasos, células do parênquima e dos raios da madeira da Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Determinaram-se, ainda, a fração parede das fibras e o porcentual das fibras, dos vasos, dos raios e das células parenquimatosas, bem como a densidade, rendimento e propriedades do carvão vegetal. Conclui-se que a madeira de Mimosa tenuiflora possui poros predominantemente solitários, geminados e múltiplos em agrupamento radial; poros distribuídos em porosidade difusa uniforme; parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico, vasicêntrico confluente, aliforme e aliforme confluente; raios multisseriados, bisseriados e, menos freqüentemente, unisseriados; e fibras de parede espessa e muito curtas. Obteve-se um rendimento de 39,68% em carvão vegetal, com teor de carbono fixo de 71,70%, densidade igual a 0,51g/cm³, carbono fixo de 71,79 e poder calórico de 6.866 cal/g.The objective of this work was to determine anatomical characteristics, and dimensions of fibers, vessels and parenchyma and ray cells of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir wood. Fibers wall fraction, the percentage of fibers, vessels and ray and parenchyma cells, as well as density and charcoal production and properties were determined. The wood of Mimosa teniflora presents predominantly solitary, geminated and multiple porous in radial groups; porous distributed in uniform diffuse porosity; axial parenchyma paratracheal vasicentric, confluent vasicentric, aliform and confluent aliform; multiseriate, biseiat rays and, less frequently, uniseriate ones; very short fibers with thick walls. Charcoal yield was 39.68% with a 0.51g/cm³ density, 71.79% carbon content and 6886cal/g calorific value.

  16. Investigating the enteroenteric recirculation of apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor: administration of activated charcoal to bile duct-cannulated rats and dogs receiving an intravenous dose and use of drug transporter knockout rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglu; Frost, Charles E; He, Kan; Rodrigues, A David; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lifei; Goosen, Theunis C; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2013-04-01

    The study described here investigated the impact of intestinal excretion (IE; excretion of drug directly from circulation to intestinal lumen), enteroenteric recirculation (EER), and renal tubule recirculation (RTR) on apixaban pharmacokinetics and disposition. The experimental approaches involve integrating apixaban elimination pathways with pharmacokinetic profiles obtained from bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rats and dogs receiving i.v. doses together with oral administration of activated charcoal (AC). Additionally, the role of P-gp (P-glycoprotein; abcb1) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein; abcg2) in apixaban disposition was evaluated in experiments using transporter inhibitors and transporter knockout (KO) rats. Approximately 20-50% of an apixaban i.v. dose was found in feces of BDC rats and dogs, suggesting IE leading to fecal elimination and intestinal clearance (IC). The fecal elimination, IC, and systemic clearance of apixaban were increased upon AC administration in both BDC rats and dogs and were decreased in BDC rats dosed with GF-120918, a dual BCRP and P-gp inhibitor). BCRP appeared to play a more important role for absorption and intestinal and renal elimination of apixaban than P-gp in transporter-KO rats after oral and i.v. dosing, which led to a higher level of active renal excretion in rat than other species. These data demonstrate that apixaban undergoes IE, EER, and RTR that are facilitated by efflux transporters. Intestinal reabsorption of apixaban could be interrupted by AC even at 3 hours post-drug dose in dogs (late charcoal effect). This study demonstrates that the intestine is an organ for direct clearance and redistribution of apixaban. The IE, EER, and RTR contribute to overall pharmacokinetic profiles of apixaban. IE as a clearance pathway, balanced with metabolism and renal excretion, helps decrease the impacts of intrinsic (renal or hepatic impairment) and extrinsic (drug-drug interactions) factors on apixaban disposition.

  17. Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different places seeking to the production of vegetal charcoal Avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus em diferentes locais visando à produção de carvão vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Andrade Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aim to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of three Eucalyptus clones planted at different places and to verify the existent functional relations between the basic density and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. Three Eucalyptus clones were evaluated and four trees were sample for each clone and place. It was determined the depth of penetration of a Pilodyn pin at 1.30 m of height of the soil (DBH, average basic density (DBm, the basic density at DBH, the calorific value, lignin, total extractive, ashes and holocellulose contents and elemental chemical analysis (C, H, N and O. The wood was carbonized and the charcoal produced was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In the evaluation of the wood characteristics a completely randomized design disposed in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 was used. A linear model was adjusted between DBm and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. It was possible to conclude that the clones present potential to be used for energy. The charcoal produced may be used in siderurgy. The linear model adjusted between DBm and the penetration of the Pilodyn pin was satisfactory.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a qualidade da madeira e do carvão vegetal de três clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais e verificar a relação funcional existente entre a densidade básica e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foram avaliados três clones de Eucalyptus e amostradas quatro árvores por clone em cada local. Determinou-se a profundidade de penetração de um pino de aço do Pilodyn a 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP, a densidade básica média (DBm, a densidade básica no DAP, o poder calorífico superior e os teores de lignina, extrativos totais, cinzas, holocelulose e a análise química elementar (C, H, N e O. A madeira foi carbonizada e o carvão produzido foi avaliado quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Na avalia

  18. Interaction Effect of Isothermal Co-pyrolysis of Coal Coke and Salix psammophila Charcoal blends%煤半焦和沙柳炭混合物恒温共热解作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武彦伟; 高学艺; 王克冰; 安书琪

    2016-01-01

    采用先混合原沙柳和煤粉再制焦的次序,利用热重分析法研究了4种煤半焦和沙柳炭混合物的恒温共热解作用。从胜利煤的变温热解中,选定恒温共热解的温度400、500和600℃来研究温度对沙柳炭和胜利煤半焦混合物共热解作用的影响,结果显示400和600℃表现为协同作用,500℃表现为抑制作用,通过分析选择600℃作为恒温共热解温度。在600℃时,研究了沙柳炭与不同种类煤半焦在不同掺混比例下的恒温共热解,显示沙柳炭对挥发逸出能力较强或较低的煤半焦(霍林河煤和准格尔煤)均表现为抑制作用,对挥发分逸出能力中等的煤半焦(胜利煤和宝日希勒褐煤)表现为协同作用;受煤种的影响,掺混比例对共热解的作用效果大小无固定的排序。%Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the interaction effects of isothermal co-pyrolysis of Salix psammophila ( Bsl) charcoal and 4 kinds of coal cokes. The isothermal co-pyrolysis temperatures 400, 500 and 600℃ were selected from the temperature-programmed pyrolysis of Shengli lignite ( SL) to study the effects of temperature on the co-pyrolysis of Bsl charcoal and SL coal coke. The results showed that the interactions was synergy effect at 400 and 600℃,and the interaction was inhibition effect at 500℃. By analysis, the selected temperature of co-pyrolysis was 600℃. At 600℃, the isothermal co-pyrolysises of Bsl charcoal and coal cokes of different coal types at different blending ratios were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the interactions were inhibition effects for coal cokes with high content of volatilization ( Huolinhe lignite and Zhunge′er coal) and synergy effect for coal cokes with medium content of volatilization( Shengli lignite and Baorixile lignite) . The interaction effect of coke mixture at different blending ratios had no fixed order for different coal types.

  19. Clinical study of four forms of activated charcoal in treatment of oral poisoning%四种剂型活性炭在口服毒物治疗中的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素征; 常智忠; 辛燕; 吴子彬; 李明; 张传静; 孙承业

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价四种不同剂型活性炭在经口中毒治疗中的适用性.方法选取35名护士应用四种不同剂型活性炭进行模拟洗胃,分别填写可操作性调查表,记录洗胃时间、使用液体量、洗胃管堵塞次数并评出最优和最差剂型.选取50例健康志愿者分别口服四种不同剂型活性炭,填写适口,巨调查表,适口性分为很好、一般、可接受、难以接受.对数据进行统计学处理,评价四种剂型活性炭的临床适用性.结果护士可操作性调查组:不同刺型洗胃时间分别为:粉剂(151.8±17.8)s、混悬液(96.9±24.8)s、胶囊(319±82.4)s、片剂(314.3±93.3)s,四种剂型之间差异有统计学意义(P0.05),余三种剂型相互比较差异均有统计学意义.结论不同剂型活性炭临床适用性存在明显差别,护士可操作性混悬液最佳,粉剂、胶囊和片剂较差.胶囊和片剂适口性好,适于清醒依从性好的患者.混悬液和粉剂适口性不好,但更适合昏迷患者的临床抢救.%Objective To evaluate the applicability of activated charcoal in treatment of oral poisoning. Methods The feasibility of clinical manipulation and tastiness of 4 forms of activated charcoal were investigated, with different dosage forms in 35 nurses and 50 volunteers, respectively. The feasibility of the clinical manipulation was assessed by gastrelavage time and block numbers of stomach duet,and the tastiness by volunteers' taking orally. Results The gastrolavage time (151.8±17.8) s for powder, (96.9±24.80) s for suspension, (319.0±82.4) s for tablet and (314.3±93.3) s for suspension(P <0.001). Conclusion There are significant differences in the applicability of activated charcoal in different dosage forms. The suspension is the best form in feasibility. Capsule and tablet are better than powder and suspension in tastiness. Suspension and powder are the worst to accept.

  20. 口服药用炭对血液透析患者尿毒症皮肤瘙痒的治疗%Oral activated charcoal on uremic pruritus in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英辉; 林娜; 付文静; 张沛; 贾强

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察口服药用炭对维持性血液透析患者尿毒症皮肤瘙痒的疗效.方法 合并中重度尿毒症皮肤瘙痒(视觉模拟评分法VAS≥6分)的血液透析患者35例,予口服药用炭(1.5g/次,3次/d)治疗,持续4周.观察治疗前后VAS评分及皮肤瘙痒程度的变化,并比较肾功能及血清钙、磷、全段甲状旁腺素(iPTH)水平的变化.结果 口服药用炭4周后,患者VAS评分较前明显下降[(4.80±2.62)vs.(8.173±1.22),P<0.01],皮肤瘙痒程度减低.血清肌酐、尿素、尿酸水平较前下降(P<0.01或P<0.05);血磷及钙磷乘积较前降低(P<0.01);血钙及iPTH水平未见显著变化.结论 口服药用炭对尿毒症皮肤瘙痒具有较为明显的缓解作用,其机制可能与药用炭对尿毒症毒素的清除和降低血磷有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of oral activated charcoal on uremic pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods Thirty-five chronic uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis and suffering from moderate to severe pruritus(visual analog scales,VAS≥6) were treated with activated charcoal (4.5 g daily p.o.) for 4weeks. The serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, the product of calcium and phosphorous (Ca x P), intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH) of all patients were examined before and after the treatment and the intensity of cutaneous prurtius(VAS)were recorded before and after treatment. Results Compared with pretreatment, the intensity of cutaneous pruritus of patients after treatment was obviously alleviated (4.80±2.62 vs 8.17±1.22, P < 0.01)compared with that before the treatment. Patients' serum creatinine, urea and uric acid were declined(P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) after treatment. Serum levels of phosphorus and Ca x P were lower after treatment compared to that before the treatment (P < 0.01), but the levels of calcium and iPTH did not changed obviously. Conclusion Oral activated charcoal could alleviate the intensity of

  1. 人工肝脏辅助装置吸附剂的研究Ⅲ.交联琼脂糖包膜活性碳微囊的制备及体外试验%Studies of Absorbents for Hemoperfusion in Artificial Liver Support:Ⅲ. Preparation and in Vitro Studies of Cross-Linked Agarose Coated Activated Charcoal (CAAC-Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌喜; 毛秉智; 汤先觉; 卜凤荣; 钮振; 朱新华; 李宗明; 宋静澄; 程少杰; 张肇和; 姚善谦; 刘海川; 楼方定

    1986-01-01

    @@ 本文报告以交联琼脂糖为膜材、球状活性碳为心材的一种新型血液灌流吸附剂,称为交联琼脂糖包膜活性碳(Cross-Iinked agarose coated activated charcoal)微囊,简称为CAACⅡ,为了有别于作者曾报道的CAAC(1),后者简称为CAAC-I.

