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Sample records for charcoal prevents experimental

  1. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookings, C.H.; Ramsey, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available. (orig.) [de

  2. Assessing the Efficacy of Restricting Access to Barbecue Charcoal for Suicide Prevention in Taiwan: A Community-Based Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Chang, Shu-Sen; Wong, Jacky; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Charcoal-burning suicide has recently been spreading to many Asian countries. There have also been several cases involving this new method of suicide in Western countries. Restricting access to suicide means is one of the few suicide-prevention measures that have been supported by empirical evidence. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention program that restricts access to charcoal to prevent suicide in Taiwan. Methods and Findings A quasi-experimental design is used to compare method-specific (charcoal-burning suicide, non-charcoal-burning suicide) and overall suicide rates in New Taipei City (the intervention site, with a population of 3.9 million) with two other cities (Taipei City and Kaohsiung City, the control sites, each with 2.7 million residents) before (Jan 1st 2009- April 30th 2012) and after (May 1st 2012-Dec. 31st 2013) the initiation of a charcoal-restriction program on May 1st 2012. The program mandates the removal of barbecue charcoal from open shelves to locked storage in major retail stores in New Taipei City. No such restriction measure was implemented in the two control sites. Generalized linear regression models incorporating secular trends were used to compare the changes in method-specific and overall suicide rates before and after the initiation of the restriction measure. A simulation approach was used to estimate the number of lives saved by the intervention. Compared with the pre-intervention period, the estimated rate reduction of charcoal-burning suicide in New Taipei City was 37% (95% CI: 17%, 50%) after the intervention. Taking secular trends into account, the reduction was 30% (95% CI: 14%, 44%). No compensatory rise in non-charcoal-burning suicide was observed in New Taipei City. No significant reduction in charcoal-burning suicide was observed in the other two control sites. The simulation approach estimated that 91 (95%CI [55, 128]) lives in New Taipei City were saved during the 20

  3. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  4. Effect of sorbitol, single, and multidose activated charcoal administration on carprofen absorption following experimental overdose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigshof, Amy M; Beal, Matthew W; Poppenga, Robert H; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal, single dose activated charcoal with sorbitol, and multidose activated charcoal in reducing plasma carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Randomized, four period cross-over study. University research setting. Eight healthy Beagles. A 120 mg/kg of carprofen was administered orally to each dog followed by either (i) a single 2 g/kg activated charcoal administration 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (AC); (ii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal with 3.84 g/kg sorbitol 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (ACS); (iii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal 1 hour after carprofen ingestion and repeated every 6 hours for a total of 4 doses (MD); (iv) no treatment (control). Plasma carprofen concentrations were obtained over a 36-hour period following carprofen ingestion for each protocol. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed and time versus concentration, area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum concentration, and elimination half-life were calculated and compared among the groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Activated charcoal, activated charcoal with sorbitol (ACS), and multiple-dose activated charcoal (MD) significantly reduced the area under the curve compared to the control group. AC and MD significantly reduced the maximum concentration when compared to the control group. MD significantly reduced elimination half-life when compared to ACS and the control group. There were no other significant differences among the treatment groups. Activated charcoal and ACS are as effective as MD in reducing serum carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of AC, ACS, and MD in the clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  5. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  6. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs. An assessment of efficacyd and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookings, C H [Saint George' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine; Ramsey, J D [Saint George' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK). Toxicology Lab.

    1975-11-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, V.; Nikezic, D.; Zekic, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  8. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  9. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP, a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans. Keywords: Adsorption, Biomaterial, Hg2+ ion, Malva sylvestris, Charcoal tablet

  10. Theoretical and experimental investigation on adaptability of charcoal beds to containment filter venting in Italian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; Leonardi, A.; Perna, W.; Sgalambro, G.

    1989-01-01

    The work has been divided into three parts. The first one gives a description of the facilities under investigation during some selected accidental conditions, also described. The second part, which consists of an experimental work, tries to identify the behavior of charcoal beds in terms of pressure drop vs the aerosol mass loading and of aerosol retention efficiency. On the basis of the experimental findings, the prediction of the behavior of the real beds is carried out in the third part, as regards the pressure drop through the beds, related to the selected accident scenarios. In addition in this last part the results of a preliminary evaluation of the maximum decay power picked up by the beds without reaching the carbon self-ignition temperature have been reported

  11. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalumiana, O.S.; Hibajene, S.H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  12. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  13. Effects of weathering on impregnated charcoal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.

    1977-10-01

    Commercial activated charcoals have been exposed to known contaminants under controlled laboratory conditions and also to large volumes of outdoor air and each sample then evaluated for methyl iodide penetration. There is strong evidence that the interaction of water vapor and the charcoal is a significant factor in the degradation of the charcoals when the relative humidity is 70% and greater. The laboratory air mixtures studied were water vapor, water vapor and sulfur dioxide, water vapor and ozone, and water vapor and carbon monoxide. The charcoal in each of the four 0.5-in. layers making up the 2-in. test bed was degraded by the contaminants, but the first layer was influenced most. For the same charcoal the cumulative effect during one, two, and three months of weathering with outdoor air led to a progressive increase in methyl iodide penetration. The experimentation is being extended to additional commercial charcoals and to additional contaminant species in the laboratory experiments

  14. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  15. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  16. Zambian charcoal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidumayo, E.N.

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal production removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. Productivity is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect productivity. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal production. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)

  17. Charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Bashirelahi, Nasir; Reynolds, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Sales of charcoal dentifrices and powders have rapidly emerged into the Internet marketplace. The authors conducted a literature review to examine the efficacy and safety of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. The authors searched the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical studies on the use of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices and laboratory investigations on the bioactivity or toxicity of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices, published through February 2017. The authors used a defined search strategy to identify randomized, controlled clinical trials with a follow-up duration of 3 months or longer. In addition, the authors selected the first 50 consecutive charcoal dentifrices from Google.com and Amazon.com for ascertainment of product assortment and advertising promotions. The authors' literature search identified 118 potentially eligible articles. Thirteen studies reported brushing the teeth with raw charcoal or soot; however, none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies offered nonspecific caries reductions, 3 studies reported deleterious outcomes (increased caries, enamel abrasion, nonquantified negative impact), and 1 study indicated only that brushing with raw charcoal had no adverse effects on oral hygiene. Seven other studies reported only on the use of charcoal for oral hygiene. Internet advertisements included unsubstantiated therapeutic claims-such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and oral detoxification, as well as potentially misleading product assertions. One-third of the charcoal dentifrices contained bentonite clay, and 1 contained betel leaves. The results of this literature review showed insufficient clinical and laboratory data to substantiate the safety and efficacy claims of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. Larger-scale and well-designed studies are needed to establish conclusive evidence. Dental clinicians should advise their patients to be cautious when using charcoal and charcoal

  18. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  19. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  20. Back to charcoal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areklett, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The ferro-alloy industry is currently evaluating the feasibility of using charcoal rather than fossil coal and coke. This is to avoid the emission of climate gases. Ferro-alloys are used in a wide variety of important products. However, the climate gas carbon dioxide is formed during their production. Oxides are the raw material in the production of these alloys. For the Norwegian company Elkem, the starting point is quartz, SiO 2 . The only reducing agent strong enough to break the bond between silicon and oxygen is solid carbon, which reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, the climate gas. Cleaning the waste gases is too expensive to be relevant, as they are very voluminous and have low concentration of CO 2 . The carbon source currently used by the ferro-alloy industry is fossil coal or coke, which can be replaced by charcoal by burning what is not carbon in the wood so that the result is coal with a high carbon fraction. Although the burning of charcoal is not free of CO 2 emission, biological material containing carbon will over time emit CO 2 to the atmosphere anyhow. Thus, CO 2 emission from biomass does not count in the climate accounts. With rational forest management, the use of biomass implies sustainable climate policy. The ferro-alloy industry is currently exempt from climate taxes, but this situation may not last long, which is why the sector is now considering biomass

  1. Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Experimental Amitriptyline Poisoning in Pigs - The Effect on Amitriptyline Plasma Concentration and Hemodynamic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Petersen, Henrik; Malskaer, Cecilie M

    2017-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal hemoperfusion (CAC-HP) is a well-known treatment modality. Case reports have revealed conflicting results about the efficacy of CAC-HP in the treatment of amitriptyline (AT) poisoning, and no randomised clinical trials have been identified in the literature. This study a...... of AT compared to standard treatment alone. We hypothesize that the effect of modern CAC-HP as a treatment modality in AT poisoned human patients may be inadequate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  3. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  4. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: As compared to wood charcoal the charcoal briquette produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no smoke at all) and reduce impact of deforestation. Key words: Pollution, deforestation, extruder, carbonizer, wood charcoal, briquette charcoal, agricultural wastes, ...

  5. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  6. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  7. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  8. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wangchang; Huang Yuying; Wu Yianwei; Jia Ming; Guo Liangtian

    1993-01-01

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  9. Commercial Charcoal Characterisation For Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sumardjo; Sutisna; Handayani, Ari; Suprapti, Siti

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide a drinking water purification substance, has been studied the charcoal characterisation that based on a porous profile and an adsorption properties of the charcoal. There were using the commercial charcoal like wood charcoals, coconut shell charcoals and activated charcoals. The porous profile was studied by using an electron microscope SEM-EDX and the adsorption properties was studied by using the water sample simulation that contains several metal ions. The concentration of all ions was ten times greater that the maximum ions concentration that permissible in the drinking water. From the grain surface microscopic analysis was shown that the pore structure of the wood charcoal was more regular than the coconut shell charcoal. Mean while the activated charcoal has pore more than wood and coconut shell charcoal. Grains size was not an adsorption parameter. The absorptivitas charcoal was affected by pH solution, but this effect was not linear proportion. There are no significant deference in the adsorptivitas among the tree charcoals that has been studied for Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Ag 1 +, and Pb 2+ ions the adsorption was large enough (> 60%), for Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Se 4+ , Cd 2+ and Ba 2+ ions was 20%-60% dan for Mg 2+ , Na 1+ , Ca 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions was less than 20 %. Generally the wood and coconut shell charcoal absorptivity in the pH 4 solutions was lower than in the pH 5-7 solutions

  10. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  11. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  12. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C x F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F. The charcoal laden with NH 4 F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH 4 F as a mixture of NH 3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH 4 F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH 3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  14. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  15. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis- based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  16. Sexual Violence Prevention through Bystander Education: An Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.

    2007-01-01

    The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…

  17. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  18. Adsorption of methyl iodide on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidajat, K.; Aracil, J.; Kenney, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption of non-radioactive methyl iodide has been measured experimentally over a range of conditions of concentration, and temperature on an activated charcoal. This is of interest since methyl iodide is formed from iodine fission products in gas cooled nuclear reactors. A mathematical model has also been developed which describes the rate of adsorption, under isothermal and linear adsorption isotherm conditions in a recycle adsorber. This model takes into account the resistance to adsorption caused by the surface adsorption, as well as the external and internal mass transfer resistances. The solution to the model for the recycle adsorber was obtained using a semidiscretisation method to reduce the partial differential equations to a system of stiff ordinary differential equations, and the resulting differential equations solved by a standard numerical technique. (author)

  19. ECONOMICAL PLANS EFFECTS ON CHARCOAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira Rezende

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy is essential for human needs satisfaction. With the evolution of machinery, man becomes more and more dependent on the energy stocked in fossil fuels, comparatively to the primitive economy. Wood charcoal is a thermal-reducer used in Brazilian pig iron and steel industries, and its price is formed in an oligopsonic market. Over time, the charcoal prices have varied in function of endogenous and exogenous factors, needing, therefore, to be deflated so that they can be compared in two or more points in time. This work analyzed the variations of charcoal real prices, in national currency; compared and analyzed the real charcoal price in nominal and in real US Dollar and; analyzed the real prices of charcoal, comparatively to the real oil prices. The analyses were accomplished in the period from January 1975 to December 2002. The time series of charcoal prices, in domestic currency were deflated using IGP-DI, considering august, 1994=100, and charcoal prices were also converted to American dollar and deflated using CPI, considering the period 1982-84=100. It was compared, then, the real and nominal charcoal prices. It concluded that the real charcoal prices in Brazilian domestic currency, or in American dollar, presented a decreasing tendency along time. The inflationary disarray, in the 80´s and the first half of the 90 ´s, provoked a big price variation in the period; from the beginning the XXI century, charcoal prices were more influenced by the exchange rate; in the energy crisis period, charcoal prices suffered big changes that, however, did not persist along time.

  20. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  1. ACTIVATED CARBON (CHARCOAL OBTAINING . APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon is a microporous sorbent with a very large adsorption area that can reach in some cases even 1500sqm / gram. Activated carbon is produced from any organic material with high carbon content: coal, wood, peat or moor coal, coconut shells. The granular activated charcoal is most commonly produced by grinding the raw material, adding a suitable binder to provide the desired hardness and shape. Enabling coal is a complete process through which the raw material is fully exposed to temperatures between 600-900 degrees C, in the absence of oxygen, usually in a domestic atmosphere as gases such as nitrogen or argon; as material that results from this process is exposed in an atmosphere of oxygen and steam at a temperature in the interval from 600 - 1200 degrees C.

  2. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Arun; Srinivas, C R; Mathew, Anil C

    2008-01-01

    Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall's Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  3. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  4. Domestic fuel question and the charcoal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Rao, E G

    1981-06-01

    Domestic fuel for cooking forms one of the basic needs of human society. In India, the pressure of this need has exceeded the regeneration potential of the growing forests which supply a large proportion of this basic need. The pressure can be greatly relieved by converting wood to charcoal before it reaches the consumer. The present paper examines this aspect and reviews the modern methods of charcoal production on fuelwood resources. Besides being a choice domestic fuel, charcoal is a valuable raw material in various industries. Charcoal making industry can be established as a rural based industry (as part of community forestry projects) and would generate much needed cash income at grassroot level. The strategy would be important in dealing with the problem of chronic poverty at this level. (Refs. 5).

  5. Long and Short-Term Effects of Fire on Soil Charcoal of a Conifer Forest in Southwest Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Morrissette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the Biscuit Wildfire burned a portion of the previously established, replicated conifer unthinned and thinned experimental units of the Siskiyou Long-Term Ecosystem Productivity (LTEP experiment, southwest Oregon. Charcoal C in pre and post-fire O horizon and mineral soil was quantified by physical separation and a peroxide-acid digestion method. The abrupt, short-term fire event caused O horizon charcoal C to increase by a factor of ten to >200 kg C ha−1. The thinned wildfire treatment produced less charcoal C than unthinned wildfire and thinned prescribed fire treatments. The charcoal formation rate was 1 to 8% of woody fuels consumed, and this percentage was negatively related to woody fuels consumed, resulting in less charcoal formation with greater fire severity. Charcoal C averaged 2000 kg ha−1 in 0–3 cm mineral soil and may have decreased as a result of fire, coincident with convective or erosive loss of mineral soil. Charcoal C in 3–15 cm mineral soil was stable at 5500 kg C ha−1. Long-term soil C sequestration in the Siskiyou LTEP soils is greatly influenced by the contribution of charcoal C, which makes up 20% of mineral soil organic C. This research reiterates the importance of fire to soil C in a southwestern Oregon coniferous forest ecosystem.

  6. Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Almond Charcoal Activated with Zinc Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in aquatic environments that can leached to water resources from various sources such as sewage, fertilizers and decomposition of organic waste. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in infant’s blood stream can cause “blue baby” disease in infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitrate removal from aqueous solutions using modified almond charcoal with zinc chloride. Materials &Methods: This study is an experimental survey. At the first charcoal almond skins were prepared in 5500C and then modified with ZnCl2. Morphologies and characterization of almond shell charcoal were evaluated by using FTIR, EDX, BET and FESEM. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 500 ml sample in Becker. The nitrate concentration removal, contact time, pH and charcoal dosage were investigated. The central composite design method was used to optimizing the nitrate removal process. The results analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: The best condition founded in 48 min, 1250 ppm, 125 mg/l and 3 for retention time, primary nitrate concentration, charcoal dosage and pH respectively. The results showed that the nitrate removal decreases with increasing pH. Modification of skin charcoal is show increasing of nitrate removal from aquatic solution. Conclusion: In this study, the maximum nitrate removal efficiency for raw charcoal and modified charcoal was determined 15.47% and 62.78%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used as an effective method for removing nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  7. Performance study of coal-base charcoals for removing radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Wu Yanwei; Guo Liangtian; Jia Ming; Lu Xueshi; Zhang Hong

    1988-01-01

    In authos' laboratory sveral types of domestic coal-base charcoals are selected and impregnated and examined for their main physical and chemical performances. The results show that under the test conditions the iodine-removing efficiencies of these impregnated coal-base charcoals charcoals are not poorer than that of the impregnated fruit-shell base charcoals (such as coconut shell charcoal) and most of their physical properties can satisfy the requirements of the nuclear grade charcoals assigned in USA standards. More detailed studies will be made in the next programme

  8. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  9. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribot, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  10. Adsorption of krypton from helium by low temperature charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Adsorption of krypton from helium by charcoal at temperatures from -100 0 C to -140 0 C was experimentally investigated to verify adsorption system design methods and to determine effects of regeneration for the Gas Purification System of the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Helium with two krypton concentrations, traced by krypton-85 at 0.0044 μCi/cm 3 , was passed through a 1/2-inch diameter, three-inch long trap packed with coconut charcoal. Breakthrough curves were measured by continuously recording the activity of the effluent gas using a sampler with a krypton-85 detection limit of about 5 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 . Experimental breakthrough curves with continuous feed for both concentrations and for superficial gas velocities of 5 to 28 cm/sec were closely fitted when the pore diffusion term was omitted from the Anzelius linear equilibrium adsorption model indicating that the adsorption process for this system was controlled by gas phase mass transport kinetics. Adsorption capacities determined in these experiments at -140 0 C agreed closely with published data. A discontinuity, however, was observed in the krypton adsorption coefficient between -100 and -120 0 C. This discontinuity may be caused by capillary condensation of krypton in the charcoal pores. Breakthrough times for pulse experiments at 400 ppM (vol.) krypton concentration were several times greater than breakthrough for continuous feed experiments at equivalent conditions. The differences in breakthrough times indicate that the adsorption isotherms are non-linear in this concentration range. Regeneration experiments showed that purging with helium at room temperature for 16 hours was inadequate, since lower breakthrough times were obtained after this treatment. Regeneration under vacuum at 100 0 C or 200 0 C for 16 hours resulted in satisfactory regeneration (i.e., no reduction in breakthrough times occurred in subsequent runs). (U.S.)

  11. Assessment of household charcoal consumption in urban areas: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... respondents used charcoal as their main source of energy for cooking followed by gas (16.9%). ... sources of energy in order to reduce pressure on natural forests for the supply of charcoal.

  12. Charcoal Increases Microbial Activity in Eastern Sierra Nevada Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary W. Carter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important component of forests in the western United States. Not only are forests subjected to wildfires, but fire is also an important management tool to reduce fuels loads. Charcoal, a product of fire, can have major impacts on carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in forest soils, but it is unclear how these effects vary by dominant vegetation. In this study, soils collected from Jeffrey pine (JP or lodgepole pine (LP dominated areas and amended with charcoal derived from JP or LP were incubated to assess the importance of charcoal on microbial respiration and potential nitrification. In addition, polyphenol sorption was measured in unamended and charcoal-amended soils. In general, microbial respiration was highest at the 1% and 2.5% charcoal additions, but charcoal amendment had limited effects on potential nitrification rates throughout the incubation. Microbial respiration rates decreased but potential nitrification rates increased over time across most treatments. Increased microbial respiration may have been caused by priming of native organic matter rather than the decomposition of charcoal itself. Charcoal had a larger stimulatory effect on microbial respiration in LP soils than JP soils. Charcoal type had little effect on microbial processes, but polyphenol sorption was higher on LP-derived than JP-derived charcoal at higher amendment levels despite surface area being similar for both charcoal types. The results from our study suggest that the presence of charcoal can increase microbial activity in soils, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear.

  13. Guides to manufacturing and marketing charcoal in the Northeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons

    1957-01-01

    Charcoal manufacture has become the subject of a tremendous new interest in the Northeast in the past few years. In many communities, retailers have been unable to find enough charcoal to fill the demands - even though in the same localities there are large supplies of surplus wood that could be used in making charcoal. As a result of this unfilled demand, we have...

  14. Charcoal cuts the CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakervik, Anne Lise.

    1999-01-01

    According to this article, bio carbon, or charcoal, may be the way out for the Norwegian processing industry in attempting to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Norwegian ferro-alloy plants emit 3 million ton carbon dioxide per year, which comes from the use of coal and coke as reducing agents in the smelting process. If the fraction of bio carbon is increased by 15%, the emission of CO 2 may be reduced by about 1/2 million tonne per year. But the price of charcoal is much greater than that of fix C from coal and coke. Research is in progress on trying to produce bio carbon cheaper. Charcoal can be produced from all types of forest by pyrolysis. Waste heat from the pyrolysis can be sold and used for district heating. The most expensive part in the use of bio carbon will be timber felling and transport to the log pile. Small-scale and large-scale tests will be made to see if it is possible to make adequate charcoal from subarctic timber

  15. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  16. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Cruz G, S. De la; Lopez M, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  17. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions

  18. In vivo experiments with powder charcoal haemoperfusion (filmadsorber) in a pig model of hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berlo, G.M.W.; Groot, de G.H.; Schalm, S.W.; Jansen, P.P.; Vries, de E.H.; Fick, T.; Reuvers, C.; Boks, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The filmadsorber, an experimental haemoperfusion column containing activated powder charcoal embedded in a colloidal film, has been tested in pigs with ischaemicnecrosis of the Iiver. Haemoperfusion with aflow of 200 mI/min was perfermed for a duration of 4 to 6 hours. Bile acid clearances varied

  19. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.H.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P.K.; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  20. Theory and practice of radon monitoring with charcoal adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Cohen, E S

    1983-08-01

    Because of interest in charcoal adsorption as an inexpensive radon monitoring technique that may be suitable for mass data collection, the theory of radon adsorption from air by a charcoal bed is developed, giving numerical estimates at all stages. The method is practical down to air concentrations of about 0.1 pCi/l. A simple charcoal bed is limited by the fact that its response is highly sensitive to the time interval before termination of the exposure, but two simple methods of avoiding this problem are developed. Simple methods for determining the diffusion constant for the charcoal being used, and for optimizing the depth of the charcoal bed, are presented.

  1. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  2. Melatonin prevents experimental preterm labor and increases offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Rubio, Ana P; Sordelli, Micaela S; Salazar, Ana I; Aisemberg, Julieta; Bariani, María V; Cella, Maximiliano; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Franchi, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and contributes to delayed physical and cognitive development in children. At present, there is no efficient therapy to prevent preterm labor. A large body of evidence suggests that intra-amniotic infections may be a significant and potentially preventable cause of preterm birth. This work assessed the effect of melatonin in a murine model of inflammation-associated preterm delivery which mimics central features of preterm infection in humans. For this purpose, preterm labor was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10.00 hr (10 μg LPS) and 13.00 hr (20 μg LPS) on day 15 of pregnancy. On day 14 of pregnancy, a pellet of melatonin (25 mg) had been subcutaneously implanted into a group of animals. In the absence of melatonin, a 100% incidence of preterm birth was observed in LPS-treated animals, and the fetuses showed widespread damage. By comparison, treatment with melatonin prevented preterm birth in 50% of the cases, and all pups from melatonin-treated females were born alive and their body weight did not differ from control animals. Melatonin significantly prevented the LPS-induced rises in uterine prostaglandin (PG) E2 , PGF2α, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. In addition, melatonin prevented the LPS-induced increase in uterine nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin could be a new therapeutic tool to prevent preterm labor and to increase offspring survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Schoolwide Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…

  4. Improving the palatability of activated charcoal in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2007-06-01

    To compare the taste preference and ease of swallowing of activated charcoal among healthy teenagers when mixed separately with 3 different additives: chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water. Healthy volunteers between 14 to 19 years of age were selected for the study. Five grams of activated charcoal (25 mL of 0.2 g/mL of Charcodote [Pharma Science, Montreal, Canada]) was mixed with 25 mL of chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, or water individually to make up 50 mL. The volunteers drank the 3 cups of the charcoal-additive mixture separately and then rated taste and ease of swallowing on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. The subjects then indicated their preferred charcoal-additive mixture if he/she had to drink 9 more portions of charcoal (this would estimate the dose of charcoal for a 50-kg child). A total of 44 subjects were recruited (25 boys and 19 girls). The mean scores for taste preference for chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water mixtures of charcoal were 5.5, 6.3, and 2.0, respectively, on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Thus, subjects preferred the taste of charcoal mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola over charcoal mixed with water (P = 0.0003 for both comparisons). The subjects did not show a statistically significant difference for ease of swallowing between the 3 charcoal-additive mixtures. Overall, 48% preferred the chocolate milk mixture, 45% preferred the Coca-Cola mixture, and 7% preferred charcoal mixed with water. Healthy teenaged subjects identified that activated charcoal (Charcodote) mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola (in a 1:1 ratio) improved taste but had no significant effect on improving ease of swallowing. Overall, the addition of chocolate milk or coke improves the palatability of charcoal and is favored over charcoal mixed with water alone.

  5. Studies on entrained DNPPA separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous solutions generated during uranium recovery from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2010-01-01

    During the separation of metal ions by solvent extraction technique in hydrometallurgical operations, organic solvents either get entrained or dissolved in various types of aqueous streams, which need to be separated out to prevent environmental pollution and solvent loss. Generally entrained solvents are separated on plant scale by parallel plate separators or by froth floatation cells, while the dissolved solvents are recovered either by organic diluent wash or by charcoal adsorption. A novel process has been developed to recover uranium from merchant grade phosphoric acid (MGA) employing synergistic mixture of DNPPA (di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid ) and TOPO (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) dissolved in petrofin. After recovery of uranium, MGA has to be returned to the host company for the production of fertilizer. This MGA has to be free from any contamination due to DNPPA and TOPO. Separation of DNPPA and TOPO from MGA by diluent wash method has been reported. There is no information available in literature for the separation of DNPPA and TOPO from such aqueous streams by carbon adsorption. The present investigation describes the methodology based on charcoal adsorption study (batch and continuous column operation) to separate DNPPA from MGA. Three different types of charcoal namely coconut shell based, coal based and pelletized charcoal were evaluated for DNPPA separation from MGA containing 100 mg/L DNPPA. It was found that the % DNPPA adsorptions in single contact (0.5g C/50 ml) were 57, 34 and 10 in coconut shell, coal based and pelletised charcoal respectively. Based on the results, the coconut shell based charcoal was selected for further study. Adsorption of DNPPA by coconut shell based charcoal was investigated by carrying out the experiments with 50 ml MGA containing 770 mg/L DNPPA by adding 1 to 7 g charcoal respectively in separate beakers

  6. Newspaper reporting and the emergence of charcoal burning suicide in Taiwan: A mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Biddle, Lucy; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Gunnell, David

    2016-03-15

    prevent a suicide epidemic such as charcoal burning suicide seen in Taiwan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  8. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO 2 , NO 2 , CO 2 , methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  9. Methyl iodide retention on charcoal sorbents at parts-per-million concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.O.; Vogt, G.J.; Kasunic, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Breakthrough curves for charcoal beds challenged by air containing parts-per-million methyl iodide ( 127 I) vapor concentrations were obtained and analyzed. A goal of this research is to determine if sorbent tests at relatively high vapor concentrations give data that can be extrapolated many orders of magnitude to the region of interest for radioiodine retention and removal. Another objective is to identify and characterize parameters that are critical to the performance of a charcoal bed in a respirator cartridge application. Towards these ends, a sorbent test system was built that allows experimental variations of the parameters of challenge vapor concentration, volumetric flow rate, bed depth, bed diameter, and relative humidity. Methyl iodide breakthrough was measured at a limit of 0.002 ppM using a gas chromatograph equipped with a linearized electron capture detector. Several models that have been proposed to describe breakthrough curves were tested against experimental data. A variety of charcoals used or proposed for use in radioiodine air filtration systems have been tested against 25.7 ppM methyl iodide to obtain these parameters and protection (decomtamination) factors. Effects of challenge concentration, relative humidity, and bed diameter were also investigated. Significant challenge concentration dependence was measured (more efficiency at lower concentration) for two types of charcoals. Increased relative humidity greatly decreased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Increased bed diameter greatly increased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Implications of these effects for a test method are discussed

  10. Different carbonization process of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, S. S. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Bamboo charcoal has attracted a lot of interests due to their microporous structure, high surface area and great adsorption properties. Some of the applications utilizing this material focused on these advantages such as water purification, electromagnetic wave absorber and blood purification. However, these advantages really depend on the carbonization and activation process of bamboo charcoal. The production must be carried out in properly control environment with precise temperatures and timing. This paper report the production of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata in controlled environment at 500 °C for 1 hour (lab-prepared). Then the material was characterized for their dispersibility and adsorption behaviour. Furthermore, the bamboo charcoal that was produced commercially, by company, was also characterized and compared. The results show, bamboo charcoal produced by lab-prepared has similar qualities with the commercial bamboo charcoal.

  11. Failure of antiarrhythmic drugs to prevent experimental reperfusion ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, M; Michelson, E L; Kmetzo, J J; Kaplinsky, E; Dreifus, L S

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-nine adult mongrel dogs underwent acute ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty minutes later, the occlusion was released to evaluate the effectiveness of five antiarrhythmic protocols in eliminating reperfusion ventricular fibrillation. The five protocols included: protocol 1 --i.v. lidocaine, preligation and prerelease (n = 19); protocol 2 -- i.v. lidocaine, prereperfusion only (n = 22); protocol 3 -- chronic, oral, daily amiodarone for 2 weeks preligation (n = 19); protocol 4 -- i.v. procainamide, preligation and prereperfusion (n = 21); and protocol 5 -- i.v. verapamil, prereperfusion (n = 18). Each regimen was evaluated with respect to the incidence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation in dogs that survived to reperfusion, and the results were compared to 77 control dogs that underwent identical coronary artery occlusion and release procedures without drug therapy. The incidence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation was as follows: protocol 1 -- seven of 15 dogs (47%); protocol 2 -- six of 18 (33%); protocol 3 -- 11 of 16 dogs (69%); protocol 4 -- eight of 17 dogs (47%); and protocol 5 -- 10 of 17 dogs (59%), compared with 36 of 60 (60%) in control dogs. Using chi-square analysis, protocol 2 was beneficial (p antecedent coronary artery ligation periods, and predictive risk indexes for the occurrence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation were developed. the Mantel-Haenszel method of statistical analysis revealed that none of these protocols resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation. Thus, use of these predictive indexes plus appropriate statistical methods has revealed, unexpectedly, limitations in the efficacy of a spectrum of antiarrhythmic agents in preventing reperfusion ventricular fibrillation.

  12. Metformin exhibits preventive and therapeutic efficacy against experimental cystic echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Julia A.; Dávila, Valeria A.; Rodrígues, Christian R.; Petrigh, Romina; Zoppi, Jorge A.; Crocenzi, Fernando A.; Cumino, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively. Oral administration of Met (50 mg/kg/day) in E. granulosus-infected mice was highly effective in reducing the weight and number of parasite cysts, yet its combination with the lowest recommended dose of ABZ (5 mg/kg/day) was even more effective. Coincidentally, intracystic Met accumulation was higher in animals treated with both drugs compared to those administered Met alone. Furthermore, the safe plant-derived drug Met exhibited remarkable chemopreventive properties against secondary hydatidosis in mice. In conclusion, based on our experimental data, Met emerges as a promising anti-echinococcal drug as it has proven to efficiently inhibit the development and growth of the E. granulosus larval stage and its combination with ABZ may improve the current anti-parasitic therapy. PMID:28182659

  13. Metformin exhibits preventive and therapeutic efficacy against experimental cystic echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Loos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metformin (Met is an anti-hyperglycemic and potential anti-cancer agent which may exert its anti-proliferative effects via the induction of energetic stress. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Met against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Metformin showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing effects on in vitro cultured protoscoleces and metacestodes. Notably, the combination of Met together with the minimum effective concentration of ABZSO had a synergistic effect after days 3 and 12 on metacestodes and protoscoleces, respectively. Oral administration of Met (50 mg/kg/day in E. granulosus-infected mice was highly effective in reducing the weight and number of parasite cysts, yet its combination with the lowest recommended dose of ABZ (5 mg/kg/day was even more effective. Coincidentally, intracystic Met accumulation was higher in animals treated with both drugs compared to those administered Met alone. Furthermore, the safe plant-derived drug Met exhibited remarkable chemopreventive properties against secondary hydatidosis in mice. In conclusion, based on our experimental data, Met emerges as a promising anti-echinococcal drug as it has proven to efficiently inhibit the development and growth of the E. granulosus larval stage and its combination with ABZ may improve the current anti-parasitic therapy.

  14. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time

  15. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  16. A Study of Polishing Feature of Ultrasonic-Assisted Vibration Method in Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Min Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the feature of porosity in bamboo charcoal, this study applies the ultrasonic-assisted vibration method to perform surface polishing of the silicon wafer workpiece. The self-developed bamboo charcoal polishing spindle and ultrasonic- assisted vibration mechanism are attached to a single lapping machine. In the machining process, ultrasonic vibration enables the diamond slurry to smoothly pass through the microscopic holes of bamboo charcoal; the end of the bamboo charcoalis able to continue machining on the surface of the workpiece through the grasping force which exists in the microscopic holes. Under the polishing and machining parameters of ultrasonic-assisted vibration, with a diamond slurry concentration of 0.3%, the experimental results show a polishing time of 20 min, a loading of 25 N on the workpiece surface, a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a vibration frequency of 30 kHz and the original surface roughness value of Ra 0.252 μm equals that of a mirror-like surface at Ra 0.017 μm. These research results prove that by using bamboo charcoal and ultrasonic-assisted vibration for polishing, a very good improvement can be achieved on the workpiece surface.

  17. Optimization of preventive maintenance cycle based on experimental feedback in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)

  18. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  19. Production of charcoal briquettes from biomass for community use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttibak, S.; Loengbudnark, W.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports of a study on the production of charcoal briquettes from biomass for community use. Manufacture of charcoal briquettes was done using a briquette machine with a screw compressor. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of biomass type upon the properties and performance of charcoal briquettes. The biomass samples used in this work were sugarcane bagasse (SB), cassava rhizomes (CR) and water hyacinth (WH) harvested in Udon Thani, Thailand. The char from biomass samples was produced in a 200-liter biomass incinerator. The resulting charcoal briquettes were characterized by measuring their properties and performance including moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash contents, elemental composition, heating value, density, compressive strength and extinguishing time. The results showed that the charcoal briquettes from CR had more favorable properties and performance than charcoal briquettes from either SB or WH. The lower heating values (LHV) of the charcoal briquettes from SB, CR and WH were 26.67, 26.84 and 16.76 MJ/kg, respectively. The compressive strengths of charcoal briquettes from SB, CR and WH were 54.74, 80.84 and 40.99 kg/cm2, respectively. The results of this research can contribute to the promotion and development of cost-effective uses of agricultural residues. Additionally, it can assist communities in achieving sustainable self-sufficiency, which is in line with our late King Bhumibol’s economic sufficiency philosophy.

  20. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  1. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-01-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  2. Behavior of highly radioactive iodine on charcoal in moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Manning, S.R.; Martin, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of highly radioactive iodine adsorbed on charcoal exposed to moist air (110 torr water vapor partial pressure) was investigated in a series of six experiments. The amount of radioactive 130 I on the well-insulated 28-cm 3 bed ranged from 50 to 570 Ci, and the relative humidity was 47 percent at the bed inlet temperature of 70 0 C. Radioactive iodine was released from the test beds at a continuous fractional release rate of approximately 7 x 10 -6 /hr for all types of charcoal tested. The chemical form of the released iodine was such that it was very highly penetrating with respect to the nine different types of commercial impregnated charcoals tested in backup collection beds. Two types of silver-nitrate-coated adsorption materials behaved similarly to the charcoals. Silver-exchanged type 13-X molecular sieve adsorbers were 20 to 50 times more efficient for adsorbing the highly penetrating iodine, but not as efficient as normally found for collecting methyl iodide. The chemical form of the highly penetrating iodine was not determined. When the moist air velocity was decreased from 28.5 fpm (25 0 C) to as low as 0.71 fpm (25 0 C), the charcoal bed temperature rose slowly and reached the ignition temperature in three of the experiments. At 0.71 fpm (25 0 C) the ignited charcoal beds reached maximum temperatures of 430 to 470 0 C because of the limited oxygen supply. The charcoal exposed for four years at Oak Ridge ignited at 283 0 C compared with 368 0 C for unused charcoal from the same batch. Two of the experiments used charcoal containing 1 or 2 percent TEDA (triethylene-diamine) and a proprietary flame retardant. The oxidation and ignition behavior of these charcoals did not appear to be affected adversely by the presence of the TEDA

  3. Experimental Research Into High Barometric Oxygen Prevention of Guinea Pig Hearing Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-28

    PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin

  4. Measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient of Xe on coconut charcoal in CO2 streams by gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xinxi; Huang Yuying; Li Wangchang

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the dynamic adsorption coefficients of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 in CO 2 carrier streams by SP-2305E gas chromatograph with the thermal conductivity cell. The adsorption column is made of stainless steel (diameter 4 x 240 mm) packed with 60-80 mesh coconut charcoal II-2. The CO 2 content in carrier streams is about 87%. Three groups of data of Xe dynamic adsorption coefficient were obtained at temperature 15.5 deg C, 31.5 deg C and 50.5 deg C by pulse injection respectively. Another group was obtained at temperature approx. 16 deg C by continueous injection. In addition, adsorption isotherms and adsorption isometrics were determined. In this experimental system, the adsorption heat of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 is 2820 cal/mole

  5. The Influence of Coconut Water and Activated Charcoal in MS Medium on In Vitro Callus Regeneration of Dendrobium sp. Cultivar Bertha Chong Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Novita Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium is one of the most commercial orchids. In Vitro technique is one of solution to fulfill the market demand of Dendrobium. Organic matters, such as coconut water, and activated charcoal are often given to in vitro medium to regenerate orchids callus. The addition of activated charcoal is not only adsorbing toxic substances but also organic matters. The aimof this researchistofindthe best combination for callus regeneration medium. The research was conducted at the Biological Cell and Molecular Laboratory, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty of Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh since March to November 2013. The method used is experimental with Completely Randomized Factorial Design with two factor; treatments of coconut water and activated charcoal. The result showed that the combinationof 150mL/Lcoconut waterand2,0g/Lactivated charcoal is the best resultbecauseit is the onlytreatment that have capability in producingplantletswithin60days.

  6. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  7. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: potential targets, experimental models, and clinical challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Yujin; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic fibrotic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis eventually develop liver cirrhosis, which causes occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given the limited therapeutic efficacy in advanced HCC, prevention of HCC development could be an effective strategy for improving patient prognosis. However, there is still no established therapy to meet the goal. Studies have elucidated a wide variety of molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in HCC development. Genetically-engineered or chemically-treated experimental models of cirrhosis and HCC have been developed and shown their potential value in investigating molecular therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for HCC prevention. In this review, we overview potential targets of prevention and currently available experimental models, and discuss strategies to translate the findings into clinical practice. PMID:22873223

  8. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palozza, Paola; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta; Mele, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk

  9. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palozza, Paola, E-mail: p.palozza@rm.unicatt.it; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta [Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy); Mele, Maria Cristina [Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  10. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Catalano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  11. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Mitsuo

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect was measured for several kinds of heavy metal ions, Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ by passing them through activated charcoal beds and changing the pH values of solutions. The test procedure is to keep the pH value of solution more than 10 at first, filter heavy metal hydroxide deposit, measure the remaining ion concentration in filtrate, and also test the influence of the addition of alkali to each kind of ions. The individual test procedure for each kind of ions is explained. As for the Cd ions, after the detailed experimental procedure is explained, the adsorption characteristic line is shown as the relation between the adsorption quantity and the equilibrium concentration of Cd 2+ . The similar test procedure and the adsorption characteristic lines are shown and evaluated about Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ . These lines are all linear, but have different adsorption quantity and inclination in relation to heavy metal ion concentration. Concerning the influence of pH to adsorption, the characteristics of pH increase are presented, when alkali is added by various quantities to Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The pH of Pb 2+ increased to about 10 by adding 0.4 cc alkali and saturates, but the pH of the other ions did not saturate by adding less than 1.5 cc alkali. When the water containing heavy metals are treated, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are removed almost satisfactorily by passing them through active charcoal filters and keeping pH at 10. The experimental concentrations are 0.05 ppm at pH 10 in Cd, 0.86 ppm at 10.3 in Pb, 0 ppm at pH 9.6 in Cu, 0.06 ppm at pH 8.8 and 12.4 ppm at pH 9.8 in Zn. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Mulop; Mohd Suffian Abdul Rahim

    2000-01-01

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 o C for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  13. Effect of service aging on iodine retention of activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The Savannah River reactor confinement systems are continuously operated offgas cleanup systems whose components include moisture separators, HEPA filters, and halogen adsorber beds of activated charcoal. Charcoal is removed from the system periodically and subjected to a variety of physical, chemical, and iodine penetration tests to ensure that the system will perform within specification in the event of an accidental release of activity from the reactor. Tests performed on the charcoals include pH measurement of water extracts, particle size distribution, ignition temperature, high-temperature (180 0 C) iodine penetration, and iodine penetration in an intense radiation field at high humidity. Charcoals used in the systems include carbon Types 416 (unimpregnated), G-615 (impregnated with 2 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI), and GX-176 (impregnated with 1 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI). Performance data are presented and compared

  14. Effect of humidity on thoron adsorption in activated charcoal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudeep Kumara, K.; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sapra, B.K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Kanse, S.D.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a well-known adsorber of 222 Rn and 220 Rn gases. This property can be effectively used for remediation of these gases in the workplaces of uranium and thorium processing facilities. However, the adsorption on charcoal is sensitive to variation in temperature and humidity. The successful designing and characterization of adsorption systems require an adequate understanding of these sensitivities. The study has been carried out towards this end, to delineate the effect of relative humidity on the efficacy of 220 Rn mitigations in a charcoal bed. Air carrying 220 Rn from a Pylon source was passed through a column filled with coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal. The relative humidity of the air was controlled, and the transmission characteristics were examined at relative humidity varying from 45% to 60%. The mitigation factor was found to decrease significantly with an increase of humidity in the air. (author)

  15. The analysis of charcoal in peat and organic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Mooney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of charcoal in sediments has been interpreted as a ‘fire history’ at about 1,000 sites across the globe. This research effort reflects the importance of fire in many ecosystems, and the diversity of processes that can be affected by fire in many landscapes. Fire appears to reflect climate through the intermediary of vegetation, but arguably responds faster than vegetation to climate change or variability. Fire and humans are also intricately linked, meaning that the activity of fire in the past is also of relevance to prehistoric and historic human transitions and to contemporary natural resource management. This article describes recent advances in the analysis of charcoal in peat and other sediments, and offers a simple method for the quantification of larger charcoal fragments (>100 µm and a standardised method for the quantification of microscopic charcoal on pollen slides. We also comment on the challenges that the discipline still faces.