  2. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions.

  3. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in river water by solid-phase extraction on activated charcoal cartridges and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Method performance characteristics and estimation of the uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J

    2013-04-03

    A new sample preparation procedure to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA, nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA, and cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid, CDTA) in river water is described. The procedure consists of the solid-phase extraction of the aminopolycaroxyllic acids on activated charcoal cartridges after increasing the ionic strength and acidifying the sample. The extract was eluted with methanol and the analytes were methylated in presence of BF3/methanol to determine them by GC with mass spectrometric detection. Recoveries were higher than 90% with good repeatabilities and inter-day precision for concentrations close to quantification limits (about 10 μg L(-1)) and higher. It has been verified that the proposed method is robust according to the Youden and Steiner test and free of matrix effects arisen from the presence of organic matter and iron(III) as deduced from statistical tests. A bottom-up approach was followed to estimate the uncertainty of the measured concentration. At concentrations close to 10 μg L(-1) the most relevant step of the method is the calculus of the interpolated concentration which has a high value of relative standard uncertainty.

  4. Records for pollen and charcoal from Qujialing archaeological site of Hubei and ancient civilization development%湖北屈家岭遗址孢粉、炭屑记录与古文明发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宜垠; 侯树芳; 莫多闻

    2009-01-01

    Palynological and charcoal analyses of both the sedimentary profile and cultural layers of Qujialing site, Hubei Province suggest that evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved forests were distributed in the surrounding areas of the site between 5400 and 4200 a BP. Abundant Gramineae and Pinus pollens and charcoal points to strong human activities; the warm and wet climate during this period provided favourable condition for the development of Qujialing and Shijiahe Cultures. During 4200-2200 a BP, grassland which is composed of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Thalictrum and ferns etc. was developed. The decline of the Cyperaceae and Ceratopteris indicates a shift to more arid environment, resulting in a widespread grassland. The trend towards more arid environment was mainly caused by a stronger human activity and subsequent drier climate. Along with the increasing aridity, the Qujialing and Shijiahe Cultures became declined and eventually collapsed. By 2200 a BP,an increase of Cyperaceae pollens and Ceratopteris spores suggests that relatively moist habitats existed during this period around the Qujialing site. Meanwhile, the rich Gramineae and high concentration of microcharcoal particles indicate the arrival of another prosperous period in human history.%湖北屈家岭遗址附近的河湖相沉积剖面及文化层的孢粉和炭屑分析表明,距今5400-4200年间,遗址周边地区分布有常绿阔叶和落叶阔叶林,大量的禾本科(Gramineae)和松属(Pinus)花粉及炭屑表明这一时期有强烈的人类活动,暖湿的气候条件为屈家岭文化和石家河文化发展奠定了基础.距今4200-2200年间,莎草科(Cyperaceae)花粉和水蕨(Ceratopteris)孢子的减少反映生境干旱化,遗址周边发育由蒿属(Artemisia)、藜科(Chenopodiaceae)、唐松草(Thalictrum)和蕨类植物组成的坡草丛;这种生境干旱化是由气候变干和强烈人类活动所致.伴随着生境日趋干旱化,屈家岭文化和石

  5. Corncob and active charcoal in the Laccase and Basidiome production of Pleurotus spSabugo de milho e carvão ativado na produção de Lacase e Basidiomas de Pleurotus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Maria Andrade-Nobrega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn cob as a lignocellulosic feedstock could be a viable option for edible mushroom production by fungi of the genus Pleurotus considering that there are enormous amounts of this agricultural waste in the State of Parana, as well in the whole Brazil territory. This work evaluated three strains of Pleurotus sp., Pleurotus ostreatus (white and CCB, P. Eryngii (salmon, as laccase producers using liquid extract of corn cob, and solid medium based on corn cob without adding other nutritional sources. A strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (white produced the highest titres of laccase in liquid medium (1.2 U L-1 and also on solid medium (~ 2.8 U kg-1 among the three strains evaluated. The additon of active charcoal increased the biological efficency (30.3 % of P. eryngii (salmon when compared in its absence (12.7 %. However, the strain of P. ostreatus (white did not present statistical difference among the treatments demonstrating that the addition of active charcoal to the solid medium for mushroom production can promote an increase in the biological efficiency depending upon the fungal strain used.O sabugo de milho é uma matéria prima lignocelulósica que pode ser uma opção viável para a produção de cogumelos comestíveis por fungos do gênero Pleurotus, considerando-se que existe uma enorme quantidade deste resíduo agrícola no Estado do Paraná e em todo o Brasil. Este trabalho avaliou três linhagens de Pleurotus sp., Pleurotus ostreatus (branco e CCB e P. Eryngii (Salmão, como produtoras de lacase utilizando-se extrato líquido de sabugo de milho e em meio sólido à base de sabugo de milho, sem adicionar outras fontes de nutrientes. A linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus (branco produziu os maiores títulos de lacase no meio líquido (1,2 U L-1 e também no sólido (~ 2,8 U kg-1 dentre as três linhagens avaliadas. A adição de carvão ativo aumentou a eficiência biológica (30,3 % do P. eryngii (salmão quando comparada com a ausência do

  6. 碳量子点的制备及与牛血清蛋白的相互作用%Preparation of carbon quantum dots in wood charcoal and their interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕华; 单晓辉; 陈娇; 蒋瑀涵; 陈建秋; 严拯宇

    2013-01-01

    以木炭为碳源,分别采用回流、微波及超声等不同方法制备碳量子点(Carbon quantum dots,CQDs).比较不同方法的优劣并优化反应条件、考察不同因素对其荧光量子产率的影响.得到最佳制备方法,制得粒径较小的荧光CQDs,用钝化剂PEG2000修饰后,提高其荧光寿命和量子产率.将修饰后的CQDs应用于与牛血清白蛋白(Bovine serum albumin,BSA)的相互作用,采用紫外吸收光谱法和荧光光谱法探讨其相互作用机理.结果表明,经回流法所制CQDs的荧光量子产率最高,其与BSA之间的荧光猝灭为静态猝灭过程.%Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are a new fluorescent material with stable fluorescence,low toxicity and many other superior properties that make their applications in biology possible.CQDs in wood charcoal were created by a 5N HNO3 solution using three different methods,reflux,microwave and ultrasound methods.Factors that determine the fluorescence quantum yield were examined and preparation conditions were optimized.Results indicated that the fluorescence quantum yield of CQDs prepared by the reflux method was highest among the three methods.The CQDs prepared by this method were modified by poly (ethylene glycol)2000 to increase the fluorescent lifetime and the quantum yield.The reaction of the modified CQDs with bovine serum albumin was investigated by ultraviolet absorption spectrometry and fluorescence spectrometry,which revealed a static quenching behavior.

  7. Pirólise de resíduos do coco-da-baía (Cocos nucifera Linn e análise do carvão vegetal Pyrolysis of coconut residues (Cocos nucifera L. and analysis of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarias Machado de Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou realizar a pirólise de resíduos do coco-da-baía (Cocos nucifera Linn e efetuar a análise química imediata do carvão vegetal produzido. Carvão vegetal, líquido pirolenhoso e gases não-condensáveis foram produzidos sob as temperaturas máximas de destilação de 350, 450 e 550 ºC. Submeteram-se à pirólise o coco inteiro e o seu endocarpo (verde e maduro, adotando como referência o carvão derivado do lenho de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. O rendimento gravimétrico do carvão do coco inteiro, pirolisado na temperatura máxima de 350 ºC, foi estatisticamente superior aos dos demais tratamentos. Os maiores rendimentos em gases condensáveis foram obtidos a partir da pirólise do endocarpo verde, sob as três temperaturas máximas de pirólise analisadas. Os maiores teores de carbono fixo foram apresentados pelos carvões derivados do endocarpo do coco maduro, pirolisados nas temperaturas máximas de 450 e 550 ºC. Houve a equiparação estatística dos rendimentos em carbono fixo dos carvões do endocarpo do coco maduro e do lenho de eucalipto, pirolisados sob as três temperaturas máximas ora analisadas, e do coco inteiro destilado a 450 e 550 ºC.The objective of this work was to carry out the pyrolysis of coconut residues (Cocos nucifera Linn and to perform the chemical analysis of charcoal. Charcoal, pirogalyc liquid and non-condensed gases were produced under maximum temperatures of 350ºC, 450ºC and 550ºC. The whole coconut and its endocarp were pyrolysed (ripe and unripe, having as reference the charcoal derived from eucalyptus log (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. The gravimetrical yield of whole coconut charcoal pyrolysed under maximum temperature of 350ºC, was superior to the other treatments. The largest yields of condensed gases were obtained from pyrolysis of unripe endocarp under the three pyrolysis temperatures. The highest levels of fixed carbon were given by charcoal derived

  8. Efeito da interação entre carvão ativado e N6-benzilaminopurina na propagação in vitro de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA Interaction effect between activated charcoal and N6-benzylaminopurine in the in vitro propagation of banana, cultivar Grand Naine (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O carvão ativado possui a propriedade de adsorver os compostos fenólicos liberados pela oxidação dos tecidos lesionados durante o cultivo in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da interação entre o carvão ativado e diferentes concentrações de N6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro da bananeira, cv. Grande Naine (AAA. O meio de cultura utilizado foi o MS, solidificado com 5 g.L-1 de ágar. O cultivo foi mantido em sala de crescimento a 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 30 mmol.m-2s-1. Foram avaliadas a presença e a ausência de carvão ativado (0 e 3 g.L-1 e quatro concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 6 mg.L-1 no meio de cultura. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em um sistema fatorial 2x4. Os explantes foram avaliados a cada 30 dias, por um período de quatro subcultivos. Após cada subcultivo, o comprimento de brotações, a taxa de multiplicação, o vigor, o nível de oxidação das brotações emitidas e o número de raízes formadas foram avaliados. Independentemente das concentrações de BAP, o carvão ativado influenciou significativamente em todas as variáveis analisadas. De maneira geral, a adição de carvão ativado afetou negativamente a taxa de multiplicação, embora tenha melhorado o vigor e o número de raízes e diminuído a oxidação dos explantes. Na ausência de carvão ativado, o BAP proporcionou as maiores taxas de multiplicação das brotações.Active charcoal has the capacity to fix phenolic compounds released by the oxidation of manipulated tissues during in vitro cultivation. The present work objective was to evaluate the interaction effects between active charcoal, combined to different BAP concentrations in the in vitro banana propagation, cv. Grand Nain (AAA. The culture medium used was the MS, solidified with 5 g.L-1 agar. Cultures were kept in a growth room at 25 ± 2ºC with a photoperiod of 16 h at 30 mmol