  16. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constructed wetland using corncob charcoal substrate: pollutants removal and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao; Li, Boyuan; Xue, Yingwen; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using corncob charcoal substrate in constructed wetlands, four laboratory-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were built. Effluent pollutant (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations during the experiment were determined to reveal pollutant removal mechanisms and efficiencies at different stages. In the stable stage, a VFCW using clay ceramisite substrate under aeration attained higher COD (95.1%), and NH 4 + -N (95.1%) removal efficiencies than a VFCW using corncob charcoal substrate (91.5% COD, 91.3% NH 4 + -N) under aeration, but lower TP removal efficiency (clay ceramisite 32.0% and corncob charcoal 40.0%). The VFCW with raw corncob substrate showed stronger COD emissions (maximum concentration 3,108 mg/L) than the corncob charcoal substrate (COD was lower than influent). The VFCW using corncob charcoal substrate performed much better than the VFCW using clay ceramisite substrate under aeration when the C/N ratio was low (C/N = 1.5, TN removal efficiency 36.89%, 4.1% respectively). These results suggest that corncob charcoal is a potential substrate in VFCWs under aeration with a unique self -supplying carbon source property in the denitrification process.

  19. Determination of the attrition resistance of granular charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory procedure has been developed to evaluate the attrition of granular adsorbent charcoals on passing an air flow through the bed. Two factors observed in plant operations were selected as relevant: (1) the characteristic structural vibrations in plant scale equipment (motors, fans, etc.) that are transmitted to charcoal particles and cause the particles to move and rub each other, and (2) the rapid air flow that results in the movement of the attrited dust. In the test a container for charcoal [50 mm diameter and 50 mm high] was vibrated at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a constant energy input manually controlled using a vibration meter in the acceleration mode. Simultaneously, air was applied and exited through glass fiber filter paper. The quantity of dust trapped on the exit filter was then determined, either optically or gravimetrically. The dust formed per minute (attrition coefficient) was found to approach a constant value. The plateau-values from sequential determinations varied with the source of the charcoal; a 5-fold difference was found among a large variety of commercial products. The first testing of a sample released the excess dust accumulated in previous handling of the charcoal. The plateau values were then attained in the succeeding tests and these were characteristic of the material. The results were compared with those obtained for the same charcoals using older test methods such as the Ball and Pan Hardness Test described in RDTM16-1T

  20. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetsky, A.E.; Vnukov, S.P.; Zalavutdinov, R.Kh.; Zakharov, A.P.; Buryak, A.K.; Ulyanov, A.V.; Federici, G.; Day, Chr.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal is a working material of sorption cryopumps in the ITER project. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by TDS (77-300 K) and sorption measurements at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with an H 2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H 2 in the gas mixture in the afterglow zone was ∼10 -4 , hydrogen flow and inlet pressure were 6.9 sccm and 30 Pa, respectively. After exposure in the H/H 2 mixture during 1 hour the marked change in the shape of the TD spectra and decrease of the charcoal sorption capacity for hydrogen and nitrogen were detected. A wide spectrum of hydrocarbon fragments formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal, which was measured by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, decreased directly as amount of H atoms passed through the section with charcoal. (author)

  1. Development of hydroponic system using agriculture waste. 1. Characteristics of rice husk charcoal as growth medium and vegetable growth; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 1. Momigara kutan no baichi to shite no tokucho to yasai no seiiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazoe, H; Nakaya, K; Okano, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    Experimental researches were made on rice husk charcoals processed to be used as culture media for hydroponics. Rice husk charcoals with a size of 1 mm or larger retaining the original shape of the rice husk, and with a size of smaller than 1 mm were made for use in the experiment. In the culture media made of these rice husk charcoals, the charcoal with a particle size greater than 1 mm had more air portion than water portion at 6 cm above the water level, and the charcoal with a particle size smaller than 1 mm had poor air permeability. According to the result of immersing the rice husk charcoal in a culture solution, phosphoric acid ion and manganese in the solution decreased by about 35% and calcium by about 10% in the duration of 120 minutes, as a result of having been adsorbed into the rice husk charcoal. On the other hand, chloride ion increased by about 80% and potassium and iron by about 30%, because of having been dissolved out from the charcoal. In cultivating spinach, butterhead lettuce and radish in the rice husk charcoal culture media, the culture medium with charcoal smaller than 1 mm resulted in harvest reduced by about 75% in spinach, and about 10% in butterhead lettuce. 15 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. An Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis for Unobserved Confounding in Non-Experimental Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite that randomization is the gold standard for estimating causal relationships, many questions in prevention science are left to be answered through non-experimental studies often because randomization is either infeasible or unethical. While methods such as propensity score matching can adjust for observed confounding, unobserved confounding is the Achilles heel of most non-experimental studies. This paper describes and illustrates seven sensitivity analysis techniques that assess the sensitivity of study results to an unobserved confounder. These methods were categorized into two groups to reflect differences in their conceptualization of sensitivity analysis, as well as their targets of interest. As a motivating example we examine the sensitivity of the association between maternal suicide and offspring’s risk for suicide attempt hospitalization. While inferences differed slightly depending on the type of sensitivity analysis conducted, overall the association between maternal suicide and offspring’s hospitalization for suicide attempt was found to be relatively robust to an unobserved confounder. The ease of implementation and the insight these analyses provide underscores sensitivity analysis techniques as an important tool for non-experimental studies. The implementation of sensitivity analysis can help increase confidence in results from non-experimental studies and better inform prevention researchers and policymakers regarding potential intervention targets. PMID:23408282

  3. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulu, Leo Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  4. The forbidden fuel. Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity. (author)

  5. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles, E-mail: zulu@msu.ed [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  6. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  7. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, H.; Yuasa, Y.; Tani, A.; Ohki, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI 3 , were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  8. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayawong, Nakorn; Saengow, Nakarin; Chaiya, Ekarin

    2010-07-01

    There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  9. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Ehsanul [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: khkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul Center, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (As) to 118 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  10. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  11. COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti, the burnout temperature (Tf, characteristic combustion index (S, ignition index (Di, time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp, and ignition time (tig were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Laskoski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg, with four sheep, submitted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

  13. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Hans-Peter; Du, Xueliang; Edelstein, Diane; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ju, Qida; Lin, Jihong; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nawroth, Peter; Hannak, Dieter; Neumaier, Michael; Bergfeld, Regine; Giardino, Ida; Brownlee, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Three of the major biochemical pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia induced vascular damage (the hexosamine pathway, the advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation pathway and the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway) are activated by increased availability of the glycolytic metabolites glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. We have discovered that the lipid-soluble thiamine derivative benfotiamine can inhibit these three pathways, as well as hyperglycemia-associated NF-kappaB activation, by activating the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase, which converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate into pentose-5-phosphates and other sugars. In retinas of diabetic animals, benfotiamine treatment inhibited these three pathways and NF-kappaB activation by activating transketolase, and also prevented experimental diabetic retinopathy. The ability of benfotiamine to inhibit three major pathways simultaneously might be clinically useful in preventing the development and progression of diabetic complications.

  14. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of lactic acid from fermentation broth onto activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seankham Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated charcoal was applied for the recovery of lactic acid in undissociated form from fermentation broth. Lactic acid was obtained from the fermentation of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1340 using acid hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetics for the lactic acid separation were investigated. The experimental data for lactic acid adsorption from fermentation broth were best described by the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics with R2 values of 0.99. The initial adsorption rate was 41.32 mg/g⋅min at the initial lactic acid concentration of 40 g/L.

  15. Preventive Effect of Zea mays L. (Purple Waxy Corn) on Experimental Diabetic Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Thiraphatthanavong, Paphaphat; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Tong-un, Terdthai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-01-01

    Recently, substances possessing antioxidant can prevent cataractogenesis of diabetic cataract. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the anticataract effect of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn), a flavonoids rich plant, in experimental diabetic cataract. Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55 mM glucose with various concentrations of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn) ranging between 2, 10, and 50 mg/mL at room temperature for 72 h. At the end of ...

  16. Performance improvements on passive activated charcoal 222Rn samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1996-01-01

    Improvements have been made on passive activated charcoal 222 Rn samplers with sintered metal filters. Based on the samplers of good adaptability to temperature and humidity developed before, better charcoal was selected to further improve their performance in radon absorption ability and moisture-resistance. And charcoal quantity in samplers was strictly controlled. The integration time constant of the improved samplers was about 4.3 days. As the sampler was combined with gamma spectrometer to measure radon concentration, the calibration factor was 0.518 min -1 ·Bq -1 ·m 3 for samplers of 7 days exposure time, and the minimum detectable concentration 0.28 Bq·m -3 if counting time for both background and sample is 1000 minutes. The improved samplers are suited to accurately determine the indoor and outdoor average radon concentration under conditions of great variation in temperature and humidity

  17. Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, F; Sadki, C; Aziz, M; Mimouni, M; Hacht, B

    2009-04-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the

  18. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  19. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (penamel.

  20. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  1. Potency of bio-charcoal briquette from leather cassava tubers and industrial sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrasari, Nita; Pinatih, Tety A.; Kuncoro, Eko P.; Soegianto, Agoes; Salamun, Irawan, Bambang

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the bio-charcoal briquette with materials from leather cassava tubers and sludge of wastewater treatment plant. The first, bio-charcoal briquette analized stability test and compressive strength. Then, bio-charcoal briquette with best value analyzed for parameter including moisture content, ash content, calorific content, and burned test. The result briquette quality based on compressive strength for bio-charcoal briquettes carbonated water content between 3.8%-4.5% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes between 5.2%-7.6%. Bio-charcoal carbonation briquette ash content was between 5.30%-7.40% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes was between 6.86%-7.46%. Bio-charcoal carbonation levels briquettes heated between 578.2 calories/g-1837.7 calories/g and non carbonatedbio-charcoal briquettes between 858.1 calories/g-891.1 calories/g. Carbonated bio-charcoal burned test was between 48-63 minutes and non-carbonated bio-charcoal was between 22-42 minutes. Emissions resulted from the bio-charcoal briquettes for carbonated and non carbonated composition according to the government regulations ESDM No. 047 of 2006 which, at 128 mg/Nm3 and 139 mg/Nm3.

  2. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf Jaffe; Yan Ding; Jutta Niggemann; Anssi V. Vahatalo; Aron Stubbins; Robert G. M. Spencer; John Campbell; Thorsten Dittmar

    2013-01-01

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent...

  3. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. A male patient was brought to the emergency department to syncope and complained of left chest pain. Cardiac angiography and electrocardiography were performed to rule out acute ischemic heart disease, and cardiac markers were checked. After relief of the symptoms and stabilization of the cardiac markers, the patient was discharged without any complications. Electrocardiography was normal, but cardiac angiography showed up to a 40% midsegmental stenosis of the right coronary artery with thrombotic plaque. The level of cardiac markers was elevated at least 5 to 10 times higher than the normal value, and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration was 35% measured at one hour after syncope. Following the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy, the patient's medical history and work exposure history were examined. He was found to have been exposed to burning charcoal constantly during his work hours. Severe exposure to carbon monoxide was evident in the patient because of high carboxyhemoglobin concentration and highly elevated cardiac enzymes. We concluded that this exposure led to subsequent cardiac injury. He was diagnosed with acute carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy due to an unsafe working environment. According to the results, the risk of exposure to noxious chemicals such as carbon monoxide by workers in the food service industry is potentially high, and workers in this sector should be educated and monitored by the occupational health service to prevent adverse effects.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of rice husk charcoal bio briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Salsabila, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rice husk is the outermost part of the rice seed which is a hard layer and a waste material from rice milling. Rice husk includes biomass that can be exploited for various requirements such as industrial raw materials as well as energy sources or fuel but only a small group of people use it. This research is conducted utilizing the rice husk as an alternative fuel by making it as a charcoal briquette. To make the treatment easy, firstly the rice husk biomass was converted into charcoal powder by carbonization method using two kinds of furnace which have different heating behavior. The best carbonization results are obtained from the furnace, which has a constant temperature heating behavior. The process of making briquettes is prepared by adding tapioca starch of 6% concentration by weight as charcoal adhesive and then printed with the aid of pressing tools using loads at 1,000 kg/cm2. The resulting briquette has a calorific value about 3.126 cal/g, mass density is 0.86 g/cm3 and compressive strength is about 2.02 kg/cm2, so that the bio-briquette of charcoal produced can be used as alternative energy to replace the fossil fuel for domestic or household purposes.

  6. Determinants of Charcoal Production Efficiency in Ibarapa North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency and stochastic frontier production function. The study revealed that mean age of producers was 36 years; 96.9% were males and 3.1 were females. Majority of the producers (76.9%) had no formal training on how to produce charcoal, ...

  7. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  8. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  9. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  10. Effect of activated charcoal, abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Generation of horse chestnut somatic embryos is commonly achieved by transferring embryo- genic tissue onto an ABA, PEG and manitol-containing maturation media (Capuana and Deberg, 1997). Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media to darken the immediate media surroundings ...

  11. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  12. Dose Determination of Activated Charcoal in Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the doses of activated charcoal currently used in the management of acute amitriptyline-induced drug poisoning and explore the possibility of using lower doses. Methods: Albino male Wistar rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were used for the study. The animals were divided into four groups of eight animals ...

  13. Experimental concepts for toxicity prevention and tissue restoration after central nervous system irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astner Sabrina T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several experimental strategies of radiation-induced central nervous system toxicity prevention have recently resulted in encouraging data. The present review summarizes the background for this research and the treatment results. It extends to the perspectives of tissue regeneration strategies, based for example on stem and progenitor cells. Preliminary data suggest a scenario with individually tailored strategies where patients with certain types of comorbidity, resulting in impaired regeneration reserve capacity, might be considered for toxicity prevention, while others might be "salvaged" by delayed interventions that circumvent the problem of normal tissue specificity. Given the complexity of radiation-induced changes, single target interventions might not suffice. Future interventions might vary with patient age, elapsed time from radiotherapy and toxicity type. Potential components include several drugs that interact with neurodegeneration, cell transplantation (into the CNS itself, the blood stream, or both and creation of reparative signals and a permissive microenvironment, e.g., for cell homing. Without manipulation of the stem cell niche either by cell transfection or addition of appropriate chemokines and growth factors and by providing normal perfusion of the affected region, durable success of such cell-based approaches is hard to imagine.

  14. Experimental study of 103Pd stents for preventing the restenosis of biliary duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Qinyi; Shu Qiang; Lu Xiangdong; Li Yaming; He Guijin; Pei Zhuguo; Xu Shuhe

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of preventing biliary duct restenosis with the stent treated with 103 Pd and to elucidate the mechanisms of the inhibition of the smooth muscle cell proliferation and the increase of apoptosis. Methods: The experimental dogs were randomly divided into common-stent group and 103 Pd stent group, each of 6 animals. Pathohistology, cell apoptosis, immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the expression of gene p53 by in situs hybridization, the test of the peripheral blood and measurement of radiation of tissue around the stent were studied. Results: The utmost intimal thickness of biliary duct in the 103 Pd stent group was found to be obviously less compared to that in common-stent group after 30 d, the percentages of the stenosis of the biliary duct were (54.73 ± 21.64)% and (17.61 ± 14.52)%, respectively, there was a significant difference between two groups (P 103 Pd stent group, and decreased in the common-stent group; the expression of PCNA of biliary smooth muscle cells of 103 Pd group was weaker compared with that in the common-group. Conclusion: 103 Pd stent may inhibit the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and prevent the restenosis of biliary duct. (authors)

  15. Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Yasin; Halici, Zekai; Keles, Mevlut Sait; Colak, Suat; Cakir, Ahmet; Kaya, Yusuf; Akçay, Fatih

    2011-11-18

    Since ancient times, various herbal preparations have been used in treatment of urolithiasis, which is basically formation of calcium oxalate stones in kidney. The aim of our study is to assess the effects of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum (HP) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. The efficacy of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg HP extract was studied in 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride-induced urolithiasis for 21 days in rats. The weight difference and the levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid in both serum and 24h-urine were measured. The calcium oxalate (CaOx) and pH were defined in urine. Histo-pathological analyses in kidneys were also performed. The rats' weights were higher in HP groups than urolithiasis group. Urolithiasis caused a significant increase in both serum and urine biochemical parameters compared to healthy rats. HP extract decreased levels of these parameters. Urine CaOx level was high in urolithiasis rats, whereas it was decreased by HP extract. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive intratubular crystal depositions and degenerative tubular structures in urolithiasis group, but not in HP treatment groups. More studies will be necessary to elucidate the antiurolithiatic activity of HP. Nonetheless, having a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys, HP extract may be a potential drug for urolithiasis treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCaille, Lara J; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Rick A; Dauner, Kim Nichols; de Souza, Rebecca; Nowak, Amy Versnik; Regal, Ronald

    2016-02-19

    Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm) and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm) participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion), persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with other worksite obesity prevention studies using ecological approaches

  17. Specific Depletion of Ly6Chi Inflammatory Monocytes Prevents Immunopathology in Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, Janina M.; Biswas, Aindrila; Djie-Maletz, Andrea; Limmer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Mack, Matthias; Hoerauf, Achim; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), we depleted in vivo Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2), Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G) or both cell types (by anti-Gr1) during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg). Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes. PMID:25884830

  18. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumak, Beatrix; Klocke, Katrin; Kuepper, Janina M; Biswas, Aindrila; Djie-Maletz, Andrea; Limmer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Mack, Matthias; Hoerauf, Achim; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2), Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G) or both cell types (by anti-Gr1) during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg). Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  19. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Schumak

    Full Text Available Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb, we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2, Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G or both cell types (by anti-Gr1 during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg. Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  20. [Experimental study on preventing postoperative posterior urethra scar in response to Tablet Fu Kang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiacong; Wang, Shengyi

    2004-07-01

    To find an effective measurement to prevent and decrease the posterior urethral scar stricture. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were chosen. All the rabbits were made posterior urethra disruption model, and at the same time, the urethra anastomosis operation was performed. Twenty rabbits were divided into two groups after operation at random. One group was treated by Tablet Fu Kang (experimental group), another group was treated by NS (control group). All the rabbits were killed three weeks later, the urethra anastomotic stoma tissue was chosen and stained with Masson. All the figures of slides were inputted into figure analytic system. There were little collagenous fiber, sparsely and arranged in good order in scar tissue of urethra anastomotic stoma in experimental group. The area of collagenous fibers was 117.11 +/- 10.17 microm2 in three visual fields. There were many collagenous fibers, densely,and arranged in disorder in scar tissue of urethra anastomotic stoma in control group, the relative area was 136.43 +/- 15.85 microm2. There was statistic significance when comparing the area of collagenous fiber in two groups (P urethra.

  1. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-10-15

    It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles ( n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7) for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8) for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7) for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide ( p < 0.001). With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors.

  2. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nabeshima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007 on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7 for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8 for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7 for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide (p < 0.001. With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors.

  3. ENERGY CONVERSION FROM WOODY BIOMASS STUFF: POSSIBLE MANUFACTURE OF BRIQUETTED CHARCOAL FROM SAWMILL-GENERATED SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Roliadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available There are three dominant kinds of wood industries in Indonesia which consume huge amount of  wood materials as well as generate considerable amount of  woody waste stuffs, i.e. sawmills, plywood, and pulp/paper. For the two latest industries, their wastes to great extent have been reutilized in the remanufacturing process, or burnt under controlled condition to supplement their energy needs in the corresponding factories, thereby greatly alleviating environmental negative impacts.  However, wastes from sawmills (especially sawdust still often pose a serious environmental threat, since they as of this occasion are merely dumped on sites, discarded to the stream, or merely burnt, hence inflicting dreadful stream as well as air pollutions. One way to remedy those inconveniences is by converting the sawdust into useful product, i.e. briquetted charcoal, as has been experimentally tried. The charcoal was at first prepared by carbonizing the sawdust wastes containing a mixture of the ones altogether from the sawing of seven particular Indonesia's wood species, and afterwards was shaped into the briquette employing various concentrations of starch binder at two levels (3.0 and 5.0 % and also various hydraulic pressures (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg/cm2.  Further, the effect of those variations was examined on the yield and qualities of the resulting briquetted charcoal. The results revealed that the most satisfactory yield and qualities of the briquetted sawdustcharcoal were acquired at 3 % starch binder concentration with 5.0 kg/cm2 hydraulic pressure. As such, the briquette qualities were as follows: density at 0.60 gram/cm3, tensile strength 15.27 kg/cm2, moisture content 2.58 %, volatile matter 23.35 %, ash content 4.10 %, fixed carbon 72.55 %, and calorific value 5,426 cal/gram. Those qualities revealed that the experimented briquetted sawdust charcoal could be conveniently used as biomass-derived fuel.

  4. The ageing and poisoning of charcoal used in nuclear plant air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, D.

    1986-01-01

    Ageing and Poisoning are terms which are used to describe the in-service deterioration or weathering of activated charcoals used to remove radioiodine from air cleaning systems. This paper describes an investigation aimed at identifying the relative importance of the two effects and at comparing the resistance to weathering of potassium iodide (KI) impregnated charcoal with triethylene diamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoal. Some preliminary results are given on the rates of oxidative ageing of charcoals as a function of temperature and relative humidity. The effect on charcoal performance of organic poisons has been examined by measuring the index of performance (k-factor) of charcoals preloaded with a range of organic solvents. Finally the combined effect of oxidative ageing and organic poisoning has been measured using realistic operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The in-service deterioration of charcoal in air cleaning systems can be accounted for by a combination of oxidative ageing and poisoning by airborne organic solvents. (author)

  5. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Chi-kin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men, they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59 were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  6. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; Leung, Candi M C

    2012-07-06

    Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20-59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  7. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504

  8. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: Application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S.

    1988-07-01

    Results of stratigraphic charcoal analysis from thin sections of varved lake sediments have been compared with fire scars on red pine trees in northwestern Minnesota to determine if charcoal data accurately reflect fire regimes. Pollen and opaque-spherule analyses were completed from a short core to confirm that laminations were annual over the last 350 yr. A good correspondence was found between fossil-charcoal and fire-scar data. Individual fires could be identified as specific peaks in the charcoal curves, and times of reduced fire frequency were reflected in the charcoal data. Charcoal was absent during the fire-suppression era from 1920 A.D. to the present. Distinct charcoal maxima from 1864 to 1920 occurred at times of fire within the lake catchment. Fire was less frequent during the 19th century, and charcoal was substantially less abundant. Fire was frequent from 1760 to 1815, and charcoal was abundant continuously. Fire scars and fossil charcoal indicate that fires did not occur during 1730-1750 and 1670-1700. Several fires occurred from 1640 to 1670 and 1700 to 1730. Charcoal counted from pollen preparations in the area generally do not show this changing fire regime. Simulated "sampling" of the thin-section data in a fashion comparable to pollen-slide methods suggests that sampling alone is not sufficient to account for differences between the two methods. Integrating annual charcoal values in this fashion still produced much higher resolution than the pollen-slide method, and the postfire suppression decline of charcoal characteristic of my method (but not of pollen slides) is still evident. Consideration of the differences in size of fragments counted by the two methods is necessary to explain charcoal representation in lake sediments.

  9. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biogas from mesophilic digestion of cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2017-06-01

    Biogas, a source of renewable energy is produced from bacteria in the process of biodegradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. A research work was performed to find out the production of biogas from cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives. Five laboatory scale experimental set-up were constructed using 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% gelatin with cow dung as additive to perform the research work. For all the set-up 0.5% charcoal was also added. All the set-ups were made from 1-liter capacity conical flask. The amount of water and cow dung was used respectively 382 gm. and 318 gm. in every set-up. Total solid content was maintained 8% throughout all set-ups. The digesters were operated at ambient temperature of 26°-32°C. The total gas yield without using gelatin additive was found to be 12 L/kg cow dung. The maximum gas yield was found from 0.2% gelatin additive and 23% more as compared to without gelatin gas production. The retention time varied from 28 to 79 days for the experiments.

  11. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in suicide attempt by charcoal burning: a 10-year study in a general hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chemin; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Leong, Wa Cheong; Hung, Huei-Min; Ku, Chung-Hsuan; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lee, Shwu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, charcoal burning has become a common method of suicide in Taiwan; however, the underlying psychiatric diagnoses and gender differences have yet to be examined. We conducted a retrospective chart review on inpatients after suicide attempt by charcoal burning during 2000-2010. The patients were referred to the psychiatric consultation team and diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. We chose those who were admitted to the nephrology ward in the same period due to accidental carbon monoxide intoxication as controls. Demographic and laboratory data, psychiatric diagnoses and reasons for suicide were obtained and analyzed. Among seventy-three patients, major depressive disorder (49.3%) and adjustment disorder (41.1%) were most frequently diagnosed. Breaking-up, financial debt and physical/mental illnesses were the top three reasons for suicide (17.8% each). The male-to-female gender ratio was 1.5:1. Female patients had higher rates of major depressive disorders, while male patients presented more adjustment disorders comorbid with alcohol use disorders. There were gender differences in patients of suicide attempt by charcoal burning, in terms of demographic profiles and psychiatric diagnoses. Suicide risk assessment and prevention should be tailored by gender. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Apparatus for producing charcoal from fine lignocellulose wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R; Perzynski, B

    1979-05-15

    A continuous retort for the production of charcoal from sawdust, nut shells, wood chips, etc. consists of a cylindrical tower separated from the top into the drying, pyrolyzing, and cooling sections. Dry feed is introduced at the top where it is spread by stirrer blades on 2 trays kept at 120 degrees and 160 degrees by external heating. The feed falls through discharge slots into a 2nd section where it is contacted with a limited supply of hot air while the temperature rises to about 600 degrees. Hot charcoal is swept by stirrer blades toward discharge slots and falls into a 3rd section where it is cooled and discharged. Off gases are used for predrying the incoming feed, scrubbed, and vented through a stack.

  13. Activated charcoal-alum-zeolite improve the water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sutisna; Sumarjo; ZL, Wildan; Wahyuningsih; Suprapti, Siti

    2002-01-01

    The composite of charcoal-tawas-zeolite has been studied to improve a drinking water quality. This study was doing to find the optimum composition in preparation of a simple technology og bath and small volume drinking treatment this treatment consist of coagulation, floculation, precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. The improvement of water quality has been observed from a turbidity, a permanganate number and a quality of Cu, Cd, Pb, Al ions and coli bactery containing in the water after processing. It has been concluded that the composite materials has an ability to decrease the turbidity more than its components. The starch addition in the composite can be accelerate water clarity process. By this composite the turbidity, the permanganate number and the coli bacteria in the water can be decreased significantly. The optimum composite composition is 1000 mg activated charcoal, 1000 mg zeolite, 60 mg tawas, 40 mg natrium bicarbonate and 50 mg starch with grains size less than 80 mesh

  14. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. LaCaille

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion, persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Results Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! intervention. Conclusions This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with

  15. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Methods A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC. Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii outside the arenas (≥200 attempts and (iii inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts, and (iv frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts. Discussion There

  16. Measurements of 222Rn flux with charcoal coanisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countess, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used to measure the 222 Rn flux from the ground are discussed. The most common method is the direct accumulation of radon in a closed container resting on the soil surface. An aliquot of the air is transferred from the accumulator either to an ionization chamber or to an alpha scintillation flask for radon analysis. An alternate method consists of entraining the radon emanating from a small area of the ground in an airstream moving in a closed system through a charcoal trap or cold trap. At the end of the sampling period, the trap is sealed and returned to the laboratory where the radon is transferred into an evacuated scintillation flask for analysis. Still another method consists of adsorbing radon in a layer of granular, activated charcoal spread directly on the ground. For analysis, the charcoal is bagged and the 0.61-MeV gamma activity of 214 Bi (RaC) is measured in a gamma spectrometer. These last two methods have the disadvantage that some radon may be lost in transfer prior to analysis. In an improved method, which is simpler than the preceding methods and eliminates this transfer problem, a modified U.S. Army M11 gas mask canister containing activated charcoal is placed directly in contact with the emanating surface and after an exposure period from several hours to several days, depending on the anticipated flux density, the canister is removed from the surface and counted directly in a gamma spectrometer. In addition to precluding losses in sample transfer, a major advantage is that numerous measurements can be made inexpensively due to the low cost of the canisters and their ease of deployment and recovery

  17. Stable carbon isotope ratios from archaeological charcoal as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available specific pyrolysis products, mostly furans and pyrans, and released (Steinbeiss et al., 2006). The removal of these compounds is driven by their relative chemical stability and strength of molecular cross bonds. Differences between how... to simulate natural burning conditions and left until completely charred. This produced charcoal under oxidizing (O2-rich) conditions. This process took less than 15 min for the largest disc (60 mm in diameter) and about five minutes for the smallest (30...

  18. Ashes to ashes, charcoal to dust: micromorphological evidence for ash-induced disintegration of charcoal in Early Neolithic (LBK) soil features in Elsloo (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Braadbaart, F.; Wijk, I.M. van; Os, B.J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Charcoal and other forms of charred organic material e an important part of the archaeological record e consist of benzenoids. Such components are unstable in basic or alkaline conditions. Since ashes are alkaline, this means that archaeological charcoal may have been disintegrated and lost if

  19. Adsorption equilibria of krypton, xenon, nitrogen and their mixtures on Molecular Sieve 5A and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Kenzo; Nishikawa, Masabumi; Fukumatsu, Teruki; Yamatsuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption equilibria of Kr, Xe and N 2 , which are constituents of the off-gas from nuclear reprocessing processes, on representative adsorbents (Molecular Sieve 5A (MS5A) and activated charcoal) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 77 to 323 K using a packed bed column. The adsorption isotherms for the activated charcoal adsorbent were successfully correlated by the vacancy solution model. The adsorption isotherms for the MS5A adsorbent were properly correlated by the Langmuir model and the vacancy solution model. The adsorption experiments for the binary component systems (Kr-Xe, Kr-N 2 systems) were also performed, and the results suggest that the coexistence of Xe greatly inhibits the adsorption of Kr. The coexistence of large amounts of N 2 was also found to inhibit the adsorption of Kr. The experimental results for the adsorption equilibrium of binary component systems on the activated charcoal adsorbent were well reproduced by the vacancy solution model without parameter fitting. The binary adsorption equilibrium on the MS5A adsorbent is rather well predicted by the ideal adsorbed solution model without parameter fitting. The use of the vacancy solution model for this adsorption system requires the optimization of parameters, but the binary adsorption equilibrium is well reproduced with the optimized parameters. (author)

  20. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamba, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m 3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected

  1. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  2. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  3. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  4. The Marginalization of Sustainable Charcoal Production in the Policies of a Modernizing African Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Doggart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is the main cooking fuel for urban populations in many African countries. Urbanization and population growth are driving an increase in demand for charcoal, whilst deforestation reduces biomass stocks. Given increasing demand for charcoal, and decreasing availability of biomass, policies are urgently needed that ensure secure energy supplies for urban households and reduce deforestation. There is potential for charcoal to be produced sustainably in natural woodlands, but this requires supportive policies. Previous research has identified policy issues that have contributed to the charcoal sector remaining informal and environmentally destructive. In this paper, we describe how national policies in Tanzania on energy, forests, agriculture, land, and water, consider charcoal, and the degree to which they do, and do not, support sustainable charcoal production. The paper identifies policy gaps and a cross-sector tendency to marginalize natural forest management. By adopting a nexus approach, the paper highlights the inter-connections between sustainable charcoal production, ecosystem services, and trade-offs in the allocation of land, labor, and net primary production. In conclusion, sustainable charcoal production has been marginalized in multiple national policies. As a result, potential benefits of sustainable charcoal production are lost to multiple sectors.

  5. Preconcentration and Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs in Water Samples by Bamboo Charcoal-Based Solid-Phase Extraction Prior to Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Hui Deng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, bamboo charcoal was used as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the enrichment of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in environmental water samples before liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The specific porous structure, high specific surface area, high porosity, and stability of bamboo charcoal were characterized. Several experimental parameters which considerably affect extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized in detail. The experimental data exhibited low limits of detection (LODs (0.01–1.15 ng/L, wide linear range (2–3 orders of magnitude and R ≥ 0.993 within the concentration range of 0.1–1000 ng/L, and good repeatability (2.7–5.0%, n = 5 intraday and 4.8–8.3%, n = 5 interday and reproducibility (5.3–8.0%, n = 3. Bamboo charcoal was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of PFAAs in real environmental water samples. The bamboo charcoal-based solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis possessed great potential in the determination of trace PFAA levels in environmental water samples.

  6. Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron on hematological parameters of experimental asthmatic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Vosooghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory airways distinguished by edema and infiltration of inflammatory immune cells. To test our hypothesis about the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron, we examined effects of Crocus sativus (C. sativus extract as a prophylactic anti-inflammatory agent in sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: To induce experimental asthma, rats were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8 for each: control, sensitized (asthma, and sensitized and pretreated with three different concentrations of extract, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 2 times a week (group asthma+50EX, group asthma+100EX, and group asthma+200EX. After 32 days, total white blood cells (WBC counts, red blood cells (RBC, and platelet counts in blood were examined. Results: Total WBC number and eosinophil and neutrophil percentage in blood were increased, but lymphocyte decreased in sensitized animals compared with those of control group (pConclusion: Our findings indicated that the extract of C. sativus could be useful to prevent asthma as an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  7. Small heat shock protein αA-crystallin prevents photoreceptor degeneration in experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsing A Rao

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein, αA-crystallin null (αA-/- mice are known to be more prone to retinal degeneration than the wild type mice in Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis (EAU. In this report we demonstrate that intravenous administration of αA preserves retinal architecture and prevents photoreceptor damage in EAU. Interestingly, only αA and not αB-crystallin (αB, a closely related small heat shock protein works, pointing to molecular specificity in the observed retinal protection. The possible involvement of αA in retinal protection through immune modulation is corroborated by adaptive transfer experiments, (employing αA-/- and wild type mice with EAU as donors and Rag2-/- as the recipient mice, which indicate that αA protects against the autoimmune challenge by modulating the systemic B and T cell immunity. We show that αA administration causes marked reduction in Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ, both in the retina and in the spleen; notably, IL-17 was only reduced in the retina suggesting local intervention. Importantly, expression of Toll-like receptors and their associated adaptors is also inhibited suggesting that αA protection, against photoreceptor loss in EAU, is associated with systemic suppression of both the adaptive and innate immune responses.

  8. Small heat shock protein αA-crystallin prevents photoreceptor degeneration in experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Narsing A; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Pararajasegaram, Geeta; Bhat, Suraj P

    2012-01-01

    The small heat shock protein, αA-crystallin null (αA-/-) mice are known to be more prone to retinal degeneration than the wild type mice in Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis (EAU). In this report we demonstrate that intravenous administration of αA preserves retinal architecture and prevents photoreceptor damage in EAU. Interestingly, only αA and not αB-crystallin (αB), a closely related small heat shock protein works, pointing to molecular specificity in the observed retinal protection. The possible involvement of αA in retinal protection through immune modulation is corroborated by adaptive transfer experiments, (employing αA-/- and wild type mice with EAU as donors and Rag2-/- as the recipient mice), which indicate that αA protects against the autoimmune challenge by modulating the systemic B and T cell immunity. We show that αA administration causes marked reduction in Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ), both in the retina and in the spleen; notably, IL-17 was only reduced in the retina suggesting local intervention. Importantly, expression of Toll-like receptors and their associated adaptors is also inhibited suggesting that αA protection, against photoreceptor loss in EAU, is associated with systemic suppression of both the adaptive and innate immune responses.

  9. Pretreatment with Saccharomyces boulardii does not prevent the experimental mucositis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; de Melo Silva, Brenda; Dias, Michelle Nobre; Paiva, Nivea Carolina; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Fernandes, Simone Odilia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone

    2014-04-11

    The antimetabolite chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical cancer treatment. Although this drug is not specific for cancer cells and also acts on healthy cells, it can cause mucositis, a common collateral effect. Dysbiosis has also been described in 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis and is likely to contribute to the overall development of mucositis. In light of this theory, the use of probiotics could be a helpful strategy to alleviate mucositis. So the aim of this study was evaluate the impact of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in a model of mucositis. After induced of mucositis, mice from the Mucositis groups showed a decrease in food consumption (p Saccharomyces boulardii did not reverse this effect (p > 0.05). Mucositis induced an increase in intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation (p  0.05) in mice pretreated with S. boulardii. S. boulardii was not able to prevent the effects of experimental mucositis induced by 5- Fluorouracil.

  10. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  11. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... acceptance by the patients without loss of efficacy. In addition, paracetamol adsorption studies were carried out in vitro to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture. METHODS: In vivo: A randomized crossover study on 15 adult volunteers, using...... paracetamol 50 mg/kg as a simulated overdose. Each study day volunteers were given a standard meal 1 h before paracetamol, then 50 g activated charcoal 1 h later in either of two preparations: standard water slurry or mixed with 400 mL yogurt. Paracetamol serum concentrations were measured using HPLC...

  12. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  13. Framing and personalizing informed consent to prevent negative expectations: An experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Sarah R; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Hidalgo, Pablo; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2015-10-01

    Informing patients about medical treatments and their possible side effects is ethically and legally obligatory but may trigger negative expectations and nocebo-related side effects. This pilot study aims to investigate the effect of different informed consent procedures on treatment expectations for adjuvant breast cancer treatments (Study 1: endocrine therapy; Study 2: chemotherapy). Using an experimental 2-factorial design, healthy women were informed about endocrine therapy (n = 60) or chemotherapy (n = 64) within a hypothetical scenario. Information was framed with or without treatment benefit information and delivered in a personalized or standardized interaction. Primary outcomes were necessity-concern beliefs about the treatment and side-effect expectations, secondary outcomes were decisional conflicts. In Study 1, side-effect expectations (η²p= .08) and decisional conflicts (η²p = .07) were lower when framed treatment information was given. Providing personalized information resulted in more functional necessity-concern beliefs (η²p = .06) and lower decisional conflicts (η²p = .07). Personalizing and framing of information resulted in more functional necessity-concern beliefs (η²p = .10) and lower decisional conflicts. In Study 2, necessity-concern beliefs were more functional with framing (η²p = .06). Participants in the personalized groups reported lower decisional conflicts (η²p = .06). No differences in side-effect expectations were revealed. This is the first study to provide evidence for optimized treatment expectations through altered informed consent strategies. The results emphasize that framing and personalizing informed consent can positively influence treatment expectations and reduce decisional conflicts. However, generalizations are impaired by the study's pilot character. The potential to prevent nocebo responses in clinical practice should be analyzed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Helping rural women in Pakistan to prevent postpartum hemorrhage: A quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey from 2006–2007, the maternal mortality ratio in rural areas is 319 per 100,000 live births. Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal deaths in Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to document the feasibility of distribution of misoprostol tablets by community-based providers mainly traditional birth attendants and acceptability and use of misoprostol by women who gave birth at home. Methods A quasi-experimental design, comprising intervention and comparison areas, was used to document the acceptability of providing misoprostol tablets to pregnant women to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in the rural community setting in Pakistan. Data were collected using structured questionnaires administered to women before and after delivery at home and their birth attendants. Results Out of 770 women who delivered at home, 678 (88% ingested misoprostol tablets and 647 (84% ingested the tablets after the birth of the neonate but prior to the delivery of the placenta. The remaining women took misoprostol tablets after delivery of the placenta. Side effects were experienced by 40% of women and were transitory in nature. Among women who delivered at home, 80% said that they would use misoprostol tablets in the future and 74% were willing to purchase them in the future. Conclusions Self-administration of misoprostol in the home setting is feasible. Community-based providers, such as traditional birth attendants and community midwives with proper training and counseling, play an important role in reducing postpartum hemorrhage. Proper counseling and information exchange are helpful for introducing new practices in resource-constrained rural communities. Until such a time that skilled birth attendance is made more universally available in the rural setting, alternative strategies, such as training and using the services of traditional birth attendants to provide safe

  15. Resveratrol protects from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the uterus and prevents experimental preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Leishman, Emma; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Arias, Andreína; Stern, Aníbal; Bradshaw, Heather B; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-08-01

    pregnant BALB/c mice with resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced preterm birth in 64% of the cases, whereas only 15% of mice with LPS alone escaped preterm birth. Treatment with resveratrol resulted in a reduced NOS activity (P resveratrol reduced the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory agents such as iNOS (P resveratrol administration resulted in changes in the uterine endocannabinoid profiling altered by LPS. N/A. Since our experimental design involves the use of mice, the extrapolation of the results presented here to humans is limited. Our findings provide evidence for the tocolytic effects of resveratrol. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2013/0097) and by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 2012/0061). Dr Heather B. Bradshaw was funded by NIH (DA006668). The authors have no competing interests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Vortex-Concept for Radioactivity Release Prevention at NPP: Development of Computational Model of Lab-Scale Experimental Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana; Sung, Yim Man; Park, Jin Soo; Sung Hyung Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The experimental validation of the vortex-like air curtain concept and use of an appropriate CFD modelling approach for analyzing the problem becomes crucial. A lab-scale experimental setup is designed to validate the proposed concept and CFD modeling approach as a part of validation process. In this study, a computational model of this lab-scale experiment setup is developed using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. The computational results will be compared with experimental data for validation purposes in future, when experimental data is available. 1) A computation model of a lab-scale experimental setup, designed to validate the concept of artificial vortex-like airflow generation for application to radioactivity dispersion prevention in the event of severe accident, was developed. 2) The mesh sensitivity study was performed and a mesh of about 2 million cells was found to be sufficient for this setup.

  17. Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Fernandes, M. de.

    1991-01-01

    The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Soil particles reworking evidences by AMS 14C dating of charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcaillet, C.