  9. Study of Detection Efficiency of 222 Rn Samples Obtained by Active Activated Charcoal by HPGe γSpectrometry%HPGeγ谱仪对主动式活性炭法中222Rn样品的探测效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 刘春雨; 尹国辉; 李安; 申茂泉; 徐明; 邓培君; 成智威

    2014-01-01

    In active adsorption of activated charcoal ,it is uneven distribution of 222 Rn in the collector in different adsorption time ,w hich makes impact on efficiency calibration by HPGe γ spectrometry . By the adsorption experiment of active double-membrane activated charcoal in the standard radon chamber , the relationship between detection efficiencies of different energy characteristics of the γ-ray and counting relative deviation of 222 Rn from import and export side of the double-membrane activated charcoal collector by HPGeγspectrometry in different adsorption time was obtained ,which is linear .The absolute value of relative deviation of adsorption capacity for 222 Rn is less than 5%between calculated and measured ,which is to verify the correctness and reliability of the method of active double-membrane activated charcoal .%主动式活性炭吸附222 Rn的方法中,吸附时间不同,222 Rn在活性炭盒中的分布不均匀,这对 H PGeγ谱仪测量分析中效率刻度产生影响。通过在标准氡室进行的主动式双滤膜活性炭吸附实验,分析得到不同吸附时间下 HPGe γ谱仪对222 Rn子体不同能量特征γ射线的探测效率和222 Rn在双滤膜活性炭盒中进出口计数相对偏差,拟合得到两者之间的关系曲线,即不同能量特征γ射线下的探测效率与222 Rn进出口计数相对偏差呈线性关系。通过实验得到双滤膜活性炭盒对氡吸附量的拟合曲线值与测氡仪实测值相对偏差绝对值小于5%,验证了该方法的正确性和可靠性。

  10. Activated charcoal and graphite for the micropropagation of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. and a orchid double-hybrid ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’=Carvão ativado e grafite para a micropropagação de Cattleya bicolor Lindl. e um duplo híbrido de orquídea ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Aparecida Mangolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous studies have investigated the use of graphite instead of activated charcoal in orchids. In this work, different concentrations of activated charcoal or graphite were added to KC medium to darken the culture medium and stimulate the in vitro propagation of Cattleya bicolor and of a double hybrid orchid (‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’. The seedlings were inoculated on growth regulator-free KC medium; the effects of activated charcoal (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 g L-1 and graphite (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 g L-1 concentrations were tested separately. Each flask contained fifteen seedlings, and the experiments had a randomised, two-way factorial design. The two tested variables were culture medium and illumination levels; eleven culture levels (different concentrations of graphite or activate charcoal and two illumination levels (14-hr photoperiod or continuous illumination were evaluated. Three replicates of each combination were utilised. After six months of culture, the average numbers of induced buds and roots per seedling were recorded for each concentration of activated charcoal or graphite. Whereas the largest number of buds in C. bicolor seedlings occurred on media containing 6.0 or 7.5 g L-1 graphite, the largest number of roots occurred on media containing 6.0 g L-1 activated charcoal. In the hybrid ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’, the largest number of buds and roots was reported in medium with 4.5 g L-1 activated charcoal. When using graphite in place of activated charcoal, we obtained disparate the results in root formation that suggest that graphite is not a recommended substitute for activated charcoal.Nenhum estudo prévio tem investigado o uso de grafite como substituto do carvão ativado em orquídeas. No presente trabalho, concentrações diferentes de carvão ativado ou de grafite foram adicionadas ao meio KC para escurecer o meio de cultura e estimular a propagação in vitro de Cattleya bicolor e de um

  11. Preparation and lymphatic targeting study of pingyangmycin-activated charcoal nanoparticles%平阳霉素纳米活性炭的研制及其淋巴靶向性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明磊; 尚君兰; 王海斌; 王昌美; 温玉明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility of anticancer drug targeting to lymph metastasis using activated charcoal nanoparticles as a drug delivery carrier, the drug distribution in tissues of cervical lymph node metastasis mice model after submucosa adjacent cancer injection of pingyangmycin (PYM ) absorbed in activated charcoal nano-particles ( ACH-NP) and the lymph targeting effect of PYM-ACH-NP.Methods PYM-ACH-NP was prepared by mixed the ACH-NP + PYM + saline and shaken for 20 min. The absorbency of PYM on ACH-NP was evaluated. Cervical lymph node metastasis mice model was established by buccal submucosa implantation of a high lymph metastasis cell line U14 cancer cells (5 × 10 /L). PYM was radiolabeled with 125I by the modified chloramine T method. Thirty Kunming mice models burdened with cervical lymph metastasis were randomly divided into control group, PYM-treated group and PYM-ACH-NP-treated group. The animal in each group was injected with 0. 2 mL saline or corresponding drugs (equal to 10 mg/kg PYM) respectively. The radioactivity of PYM in blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung,kidney and cervical lymph node was detected 72 h after administration. Specific radioactivity of each sample was calculated. Results The average diameter of PYM-ACH-NP was 176 nm. The absorbency of PYM on ACH-NP was increased with the increased ratio of ACH-NP to PYM. In PYM-CH-NP group, specific radioactivity of PYM was significantly higher in cervical lymph node ( 148. 72 ± 29. 35 ) cpm/mg than in PYM group ( 10. 17 ±2. 11) cpm/mg ( P <0. 01 ) , meanwhile the specific radioactivity of drug in the blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of PYM-CH-NP group was (2. 18 ±0. 39), (1. 19 ±0.21) ,(2.41 ±0.50) , (1.09 ±0.24) , (1.95 ±0.47) and (2.21 ±0.44) cpm/mg respectively, which was significantly lower than in PYM group (17. 22 ± 3. 04) , (2. 48 ± 0. 47 ), (6. 94 ± 1. 38 ), (4. 12 ±0.79), (8. 25 ±2.04), (18. 83 ±3. 89) cpm/mg. The uptake of PYM in the blood, heart

  12. 氯化锌改性竹炭脱除单质汞的特性与机理分析%Performance and mechanism for elemental mercury removal by bamboo charcoal modified by ZnCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭增强; 邱建荣; 向军; 孙路石; 刘子红; 曾汉才; 张盛诚

    2011-01-01

    Elemental mercury from coal combustion has become an increasingly environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and it has been found that activated carbon adsorption is an effective mercury-control method, but there exists high-cost limit. An important precursor for activated carbon is bamboo, a renewable bioresource, and bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as a low-cost sorbent used for mercury controlling. In this paper, the adsorptive potential of modified BC using ZnCl2 (Cl-BC) for elemental mercury was investigated in a bench-scale bed. Their pore structure and surface chemical properties were characterized by BET and XPS. The results suggested that Cl-BC had excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing Cl content. There was an optimum ZnCl2 concentration for impregnation. The increase of performance of Cl-BC is probably due to the increase of active sites for mercury adsorption. The kind of Cl functional groups on the original and ZnCl2-modified BC was found to be different, the latter is of the active site for mercury adsorption and oxidation, and for the former it is negligible. There is an optimum Cl content on the ZnCl2-modified BC for elemental mercury removal, and mercuric chloride could be formed during mercury sorption.%@@ 引言 燃煤排放的汞是人为汞污染的主要来源之一,燃煤烟气中的汞主要以单质汞(Hg)、二价汞化合物(HgO、HgCl)和颗粒态汞3种形式存在,其中单质汞因其高挥发性、不溶于水等特点最难控制.由于汞的剧毒性,目前汞的排放控制已经引起广泛的研究[1-4],目前对汞的排放控制可分为燃烧前控制、燃烧中控制和尾部烟气控制3种,已有的研究发现活性炭吸附除汞是尾部烟气汞控制中最有前途的技术之一,美国目前已将该技术用于垃圾焚烧炉,并取得较好的效果.

  13. 活性炭洗胃应用于百草枯中毒的疗效观察%The Effect Observation on Applying Gastric Lavage in Combination with Activated Charcoal to Paraquat Pois ioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲春

    2012-01-01

      目的研究不同的洗胃方法对治疗百草枯中毒疗效的影响.方法在常规治疗的基础上,实验组用活性炭粉末和碳酸氢钠分别加入温水中洗胃;对照组单纯用温水洗胃.结果实验组痊愈率为25%,对照组为6.7%;死亡率实验组为8.3%,对照组为21.6%.肝、肾功能损害的发生率实验组为3.3%,对照组为41.7%.结论活性炭洗胃是影响百草枯中毒患者病情发展的重要因素,并可赢得进一步治疗如血液灌流的最佳时机,从而提高患者的生存率.%  Objective To research the effect of diverse treatments on gastric lavage to paraquat poisioning. Method On the basis of routine therapy, experimental group do gastric lavage with warm water containing activated charocal powder and sodium bicardbonate, while control group merely uses warm water in gastric lavage. Results of experimental group is 25% in comparison with control group's 6.7%. Experimental group's death rate is 8.3% while the rate is 21.6% in control group. The incidence of liver and kindney function lesion in experimental group is 3.3%, but 41.7% in control group. Conclusion Gastric lavage in combination with activated charcoal has foundamental impact on the progress of paraquat poisioning, based on which, the survival rate can be raised for better oppotunity of futher treatment,like hemoperfusion.