    2001-01-01

    Soil charcoal dating is a time proxy for soil pedogenesis. I test the stratification hypothesis by AMS 14 C dating of charcoal fragments from soil profiles between 1700 and 1900 m with respect to altitude within the Alps. The charcoal fragments are around 1 mm in size. There is no age/depth relationship for charcoal particles of the size millimeter. The results are discussed in light of the role of soil fauna, up-rooting and colluvial processes. Although biotic pedoturbation is poorly described in mountain and sub-alpine elevation, I hypothesize that this process is very active and plays a major role on the soil functioning. (author)

  19. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  20. Evaluation of activated charcoal for dynamic adsorption of krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramarathinam, K.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    From the standpoint of radiation safety, the release of radioactive krypton and xenon from power reactors should be kept as low as practicable. The decay of shortlived isotopes of krypton and xenon by adsorptive delay on activated charcoal has shown promising results for this purpose. The delay provided by activated charcoal is proportional to the dynamic adsorption coefficients of these gases which are characteristic of the adsorbent. These coefficients were determined for krypton and xenon on indigenous gas-adsorbing activated charcoal at different moisture contents of carrier air stream and activated charcoal, concentrations of krypton around ambient temperatures, to find its suitability for designing adsorber columns. (author)

  1. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F 2 and UF 6 to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F 2 , the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F 2 -UF 6 gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined

  2. The influence of physical parameters on the adsorption of iodine 131 by activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Caron, J.; Van Der Meersch, J.

    1966-01-01

    Following an outline of the means of generating iodine 131 in the gas phase and a brief description of the apparatus used, the authors analyse the experimental results obtained on the trapping of iodine 131 by activated charcoal. The efficiency depends concurrently on the relative humidity and the iodine concentration of the air. While it is independent of this concentration in dry air, it does not exceed 50 in moist air, whatever the bed depth, when the concentration is less than 1 mCi/m 3 , then it increases with the concentrations to reach values close to those obtained in dry air for concentrations of around 1000 Ci/m 3 . At the same time the efficiency of a dust filter with respect to iodine remains very low in dry air whatever the iodine concentration; in moist air this efficiency, which is high at low concentrations, decreases when the latter increases. In addition if a charcoal bed is divided into several beds, separated by an amount corresponding to a passage time of about a second, it is found that the efficiency of the whole is appreciably higher than that of the initial bed. These results appear to establish the existence of at least two forms of iodine, one molecular form and one particulate form probably formed by clusters, the forms equilibrium being functions of the relative concentrations of iodine and water vapour in the air. The third form evidence, a gaseous form compound, remains hypothetical; the experimental curves can be explained either by the molecular and particular forms reversibility or by the increase of clusters size with the relative humidity of the air. (authors) [fr

  3. Short paper: Experimental analysis of misbehavior detection and prevention in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissmeyer, N.; Schroder, K.; Petit, Jonathan; Mauthofer, S.; Bayarou, K.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) aim to increase, among others, traffic safety and efficiency by warning and informing the driver about road events and hazards. Due to their direct impact on drivers' safety, external and internal attacks have to be prevented. While authentication prevents most of

  4. Radon determination by activated charcoal adsorption and liquid scintillation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.O.; Canoba, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    A passive diffusion method for the determination of radon concentration has been optimised and calibrated. The device consists of a scintillation vial containing activated charcoal, a diffusion barrier and a desiccant agent. The response to diverse atmospheric humidity and variable exposure intervals was studied. The result is a detector, which is independent of atmospheric humidity for at least (up to) 7 days of exposure. The method was compared with electret detectors (US EPA) with very satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, low cost, low detection limit, the total automatization of the measurement and its total independence of humidity to measure in a wide range of radon concentrations. (author) [es

  5. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs

  6. A passive integrating charcoal detector for indoor radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Ren Tianshan; Li Guiyun

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the principle, design, calibration and characteristics of a passive integrating charcoal detector for measuring average radon concentration indoors. The uncertainties of the detector are also evaluated. Under conditions of room temperature at 17 deg C and relative humidity at 30%, the minimum limit of detection is 0.16 pCi/1 for 72 hours exposure. Besides higher sensitivity, the other advantages of this detector are passive, simple and less expensive. It requires no power and makes no noise and gives no interference to daily activities of the residents of dwellings being surveyed. Therefore the detector is suitable for a large-scale survey of radon levels indoors

  7. The association of trends in charcoal-burning suicide with Google search and newspaper reporting in Taiwan: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Kwok, Simon Sai Man; Cheng, Qijin; Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2015-09-01

    Some East/Southeast Asian countries have experienced a rapid increase in suicide by charcoal burning over the past decade. Media reporting and Internet use were thought to contribute to the epidemic. We investigated the association between method-specific suicide incidence and both Internet search volume and newspaper reporting in Taiwan. Weekly data for suicide, suicide-related Google search volume, and the number of articles reporting suicide in four major newspapers in Taiwan during 2008-2011 were obtained. Poisson autoregressive regression models were used to examine the associations between these variables. In the fully adjusted models, every 10 % increase in Google searches was associated with a 4.3 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-7.6 %] increase in charcoal-burning suicide incidence in the same week, and a 3.8 % (95 % CI 0.4-7.2 %) increase in the following week. A one-article increase in the United Daily was associated with a 3.6 % (95 % CI 1.5-5.8 %) increase in charcoal-burning suicide in the same week. By contrast, non-charcoal-burning suicide was not associated with Google search volume, but was associated with the Apple Daily's reporting in the preceding week. We found that increased Internet searches for charcoal-burning suicide appeared to be associated with a subsequent increase in suicide by this method. The prevention of suicide using emerging methods may include monitoring and regulating online information that provides details of these methods as well as encouraging Internet service providers to provide help-seeking information.

  8. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  9. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  10. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Liu, J.; Martens, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); and others

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity v{sub Rn} of radon and v{sub Xe} of xenon in the trap with v{sub Rn}/v{sub Xe}=(0.96{+-}0.10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at -85 Degree-Sign C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  11. Thoron Mitigation System based on charcoal bed for applications in thorium fuel cycle facilities (part 2): Development, characterization, and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep Kumara, K; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S; Karunakara, N

    2017-06-01

    Exposure due to thoron ( 220 Rn) gas and its decay products in a thorium fuel cycle facility handling thorium or 232 U/ 233 U mixture compounds is an important issue of radiological concern requiring control and mitigation. Adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of 220 Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper, we present the design, development, and characterization of a Thoron Mitigation System (TMS) for industrial application. Systematic experiments were conducted in the TMS for examining the 220 Rn mitigation characteristics with respect to a host of parameters such as flow rate, pressure drop, charcoal grain size, charcoal mass and bed depth, water content, and heat of the carrier gas. An analysis of the experimental data shows that 220 Rn attenuation in a flow through charcoal bed is not exponential with respect to the residence time, L/U a (L: bed depth; U a : superficial velocity), but follows a power law behaviour, which can be attributed to the occurrence of large voids due to wall channeling in a flow through bed. The study demonstrates the regeneration of charcoal adsorption capacity degraded due to moisture adsorption, by hot air blowing technique. It is found that the mitigation factor (MF), which is the ratio of the inlet 220 Rn concentration (C in ) to the outlet 220 Rn concentration (C out ), of more than 10 4 for the TMS is easily achievable during continuous operation (>1000 h) at a flow rate of 40 L min -1 with negligible (evaluated for its long-term performance and overall effectiveness in mitigating 220 Rn levels in the workplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  13. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.; Daioglou, Vasileios; Braakhekke, M.C.; van Vuuren, Detlef

    Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to charcoal use because of easiness of production, access, transport, and tradition. Increasing demand for

  14. Sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron in soils amended with charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2006-11-01

    Charcoal derived from the partial combustion of vegetation is ubiquitous in soils and sediments and can potentially sequester organic contaminants. To examine the role of charcoal in the sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron pesticide in soil, synthetic charcoals were produced through carbonization of red gum (Eucalyptus spp.) wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (referred to as charcoals BC450 and BC850, respectively, in this paper). Pore size distribution analyses revealed that BC850 contained mainly micropores (pores approximately 0.49 nm mean width), whereas BC450 was essentially not a microporous material. Short-term equilibration (diuron in a soil amended with various amounts of charcoals of both types. The sorption coefficients, isotherm nonlinearity, and apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis markedly increased with increasing content of charcoal in the soil, more prominently in the case of BC850, presumably due to the presence of micropores and its relatively higher specific surface area. The degree of apparent sorption-desorption hystersis (hysteresis index) showed a good correlation with the micropore volume of the charcoal-amended soils. This study indicates that the presence of small amounts of charcoal produced at high temperatures (e.g., interior of wood logs during a fire) in soil can have a marked effect on the release behavior of organic compounds. Mechanisms of this apparent hysteretic behavior need to be further investigated.

  15. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  16. Charcoal as an alternative energy carrier. Pt. 2: Conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, A

    1978-12-01

    Terrestrial biomass, residues from forestry, agriculture and farming can be converted by biochemical or thermochemical techniques to fuels. The charcoal yield depends on the raw materials, moisture contents, the temperature of carbonisation and the processing equipment. The yield is reduced by 2 - 3% when using softwood and furthermore with higher temperature of carbonisation. Generally charcoal contains 80 - 90% carbon, 0,5 - 10% ash and 7 - 30% volatile matter. Theoretically the following products are obtained when pyrolising wood: 34,7% Charcoal, 24,9% H/sub 2/O, 10,9% CO/sub 2/, 4,15 CO, 1,6% Methanol, 5,9% Acetic Acid and 17,9% Tar. Units for production of charcoal are large and small kilns, transportable Thomas retorts and Cornell retorts with a production of 1,3 - 6 tons charcoal/day, and the large Lambiotte retort, multiple-hearth furnaces and fluidized-bed reactors. Interesting is also the new equipment of Skogens Kol in Sweden. These large units have a production capacity of 16 - 80 tons charcoal/day. Important production parameters include charcoal yield, labour requirements, air pollution and cost. Based on these parameters the Cornell retort is considered the best unit for production of small quantities of charcoal and Skogens Kol seems to be the most interesting large unit. 17 drawings, 14 tables.

  17. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  18. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  19. Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Streptomyces but with different species in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected actinomycetes have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal-rot disease in sorghum. Key words: Antagonistic actinomycetes, biocontrol, charcoal-rot, Macrophomina phaseolina. INTRODUCTION.

  20. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated

  1. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  2. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r = 0.957 **, P isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation ( DT50) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal inceased from 0 to 50 g kg - 1 (for Paddy soil, DT50 values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT50 from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT50 from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  3. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  4. Charcoal as a capture material for silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Eoin; Morrison, Liam; Cormican, Martin; Morris, Dearbháile

    2017-04-01

    Background: The reported antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their incorporation into numerous consumer products including; textiles, domestic appliances, food containers, cosmetics, paints, medical and medicinal products. The AgNPs incorporated into these products can be released into the environment and aquatic system during their production, use and end of life disposal. In the aquatic environment, uncertainties surround the concentration, fate and effects of AgNPs. The aim of this project is to examine charcoal as a potential material for capture of silver nanoparticles from the aquatic environment. Material/methods: Activated charcoal is a commonly used filter material and was selected for this project to determine its suitability as a capture material for AgNPs in water samples. Activated charcoal (Norit® CA1 (Sigma-Aldrich)) was exposed to 100 ppb, 25 nm PVP coated AgNPs (nanoComposix) prepared in Milli-Q water. These solutions were exposed to unaltered charcoal granules for 20 hours after which the decrease of silver in the solution was measured using ICP-MS. In order to improve the removal, the surface area of the charcoal was increased firstly by grinding with a pestle and mortar and secondly by milling the charcoal. The milled charcoal was prepared using an agate ball mill running at 500 rpm for 5 minutes. The activated charcoal was then exposed to samples containing 10 ppb AgNPs. Results: In the initial tests, approximately 10% of the silver was removed from the water samples using the unaltered activated charcoal granules. Further experiments were carried out to compare the unaltered granules with the ground and milled charcoal. These tests were carried out similarly to the previous test however lower concentration of 10 ppb was used. After 20 hours of exposure the granule samples, as previously, showed approximately a 10% reduction in silver content with the ground charcoal giving approximately 30% reduction in silver

  5. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  6. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Protásio, Thiago de Paula; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando; Mirmehdi, Seyedmohammad; Silva, Marcela Gomes da

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal ...

  7. [Potential of melatonin for prevention of age-related macular degeneration: experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, N A; Zhdankina, A A; Fursova, A Zh; Kolosova, N G

    2013-01-01

    Decline with age of the content of melatonin is considered as one of the leading mechanisms of aging and development of associated diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--the disease, which becomes the most common cause of blindness and acuity of vision deterioration in elderly. The prospects of the use of melatonin in the prevention of AMD is being actively discussed, but as a rule on the basis of the results of the experiments on cells in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We showed previously that the senescence-accelerated OXYS rat is an adequate animal model of AMD, already used for identifying the relevant therapeutic targets. Here we have investigated the effect of Melatonin (Melaksen, 0,004 mg per kg--a dose equivalent to the recommended one for people) on the development of retinopathy similar to AMD in OXYS rats. Ophthalmoscopic examinations show that Melatonin supplementation decreased the incidence and severity of retinopathy and improved some (but not all) histological abnormalities associated with retinopathy. Thus, melatonin prevented the structural and functional changes in RPE cells, reduced the severity of microcirculatory disorders. Importantly, Melatonin prevented destruction of neurosensory cells, associative and gangliolar neurons in the retina. Taken together, our data suggest the therapeutic potential of Melatonin for treatment and prevention of AMD.

  8. Soil charcoal from the plains to tundra in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, R. L.; Licata, C.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the forests of the central Rockies, soil charcoal from Holocene wildfires has been produced in response to wildland natural fire regimes. The extent and spatial distribution of soil charcoal production is poorly documented in this region, especially with regard to forests and shrublands at different elevations. Soil charcoal is a super-passive C pool derived from woody biomass that can be sequestered for millennia in forest soils. Recent research indicates that soil charcoal may promote enhanced soil fertility. Additionally, soil charcoal is an often overlooked component of soil C mass and flux. We hypothesize that differences in forest and shrubland fire regimes over the millennia have resulted in different soil charcoal amounts. Geospatial data were used to locate random sample plots in foothills shrublands (Cercocarpus montanus), and four forest types; ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii - Abies lasiocarpa). Sample plots were stratified to occur with the mid 200 m elevation band of each vegetation type with east aspect, and 10-30% slope. Soils were sampled widely at 0-10 cm depth and analyzed for total soil C and soil charcoal C via chemical digestion and dry combustion techniques. Overall, soil charcoal is four times more abundant in spruce-fir forests than in foothills shrublands (1.9 +/- 0.92 Mg C/ha versus 0.54 +/- 0.44 Mg C/ha). Soil charcoal is also abundant in lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine soils (1.4 +/- 1.02 Mg C/ha and 1.4 +/- 0.54 Mg C/ha respectively) but is less plentiful in Douglas-fir soils (1.0 +/- 0.67). Spruce-fir forests have the most above ground biomass, slower decomposition rates and a less frequent mean fire return interval than the other four forests, hence it makes sense that high per-fire rates of charcoal production would occur in the spruce-fir zone, given large amounts of surface fuels at the time of fire. In contrast

  9. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  10. Dietary Agents and Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of Experimental Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Saxena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, consisting mainly of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, are important immune-mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of the disease includes environmental and genetic factors. Its management presents a constant challenge for gastroenterologists and conventional surgeon. 5-Amninosalicylates, antibiotics, steroids, and immune modulators have been used to reduce the symptoms and for maintenance of remission. Unfortunately, long-term usage of these agents has been found to lead to severe toxicities, which are deterrent to the users. Pre-clinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that certain dietary agents, spices, oils, and dietary phytochemicals that are consumed regularly possess beneficial effects in preventing/ameliorating UC. For the first time, this review addresses the use of these dietary agents and spices in the treatment and prevention of IBD and also emphasizes on the mechanisms responsible for their effects.

  11. Experimental study of the preventional effects of drugs to lung radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, N [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1977-01-01

    The author experimented on effects of Cepharanthin (CR) and Urokinase (UK) on the lung of rabbits to which /sup 60/Co was irradiated by dividing a total dose of 10,000R into 500R a day. The rabbits irradiated were divided into 3 groups: a group administered ''CR'' (Group A), a group administered ''UK'' (Group B) and a control group (Group C). Body weight, leukocytes and chest x-ray findings were examined, and macroscopic and microscopic findings were discussed immediately and 3 months after irradiation. CR was effective in preventing the decrease of leukocytes and body weight. In the case of 5000R irradiation, an abnormal shadow was not recognized, but in the case of 10,000R irradiation, radiation pneumonitis began to appear immediately after the irradiation, and heart dilation and the shift of mediastinum on the side of irradiation were observed 3 months after that. In Group C, adhesion, hydropericardium and bleeding lesion were observed. In Groups A and B, the preventive effects were noted macroscopically. Group A seemed to show more significant results. In this group, the infiltration of the cells, and the appearance of foamy cells and eosinophyl cells which are characteristic of lung radiation disease were less observed than those in the other groups, and therefore, Group A showed more preventive effect upon inflammation than the other groups. In Group B, the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel tended to be improved 3 months after irradiation. Microthrombosis was not recognized, either. From these results, CR was effective in decreasing the infiltration of the cells, and UK was effective in decreasing the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel and in forming thromboses. Thus, these drugs should be used simultaneously because they had different reaction to the prevention of lung radiation disease.

  12. The experimental study of the preventional effects of drugs to lung radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Naoaki

    1977-01-01

    The author experimented on effects of Cepharanthin (CR) and Urokinase (UK) on the lung of rabbits to which 60 Co was irradiated by dividing a total dose of 10,000R into 500R a day. The rabbits irradiated were divided into 3 groups: a group administered ''CR'' (Group A), a group administered ''UK'' (Group B) and a control group (Group C). Body weight, leukocytes and chest x-ray findings were examined, and macroscopic and microscopic findings were discussed immediately and 3 months after irradiation. CR was effective in preventing the decrease of leukocytes and body weight. In the case of 5000R irradiation, an abnormal shadow was not recognized, but in the case of 10,000R irradiation, radiation pneumonitis began to appear immediately after the irradiation, and heart dilation and the shift of mediastinum on the side of irradiation were observed 3 months after that. In Group C, adhesion, hydropericardium and bleeding lesion were observed. In Groups A and B, the preventive effects were noted macroscopically. Group A seemed to show more significant results. In this group, the infiltration of the cells, and the appearance of foamy cells and eosinophyl cells which are characteristic of lung radiation disease were less observed than those in the other groups, and therefore, Group A showed more preventive effect upon inflammation than the other groups. In Group B, the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel tended to be improved 3 months after irradiation. Microthrombosis was not recognized, either. From these results, CR was effective in decreasing the infiltration of the cells, and UK was effective in decreasing the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel and in forming thromboses. Thus, these drugs should be used simultaneously because they had different reaction to the prevention of lung radiation disease. (J.P.N.)

  13. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  14. Inhibition of aldose reductase prevents experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C S Yadav

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The bronchial asthma, a clinical complication of persistent inflammation of the airway and subsequent airway hyper-responsiveness, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in initiation as well as amplification of inflammation in airways. However, still there are no good anti-oxidant strategies available for therapeutic intervention in asthma pathogenesis. Most recent studies suggest that polyol pathway enzyme, aldose reductase (AR, contributes to the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-induced inflammation by affecting the NF-kappaB-dependent expression of cytokines and chemokines and therefore inhibitors of AR could be anti-inflammatory. Since inhibitors of AR have already gone through phase-III clinical studies for diabetic complications and found to be safe, our hypothesis is that AR inhibitors could be novel therapeutic drugs for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of AR inhibition in the prevention of allergic responses to a common natural airborne allergen, ragweed pollen that leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in a murine model of asthma.Primary Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells (SAEC were used to investigate the in vitro effects of AR inhibition on ragweed pollen extract (RWE-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals. Our results indicate that inhibition of AR prevents RWE -induced apoptotic cell death as measured by annexin-v staining, increase in the activation of NF-kappaB and expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cycloxygenase (COX-2, Prostaglandin (PG E(2, IL-6 and IL-8. Further, BALB/c mice were sensitized with endotoxin-free RWE in the absence and presence of AR inhibitor and followed by evaluation of perivascular and peribronchial inflammation, mucin production, eosinophils infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness. Our results

  15. Performance Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery in a Charcoal Stove using a Thermo-Electric Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Judges Ajah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal stoves have widespread use among the poorer households and outdoor food vendors in Nigeria. In order to improve the efficiency of charcoal stoves, various researches have tried integrating a thermoelectric module in the charcoal stove. The researches, however did not exploit the performance of the thermoelectric modules at different ambient temperatures. To evaluate the performance of thermoelectric integrated charcoal stoves in the sub-Saharan Africa, a self-powered, forced air induced thermoelectric charcoal stove experiment was carried out at five different ambient temperatures of 36ºC, 33ºC, 32ºC, 30ºC and 29ºC and an average fuel hotbed temperature of 1023.75ºC. The thermoelectric charcoal stove generated a maximum voltage of 5.25V at an ambient temperature of 29ºC. The least maximum voltage was generated at the highest ambient temperature of 36ºC. It was observed that the maximum voltage increased with decreasing ambient temperature, this could be attributed to the ambient air being used to cool the thermoelectric generator. Therefore, it could be said that the performance of a forced draft thermoelectric charcoal stove increases with decrease in ambient temperature.