  14. 外加镉处理下秸秆生物质炭对土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Straw Biomass Charcoal on Enzyme Activity in Cd Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚艺婕; 王海波; 史静

    2015-01-01

    选取秸秆生物质炭为原料,通过模拟实验,探究外加镉处理下生物质炭的输入对不同类别的土壤酶活性的影响。结果表明,外加镉处理为5 mg·kg-1时,土壤碳循环相关的酶在不同生物质炭量的施入时,对Cd污染土壤反应较为敏感的有FDA水解酶及蛋白酶;而土壤氧化还原酶中在土壤受Cd污染的状况下,对不同量的生物质炭的施入具有较强敏感性的酶有脲酶和磷酸酶,其中较为显著者是磷酸酶,其在外加Cd处理下及不加Cd时变化量为79.40%;同时,对土壤中的碳循环酶、氧化还原酶及这2类酶的总体活性各求几何平均数作为衡量其综合活性的指标。其中,土壤碳循环酶酶活综合指数介于0.071~0.235之间,在外加Cd处理的情况下,其值最高为生物质炭用量为2.5%时的0.174,比不加生物质炭及炭用量为5%时分别高出7.4%及19.5%;氧化还原酶综合指数介于0.093~0.202,在外加Cd处理下,其值最高为生物质炭用量2.5%时的0.131,比不加生物质炭及炭用量为5%时分别高出18.50%及28.90%;土壤综合酶指数介于0.077~0.167,在外加Cd处理的情况下,其值最高亦为生物质炭用量2.5%时的0.108,比不加生物质炭及炭用量为5%时分别高出16.26%及28.57%。%Selected straw biomass charcoal as raw material for the simulation, this study mainly explore the effect of different amount of biomass charcoal applied on different categories of Cd contaminated soil enzyme activity. The results showed that when the soil Cd content was 5 mg·kg-1 and soil carbon cycle enzymes was with different amount of biomass carbon, the FDA hydrolase and protease were more sensi-tive to Cd contaminated soil;and under soil oxidoreductase in the Cd polluted soil condition with different amount of biomass carbon into soil, urease enzyme and phosphatase enzyme were more sensitivitive. Phosphatase was more significant which changed 79

  15. Sintomas respiratórios em trabalhadores de carvoarias nos municípios de Lindolfo Collor, Ivoti e Presidente Lucena, RS Respiratory symptoms in charcoal production workers in the cities of Lindolfo Collor, Ivoti and Presidente Lucena, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Machado de Souza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios e tabagismo, assim como parâmetros de função pulmonar, em trabalhadores da produção de carvão vegetal em três municípios do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo observacional com 67 indivíduos, no qual os dados foram obtidos através de entrevistas e espirometria. RESULTADOS: Do total de 67 trabalhadores, 50 (75,0% eram homens; média de idade = 46,52 ± 13,25 anos; média de IMC = 25,7 ± 3,85 kg/m²; VEF1 = 3,24 ± 0,82 L (93,2 ± 16,0% do previsto; CVF = 4,02 ± 0,92 L (95,5 ± 14,3% do previsto; e VEF1/CVF = 80,31 ± 9,82. Os sintomas de vias aéreas superiores mais frequentes foram espirros e secreção nasal, em 24 trabalhadores (35,82%, enquanto o das vias aéreas inferiores foi tosse, em 15 (22,38%. Dos 67 trabalhadores, 21 (31,34% eram tabagistas. Os tabagistas apresentaram mais tosse (OR = 5,00; p = 0,01, obstrução nasal (OR = 3,50; p = 0,03, prurido nasal (OR = 8,80; p = 0,01 e sibilância (OR = 10,0; p = 0,03, assim como menor VEF1 (2,93 ± 0,80 L vs. 3,38 ± 0,80 L; p = 0,04 que os não tabagistas. Rinite ocupacional foi detectada em 14 trabalhadores (20,85%, asma brônquica em 4 (5,97% e DPOC em 4 (5,97%. CONCLUSÕES: A ocorrência dos sintomas respiratórios e a redução do fluxo aéreo foram maiores nos trabalhadores tabagistas. O controle da pirólise não aumentou a ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios nos trabalhadores de carvoarias.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and smoking, as well as pulmonary function parameters among charcoal production workers in three cities in southern Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational study including 67 individuals. Data were obtained by means of interviews and spirometry. RESULTS: Of the 67 workers, 50 (75.0% were male; mean age, 46.52 ± 13.25 years; mean BMI, 25.7 ± 3.85 kg/m²; FEV1, 3.24 ± 0.82 L (93.2 ± 16.0% of predicted; FVC, 4.02 ± 0.92 L (95.5 ± 14.3% of predicted; and

  16. Charcoal--Can It Corral Chlorine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry and, as part of that designation, has invited teachers worldwide to participate with their students in the Global Water Experiment (IYC 2010). Students have the opportunity to take part in four different water-related investigations to assess water quality and then share…

  17. Effect of Activated Charcoal on Rooting in Tissue Culture Seedling of Begonia fimbristipula on Dinghushan Mountain%活性炭对鼎湖山紫背天葵组培苗生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄伟; 邵玲; 梁廉; 潘镇涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:以带有球茎的不定芽为外植体,探讨不同植物生长物质与活性炭(AC)对鼎湖山紫背天葵组培苗生根和移栽的影响.方法:组织培养单因子试验法.结果:NAA 0.3 mg/L+ IBA 0.2mg/L的组合较好地诱导球茎芽丛生根,但根数仍较少,根细、短小,幼小的不定芽萌发数量较多.添加300 mg/L活性炭明显提高生根质量并且抑制细芽点的分化,根数多达15.5条,根长范围在2.0~5.1 cm,根系发达,并且组培苗植株较高、球茎和叶片质量佳,生长健壮.将生根的组培苗带球茎分散为丛芽的形式移栽到泥炭土-珍珠岩(3∶1)的混合基质中,移栽后成活率达到100%,植株出苗快,长势旺盛.结论:以MS+蔗糖30 g/L+ NAA 0.3 mg/L+ IBA 0.2 mg/L+活性炭300mg/L+卡拉胶7.0 g/L作为紫背天葵组培苗的生根体系,是离体快繁和保存本地特色植物的有效途径.%Objective:To study the effect of different plant growth substance and activated charcoal on rooting in culture seedling of Begonia fimbristpula on Dinghushan mountain. Methods-. Tissue culture single factor experiment method was used. Results :NAA 0. 3 mg/L + IB A 0. 2 mg/L preferably induction adventitious bud clump with conn to take rooting, but the number of adventitious root were less,short and small,callow shoot more germination. 300 mg/L activated carbon obviously increased radicate quality and inhibited fine buds point differentiation,root number up to 15.5 institia,root length range was 2.0 - 5. 1 cm, root system developed. Tissue culture seedlings were higher,corm and leaf were good quality,strong growth. Took root of seedling cultivation with bulb for bush in the form of scattered bud planted to peat soil; perlite (3:1) mixed in matrix,after the transplant survival rate reached 100% ,plant form seedlings fast,grew exuberant. Conclusion; MS with sucrose 30 g/L + NAA 0. 3 mg/L + IBA 0. 2 mg/L + activated carbon 300 mg/L + carrag-eenan 7. 0 g/L as the tissue culture seedling

  18. Effect of Microwave Modified Bamboo Charcoal Particles on Immune Performance and Digestive Absorption Function of Experimentally Induced Diarrhea Rats%微波改性竹炭颗粒对实验性腹泻大鼠免疫性能和消化吸收功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建辉; 刘永乐; 李赤翎; 刘冬敏; 尹欣欣; 李艳; 王群辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of bamboo charcoal particles on immune performance and digestive absorption function of experimentally induced diarrhea rata, microwave activated bamboo charcoal particles (MABCP) was added into their diets at 0.05% ,0.10% ,and 0.15% to conduct a 7-day feeding trials. Microwave activation significantly enhanced the specific surface area and adsorption performance of bamboo charcoal panicles. When MABCP were added into the rat diet,diarrhea rate was significantly reduced (P 0.05). Intestinal mitochondrial NADH dedydrogenase,H+-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase activities were increased ( P < 0. 05) and MDA content was decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The results indicated that MABCP could improve immune performance,enhance the small intestinal absorption function,decrease radical production and maintain/ameliorate cellular oxidative phosphorylation level;the comparatively optimal dietary level of MABCF was 0.05%.%旨以研究活性竹炭颗粒(MABCP)对实验性腹泻大鼠免疫性能和消化吸收功能的影响,在大鼠饲粮中分别添加0.05,0.10,0.15%的经KOH微波活化处理的竹炭颗粒,对模型大鼠进行为期一周的饲养试验.研究发现:经KOH微波活化的竹炭颗粒,比表面积与吸附性能大幅增强,其能显著降低腹泻大鼠稀便率(P<0.05),有效增加胸腺和脾脏指数(P<0.05);显著提高腹泻大鼠血清D-木糖含量(P<0.05),但对消化酶如淀粉酶活性无显著影响(P>0.05);肠道线粒体琥珀酸脱氢酶、NADH脱氢酶、H+-ATP酶活性显著增强(P<0.05),MDA生成量显著降低(P<0.05).试验表明MABCP可提高体积免疫性能,改善小肠吸收功能,减少肠道自由基生成,有效维持或改善细胞氧化磷酸化水平,其中以低剂量添加效果更为明显.

  19. Preparation of CdS Nanocrystals Doped TiO2 Supported on Bamboo Charcoal and Photocatalytic Properties%竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2光催化剂制备及光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2012-01-01

    A photocatalyst of CdS nanocrystals doped with TiO2 supported bamboo charcoal was prepared by a hydrothermal method in the different temperature. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption in low temperature and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The XRD and SEM results showed that the as -synthesized TiO2 was anatase phase and its size was about 20-40nm. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that in the visible region, the absorption edges of the CdS nanonrystals doping TiO2 supported on bamboo charcoal shifted to visible light region, thus largely enhancing the TiO2 absorption of visible light. A xenon lamp ( λ >420nm) was used as an illuminant in the degeneration experiment and Rhodamine B (Rh B) was chosen as the model substance to evaluate photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanocrystals doped with TiO2 supported bamboo charcoal. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanocrystals doping TiO2 supported bamboo charcoal synthesized at 240℃ when the doping amount of CdS nanocrystals is 4% ( mol fraction) is best, the colour removal of Rh B is 98.2% in 200 minutes.%采用水热法在不同温度下制备了竹炭(BC)负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2光催化剂;采用X-射线粉末衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、氮气低温吸附和紫外-可见漫反射图谱等对竹炭(BC)负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2光催化剂进行了表征,XRD和SEM结果表明,TiO2为锐钛矿相.粒径为20nm~ 40nm.紫外-可见漫反射图谱显示,竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂的TiO2的样品吸收边发生了明显的红移,大大提高了TiO2对可见光吸收.以氙灯为光源(λ> 420nm)、罗丹明B(Rh B)为模型污染物进行降解实验,探索了不同条件下合成竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2的可见光催化性能.结果表明,纳米CdS掺杂量为4%(摩尔分数)240℃时,制备的竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2对RhB的降解效果最好,

  20. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de carvão ativo na destoxificação de hidrolisado de palha de arroz para produção de xilitol Evaluation of different kinds of activated charcoal used for rice straw hydrolysate detoxification for xylitol production

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    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz foi tratado com cinco tipos de carvão ativo (pó e granulado com o objetivo de remover, por adsorção, compostos tóxicos que podem agir como inibidores no processo de bioconversão de xilose em xilitol, por Candida guilliermondii. Os valores máximos de fator de rendimento em xilitol (Y P/S = 0,67g g-1 e produtividade volumétrica (Q P = 0,61g L-1 h-1 foram atingidos quando o hidrolisado foi tratado com carvão ativo em pó de partículas de tamanho pequeno (0,043mm, baixa granulometria (32% retidos em peneira de 325mesh e grande área superficial (860m² g-1, características as quais favoreceram a adsorção dos compostos tóxicos.Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was treated with five kinds of activated charcoal (powdered and granulated in order to remove, by adsorption, toxic compounds that can be act as inhibitors in the bioconversion of xylose to xylitol, by Candida guilliermondii. Maximum values of xylitol yield factor (Y P/S= 0.67g g-1 and volumetric productivity (Q P=0.61g L-1h-1 were provided by powdered activated charcoal with small particles size (0.043mm, low granulometry (32% restrained in 325mesh and large surface area (860m² g-1, characteristics which favoured the toxic compounds adsorption.

  1. Produção de carvão a partir de resíduo de erva-mate para a remoção de contaminantes orgânicos de meio aquoso Production of charcoal from maté waste to remove organic contaminants from aqueous solution

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    Maraísa Gonçalves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um novo material adsorvente, obtido a partir da pirólise de resíduos da erva-mate. O carvão resultante demonstrou elevada área superficial específica quando comparado com outros materiais pirolisados e elevada capacidade de remoção de contaminantes orgânicos de soluções aquosas. Os valores de área específica apresentados pelos materiais foram de 344, 191 e ~0,5 m² g-1, para o carvão Mate 1, Mate 2 e Mate 3, respectivamente. As isotermas de adsorção mostraram que os carvões apresentam potencial para utilização como adsorvente para compostos orgânicos, tais como: o corante têxtil vermelho reativo, o corante azul de metileno e para o herbicida atrazina, sendo que os máximos de adsorção utilizando o carvão Mate 1 foram de 16, 230 e 30 mg g-1, respectivamente.In this work we present a new adsorbent material, obtained by maté waste pyrolisis. The resulting charcoal presented high specific area when compared with other pyrolized materials and also high capacity to remove organic contaminants from aqueous solution. The charcoal showed specific area of 344, 191 and ~0.3 m² g-1 for sample Mate 1, Mate 2 and Mate 3, respectively. According to the corresponding adsorption isotherm these materials present good adsorption capacity for reactive textile and methylene blue dyes and the herbicide atrazine. Adsorption maxima were respectively 16, 230 and 35 mg g-1 for such substances, when sample Mate 1 was used.

  2. Design-Expert software design and optimization of the treatment of acrylic fiber wastewater with the charcoal cycle micro-electrolysis reactor%炭循环微电解反应器处理腈纶废水的Design-Expert设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洵; 张万友; 苗宇; 张海丰

    2011-01-01

    利用Design-Expert 7.1试验设计系统对炭循环微电解反应器处理腈纶废水的试验进行了试验设计和试验结果分析;通过试验设计分析得出了腈纶废水COD去除率与试验影响因素之间的定量关系模型,并得到了腈纶废水COD去除率的残差分布以及在不同影响因索变量之间的COD去除率等值线和三维关系.优化结果表明:利用Design-Expert 7.1对炭循环微电解反应器处理腈纶废水试验条件进行优化,得到了最佳COD去除率的操作条件.%Experimental design and result analysis of acrylic fiber wastewater treatment with the charcoal micro-electrolysis reactor have been carried out by using Design-Expert 7.1 software. The quantitative relationship model between the COD of acrylic fiber wastewater and influencing factors is obtained, based on the experimental design and analysis. The residual distribution of this wastewater COD removal rate,as well as the COD removal rate isoline and dimension relationship between different influencing factor variables,is also obtained. The optimized results show that the best operation conditions for COD removal rate of acrylic fiber wastewater with charcoal cycle micro-electrolysis reactor are obtained by using Design-Expert 7.1.

  3. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

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    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  4. 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用对急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效%Effect of joint of activated charcoal and mannitol on the efficacy of treating acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新旺; 黄亮; 赖谋锋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral administration of activated charcoal and mannitol on removing toxicant after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Method A total of 41 patients with severe AOPP were randomly divided into experiment group (activated charcoal used as adsorbent and mannitol used as cathartics, n =21)and control group (without adsorbent and cathartics, n = 20). Patients of both groups received routine treatment for AOPP after admission to hospital. The differences in duration of atropinization, the length of hospitalization and the success rate of treatment were compared between two groups. Results There were significant differences in duration of atropinization, the success rate of treatment and hospitalization time between the two groups. Conclusions The combination of activated charcoal and mannitol is more effective than the conventional gastric lavage on removal of organophosphorus pesticides from G-I tract, shorting the duration of atropinization time and hospital stays, and enhancing the success rate of rescue as well as improving the outcome of patients after organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 探讨口服活性炭和甘露醇对急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)的毒物清除作用.方法 2004年1月至2009年12月南昌大学第一附属医院收治的41例重症AOPP患者随机分为试验组(活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=21)和对照组(未用活性炭吸附毒物和甘露醇导泻治疗组,n=20).两组患者均进行AOPP急救常规治疗,观察两组患者阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间的差异.结果 试验组阿托品化时间、抢救成功率和住院时间与对照组比较差异[(3.60±1.6)h vs.(17.5±13.4)h;(4.1±1.45)d vs.(8.00±2.13)d;100% vs.(70.0±4.7)]均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 活性炭和甘露醇联合应用较传统洗胃法更能有效清除进入体内的有机磷农药,且能缩短患者阿托品化时间和住院时间,进一步提

  5. Research on Measurement of 220 Rn and Its Progeny by Double Membrane Activated Charcoal and Their Applications%双滤膜活性炭盒法测量220 Rn 及其子体技术研究与应用

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    张洋; 尹国辉; 成智威; 徐明; 李安; 申茂泉; 冯天成

    2013-01-01

    The double membrane activated charcoal method measuring 220 Rn and its progeny concentrations in ambient air simultaneously was established .According to the temporary equilibrium theory ,the theoretical for-mula of 220 Rn and its progeny in the air was derived in this method .Aiming at the half-life characteristics of 220 Rn and its progeny, classical theory model was modified and simplified , and several key time points was i-dentified.For 220 Rn progeny collection, the waiting time should be greater than 21.4 minutes after sampling, and the sum of waiting time and measuring time should be less than 7.41 hours.For 220 Rn gas adsorption, the waiting time should be greater than 6.17 minutes.The radioactivity levels of 220 Rn and its progeny in a laborato-ry and in a tunnel was studied by the method .It is provided a new technical support for 220 Rn and its progeny dose assessment by the active membrane activated charcoal method .%研究了可同时测量环境空气中220 Rn及其子体放射性水平的双滤膜活性炭盒法。根据暂时平衡理论,推导了该方法测量空气中220 Rn及其子体的理论公式,明确了取样和测量过程中需要注意的关键参数:对于滤膜过滤收集220 Rn子体,应当使等待时间大于21.4 min,同时等待和测量时间之和小于7.41 h;对于活性炭盒吸附富集220 Rn,应当使等待时间大于6.17 min。使用该方法测定了实验室和某花岗岩坑道内220 Rn及其子体的放射性水平。主动式双滤膜活性炭盒法为环境空气中220 Rn及其子体剂量评价提供了新的技术支持。

  6. Study on Properties of Removing As(Ⅴ)from Drinking Water Using Activated Charcoal Modified by Fe3+%载铁(Fe3+)活性炭去除饮用水中砷的性能研究

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    张中杰; 伍雅婧; 王慧

    2014-01-01

    Activated charcoal modified by Fe3+is gotten by impregnation method from FeCl3 .Ability of removing As(Ⅴ) from drinking water and its influence factors,isotherm adsorption model and dynamic simulation are studied.The experi-ments showed that when reaction 5 h and the pH value are kept in 7,the reaction condition become the best.The common coexisting ions,except for Ca2+,do not affect the arsenic removal effect,and Ca2+is helpful for arsenic removal.The experi-ments data can be well simulated by both the Langmuir model and second-order kinetics equation.Additionally,the adsorp-tion of As(V)by the modification of activated charcoal belongs to physical absorption.Therefore,other ions won’t be brought into the water by using this method.%以FeCl3为原料采用浸渍法,获得了载铁活性炭,考察对水中砷的去除能力及影响因素,并对吸附过程进行等温吸附模型和动力学的模拟。实验结果表明,砷去除的最佳条件为:载铁活性炭平衡振荡5 h,pH控制在7。水中常见共存离子除Ca2+外不影响砷的去除效果,Ca2+有助于砷的去除。改性炭对砷的吸附能较好的符合Langmuir模型和二级动力学方程,而不符合Freundlich模型,说明这一吸附过程为单分子层吸附。由于活性炭对砷的吸附属于物理吸附,故全过程不引入其他离子,不会对水体造成二次污染。

  7. Alternative Use of Light Emitting Diodes in an Activated Charcoal-Supported Photocatalyst Reactor for the Control of Volatile Organic Compounds%发光二极管用于活性炭负载光催化剂反应器中挥发性有机化合物的降解

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    Sung-Bong YANG; Mee-Seon YU; Jong-Soon KIM; Wan-Kuen JO

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of ultraviolet-light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source for photocatalysis using granular activated charcoal (GAC) impregnated with transition metal-enhanced photocatalysts for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was investigated.Two target compounds (toluene and methyl mercaptan) were selected to evaluate the removal activities of the TiO2/GAC composites. The photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. Methyl trimethoxy silane was added as a precursor sol solution to bind the photocatalyst with the GAC. Metal (Zn2+, Fe3+, Ag+, and Cu2+) enhanced TiO2/GAC composites were prepared and tested for their photocatalytic activities under 400 nm LED irradiation. The specific surface area (SSA) and the surface chemical composition of the prepared composites were investigated. The SSAs of all the impregnated composites were similar to those of pure GAC. Both field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis confirmed that titanium and the impregnated metals were deposited on the surface of the adsorbent. The breakthrough time for GAC toward toluene or methyl mercaptan gas increased upon photocatalytic impregnation and LED illumination. Using different binders affected the breakthrough time of the TiO2/GAC composite and the addition of zinc oxide to TiO2 increased the VOC removal capacity of the GAC composite.