  16. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  17. The Impact of Charcoal Production on Forest Degradation: a Case Study in Tete, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Silva. J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multi-temporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Neuroma prevention by end-to-side neurorraphy: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszmann, Oskar C; Korak, Klaus J; Rab, Matthias; Grünbeck, Matthias; Lassmann, Hans; Frey, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    The successful treatment of painful neuromas remains a difficult goal to attain. In this report we explore the feasibility of neuroma prevention by insertion of the proximal end of a nerve through an end-to-side neurorraphy into an adjacent mixed nerve to provide a pathway and target for axons deprived of their end organ. Experiments were performed on a total of twenty 250-g Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of 10 animals were prepared. Group A served as an anatomic control. In group B the right saphenous nerve was transected and implanted end-to-side through an epineurial window into the tibial nerve distal to the trifurcation of the sciatic nerve. After 12 weeks the corresponding sensory neurons were identified by retrograde labeling techniques and histomorphometric analysis of the proximal and distal tibial nerve segments, and regular histology of the end-to-side site were performed. The results of the retrograde labeling of the corresponding sensory neuron pool of the saphenus nerve showed extensive labelling of the L1 to L3 spinal ganglions after intracutaneous tracer application of the planta pedis. The morphology of the end-to-side coaptation site and histomorphologic analysis prove that sensory neurons penetrate the perineurial sheath and axons regenerate along the tibial Schwann cell tubes toward their targets. Axons of a severed peripheral nerve that are provided with a pathway and target through an end-to-side coaptation will either be pruned or establish some type of end-organ contact so that a neuroma can be prevented. Whether these axons will lead to disturbing sensations such as paresthesia or dysesthesia in the newly found environment or remain silent codwellers, this experiment cannot answer. Long-term results of future clinical work will have to decide whether the prevention of the neuroma through end-to-side coaptation will be an appropriate therapy for this difficult problem.

  19. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  20. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Can mindfulness prevent ageism? an experimental study on mindfulness and ageism within an organizational context

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Vanessa Cristina Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia Social e das Organizações. / PsycINFO code: Human Experimental Psychology - 2300, Social Psychology - 3000, Social Perception & Cognition - 3040, Organizational Behaviour - 3660 Mindfulness has been a hot topic in research and has also conquered many practitioners in our western society. Despite the barriers, research results have been promising – even within the Social Psychology framework. Some recent studies suggest that a brief mindfulness induction (...

  2. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of removing methyliodide 131 gas from the effluent of a reactor, comprises passing the effluent gas through a charcoal sorbent formed by first contacting charcoal with a liquid containing a hypoiodite obtained when an aqueous mixture of a first component comprising a salt of an iodine oxyacid selected from periodate, iodate and hypoiodite and a second component selected from iodine and/or an iodide salt is adjusted to a pH of about 10 by the addition of an inorganic base, and then contacting the resulting impregnated charcoal with a tertiary amine. (author)

  3. Study of adsorption properties of impregnated charcoal for airborne iodine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-dong, L.; Sui-yuang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of airborne radioiodine and methyl iodide on impregnated charcoal were investigated. The activated charcoal tested was made from home-made oil-palm shells, and KI and TEDA were used as impregnants. A new technique was used to plot the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm at challenge concentrations (concentration range of iodine: 1-20 ppm v/v). Some adsorption properties of the impregnated charcoal were estimated with the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm. The dependences of the adsorption capacity and penetration behavior for airborne iodine and methyl iodide on the ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and superficial velocity) were studied

  4. Study of properties of active charcoal used for measuring of low radon activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.

    2011-01-01

    We used the German charcoal Silicarbon for adsorption of radon from the air. From the column with activated carbon arranged in a row, we obtain cut-off dependence of radon on activated carbon at various temperatures, cooling and also at different speeds, drawing radon air through activated charcoal. From information we have chosen the most appropriate combination of temperature and cooling flow in order to maximize capture efficiency of radon in the first column of active charcoal. To change active carbon and optimization of operation allows us to measure the radon exhalation rate from various materials up to the level of 3·10 -9 Bq/s. (authors)

  5. Effects of insulin-free plasma on the charcoal-separation method for radioimmunoassay of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayn, K N [Medical Research Council, Carshalton (UK). Toxicology Unit

    1976-03-01

    Radioimmunoassay of insulin in rat plasma using a popular method involving charcoal-separation of free and antibody-bound insulin was found to be unsatisfactory despite inclusion in standard tubes of insulin-free plasma prepared in either of two ways. Insulin-free plasma and untreated plasma had different effects on adsorption of free insulin to the charcoal. It was concluded that separation with charcoal is very sensitive to any prior treatment of the plasma. Particular care must be taken to ensure that hormone-free plasma is identical in all other respects to untreated plasma.

  6. Nexusing Charcoal in South Mozambique: A Proposal To Integrate the Nexus Charcoal-Food-Water Analysis With a Participatory Analytical and Systemic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Martins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nexus analysis identifies and explores the synergies and trade-offs between energy, food and water systems, considered as interdependent systems interacting with contextual drivers (e.g., climate change, poverty. The nexus is, thus, a valuable analytical and policy design supporting tool to address the widely discussed links between bioenergy, food and water. In fact, the Nexus provides a more integrative and broad approach in relation to the single isolated system approach that characterizes many bioenergy analysis and policies of the last decades. In particular, for the South of Mozambique, charcoal production, food insecurity and water scarcity have been related in separated studies and, thus, it would be expected that Nexus analysis has the potential to provide the basis for integrated policies and strategies focused on charcoal as a development factor. However, to date there is no Nexus analysis focused on charcoal in Mozambique, neither is there an assessment of the comprehensiveness and relevance of Nexus analysis when applied to charcoal energy systems. To address these gaps, this work applies the Nexus to the charcoal-food-water system in Mozambique, integrating national, regional and international studies analysing the isolated, or pairs of, systems. This integration results in a novel Nexus analysis graphic for charcoal-food-water relationship. Then, to access the comprehensiveness and depth of analysis, this Nexus analysis is critically compared with the 2MBio-A, a systems analytical and design framework based on a design tool specifically developed for Bioenergy (the 2MBio. The results reveal that Nexus analysis is “blind” to specific fundamental social, ecological and socio-historical dynamics of charcoal energy systems. The critical comparison also suggests the need to integrate the high level systems analysis of Nexus with non-deterministic, non-prescriptive participatory analysis tools, like the 2MBio-A, as a means to

  7. A comparative study of charcoal gasification in two types of spouted bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Salam, P.; Bhattacharya, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and air flow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported. Gasification of solid fuels in a spouted bed, which has certain potential advantages over other fluid bed configurations, appears to be an under-exploited technique so far. Central jet distributors are the most commonly used in the experimental studies that has been reported in the literature. Circular slit distributor is a new concept. This paper presents results of a comparative experimental study on air gasification of charcoal in central jet and circular slit inert sand spouted beds. The experiments were carried for an equivalence ratio of 0.25. The effect of spouting velocity and type of the distributor on the gasification performance were discussed. The steady state dense bed temperature varied between 979 and 1183 deg C for central jet spouted bed and between 964 and 1235 deg C for circular slit spouted bed. At higher spouting velocities, the gasification efficiency of the circular slit spouted bed was slightly more compared with that of central jet spouted bed

  8. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  9. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol...... was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found...

  10. [An experimental study on the prevention of enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats by smectite powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-tao; Li, Yi-shu; Lu, Shu-liang; Sun, Man; Qing, Chun; Li, Zong-yu; Shao, Tie-bing; Huang, Li-bing; Qu, Bing; Yang, Xin-bo

    2005-04-01

    To explore the preventive and treatment effects of smectite powder on enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. normal control (A, n = 6), burn control (B, n = 24), and burn treatment (T, n = 24) groups. The rats in B and T groups were fed with tracing bacteria JM109, which was transfected with PUC19 plasmid in advance. The rats were subjected to 30% TBSA scald injury after the plasmid was shown to have colonized in the intestine. Smectite powder (0.6 g/day/kg) was fed to rats of T group immediately after the scalding, while those in B group received no smectite powder. Bacterial translocation in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in all groups was observed and identified by enzyme digestion at 12 post scald hour (PSH) and on 1, 3 and 5 post-scald days (PSD). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in rat intestinal tissue. And the degree of injury to the entire small intestine was observed pathologically. The villus height of intestinal mucosa was measured, and the rate of epithelial nuclear splitting of mucosal crypts was calculated. The number of rats with positive blood bacterial culture in B group was obviously higher than that in A and T groups (P Smectite powder is beneficial to the protection of the intestinal mucosa in scalded rats, and can effectively prevent postburn intestinal bacterial translocation in rats.

  11. [Caffeine as a preventive drug for Parkinson's disease: epidemiologic evidence and experimental support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Alfaro, José Luis

    Prospective epidemiologic studies performed in large cohorts of men (total: 374,003 subjects) agree in which the risk of suffering Parkinson's disease diminishes progressively as the consumption of coffee and other caffeinated beverages increases. In the case of women (total: 345,184 subjects) the protective effect of caffeine is only observed in menopausal women which do not receive estrogen replacement therapy. Studies with models of acute parkinsonism in rodents have shown that caffeine reduces the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced with the neurotoxins 6-hidroxidopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, effect that seems to be mediated through blockade of A(2A) adenosine receptors. Recently, it was shown that male rats treated with moderate doses of caffeine (5 mg/kg/day) during six months, followed by a withdrawal period of at least two weeks, developed a greater resistance to the catalepsy induced with the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol, which was possibly mediated by an increase of dopaminergic transmission in the corpus striatum. More studies are needed to demonstrate unequivocally that caffeine prevents the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of moderate, chronic, and progressive parkinsonism, since it could lead to the discovery of more effective drugs for the prevention of aging-related degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

  12. Methyl iodide trapping efficiency of aged charcoal samples from Bruce-A emergency filtered air discharge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J.; Rasmussenn, M.T.; Weaver, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Charcoal filters are installed in the emergency filtered air discharge system (EFADS) of multiunit stations to control the release of airborne radioiodine in the event of a reactor accident. These filters use highly activated charcoal impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA). The TEDA-impregnated charcoal is highly efficient in removing radioiodine from flowing airstreams. The iodine-removal efficiency of the charcoal is presumed to deteriorate slowly with age, but current knowledge of this effect is insufficient to predict with confidence the performance of aged charcoal following an accident. Experiments were performed to determine the methyl iodide removal efficiency of aged charcoal samples taken from the EFADS of Ontario Hydro's Bruce-A nuclear generating station. The charcoal had been in service for ∼4 yr. The adsorption rate constant and capacity were measured under post-loss-of-coolant accident conditions to determine the efficiency of the aged charcoal. The adsorption rate constants of the aged charcoal samples were observed to be extremely high, yielding a decontamination factor (DF) for a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal >1 X 10 15 . The results show that essentially no CH 3 I would escape from a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal and that the requirement for a DF of 1000 for organic iodides in the EFADS filters would be exceeded by a tremendous margin. With such high DFs, the release of iodine from a 20-cm-deep bed would be virtually impossible to detect. The adsorption capacities observed for the aged charcoal samples approach the theoretical chemisorption capacity of 5 wt% TEDA charcoal, indicating that aging in the EFADS for 4 yr has had a negligible impact on the adsorption capacity. The results indicate that the short- and long-term performances of the aged charcoal in the EFADS of Bruce-A following an accident would still far exceed performance requirements. (author)

  13. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups...... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  14. Preventive activity of banana peel polyphenols on CCl4-induced experimental hepatic injury in Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Suo, Huayi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of banana peel polyphenols (BPPs) against hepatic injury. Mice were divide into normal, control, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg banana peel polyphenol and silymarin groups. All the mice except normal mice were induced with hepatic damage using CCl 4 . The serum and tissue levels of mice were determined by a kit and the tissues were further examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. BPPs reduced the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in a CCl 4 -induced mouse model of hepatic injury. Furthermore, BPPs reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triglyceride, while increasing glutathione levels in the serum and liver tissues of mice. In addition, the effects of 200 mg/kg treatment were more evident, and these effects were comparable to those of the drug silymarin. Serum levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ, were reduced in the mice treated with BPPs compared with injury control group mice, and these levels were comparable to those of the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histopathological examination indicated that BPPs were able to reduce the extent of CCl 4 -induced liver tissue injury and protect the liver cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced in mice treated with BPPs compared with the control group mice. Mice that received 200 mg/kg BPP exhibited reduced expression levels of these factors compared with mice that received 100 mg/kg BPP. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that BPPs exert a good preventive effect against hepatic injury.

  15. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  16. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  17. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2 often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO43’s, Na2SO4’s, Na2S2O8’s, S’s, and Na2SO3’s optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO43, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 and 2925 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the

  18. The synthesis of corncobs (zea mays) active charcoal and water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes) adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) with it’s analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Kurniastuti, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aim to examine the effect of the combination between corncobs and water hyacinth to adsorb lead (II), the most effective combination have determined by compared the ratio of corncobs adsorbent and water hyacinth to the increasing adsorption of the Pb(II), prove the effectiveness of the solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps) to determine the levels of Pb(II) as the result of the corncobs active charcoal adsorption and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L. The research method used is experimental method. The data collecting technique is carried out by several stages, which are carbonization using muffle furnace at a temperature of 350°C for 1.5 hours, activation of the corncobs charcoal and water hyacinth using HCl 1M and HCl 5M activator, contacting the adsorbent of corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth with liquid waste simulation of Pb(II) using variation of corncobns and water hyacinth, 1:0; 0:1; 1:1; 2:1; 1:2, analysis of Pb(II) using an sps, characterization of corncobs active charcoal adsorbent and water hyacinth using FTIR. Research results show that the combined effect of activated charcoal corncobs and water hyacinth can increase the ability of the adsorbent to absorb Pb(II), the optimum adsorbent mass ratio of 1:1 with the absorption level of 90.33%, SPS is an effective method to analyze the decreasing level of Pb(II) as the adsorbtion result of the corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 µg/L.

  19. Production of active charcoal and characteristic of volatile organic compounds in condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalik, V.; Knoskova, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade a production of charcoal and products from charcoal has been taking on an important position in a field of environmental technologies. Technological process of the production of charcoal is accompanied by formation of fluid and gaseous elements. These elements are ranked as pollutants from the legal point of view. There are mainly carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and other oxide compounds from the chemical point of view. Particularly acetic acid, methanol, 2-furaldehyde. Then aliphatic alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and other groups of substances. Law limits the quantity and concentration of these essentials emitted into the open air. This matter has to be taken care of during the production of charcoal. It is usually solved by condensation cooling and following burning gases and steams. Condensate is industrially processed or smaller technologies handle with it similar to taking care of wastewater. (authors)

  20. Development of a Metal Kiln for the Production of Charcoal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... The study established that the design upon modification would be environmentally safe, viable and an economic alternative for ... Keywords: Production, Smoking, Charcoal, Kiln, Design ...

  1. Development of the charcoal adsorption technique for determination of radon content in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paewpanchon, P.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. (authors)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-11-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Determination of the suitability of certain deciduous species for production of furfural and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, P.

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the suitability of chips of certain deciduous species for production of furfural and charcoal is discussed. The results of determination of suitability of unpeeled chips from cut branches (beech, birch, alder) and oak chips from wastes of production of furfural and also the suitability of cellolignin obtained from these chips for the production of charcoal are cited. An industrial unit of Swedish make equipped with a continuous hydrolyzer was used in hydrolysis tests of the deciduous chips. Unstripped birch, beech, and alder chips and oak chips from the wastes of wood processing contained 17-20 percent pentozanes and are suitable for industrial production of furfural. The content of substances soluble in an alcohol-benzene mixture in cellolignin from this feedstock was 21.1-30.5 percent. The amount of cellolignin obtained from chips of these species satisfied the demands of charcoal production. The charcoal yield was approximately 20 percent relative to the dry mass of carbonized cellolignin.

  4. Simvastatin prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental parkinsonian models: the association with anti-inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD. This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on experimental parkinsonian models via regulating NMDA receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regional changes in NMDA receptors in the rat brain and anxiolytic-like activity were examined after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine via a 3-week administration of simvastatin. NMDA receptor alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [³H]MK-801(Dizocilpine binding autoradiography. 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12 was applied to investigate the neuroprotection of simvastatin, the association with NMDA receptors, and the anti-inflammation. 6-hydroxydopamine induced anxiety and the downregulation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, CA1(Cornu Ammonis 1 Area, amygdala and caudate putamen was observed in 6-OHDA(6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats whereas simvastatin significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like activity and restored the expression of NMDA receptors in examined brain regions. Significant positive correlations were identified between anxiolytic-like activity and the restoration of expression of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and CA1 following simvastatin administration. Simvastatin exerted neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain and 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12, partially by regulating NMDA receptors, MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9, and TNF-a (tumour necrosis factor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong evidence that NMDA receptor modulation after simvastatin treatment could partially explain its anxiolytic-like activity and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in experimental parkinsonian models. These findings

  5. Effect of Trichoderma-enriched organic charcoal in the integrated wood protection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The gradual elimination of chromium from wood preservative formulations results in higher Cu leaching and increased susceptibility to wood decay fungi. Finding a sustainable strategy in wood protection has become of great interest among researchers. The objective of these in vitro studies was to demonstrate the effect of T-720-enriched organic charcoal (biochar against five wood decay basidiomycetes isolated from strongly damaged poles. For this purpose, the antagonistic potential of Trichoderma harzianum (strain T-720 was confirmed among other four Trichoderma spp. against five brown-rot basidiomycetes in dual culture tests. T-720 was genetically transformed and tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to study its antagonistic mechanism against wood decay basidiomycetes. It was also demonstrated that T-720 inhibits the oxalic acid production by basidiomycetes, a well-known mechanism used by brown-rot fungi to detoxify Cu from impregnated wood. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of biochar, alone or in combination with T-720, on Cu leaching by different preservatives, pH stabilization and prevention of wood decay caused by five basidiomycetes. Addition of biochar resulted in a significant Cu binding released from impregnated wood specimens. T-720-enriched biochar showed a significant reduction of wood decay caused by four basidiomycetes. The addition of T-720-enriched biochar to the soil into which utility poles are placed may improve the efficiency of Cr-free wood preservatives.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to charcoal use because of easiness of production, access, transport, and tradition. Increasing demand for charcoal, however, may lead to increasing impacts on forests, food, and water resources, and may even create additional pressures on the climate system. Here we assess how different charcoal scenarios based on the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP relate to potential biomass supply. For this, we use the energy model TIMER to project the demand for fuelwood and charcoal for different socio-economic pathways for urban and rural populations, globally, and for four tropical regions (Central America, South America, Africa and Indonesia. Second, we assess whether the biomass demands for each scenario can be met with current and projected forest biomass estimated with remote sensing and modeled Net Primary Productivity (NPP using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-GUESS. Currently one third of residential energy use is based on traditional bioenergy, including charcoal. Globally, biomass needs by urban households by 2100 under the most sustainable scenario, SSP1, are of 14.4 mi ton biomass for charcoal plus 17.1 mi ton biomass for fuelwood (31.5 mi ton biomass in total. Under SSP3, the least sustainable scenario, we project a need of 205 mi tons biomass for charcoal plus 243.8 mi ton biomass for fuelwood by 2100 (total of 450 mi ton biomass. Africa and South America contribute the most for this biomass demand, however, all areas are able to meet the demand. We find that the future of the charcoal sector is not dire. Charcoal represents a small fraction of the energy requirements, but its biomass demands are disproportionate and in some regions require a large fraction of forest. This could be because of large growing populations moving to urban areas

  7. Experimental study of prevention effect of andrographolide against radiation exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Huiyun; Mu Xiang; Li Li; Ding Kuke; Yang Lijian; Li Jie; Dong Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of andrographolide (AP), extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Andrographlis paniculata (AP), on injury induced by radiation exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups and irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at the doses of 1, 2, and 4 Gy, respectively: low dose AP group(intragastrically administered with AP at the dose of 100 ms/kg daily for 10 d before irradiation), and high dose AP group (intragastrically administered with AP at the dose of 200 ms/kg daily for 10 d before irradiation), model group (administered with the same volume of normal saline instead of AP for 10 d before irradiation), and control group(irradiated only at 3 different doses). One day after irradiation all rats were killed with their livers being fixed to make paraffin section. The morphological feature was observed under light microscope after HE staining, and the cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technology. Results: Compared to the control and model groups, the pathological changes of liver were significantly gentler in the AP treatment groups. The apoptosis rates of the liver cells of all the AP sub-groups were significantly lower than those of the control and model subgroup (t=2.19-4.80, P<0.05). Conclusions: AP might have prevention effect against radiation exposure. (authors)

  8. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakagama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine (BOP into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  9. Methods of preventing vinorelbine-induced phlebitis: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Emiko; Murase, Saori; Nishikata, Mayumi; Okamura, Noboru; Matzno, Sumio; Kuwahara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2008-07-22

    In order to identify methods for preventing phlebitis caused by intravenous administration of vinorelbine (VNR), we established a procedure for estimating the severity of phlebitis in an animal model. Four different factors (administration rate, dilution, flushing, and infusion of fat emulsion) were evaluated for alleviation of phlebitis caused by VNR infusion. VNR was diluted with normal saline to prepare test solutions with concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL or 0.3 mg/mL for infusion into the auricular veins of rabbits. Two days after VNR infusion, the veins were subjected to histopathological examination. VNR did not cause obvious loss of venous endothelial cells, the most sensitive and common feature of phlebitis, but VNR infusion led to inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and epidermal degeneration. Tissue damage was significantly decreased by shortening the administration time and by diluting the VNR solution for infusion from 0.6 mg/mL to 0.3 mg/mL. However, there was no effect of flushing with normal saline after VNR infusion, while treatment with fat emulsion before and after VNR infusion only had a minimal effect. Rapid infusion and dilution are effective methods of reducing phlebitis caused by the infusion of VNR, but the efficacy of flushing with normal saline or infusion of fat emulsion was not confirmed.

  10. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids prevent experimental pyelonephritis by Escherichia coli in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Claudia E; de Ruiz, Clara Silva; Rey, Rosario; de Duffard, Ana María Evangelista; Nader-Macías, María Elena

    2004-11-01

    Interfering Escherichia coli attachment to the urinary tract, using P-fimbriation inhibitors, can prevent pyelonephritis. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are organic compounds structurally related, but with different pharmacological uses. These agents are potentially active in the urinary tract due to its elimination in an unaltered form by the renal route. This study described a pyelonephritogenic E. coli strain, grown in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of clofibric or ethacrynic acids (0.1 and 1 mM, respectively), which exhibits inhibition of P1 erythrocytes agglutination and a drastic decrease in fimbriation, using electron microscopy and quantitative analyses of superficial proteins (decrease to a 17-25% in comparison with the control). In vivo assays were performed using ascending urinary tract infection in mice. The treatment with therapeutic doses of the drugs, administered 2 days before the bacterial challenge and daily until the end of the experiment (22 days), abolished renal infection after 7-10 days of drug exposure. Within this period clofibric acid did not produce adverse effects on the renal parenchyma. However, ethacrynic acid caused pyelitis and tubular cellular desquamation. These results suggested that clofibric acid might be useful in the short-term prophylaxis of urinary tract infection.

  11. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mami; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention

  12. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mami, E-mail: mtakahas@ncc.go.jp; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Keiji [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-02-09

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  13. Experimental evaluation of the prevention methods for the interface between masonry infill walls and concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tramontin

    Full Text Available Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls, such as steel bars and steel mesh. The efficiency of each type of joint method was evaluated by performing direct tensile tests (pullout tests on the models and monitoring the evolution of the crack opening in the joint between the column and wall, as a function of load applied to the model. The results from this study indicate that the model composed of "electrowelded wire mesh without steel angles" is the best model for controlling cracking in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls.

  14. Histidine-rich glycoprotein can prevent development of mouse experimental glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kärrlander

    Full Text Available Extensive angiogenesis, formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels, is an important feature of malignant glioma. Several antiangiogenic drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or its receptors are currently in clinical trials as therapy for high-grade glioma and bevacizumab was recently approved by the FDA for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. However, the modest efficacy of these drugs and emerging problems with anti-VEGF treatment resistance welcome the development of alternative antiangiogenic therapies. One potential candidate is histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, a plasma protein with antiangiogenic properties that can inhibit endothelial cell adhesion and migration. We have used the RCAS/TV-A mouse model for gliomas to investigate the effect of HRG on brain tumor development. Tumors were induced with platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B, in the presence or absence of HRG. We found that HRG had little effect on tumor incidence but could significantly inhibit the development of malignant glioma and completely prevent the occurrence of grade IV tumors (glioblastoma.

  15. Resistance Training for Diabetes Prevention and Therapy: Experimental Findings and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, lipid accumulation, and impaired mitochondrial function. Exercise training has received increasing recognition as a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (RT has the power to combat metabolic dysfunction in patients with T2D and seems to be an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients. However, there is limited mechanistic insight into how these adaptations occur. This review provides an overview of the intervention data on the impact of RT on glucose metabolism. In addition, the molecular mechanisms that lead to adaptation in skeletal muscle in response to RT and that are associated with possible beneficial metabolic responses are discussed. Some of the beneficial adaptations exerted by RT include increased GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle, increased insulin sensitivity and hence restored metabolic flexibility. Increased energy expenditure and excess postexercise oxygen consumption in response to RT may be other beneficial effects. RT is increasingly establishing itself as an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients.

  16. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Esposito

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate. We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626 examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.

  17. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.

  18. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables. PMID:28282401

  19. A Dried Yeast Fermentate Prevents and Reduces Inflammation in Two Separate Experimental Immune Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkanthi Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse and significant benefits against cold/flu symptoms and seasonal allergies have been observed with a dried fermentate (DF derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EpiCor in multiple published randomized trials. To determine if DF may influence other immune conditions, two separate animal studies were conducted. Study 1 examined the ability of DF to prevent or reduce inflammation when given orally for 14 days to rats prior to receiving 1% carrageenan (localized inflammation model. DF significantly (P<0.05 reduced swelling at all time points (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours versus the control. Edema severity and PGE2 levels were reduced by approximately 50% and 25% (P<0.05, respectively. Study 2 examined the ability of DF to treat established inflammation induced by type-2 collagen in mice over 4 weeks (autoimmune arthritis model. Significantly reduced arthritis scores, antibody response to type-2 collagen, and interferon-gamma levels were observed compared to controls (all parameters P<0.05. DF favorably impacts multiple acute and potentially chronic immunologic inflammatory control mechanisms and should be further tested in clinical trials.

  20. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 percent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine. 3 claims

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  4. Three-Frames Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Quasi-Experimental Educational Intervention among Civil Servants in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogban E. Omoronyia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have continued to be a leading cause of death among adults. Civil servants constitute vital workforce, and high CVD burden in this group has implications for national productivity. Unfortunately, guided cardiovascular health education interventions are uncommon. This study assessed the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and practice of CVD prevention among Nigerian civil servants. Quasi-experimental study design was employed among subjects in distant communities in Cross River State. Multistage technique was used to recruit 172 subjects into one control group (Ogoja and two intervention groups (Calabar and Ikom. The first intervention group received 4-h daily, 5-day cardiovascular health education, with emphasis on burden, risk factors, and preventive measures including nutrition, stress, alcohol, medicals, exercise, and smoking. The second intervention group received the same content of education, but with the use of Food, Rest for stress management, Alcohol, Medicals, Exercise, and Smoking (FRAMES as guide for delivery. Questionnaires were used to assess knowledge and practice at baseline and post-intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Knowledge scores and practice of CVD prevention were compared between study groups using inferential statistics. Mean age was 46.3 ± 7.4 years, and no significant difference in sociodemographic characteristics was observed by comparing the study groups (p > 0.05. Baseline knowledge and practice of preventive measures were generally poor, and no significant difference was observed by comparing the groups (p > 0.05. At 12 weeks post-intervention, knowledge of CVD was higher in the intervention groups compared with the control group (p 0.05. For effective delivery of cardiovascular health education, the use of “FRAMES” is as effective as its nonuse. Further studies in other settings are recommended.

  5. A quasi-experimental study on a community-based stroke prevention programme for clients with minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Janet W H; Yip, Vera Y B; Ko, Stanley K K; Gun, Amy P C; Lee, Judy S H

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a community-based stroke prevention programme in (1) improving knowledge about stroke; (2) improving self-health-monitoring practice; (3) maintaining behavioural changes when adopting a healthy lifestyle for stroke prevention. People with minor stroke (or transient ischaemic attack) tend to under-estimate the long-term impact of this on their health. The challenge for nurses is to prevent subsequent strokes by finding ways to promote and sustain appropriate behaviours. Educational intervention is of paramount importance in equipping those at risk with relevant knowledge and self-care strategies for secondary stroke prevention. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. One hundred and ninety subjects were recruited, of whom 147 (77 in the intervention group and 70 in the control group) completed the study. Data were obtained at three time points: baseline (T0); one week after (T1) and three months after (T2) the intervention. The intervention programme consisted of eight weekly two-hour sessions, with the aims of improving the participants' awareness of their own health signals and of actively involving them in self-care management of their own health for secondary stroke prevention. Significant positive changes were found among participants of the intervention group in the knowledge on stroke warning signs (P lifestyle modification of dietary habits (reduction in salted food intake, P = 0.004). No significant improvement was found in walking exercise participation in the intervention group, yet a significant decrease was detected among the control group. This study found a three-month-sustained effect of positive changes in knowledge and skill from participants who undertook a nurse-led community-based stroke prevention programme. Effective educational intervention by professional nurses helped clients integrate their learned knowledge into their real-life practice. This empowering, that is, the

  6. Croton schiedeanus Schltd prevents experimental hypertension in rats induced by nitric oxide deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Páez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croton schiedeanus Schltd (N.V.: "almizclillo" is a plant used in traditional medicine as an antihypertensive in Colombia. It contains flavonoid, diterpenoid and fenilbutanoid metabolites that have vasodilatation effects linked to the NO/cGMP pathway. This work aimed to assess the capacity of a 96% EtOH extract to prevent the hypertension induced by nitric oxide (NO deficiency in rats. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (10 mg/kg/d, i.p was administered during five weeks to three groups of rats (6-7 animals: C. Schiedeanus (200 mg/kg/d, p.o, enalapril (reference, 10 mg/kg/d, p.o and vehicle (control: olive oil 1 ml/kg/d, p.o. In addition, the blank group received only vehicle. The arterial blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured daily for six weeks. After sacrificing the animals, the aortic rings were isolated, contraction was triggered with phenylephrine (PE 10-6 M and relaxant responses were achieved with cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh, 10-10 - 10-4 M. L-NAME increased the systolic arterial pressure in the control group, attaining mean values of 131 mm Hg at week 5, whereas the C. schiedeanus, enalapril and blank groups maintained blood pressure under 100 mm Hg. The capacity of PE to contract aortic rings was greater in the C. schiedeanus, enalapril and blank groups than in the control group (2157, 2005, 1910 and 1646 mg, respectively. The pEC50 values for ACh were as follows: C. Schiedeanus (6.89 >enalapril (6.39 > blank (5.68 > control (5.09. These results give support to C. Schiedeanus as a natural antihypertensive source.

  7. Evaluation of usher wood and karkadeh stem for charcoal in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan)); Vergnet, L. (CTFT, 94 - Nogent s/Marne (France). Energie Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Two unusual biomass materials Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa (karkadeh) stem and Calotropis procera (usher) wood were investigated in the laboratory as potential raw materials for charcoal making in Sudan. The materials were characterised physically and chemically and despite the low density and high bark-to-wood ratio by volume, good yields and quality of charcoal were predicted. The carbonization trials with a laboratory retort at conditions close to those of field metal kiln gave very good charcoal yields (35% for karkadeh and 38% for usher) with high energy transformation (58% and 62%, respectively). The karkadeh charcoal, except for a somewhat high ash content, was good for domestic uses (79% fixed carbon and 30.3 MJ kg[sup -1] heat value). The usher charcoal was better with respect to fixed carbon (86.5%) and gross heat value (32.4 MJ kg[sup -1]). Both charcoals were of low density (140-160 kg m[sup -3]) and further assessment of their economic suitability should be carried out under field conditions. The carbonization by-products were also collected and characterized by means of gas chromatography. (author)

  8. The pH-dependent adsorption of tributyltin to charcoals and soot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liping; Borggaard, Ole K.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) poses a serious environmental problem. Adsorption by black carbon (BC) may strongly affect its behavior. The adsorption of TBT to well characterized soot and two charcoals with specific surface area in the range of 62-111 m 2 g -1 have been investigated with main focus on pH effects. The charcoals but not soot possess acidic functional groups. TBT adsorption reaches maximum at pH 6-7 for charcoals, and at pH > 6 for soot. Soot has between 1.5 and 15 times higher adsorption density (0.09-1.77 μmol m -2 ) than charcoals, but charcoals show up to 17 times higher sorption affinities than soot. TBT adsorption is successfully described by a new pH-dependent dual Langmuir model considering electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, and pH effects on TBT speciation and BC surface charge. It is inferred that strong sorption of the TBTOH species to BC may affect TBT toxicity. - Tributyltin adsorption to black carbon increases at increasing pH but charcoal exhibits electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, whereas soot only adsorbs hydrophobically.

  9. The pH-dependent adsorption of tributyltin to charcoals and soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Liping, E-mail: fang@life.ku.d [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Borggaard, Ole K.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) poses a serious environmental problem. Adsorption by black carbon (BC) may strongly affect its behavior. The adsorption of TBT to well characterized soot and two charcoals with specific surface area in the range of 62-111 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} have been investigated with main focus on pH effects. The charcoals but not soot possess acidic functional groups. TBT adsorption reaches maximum at pH 6-7 for charcoals, and at pH > 6 for soot. Soot has between 1.5 and 15 times higher adsorption density (0.09-1.77 {mu}mol m{sup -2}) than charcoals, but charcoals show up to 17 times higher sorption affinities than soot. TBT adsorption is successfully described by a new pH-dependent dual Langmuir model considering electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, and pH effects on TBT speciation and BC surface charge. It is inferred that strong sorption of the TBTOH species to BC may affect TBT toxicity. - Tributyltin adsorption to black carbon increases at increasing pH but charcoal exhibits electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, whereas soot only adsorbs hydrophobically.

  10. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  11. Carbon sequestration potential and physicochemical properties differ between wildfire charcoals and slow-pyrolysis biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Merino, Agustin; Bucheli, Thomas D; Bryant, Rob; Ascough, Philippa; Gao, Xiaodong; Masiello, Caroline A

    2017-09-11

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ 13 C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions. Wildfire charcoals were formed under higher maximum temperatures and oxygen availabilities, but much shorter heating durations than slow-pyrolysis biochars, resulting in differing physicochemical properties. These differences are particularly relevant regarding their respective roles as carbon sinks, as even the wildfire charcoals formed at the highest temperatures had lower carbon sequestration potentials than most slow-pyrolysis biochars. Our results challenge the common notion that natural charcoal and biochar are well suited as proxies for each other, and suggest that biochar's environmental residence time may be underestimated when based on natural charcoal as a proxy, and vice versa.

  12. Socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Olarinde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.

  13. 3D-nuclear heat generation in PCC-charcoal filter in TAPP-3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Manish; Pradhan, A.S.; Kumar, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of 3D nuclear heat generation profile in the charcoal filter and subsequently the commencement time of Primary Containment Cleanup (PCC) system of 540MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). Fuel failure is predicted due to overheating of the fuel under loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) without Emergency Core Cooling System (LOCA without ECCS). Subsequently fission product gasses along with water vapours are released to Reactor Building (RB) atmosphere. Plate-out and water trapping mechanism stabilizes the concentration of significant fission products i.e. radioiodines in about 4 hours before being circulated through charcoal filters of Containment Cleanup system. After cleaning up the RB atmosphere, it is discharged to outside atmosphere through stack. The isotopes of radioiodine emit beta and gamma radiations. Gamma radiations are partly stopped within the charcoal and heat is generated. The part of gamma radiations escaping the bed produce heat in the adjacent beds also. PCC system can be operated, after 4 hours of LOCA, based on radioiodine concentration in RB atmosphere. During iodine removal, the iodine concentration in the charcoal filter goes through a peak value. Maximum heat is generated in the filter if PCC fans stops eventually when iodine concentration in the filter is maximum. Analysis done by TRAFIC code indicates that the system can be commenced after 7 hrs of LOCA so that desorption temperature of charcoal is not reached. Accuracy in estimating heat generation rates in charcoal helps in deciding commencement of the system after LOCA

  14. Preventive Role of Hilar Parasympathetic Ganglia on Pulmonary Artery Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Gundogdu, Betul; Altas, Ender; Cakir, Murteza; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Atalay, Canan; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arteries are mainly innervated by sympathetic vasoconstrictor and parasympathetic vasodilatory fibers. We examined whether there is a relationship between the neuron densities of hilar parasympathetic ganglia and pulmonary vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-four rabbits were divided into two groups: control (n=8) and SAH (n=16). The animals were observed for 20 days following experimental SAH. The number of hilar parasympathetic ganglia and their neuron densities were determined. Proportion of pulmonary artery ring surface to lumen surface values was accepted as vasospasm index (VSI). Neuron densities of the hilar ganglia and VSI values were compared statistically. Animals in the SAH group experienced either mild (n=6) or severe (n=10) pulmonary artery vasospasm. In the control group, the mean VSI of pulmonary arteries was 0.777±0.048 and the hilar ganglion neuron density was estimated as 12.100±2.010/mm 3 . In SAH animals with mild vasospasm, VSI=1.148±0.090 and neuron density was estimated as 10.110±1.430/mm 3 ; in animals with severe vasospasm, VSI=1.500±0.120 and neuron density was estimated as 7.340±990/mm 3 . There was an inverse correlation between quantity and neuron density of hilar ganglia and vasospasm index value. The low numbers and low density of hilar parasympathetic ganglia may be responsible for the more severe artery vasospasm in SAH.

  15. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, G; Foltán, R; Burian, M; Horká, E; Adámek, S; Hejčl, A; Hanzelka, T; Sedý, J

    2011-08-01

    Piezosurgery is a promising meticulous system for bone cutting, based on ultrasound microvibrations. It is thought that the impact of piezosurgery on the integrity of soft tissue is generally low, but it has not been examined critically. The authors undertook an experimental study to evaluate the brain tissue response to skull bone removal using piezosurgery compared with a conventional drilling method. In Wistar male rats, a circular bone window was drilled to the parietal bone using piezosurgery on one side and a conventional bone drill on the other side. The behavioural performance of animals was evaluated using the motor BBB test and sensory plantar test. The brains of animals were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. The results of MRI showed significantly increased depth and width of the brain lesion in the region of conventional drilling compared with the region where piezosurgery was used. Cresylviolet and NF 160 staining confirmed these findings. There was no significant difference in any of the behavioural tests between the two groups. In conclusion, piezosurgery is a safe method for the performance of osteotomy in close relation to soft tissue, including an extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as brain. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  17. Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Alexandre; Le, Thiem Ngoc; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m 3 radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. - Research highlights: → The temperature effect on radon adsorption is proportional to αe β/T . → The calibration formula is CF(T,t)=3.1x10 -5 e (2887)/((T+273)) [1-e -0.080t ]. → The radon adsorption efficiency varies up to a factor of two for T = 8.5-31 o C. → The average temperature is suitable for estimating CF(T,t) in a fluctuating environment.

  18. Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.cooper@gmail.co [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Le, Thiem Ngoc [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m{sup 3} radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. - Research highlights: {yields} The temperature effect on radon adsorption is proportional to {alpha}e{sup {beta}/T}. {yields} The calibration formula is CF(T,t)=3.1x10{sup -5}e{sup (2887)/((T+273))} [1-e{sup -0.080t}]. {yields} The radon adsorption efficiency varies up to a factor of two for T = 8.5-31 {sup o}C. {yields} The average temperature is suitable for estimating CF(T,t) in a fluctuating environment.

  19. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  20. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirika, V. I. O.

    2002-01-01

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  1. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  2. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  3. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  4. Experimental studies on prevention of trichinosis by food irradiation (Co60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Kimitaka

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study was performed to elucidate the effects of 60 Co irradiation on maturation or fecundity of Trichinella spiralis by assessing from parasitological, morphological and immunological points of view. Pieces of muscle tissue of mice infected with T. spiralis were irradiated with 60 Co at doses of 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. These irradiated tissue (Experimental group) and non-irradiated tissues (Control group) were fed to healthy mice. Half of the mice were sacrificed 6 days after the ingestion. The number of adult worms were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between the dose of 60 Co irradiation and worm damage; the higher the dose the more damage parasites had, and no adults were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 150 Gy prior to infection. The same tendency was true for the histopathology of the intenstines of host mice; the higher the dose the less tissue damage. Circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in every serum examined by ELISA. The remaining mice were sacrificed 30 days after the ingestion. The numbers of muscle larvae were counted and subjected to statistical analysis, which disclosed a good correlation between th dose of 60 Co irradiation and worm damage, and no larvae were recovered if the tissue had been irradiated with more than 75Gy. Higher concentrations of circulating antigens of T. spiralis and antibodies against T. spiralis were detected in the serum samples taken with muscle larvae. Thus this study established that 60 Co irradiation of more than 150 Gy caused complete damage on maturation, and that irradiation of more than 75 Gy caused complete damage on the fecundity of T. spimalis. (author)

  5. Prophylactic Dextrose Gel Does Not Prevent Neonatal Hypoglycemia: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Sarah M; Cousin, Joshua J; Hagan, Joseph L; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2018-03-28

    To test the hypothesis that prophylactic dextrose gel administered to newborn infants at risk for hypoglycemia will increase the initial blood glucose concentration after the first feeding and decrease neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions for treatment of asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia compared with feedings alone. This quasi-experimental study allocated asymptomatic at-risk newborn infants (late preterm, birth weight 4000 g, and infants of mothers with diabetes) to receive prophylactic dextrose gel (Insta-Glucose; Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey); other at-risk infants formed the control group. After the initial feeding, the prophylactic group received dextrose gel (0.5 mL/kg) rubbed into the buccal mucosa. The blood glucose concentration was checked 30 minutes later. Initial glucose concentrations and rate of NICU admissions were compared between the prophylactic group and controls using bivariate analyses. A multivariable linear regression compared first glucose concentrations between groups, adjusting for at-risk categories and age at first glucose concentration. There were 236 subjects (72 prophylactic, 164 controls). The first glucose concentration was not different between the prophylactic and control groups in bivariate analysis (52.1 ± 17.1 vs 50.5 ± 15.3 mg/dL, P = .69) and after adjusting for covariates (P  = .18). Rates of NICU admission for treatment of transient neonatal hypoglycemia were 9.7% and 14.6%, respectively (P = .40). Prophylactic dextrose gel did not reduce transient neonatal hypoglycemia or NICU admissions for hypoglycemia. The carbohydrate concentration of Insta-Glucose (77%) may have caused a hyperinsulinemic response, or alternatively, exogenous enteral dextrose influences glucose homeostasis minimally during the first few hours when counter-regulatory mechanisms are especially active. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02523222. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huiying [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Kuanyu, E-mail: likuanyu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Hang, Chun-Hua, E-mail: hang_neurosurgery@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  7. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  8. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Rafael M.; Oliveira, Rafael P.; Medeiros, Samara R.; Gomes-Santos, Ana C.; Alves, Andrea C.; Loli, Flávia G.; Guimarães, Mauro A.F.; Amaral, Sylvia S.; da Cunha, André P.; Weiner, Howard L.; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403

  9. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  10. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  11. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  12. Respiratory health effects of occupational exposure to charcoal dust in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgabi, Nnenesi

    2016-01-01

    Background Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. Objective To determine dose–response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed, ambient and respirable dust levels were assessed in different work sections. Multiple logistic regression analysis estimated the overall effect of charcoal dust exposure on respiratory outcomes, while linear regression estimated the exposure-related effect on lung function. Workers were stratified according to cumulative dust exposure category. Results Exposure to respirable charcoal dust levels was above occupational exposure limits in most sectors, with packing and weighing having the highest dust exposure levels (median 27.7 mg/m3, range: 0.2–33.0 for the 8-h time-weighted average). The high cumulative dust exposure category was significantly associated with usual cough (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.0), usual phlegm (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.1), episodes of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–6.1), and shortness of breath. A non-statistically significant lower adjusted mean-predicted % FEV1 was observed (98.1% for male and 95.5% for female) among workers with greater exposure. Conclusions Charcoal dust levels exceeded the US OSHA recommended limit of 3.5 mg/m3 for carbon-black-containing material and study participants presented with exposure-related adverse respiratory outcomes in a dose–response manner. Our findings suggest that the Namibian Ministry of Labour introduce stronger enforcement strategies of existing national health and safety regulations within the industry. PMID:27687528

  13. Manufacture of mold of polymeric composite water pipe reinforced charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar; Misdawati; Idris, M.; Nasution, F. K.; Harahap, U. N.; Simanjuntak, R. K.; Jufrizal; Pranoto, S.