  8. Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão

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    Ajayi Ayodele

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charcoal site soil (CSS and adjacent field soils (AFS. These samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat, bulk density, total porosity, soil texture and color. Infiltration, surface albedo and soil surface temperature were also measured in both CSS and AFS. Measured properties were used as entries in a rainfall runoff simulation experiment on a smooth (5 % slope plot of 25 x 25 m grids with 10 cm resolutions. Typical rainfall intensities of the study watershed (high, moderate and low were applied to five different combinations of Ks distributions that could be expected in this landscape. The results showed significantly (p O impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, a resposta ao deflúvio e a suscetibilidade do solo à erosão foram estudados em experimentos de campo e de simulação. Amostras indeformadas e compostas de 12 locais aleatoriamente selecionados dentro do reservatório de Kotokosu foram coletadas na camada de 0-10 cm no solo sob carvão (CSS e no solo adjacente (AFS. Essas amostras foram usadas para determinar a condutividade hidráuli7ca saturada (Ksat, densidade do solo, porosidade total, textura e cor do solo. A infiltração, o albedo de superfície e a temperatura de superfície do solo também foram medidos no CSS e AFS. Os parâmetros medidos foram usados como entrada nos experimentos de simulação de deflúvio em uma parcela uniforme (5 % de declividade de 25 x 25 m, com grides de 10 cm de resolução. Altas, moderadas e baixas intensidades de chuva, típicas da bacia em estudo, foram aplicadas em cinco diferentes combinações de Ksat, que poderiam ser esperadas nessa

  9. Study on catalytic synthesis of bisphenoi A by activated charcoal supported keggin compound [ (CH2) 5 NH22 ]4SiMo12O40%活性炭负载Keggin型配合物催化合成双酚A的研究

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    罗志臣; 杨春雨; 杜冰

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A was synthesized from phenol and acetone using activated charcoal supported Keggin compound [(CH2)5NH2]4SiMoi2O40 of homemade catalyst. And melting point,element a-nalysis, IR have been measured. The effects of main reaction conditions on the yield of bisphenol A were examined. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: acetone 6 mL(0. 080 2 mol) n(phenol) : n(acetone)=4 : 1, catalyst dosage 7%,toluene 50 mL,reaction temperature 40 ℃, reaction time 2 h,the yield of product was above 70%,and the catalyst was recycled six times without loss activity.%以自制活性炭负载Keggin型配合物[(CH2)5NH2]4 SiMo12O40为催化剂,苯酚、丙酮为原料,催化合成双酚A.对产品进行了熔点测定、元素分析和红外光谱(IR)分析.考察了酚酮配比、催化剂用量、反应时间等因素对双酚A收率的影响.结果表明:丙酮6 mL(0.0802 mol),n(苯酚)∶n(丙酮)=4∶1,催化剂质量分数为7%,甲苯50 mL,反应温度40℃,反应时间2h,产品收率达到70%以上,且催化剂可以连续使用6次以上,催化活性无明显降低.

  10. Oral activated charcoal decreases serum phosphate level and calcium phosphorus products in dialysis patients with refractory hyperphosphataemia%药用活性炭有效降低顽固性高磷血症透析患者血磷水平与钙磷乘积

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程叙扬; 甘红兵; 吕继成; 王芳; 左力

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究口服药用活性炭对未能控制的高磷血症透析患者血磷与钙磷乘积的作用.方法 采用单中心、前瞻性、自身前后对照研究.经含钙的磷结合剂治疗后仍存在高磷血症的血液透析或腹膜透析患者,餐中加服药用活性炭4.5~7.2 g/d治疗3个月.检测治疗前后血磷、钙、钙磷乘积、全段甲状旁腺激素( iPTH)、白蛋白、血红蛋白水平.用配对t检验进行统计学分析.结果 与治疗前比较,治疗3个月后患者血磷水平显著下降[(1.85±0.30)mmol/L比(2.16±0.34) mmol/L,P<0.01];血钙磷乘积也相应显著下降[(54.12±8.37) mg2/dl2比(63.93±8.83) mg2/dl2,P<0.01];有更多并发继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症的患者可以接受维生素D治疗(83.3%比50%);血钙与iPTH水平无显著性变化(P=0.734,0.665).活性碳治疗期间血白蛋白水平较前下降[(40.1±2.2)g/L比(41.7±2.9) g/L,P=0.001].结论 顽固性高磷血症透析患者在继续原有磷结合剂治疗基础上,口服药用活性炭可以有效地降低血磷水平与钙磷乘积,对血钙及iPTH水平没有显著性影响.活性炭治疗可使患者血白蛋白水平轻度下降.%Objective To study the effect of medically activated charcoal on serum phosphorus level and calcium-phosphorus products in dialysis patients with poorly controlled hyperphosphatemia. Methods A single-center,prospective,self-controlled study was performed.Medically activated charcoal was administered 4.5-7.2 g per day with meals for three months to hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia after taking calcium-based phosphate binders.The levels of blood phosphorus,calcium,calcium-phosphorus products,intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH),albumin and hemoglobin were detected before and after the treatment.The results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results After 3 months of treatment,the patients' serum phosphorus level was significantly reduced from (2.16 ±0.34) mmol

  11. Avaliação do perfil de trabalhadores e de condições ergonômicas na atividade de produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quente" Evaluation of worker profiles and ergonomic conditions of the charcoal production activity in a line of surface kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida no ambiente de trabalho da produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quent"e, localizado na latitude de 17·27' oeste e longitude de 45º11' sul no Estado de Minas Gerais, nos meses de março a junho de 2003. O objetivo geral foi avaliar o perfil de trabalhadores e as condições ergonômicas na atividade de produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quente". Os objetivos específicos foram: a avaliar as características pessoais, sociais, econômicas e profissionais do operador; b estudar o clima do local de trabalho (temperatura; e c analisar a capacidade aeróbica do trabalhador. A metodologia empregada foi a proposta por Couto (1996 Apud (1987 e Sant'anna (1998. Pela análise dos dados, pôde-se concluir que o indivíduo da amostra era jovem, mestiço, casado, com poucos filhos e poucos dependentes financeiros, baixo nível de escolaridade, estatura média de 171,40 cm e média de peso corporal de 68,40 kg, 20% de analfabetos, de origem predominantemente rural e que professava a religião Católica. O valor do Indice de Bulbo Úmido Termômetro de Globo (IBUTG encontrado no ambiente de produção de carvão vegetal estava de acordo com a NR 15. A capacidade aeróbica em mililitros de oxigênio por quilograma por minuto apresentou valor médio igual a 35,17 (ml02/kg/min; o menor valor foi igual a 30,56 (ml 02/kg/min e o maior, igual a 39,23 (ml02/kg/min.This investigation was developed in the work environment of charcoal production in a line of surface kilns located at 17º 27' w latitude and 45º 11' 5 longitude in the state of Minas Gerais from March to June 2003. The general objective of this work was to evaluate the worker profile and ergonomic conditions of the charcoal production activity in a line of surface kilns. The specific objectives of this work were: a to evaluate the individual, social, economic and professional

  12. 40 CFR 59.208 - Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and non-methane organic carbon are analyzed by the TCA and TCA/Flame... . (WARNING: If the stack is vented into the building enclosure, caution must be taken to avoid carbon... scanning chart recorder, Omega strip recorder with a Strawberry Tree Data Acquisition System, or...

  13. Charcoal Regeneration - Part 4. Competitive Adsorption of TNT and RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    studies and involve a shift to a laiger pore volume, increased concentration of pores in the mesopore range and an increased ratio of pore opening to...Changes ’n the structures of the pores can, in a semiquar.titntve way, be inferred from the shape of the isotherm and the degree of hysteresis ...Witco. The best carbon, Witco, shows a much higher and wider loop indicating a larger pole volume and higher concentration of pores in the mesopore

  14. Charcoal Regeneration - Part 3. Mechanism of RDX Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    larger pore volume, increased numbers of pore body diameters in the mesopore range, and an increase in the ratio of pore opening to pore body diameter...openings due to irreversible adsorption, the shape and widcene~s of trh, hysteresis loop will give a semiquantitatlye picture of the narrdwingw. A...tion side of the hysteresis loop is in equilibrium with menisci in the body of the pores, and therefore gives information about the pore body

  15. SORPTION HYSTERESIS OF BENZENE IN CHARCOAL PARTICLES. (R825959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Catalytic carbonization of wood charcoal : graphite or diamond?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T; Vystavel, T; Bronsveld, P; DeHosson, J; Kikuchi, H; Nishimiya, K; Imamura, Y

    2004-01-01

    We report on the process of making graphite out of wood by catalytic carbonization. Two different types of microstructure were observed. One type being typical for graphitization of wood without the effect of a catalyst, the main characteristic being the typical fibrillar microstructure related back

  17. Aminocyclopyrachlor sorption in biochar and activated charcoal amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocyclopyrachlor is a new herbicide active ingredient, classified as a member of the new chemical class “pyrimidine carboxylic acids”. It is used for control of broadleaf weeds and brush on non-cropland. Due to its potential mobility in some soils, there is interest in whether aminocyclopyrachlor...

  18. Microstructure of wood charcoal prepared by flash heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosaki, F; Ishimaru, K; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Kobayashi, E; Imamura, Y

    2003-01-01

    Carbonized wood prepared by flash heating at 800 degreesC for I h shows a different microstructure and surface chemical structure than char formed after slow heating at 4 degreesC/min to 800 degreesC for I h. Flash heating produces pores that are surrounded by aggregates of carbon structures 25 to 1

  19. Structural and composilional characterization of charcoal derived from wood and sugar cane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Rone Cesar Morales

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: A importância sempre crescente da biomassa e de seus subprodutos na área industrial, com destaque ao uso do carvão vegetal, para geração de energia ou termo-redução (agente desoxidante); requer pesquisas fundamentais visando amplo entendimento de suas características estruturais e composicionais. No Brasil, o bagaço de cana abre perspectivas bastante atraentes neste setor, visto que constitui-se numa matéria-prima usual, renovável de grande produção, podendo contribuir no sentido de s...

  20. Accumulation of Heavy Metal Ions from Tanneries Wastes: An Approach For Chromium Removal Using Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, H; 1G. Yasmeen; Akhtar, N; Sultan, M.; 1M. Qadri

    2012-01-01

    The environment is under increasing pressure from solid and liquid wastes emanating from the leather industry. These are inevitable by-products of the leather manufacturing process and causes significant pollution unless treated in some way prior to discharge. The tanneries wastes samples were collected from Lahore Pakistan. The samples were digested by wet oxidation method and the concentrations of metals: Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Mn, Zn, Ni and Pb were estimated in sediments and liquid waste samples...

  1. Comparison between carbonization of wood charcoal with Al-triisopropoxide and alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, P; Hata, T; Vystavel, T; DeHosson, J; Kikuchi, H; Nishimiya, K; Imamura, Y

    2006-01-01

    A comparison was made between the catalytic carbonization of biomass carbon suspended in Al-triisopropoxide and in biomass carbon mixed with 40 mu m sized Al2O3 particles. Both types of samples were plasma sintered during 5 min under an argon pressure of 50 MPa at temperatures up to 2200 degrees C.

  2. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in the

  3. Marco Said I Look like Charcoal: A Puerto Rican's Exploration of Her Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Yarma Velazquez

    2008-01-01

    When race is so self-evident that it becomes "unspoken," it becomes a text that can be arbitrarily read or not read at all. When race is thought of as shades or textures of color that paint the already loaded canvas of our ethnicities, it is the reader who has the power of interpretation, opening the possibility for multiple readings that will…

  4. Native Soil Charcoal as a Model for Designing Biochar for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under changing climate a variety of mechanisms for removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it elsewhere are being considered to reduce the forcing of the atmosphere. Amending soils with biochar has been proposed as one long-term means of sequestering carbon originat...

  5. Formation, transformation and transport of black carbon (charcoal) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, M S; Raison, R J; Skjemstad, J O

    2006-10-15

    Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in terrestrial environments and its unique physical and chemical properties suggest that it may play an important role in the global carbon budget (GCB). A critical issue is whether the global production of BC results in significant amounts of carbon (C) being removed from the short-term bio-atmospheric carbon cycle and transferred to the long-term geological carbon cycle. Several dozen field and laboratory based studies of BC formation during the burning of biomass have been documented. Findings are difficult to interpret because they have been expressed in an inconsistent manner, and because different physical and chemical methods have been used to derive them. High error terms documented in many of these studies also highlight the problems associated with the quantification of the amount of biomass C consumed in fire, the amount of residue produced and the constituents of that residue. To be able to estimate the potential for BC as a carbon sink, issues regarding its definition, the methods used in its identification and measurement, and the way it is expressed in relation to other components of the carbon cycle need to be addressed. This paper presents BC data in a standard way; BC production as a percentage of the amount of C consumed by fire (BC/CC), which can be readily integrated into a larger carbon budget. Results from previous studies and new data from Australian ecosystems were recalculated in this way. As part of this process, several BC estimates derived solely from physical methods were discarded, based on their inability to accurately identify and quantify the BC component of the post-fire residue. Instead, more focus was placed on BC estimates obtained by chemical methods. This recalculated data lowered the estimate for BC formation in forest fires from 4% to 5% to <3% BC/CC. For savannah and grassland fires a value of <3% is consistent with reported data, but considerable variation among estimates remains. An updated flow-chart linking the sources, fluxes and pools of BC formed in the terrestrial environment with the aquatic and marine environments, and estimates of mean residence times for BC are also presented.

  6. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan berat pulp lebih tinggi dari kehilangan berat arang lindi hitam. Kehilangan berat yang tajam terjadi pada selang suhu 200-400oC. Perubahan gugus fungsi yang nyata terjadi dengan meningkatnya suhu pirolisis. Gugus hidroksil menghilang pada suhu 300oC atau lebih. Gugus terkarbonilasi menghilang pada suhu 300-500oC, tetapi terbentuk kembali pada suhu 650oC dan 750oC. Hal ini kemungkinan disebabkan oleh deformasi ikatan kimia oksigen di dalam cincin dari struktur lignin.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of charcoal hemoperfusion in patients with acute severe dichlorvos poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AiPENG; Fan-qingMENG; Lan-fangSUN; Zhan-shengJI; Yu-huiLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in the treatment of the patients with acute severe dichlorvos(DDVP) poisoning. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with acute severe DDVP poisoning in the two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients were treated with HP (HP group) and forty-one patients accepted traditional treatment only as the control. Serum concentration of DDVP was determined by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The duration of coma, impaired consciousness, ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the HP group than that in the control. The cumulative dosages (mg) of atropine required either in the first 24 h on admission (442±436 vs 899±485 in the control, P<0.01) or within the hospital (568±574vs 1228±982 in the control, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in the HP patients. The lower incidence of mechanical ventilation required (13.4 % vs 36.6 % P<0.01), respiratory muscular paralysis (4.5 % vs 17.1%, P<0.05) and the lower mortality of death (7.5 % vs 34.1%, P<0.01) were observed in the HP group. HP could accelerate the recovery of suppressed cholinesterase activity. After the procedure, the DDVP level was decreased from (11±4) to(7±3) mg/L in parallel with a decline in APACHE II Score or dopamine dose and a rise in Glasgow Coma Scale(P<0.05). In addition, the mean values of peak clearance and reduction rate were (87±17) mL/min and 44 %±11%,respectively. CONCLUSION: The rapid fall in blood DDVP level and the dramatic clinical response suggest that HP is effective in the treatment of acute severe DDVP poisoning.

  8. Synthesis of Flurbiprofen via Suzuki Reaction Catalyzed by Palladium Charcoal in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flurbiprofen 1, an excellent nonsteroidal an tiinflammatory drug, was synthesized in 5steps in 69% overall yield. The key step of constructing the biaryl fragment was successfully achieved via Pd/C-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction in water using sodium tetraphenylborate as phenylation reagent.

  9. Determination of Solids Content of Charcoal-Impregnated Polyurethane Foams Using Density Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    de la mousse de polyurethane impr~gnge au charbon de bois donnant des r~sultats dont les 6carts types sont inf~rieurs A 0,7 %. Sont pr~sentges des...que la teneur en charbon de bois. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT/R9SUMf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . ii INTRODUCTION...tione of title, body of abstract arid indexi ng annotation must he entered wvlheii the overall docuiletil is classiliedl I. ORIGINATING ACTiVITY 2a

  10. Characterization of sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded carbon in wood charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimaru, Kengo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Bronsveld, Paul; Nishizawa, Takashi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) preheated at 700 degrees C was subsequently heated to 1800 degrees C and characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The degree of disorder of carbon crystallites and the amount of amorphous phase decreased considerably

  11. Terra Pretas: Charcoal Amendments Influence on Relict Soils and Modern Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricigliano, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Most soils found in the Amazon region are characterized by highly weathered profiles that are incapable of longterm agricultural production. However, small patches of highly fertile relict soil referred to as Terra Pretas, are also found in the Amazon region, and have maintained their integrity for thousands of years. These soils were…

  12. Charcoal briquettes as substitute of blas furnace coal. I - Compound carbón bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesinsky Felperin, M.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn el presente trabajo, se considera a los Cuerpos Compuestos en general, y a los Cuerpos Compuestos carbonosos en particular, examinando sus fases componentes. Considerando el efecto pared, la viscosidad de la pasta conglomerante en las condiciones de temperatura y presión de conformado, es posible obtener Cuerpos Compuestos carbonosos de mínima relación "pasta/esqueleto granular", por composición de partículas de carbón vegetal de diferentes tamaños. Los requerimientos de pasta conglomerante coquizable decrecen a medida que se hace mayor el tamaño máximo de estos microesqueletos granulares, de mínima superficie específica.

  13. Gasification of blended animal manures to produce synthesis gas and activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and hardwood are renewable and expensive sources to produce combined heat and power (CHP), fuels and related chemicals. The therrmochemical pathway to gasify manure has the added advantage of destroying harmful pathogens and pharmaceutically active compounds dur...

  14. Power and Limitations of Anhydrosugars to Trace Historical Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs of charcoal BC to Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Andresen, C. S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Dalton, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived chars are the solid residues from incomplete combustion of plant materials. They are an important constituent in the black carbon (BC) continuum, an array of diverse pyrogenic organic materials ranging from slightly charred biomass (low temperature) to highly condensed refractory soot (high temperature). The characterization and quantification of plant-derived chars in environmental samples is a challenging process due to the heterogeneous nature of these substances. Most of the BC methods using oxidative approaches that seek to remove non-BC materials are limited in their potential to identify and quantify plant-derived chars because of their relative labilities compared to the condensed BC forms such as soot. Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan and galactosan), have generated considerable interest in recent years in BC research because they are exclusive thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulose and are produced in different proportions in chars and smokes from low temperature combustion of different plant species permitting some source discrimination in environmental samples (e.g. softwoods vs. hardwoods; gymnosperms vs. angiosperms). We show here a synthesis of several years of work using levoglucosan in diverse environments to reconstruct local to large-scale environmental change from climate-driven wildfires to human and accidental fires. For example, in the Hood Canal (WA), the striking consistency between the fluxes of levoglucosan, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index, and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), suggests that climate oscillations may play a role in the historical wildfire activities and thus influence the inputs of char-BC to the Puget Sound. Similarly, peaks in anhydrosugars in a sediment core from Lake Copenhagen record large-scale accidental fires in the city of Copenhagen during the early and late 18th Century, and help constrain the geochronology of the core beyond the limit of the 210Pb dating potential (late 19th Century). Despite these "successes" in sedimentary systems, the application of anhydrosugars to reconstruct historical char-BC inputs to aquatic systems is fraught with both methodological and conceptual issues. For one, anhydrosugars analysis in sediments suffers from more interferences than similar analyses in atmospheric particles. Secondly, and most significantly, the rapid turnover of anhydrosugars in aquatic systems mean that only a small fraction of the original tracers encapsulated in the inner pores of char particles is preserved in sedimentary systems, thus complicating the potential for a direct transfer function between the presence of anhydrosugars and original fluxes of char-BC to aquatic environments.

  15. Got a Match? Ion Extraction GC-MS Characterization of Accelerants Adsorbed in Charcoal Using Negative Pressure Dynamic Headspace Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzivino, Barbara; Tilley, Leon J.; Ingalls, Laura R.; Hall, Adam B.; Drugan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment demonstrating real-life application of GC-MS to arson accelerant identification is described. Students are given the task of comparing a sample recovered from a "crime scene" to that from a "suspect's clothing". Accelerants subjected to different conditions are recovered using a quick and simple…

  16. Chemical Structure and Molecular Dimension As Controls on the Inherent Stability of Charcoal in Boreal Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, W. C.; Kane, E. S.; Ohlson, M.; Huang, R.; Von Bargen, J.; Davis, R.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts have been made by various scientific disciplines to study hyporheic zones and characterize their associated processes. One way to approach the study of the hyporheic zone is to define facies, which are elements of a (hydrobio) geologic classification scheme that groups components of a complex system with high variability into a manageable set of discrete classes. In this study, we try to classify the hyporheic zone based on the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and understand their interactive influences on the integrated biogeochemical distributions and processes. A number of measurements have been taken for 21 freeze core samples along the Columbia River bank in the Hanford 300 Area, and unique datasets have been obtained on biomass, pH, number of microbial taxa, percentage of N/C/H/S, microbial activity parameters, as well as microbial community attributes/modules. In order to gain a complete understanding of the geological control on these variables and processes, the explanatory variables are set to include quantitative gravel/sand/mud/silt/clay percentages, statistical moments of grain size distributions, as well as geological (e.g., Folk-Wentworth) and statistical (e.g., hierarchical) clusters. The dominant factors for major microbial and geochemical variables are identified and summarized using exploratory data analysis approaches (e.g., principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, factor analysis, multivariate analysis of variance). The feasibility of extending the facies definition and its control of microbial and geochemical properties to larger scales is discussed.

  17. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  18. 某活性炭厂电气系统设计%Electrical System Design for the Activated Charcoal Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小萍

    2013-01-01

    本文对某活性炭厂电气系统设计,重点介绍了供配电系统设计,主要用电设备及自动化控制系统的选择.该系统的设计符合国家节能减排政策,将为该厂带来应有的经济效益.

  19. 活性炭对替硝唑吸附的研究%Study on Activated Charcoal Absorbing Tinidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2002-01-01

    考察生产过程中活性炭对替硝唑的吸附,发现活性炭对替硝唑的吸附量与活性炭的投入量成正比.改变生产工艺,如避免替硝唑原料与活性炭接触或按替硝唑的被吸附量,多投入相应的替硝唑,可确保产品含量符合标准.同时考察了活性炭在不同酸碱度对替硝唑注射液的吸附作用,发现无明显差异.

  20. 新型竹炭功能性鞋垫的设计与开发%The Design and Development of New Style Bamboo-charcoal Functional Insoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章瓯雁

    2004-01-01

    一双设计合理的鞋垫可以使双足健康、舒适.该文是关于竹炭产品深加工并结合纺织品功能性面料的技术完成的新型竹炭功能性鞋垫产品设计,对竹炭的深加工进入纺织品以及家纺产品领域有现实的指导意义.

  1. Obtention of charcoal briquettes from rice husks using low compaction pressure; Obtencao de briquetes de carvao vegetal de cascas de arroz utilizando baixa pressao de compactacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Marcia R.; Seye, Omar; Freitas, Katrina T. de; Rodrigues, Monica; Santos, Eyde C.S. dos; Souza, Rubem C.R. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2006-07-01

    This work consists of the preparation of briquette from carbonized rice's husks in low pressure. The results demonstrate are necessary a fine granulation of the rice's husks coal to obtainment of briquettes. The ultimate analysis of the briquette did not detect the presence of nitrogen and sulfur, and that prevents the formation and emission of acid gases that can produce corrosion in the equipment and pollute the atmosphere. The performance of the briquette production was superior to 80%. The briquettes present high heating value (HHV) 17,73 MJ/kg and adequate mechanic resistance for the use in gasifier-engine system. (author)

  2. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Sen Chang; Ying-Yeh Chen; Paul S F Yip; Won Jin Lee; Akihito Hagihara; David Gunnell

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, almost one million people die by suicide globally; suicide is the fifth leading cause of death in women aged 15–49 and the sixth leading cause of death in men in the same age group. Most people who take their own life are mentally ill. For others, stressful events (the loss of a partner, for example) have made life seem worthless or too painful to bear. Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help ...

  3. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Illinois coals are prime candidates for use in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants because of their high volatility and good char reactivity. In these plants, partial gasification of the coal in the presence of limestone eliminates the major portion of the sulfur species in the product gases, which are used as fuel for the topping cycle. The char produced is high in ash content, the major portion of which is calcium sulfide. It is also low in volatiles and of low density, compared to the parent coal. The economic success of the gasification route depends on the subsequent utilization of the residual char for raising steam for use in a Rankine cycle bottoming plant and/or preheating the air to the gasifier. Fluidized bed combustion of the char appears an attractive way of utilizing the char. Areas of concern in the fluidized bed combustion of the high ash, low volatility char are: attainment of high carbon conversion efficiencies; reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions; reduction/elimination of corrosive chlorine species; reduction/elimination of sodium and other alkali species; and efficient usage of the calcium present in the ash to reduce sulfur compounds. The aim of the present project is to investigate ways of improving the carbon conversion efficiency, sulfur capture efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction during the fluidized bed combustion by pelletizing the low density char with coal and coal wastes using cornstarch or wood lignin as binder. During this first quarter, the parent coals and the chars to be tested have been analyzed. Particle size distributions have been measured. Sample pellets have been made evaluation of their properties.

  4. The Occurrence of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on Chestnut-Leaved Oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan Forests of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) is native to the Alborz Mountains, including the Golestan Forests, in northern Iran. Trees grow up to 35 (-50) m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 (-3.5) m in diameter. During 2010, we received reports of a decline of oak trees in the Ghorogh Region of the G

  5. Removing microcystin by bio-reactor formed in charcoal%木炭填料生物反应器对微囊藻毒素的去除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春燕; 李娟英; 顾扬; 毕雪莹; 板山朋聪

    2016-01-01

    为了研究自然水体中产毒藻细胞和微囊藻毒素(MC)的迁移转化机理,以经济实用的木炭为填料的柱状反应器对含微囊藻和MC的自然水进行了分阶段连续性去除实验.结果表明,当进水叶绿素a(chl-a)浓度为94.9 ~ 203.4 μg/L,MC浓度为4.5~24.7 μg/L时,藻细胞(以chl-a浓度为指标)的去除率高于77.1%,MC的去除率高于66.2%.不同阶段的结果比较发现,HRT为6.8h时去除效果最佳.反应器中,原生动物和后生动物大量存在,以钟型虫(Vorticella sp.)、草履虫(Paramecrum sp.)、旋轮虫(Philodina sp.)和腔轮虫(Lecane sp.)为主要物种.实时荧光定量PCR分析结果表明,可降解MC细菌的特异性基因(mlrA)被检出.由此说明,除木炭填料的物理吸附外,微型浮游动物的捕食及细菌降解对水中藻细胞和MC的去除也起重要作用.

  6. 贫瘦煤制备抗菌活性炭的研究%Meagre-lean coal preparation antibacterial activated charcoal research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪民; 宋伟娟; 闫立东; 白金锋

    2008-01-01

    实验探讨了用山西贫瘦煤为原料,经过浓度20%的盐酸或浓度4%NaOH进行脱灰处理,以及对脱灰处理煤进行炭化和活化等工艺过程制备出具有较高吸附性能的煤基粉状活性炭.同时,实验采用浸渍法负载Zn2+ 、Cu2+ 、Ag+ 3种抗菌金属离子制成具有抗菌性能的抗菌活性炭.

  7. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it faile...

  8. Comparison of nitrogen utilization of bamboo charcoal coated fertilizers%竹炭包膜氮肥的利用率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟雪梅; 朱义年; 刘杰; 纪锐琳

    2006-01-01

    采用土壤溶出和盆栽试验的方法,研究了尿素、塑料包膜肥、矿物包膜肥和自制的竹炭包膜肥对氮素溶出率和玉米盆栽的生物效应的影响.结果表明:尿素施加到土壤中后淋失比较严重,矿物包膜肥、竹炭包膜肥、塑料包膜肥的氮溶出率均低于尿素(p均低于0.1),其中塑料包膜肥、竹炭包膜肥的溶出率显著低于尿素对照(p<0.01).尿素经过竹炭等包膜材料包膜处理后,在盆栽情况下,其氮素利用率可提高10%~25%,减少氮素溶出损失,有助于减轻对水体的污染.

  9. Effects of activated charcoal on plant tissue cultures:a review%活性炭在植物组织培养中的作用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘根林; 梁珍海; 朱军

    2001-01-01

    在植物组织培养中经常要用到活性炭.培养基中活性炭的加入可以促进或抑制离体生长.活性炭给培养物创造了暗环境,产生了对生长抑制物的吸附作用,对生长调节剂及其他有机物的吸附作用,还有对其所吸附的生长促进物质的释放作用.

  10. 利用扁桃壳制备糠醛和活性炭的研究%Research on Producing Furfural and Activated Charcoal from Almond Seed Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申烨华; 秦振平; 李聪; 郭红霞; 韩亚冬

    2006-01-01

    以扁桃壳为原料,用硫酸法制取糠醛,工艺条件为:每50g扁桃壳加入2.0mol/L硫酸250.0ml,蒸馏温度160℃,蒸馏时间2.0h.用糠醛渣试制了活性炭,产品活性炭的次甲基蓝吸附力达到了分析纯标准.

  11. Exploration-based education for "the activated charcoal possesses adsorptive action"%"活性炭具有吸附作用"的探究式教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国锋

    2004-01-01

    @@ 初中化学教材(九年义务教育三年制初级中学教科书)第80页[实验5-2]活性炭(或木炭)投入到充满红棕色的二氧化氮气体的锥形瓶中,[实验5-3]活性炭(或木炭)投入到水中滴有红墨水的锥形瓶中,通过振荡,看到红棕色的二氧化氮气体和溶液的红色变浅或消失了这一实验现象,说明活性炭(或木炭)具有吸附作用.

  12. 活性炭在医学领域的应用进展%Application Development of Activated Charcoal in Medical Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎渭清

    2008-01-01

    活性炭作为优良的吸附剂,除了在急救医学内用来口服吸附解毒,还被广泛用来作为血液灌流用吸附剂、人造器官吸附制剂,特异性地吸附中分子物质治疗某些以往的不治之症,近年来还被用来作为药物载体、溶质,治疗恶性肿瘤并指导清扫转移的淋巴结,以及通过调整活性炭的孔径及其分布,可以使其吸附不同的有害物质和细菌.

  13. PC-2000型活性炭氡测量仪%Model PC-2000 radonmeter for the activated charcoal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤三星

    2004-01-01

    PC-2000型活性炭氡测量仪是由便携式工控机支持的用于测量活性炭吸附氡子体γ的高科技新产品:本文介绍了PC-2000型活性炭氡测量仪的用途、结构、原理、技术性能与使用方法.

  14. Effects of activated charcoal on plant meristem culture%活性炭在几种植物茎尖培养中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季彪俊; 孙依斌

    2006-01-01

    对活性炭在唐菖蒲、橡皮树和香蕉等植物茎尖培养中的效应进行了研究.结果表明,活性炭显著促进了唐菖蒲的每丛苗数、苗高、根长、根数与鲜重;除鲜重外,活性炭对香蕉有促进作用,但对橡皮树作用不大.添加活性炭可提高3种植物的每丛苗数和根数,实际培养中有利于组培苗的生成与移栽.

  15. Activated charcoal activation technology in chemistry drugs manufacture Application%活性炭活化技术在化学制药中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐豪杰; 方浩; 孙淑正

    2010-01-01

    本文着重介绍了新华制药活性炭处理技术并在工业生产中的实际应用,讲解了活性炭活化的经济效益和环保效益,并对该项目在制药工业中的扩展与应用做了简述.

  16. Active Charcoal Produced by Bamboo Leftover for Gold Extraction%竹下脚料制备吸附黄金用活性炭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开金

    2007-01-01

    以竹下脚料为原料,通过正交试验法制取不定形颗粒炭,经检测其强度好,碘吸附值高,优于LY/T1125-1993标准A类(椰壳原料)指标,可作为椰壳活性炭的替代品用于黄金吸附,为黄金生产提供了新的活性炭品种.

  17. 活性炭柱层析法分离姜黄素%Isolation of curcumin from Rhizoma curcumae longae by activated charcoal column chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤纯

    2000-01-01

    利用75%的乙醇从姜黄原料中提取姜黄素,提取率91.37%;提取液直接流经活性炭层析柱后测得活性炭的对姜黄素的吸附容量约为8%;分别利用碱性水、碱性乙醇和碱性丙酮洗脱被吸附的姜黄色素,发现碱性丙酮的洗脱效明显优于其余两种洗脱剂(P<0.01);最终的结果显示,色素的产品率为2.36%,产品纯度92.33%,色素总收率79.62%.

  18. Research of Decoloring Effect on Active Charcoal to the Single Dyestuffs%活性炭对单体染料脱色效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋吉勇

    2006-01-01

    本文通过实验优化出用活性炭吸附单体染料的最佳条件,使脱色率达到97%以上,并从活性炭的结构方面讨论了吸附脱色机理,为进一步研究用活性炭处理印染废水提供了有力的实验依据.

  19. STUDIES ON IMMOBILIZED α-TRANSGLUCOSIDASE WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL%活性炭固定化α-转移葡萄糖苷酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕金峰

    2005-01-01

    以活性炭为载体,进行了固定化α-转移葡萄糖苷酶最佳条件研究,并探讨了固定化α-转移葡萄糖苷酶的酶学性质.固定化酶的最适pH值为4.0,最适作用温度为65℃,固定化酶的酶活较高,稳定性较好.

  20. RESEARCH ON DESULPHURIZATION OF SINTERING FLUE GAS BY ACTIVATED CHARCOAL%烧结烟气活性炭脱硫研究