    2018-03-01

    In general, household wastewater pipelines currently use thermoplastic pipes of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This material is known to be not high heat resistant, contains hazardous chemicals (toxins), relatively inhospitable, and relatively more expensive. Therefore, researchers make innovations utilizing natural materials in the form of wood charcoal as the basic material of making the water pipe. Making this pipe requires a simple mold design that can be worked in the scale of household and intermediate industries. This research aims to produce water pipe mold with simple design, easy to do, and making time relatively short. Some considerations for molding materials are weight of mold, ease of raw material, strong, sturdy, and able to cast. Pipe molds are grouped into 4 (four) main parts, including: outer diameter pipe molding, pipe inside diameter, pipe holder, and pipe alignment control. Some materials have been tested as raw materials for outer diameter of pipes, such as wood, iron / steel, cement, and thermoset. The best results are obtained on thermoset material, where the process of disassembling is easier and the resulting mold weight is relatively lighter. For the inside diameter of the pipe is used stainless steel, because in addition to be resistant to chemical processes that occur, in this part of the mold must hold the press load due to shrinkage of raw materials of the pipe during the process of hardening (polymerization). Therefore, it needs high pressure resistant material and does not blend with the raw material of the pipe. The base of the mold is made of stainless steel material because it must be resistant to corrosion due to chemical processes. As for the adjustment of the pipe is made of ST 37 carbon steel, because its function is only as a regulator of the alignment of the pipe structure.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serenje, W.; Chidumayo, E.N.; Chipuwa, J.H.; Egneus, H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  15. The charcoal-degradation nexus: contested 'fuelscapes' in the sub-Saharan drylands of northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christoph; Petersen, Maike; Roden, Paul; Nüsser, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal ranks amongst the most commercialized but least regulated commodities in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its prevalence as an energy source for cooking and heating, localized environmental and livelihood impacts of charcoal production are poorly understood so far. The identified research deficit is amplified by widespread negative views of this activity as a poverty-driven cause of deforestation and land degradation. However, the charcoal-degradation nexus is apparently more complicated, not least because the extraction of biomass from already degraded woodlands can also be interpreted as an appropriate option under given management regimes. In order to better calibrate existing research agendas to site-specific geographies of charcoal production, we propose a re-conceptualization of such energy landscapes as 'fuelscapes' with complex material and social dimensions. The concept is tested with reference to a case study in Central Pokot, northern Kenya, where charcoal production only began in the early 1990's. Based on the assumption that the fine line between sustainable land management and degradation in dryland energy landscapes is not only highly variable but also increasingly contested, our study combines the knowledge input of different stakeholders with longitudinal time series of remote sensing data. Based on the results of our interdisciplinary analyses, we outline an integrated tool for the co-operative monitoring and management of prevailing degradation processes against the background of diversified livelihood activities in sub-Saharan drylands.

  16. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  17. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Is there a need for special preventive medical check-ups in employees exposed to experimental animal dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Klaus; Jüngert, Barbara; Hager, Meta; Drexler, Hans

    2009-02-01

    Due to new legal requirements in Germany, the employer must request preventive medical check-ups for activities involving exposure to dust from experimental animals in the rooms in which the animals are kept. The objective is to report our first experiences with these medical check-ups in the context of academic research. The check-ups were carried out since November 2005 and comprised a questionnaire and a medical examination, including a pulmonary function test with whole-body plethysmography. Respiratory, nasal and ocular symptoms related to occupational exposure to animals were documented. Participation in skin prick tests (ubiquitous inhalation allergens and laboratory animal allergens), a bronchial provocation test with methacholine, and serological examinations for total IgE and specific IgE antibodies was voluntary. Data on 132 persons are presented. One hundred and six of these had already been exposed for at least 1 year. Main complaints at the workplace were sneezing and runny nose. Ocular symptoms and bronchial asthma were reported infrequently. The development of at least one of these symptoms occurred in 34% of employees with an exposure of at least 1 year. If the weekly exposure duration was at least 5 h, the proportion of employees with complaints rose to 44.9%. In employees occupationally exposed to mice and rats, work-related complaints occurred in 33.7 and 37.8%, respectively, and sensitisation rates were 12.7 and 16.3%, respectively. Employees with and without complaints differed in history of allergic symptoms, and workplace safety measures. In employees with occupational contact with laboratory animal dust, the frequency of complaints was high. The results confirm the necessity of regular medical check-ups for employees with contact with laboratory animal dust. Nevertheless, the medical check-ups must be part of a prevention strategy including education, engineering controls, administrative controls, use of personal protective equipment and

  19. A Quasi-experimental Study to Assess an Interactive Educational Intervention on Nurses' Knowledge of Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama Ilesanmi, Rose; Morohunfoluwa Oluwatosin, Odunayo

    2016-04-01

    Educational intervention programs are an important element to improve nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention. Various teaching methods have been used with diverse results but none have been analyzed in Nigeria. A quasi- experimental study using a pretest/post test design was conducted among 193 registered nurses with >6 months experience who worked in purposefully selected wards (neuroscience, orthopedics, renal, and cardiac) in 3 teaching hospitals to examine the level of knowledge retention after interactive instruction. Participants were randomized to intervention (IG, n = 127 from 2 hospitals) and control (CG, n = 66 from 1 hospital) groups; the IG was provided a 5-day, face-to-face interactive lecture, and the CG engaged in a 1-day, 4-hour discussion of PU prevention practices. The Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Tool, a 47-item questionnaire in which a correct answer = 1 point and an incorrect/"I don't know" answer = 0 (maximum score 47), was used to assess and compare knowledge retention at 3 time points: baseline (T1), immediately after instruction (T2), and after 3 months (T3). Three trained research assistants assisted with registration of participants and distribution and collection of the questionnaires. All questionnaires were retrieved at T1 before the intervention be- gan. Respondents were encouraged to respond to all questions. Data were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA (P = 0.05). At T1, knowledge scores were comparable between the IG and CG (32.5 ± 4.2 and 30.8 ± 5.0 for IG and CG, respectively). At T2, knowledge scores increased significantly only in the IG to 40.7 ± 3.4 (d = 1.94, P less than 0.05). The mean difference between T1 and T2 was -8.2 ± 5.4, t = -17.0, P = 0.000. Similarly, mean scores increased significantly from T2 to T3 in the IG (mean= -2.0 ± 5.5, t = -4.1, P = 0.000); scores in the CG were -6.2 ± 7.2, t = -6.3 (P = 0.000). A face-to-face interactive lecture was shown to be an effective method of program delivery for

  20. Information Accessibility of the Charcoal Burning Suicide Method in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Chang, Shu-Sen; Guo, Yingqi; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    There has been a marked rise in suicide by charcoal burning (CB) in some East Asian countries but little is known about its incidence in mainland China. We examined media-reported CB suicides and the availability of online information about the method in mainland China. We extracted and analyzed data for i) the characteristics and trends of fatal and nonfatal CB suicides reported by mainland Chinese newspapers (1998-2014); ii) trends and geographic variations in online searches using keywords relating to CB suicide (2011-2014); and iii) the content of Internet search results. 109 CB suicide attempts (89 fatal and 20 nonfatal) were reported by newspapers in 13 out of the 31 provinces or provincial-level-municipalities in mainland China. There were increasing trends in the incidence of reported CB suicides and in online searches using CB-related keywords. The province-level search intensities were correlated with CB suicide rates (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.43 [95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.68]). Two-thirds of the web links retrieved using the search engine contained detailed information about the CB suicide method, of which 15% showed pro-suicide attitudes, and the majority (86%) did not encourage people to seek help. The incidence of CB suicide was based on newspaper reports and likely to be underestimated. Mental health and suicide prevention professionals in mainland China should be alert to the increased use of this highly lethal suicide method. Better surveillance and intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented.

  1. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  2. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions

  3. Review of the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.; Moeller, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a critical review of the published literature on the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal. This review, which was supported by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, showed that (a) individual charcoals have a wide range of adsoprtion coefficients and therefore the performance of a given bed is heavily dependent on the quality of the charcoal it contains; (b) because of the detrimental effects of mass transfer on noble gas adsorption, consideration should be given to including this factor in developing technical specifications for adsorption beds; and (c) additional research is needed on the determination of the inter-relationship of moisture and temperature and their effects on adsorption bed performance

  4. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bamboo-Charcoal-Supported Nano-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong ZHOU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were prepared by precipitation with bamboo charcoal as support. Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. Photocatalytic degradation processes of methyl orange were studied. The results indicate that the structure of nano-ZnO is of the wurtzite type and the grain size is about 19-54 nm. The best preparation temperature for these composites is 500℃. The composites have better photocatalytic degradation ability than pure ZnO under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with the composites obeys first-order kinetics, and the composites can be recycled.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17397

  5. Charcoal and siderurgy in Brazilian Amazonia: what environmental improvement paths? Example of the Carajas pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Fonseca Morello, Thiago; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Behling, Maurel; Caldeira Pires, Armando; Oliveira Rodrigues, Thiago; Rousset, Patrick; Dufour, Thomas; Durieux, Laurent; Sist, Plinio; Vieira, Paulo; Lemenager, Tiphaine; Ernst, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The pig iron sector of Carajas, in the Brazilian Amazon, uses charcoal which is strongly criticized because of the charcoal production direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forests degradation. This publication identifies and analyzes some alternatives to decrease the charcoal production environmental negative externalities and the main technical, economic and institutional factors that may limit their adoption. Several alternatives are possible, based on more efficient carbonization technologies, reforestation or afforestation of degraded lands, and, to a lesser extent, the use of reduced impact logging residues. Some of the alternatives are cost-efficient in the long term and financing support is available to promote their adoption. Land tenure and environmental regularization is a necessary pre-requisite for their expansion. (authors)

  6. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  7. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Bakri, Fahrul [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia); Liong, Syarifuddin [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  8. Preventing intraperitoneal adhesions with ethyl pyruvate and hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose: a comparative study in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, E Kıyak; Caglayan, K; Erdogan, N; Cinar, H; Güngör, B

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ethyl pyruvate (EP) with that of hyaluronic acid+carboxymethyl cellulose (Seprafilm) for the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. Seprafilm has been shown to be effective in many experimental and clinical studies. Thirty rats were divided into three groups at random, and uterine horn abrasion was performed by laparotomy. One group received no treatment (control group), one group received a single intraperitoneal dose of EP 50mg/kg (EP group), and a 2×1-cm patch of Seprafilm was applied in the third group (Seprafilm group). All rats were killed 14 days after surgery. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluation were performed by a surgeon and a pathologist who were blinded to group allocation. Histopathologically, inflammation, fibroblastic activity, foreign body reaction, collagen proliferation, vascular proliferation, Masson-Trichrome score, matrix metalloproteinase-2 score and vascular endothelial growth factor score were studied. Median macroscopic intraperitoneal adhesion scores for the control, EP and Seprafilm groups were 2.8, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. Multiple comparisons between groups showed a significant difference (p0.05). After histopathological evaluation, significant differences in all parameters were found between the groups (p0.0167). In comparison with the untreated control group, EP and Seprafilm were found to reduce the formation of intraperitoneal adhesions. No significant difference was found between EP and Seprafilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing charcoal and zeolite reflection filters for volatile anaesthetics: A laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Louise W; Frennström, Jan O; Ilardi, Marcella; Reinstrup, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A modified heat-moisture exchanger that incorporates a reflecting filter for use with partial rebreathing of exhaled volatile anaesthetics has been commercially available since the 1990 s. The main advantages of the device are efficient delivery of inhaled sedation to intensive care patients and reduced anaesthetic consumption during anaesthesia. However, elevated arterial CO2 values have been observed with an anaesthetic conserving device compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger, despite compensation for larger apparatus dead space. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the properties of two reflecting materials (charcoal and zeolites). A controlled, prospective, observational laboratory study. Lund University Hospital, Sweden, from December 2011 to December 2012. None. Three filters, with identical volumes, were compared using different volatile anaesthetics at different conditions of temperature and moisture. The filtering materials were charcoal or zeolite. Glass spheres were used as an inert control. Consumption of volatile anaesthetics using different reflecting materials in filters at different conditions regarding temperature and moisture. CO2 reflection by the filtering materials: glass spheres, charcoal or zeolite. Isoflurane consumption in an open system was 60.8 g h(-1). The isoflurane consumption in dry, warm air was 39.8 g h(-1) with glass spheres. Changing to charcoal and zeolite had a profound effect on isoflurane consumption, 11.8 and 10.7 g h(-1), respectively. Heating and humidifying the air as well as the addition of N2O created only minor changes in consumption. The percentage of isoflurane conserved by the charcoal filter was independent of the isoflurane concentration (0.5 to 4.5%). Reflection of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane by the charcoal filter was similar to reflection of isoflurane. Both charcoal and zeolite filters had CO2 reflecting properties and end-tidal CO2 increased by 3 to 3.7% compared

  10. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67 Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67 Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67 Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67 Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In

  11. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  12. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner L; Merbold, Lutz; Ziegler, Waldemar; Mukelabai, Mukufute M; Muchinda, Maurice; Kolle, Olaf; Scholes, Robert J

    2011-08-19

    This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other

  13. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold in activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austen, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the determination of gold in activated charcoal by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Compensation for matrix effects is achieved by means of platinum that is added for use as an internal standard. Calibration is achieved by use of a series of synthetic standards that are made by the spiking of barren charcoal with gold and platinum. The limit of determination is about 8 p.p.m. of gold, and the relative standard deviation is 1,2 per cent at a concentration level of 2300 p.p.m

  14. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan [Department of Radiological Technology, ChungTai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Tsai, Shih-Chuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160 Taichung Harbor Road, Section 3, 40705, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use {sup 67}Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with {sup 67}Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients

  15. Study on a charcoal-based monitor for Rn-220 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqiao; Solomon, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been used in both passive monitors (Cohen, Pondy et al. 1987) and active monitors (Solomon and Gan, 1989) for the measurements of 222 Rn in air. Cooled, charcoal-impregnated filters, viewed in-situ by a solid state alpha detector, have been used for 220 Rn-in-breath studies. In general, γ ray counting of 220 Rn samples collected on activated charcoal has not been used. This paper describes the development and calibration of a charcoal based monitor designed to measure 220 Rn levels down to a lower limit of 10 Bq m -3 over sampling periods of 4 to 15 h. The activity of 212 Pb (10.6 h) produced from 220 Rn (55.6 s) collected in an activated charcoal-based sampler is 1/700 the total 220 Rn activity. A typical Hp-Ge detector has a MDL for a two-hours count of approximately 0.1 Bq of 212 Pb for the 239 keV γ-ray. For a MDL of 10 Bq·m -3 of 220 Rn in air, a volume of at least 7 m 3 must be sampled, assuming no breakthrough. The present charcoal-based 220 Rn monitor is designed to maximize the path length through the activated charcoal while sufficient cross-sectional area is retained to allow flow rates up to 0.03 m 3 ·kg -1 is packed into a specially designed aluminum container. The container is modeled on a Marinelli beaker to maximize the counting efficiency, while the sample flow through the chambers of the monitor is optimized to maintain radial symmetry. experiments demonstrated that 94% of 220 Rn was adsorbed by the charcoal in the monitor under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 at 25 degree C and 85%. RH in 15 h. The monitor is designed to fit over a 70 mm diameter Hp-Ge detector. Preliminary measurements of 220 Rn in two buildings and a cave, using the active monitors and 'grabing' samples under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 and a period of 4 h, indicated concentrations of between 18.6 and 142.0 Bq·m 3

  16. Removal of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu Ions from Wastewater Using Cow Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow bone charcoal (CBC was synthesized and used for the removal of metals ions (manganese, iron, nickel and copper from aqueous solutions. Two different adsorption models were used for analyzing the data. Adsorption capacities were determined: copper ions exhibit the greatest adsorption on cow bone charcoal because of their size and pH conditions. Adsorption capacity varies as a function of pH. Adsorption isotherms from aqueous solution of heavy metals on CBC were determined. Adsorption isotherms are consistent with Langmuir´s adsorption model. Adsorbent quantity and immersion enthalpy were studied.

  17. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3–5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. - Highlights: • Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface area of 32 cm"2 can be measured at level of 10 mBq/(m"2s) at the uncertainty ≤30%. • The method has a metrological justification. • No need to consider climate conditions, soil properties and conditions, mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil.

  18. What Does Psychological Autopsy Study Tell Us about Charcoal Burning Suicide--A New and Contagious Method in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sandra S. M.; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Wong, Paul W. C.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Law, Y. W.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong between 2002-2004 in the 15 to 59-year-old age group were investigated using the psychological autopsy method. The psychopathological profiles of charcoal burning suicides (N = 53) were compared against "other suicides" (N = 97). The two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of…

  19. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum

  20. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  1. Has the woodfuel crisis returned? Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwampamba, Tuyeni Heita

    2007-01-01

    By lumping together charcoal and firewood consumption to determine the threats to forests from widespread use of woodfuel energy in sub-Sahara African, studies have greatly underestimated the individual impact of charcoal. Where high consumption levels are coupled with poor forest management and negligible regulation of the charcoal trade, the threat of an impending crisis caused by charcoal alone needs to be revisited. This study uses a survey of 244 households in six Tanzanian cities to determine whether current consumption levels, charcoal production techniques and forest management practices are sufficient to meet present and future charcoal demand. Projections to year 2100 were made to determine whether forests can continue to meet future demand under 24 scenarios that capture the numerous uncertainties that exist of converting charcoal consumption into forest needed. The findings suggest that the scenarios containing median consumption levels, low kiln efficiencies and low replenishment of harvested forests could deplete forests on public land by 2028. Best-case scenarios occurred when the opposite conditions existed. The study concludes that charcoal consumption is a real threat to the long-term persistence of forests in Tanzania and proposes policy interventions for alleviating forest loss

  2. High- and Low-Level Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Programs with Young Women with Body Image Concerns: An Experimental Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Whitney; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As cognitive dissonance is theorized to contribute to the effects of dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs, we evaluated a high-dissonance version of this program against a low-dissonance version and a wait-list control condition to provide an experimental test of the mechanism of intervention effects. Method: Female…

  3. A Neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Yanina P; Cóceres, Verónica; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Jaramillo Ortiz, José M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Verna, Andrea E; Ganuza, Agustina; Cano, Dora B; Lischinsky, Lilian; Angel, Sergio O; Zamorano, Patricia; Odeón, Anselmo C; Leunda, María R; Campero, Carlos M; Morein, Bror; Moore, Dadín P

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of Neospora caninum. Twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. Immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group A animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) formulated with ISCOMs; group B animals received ISCOM-MATRIX (without antigen) and group C received sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified nickel resin. All groups were intravenously challenged with the NC-1 strain of N. caninum at Day 70 of gestation and dams slaughtered at week 17 of the experiment. Heifers from group A developed specific antibodies against rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 prior to the challenge. Following immunization, an statistically significant increase of antibodies against rNcSAG1 and rNcHSP20 in all animals of group A was detected compared to animals in groups B and C at weeks 5, 13 and 16 (P0.001). There were no differences in IFN-γ production among the experimental groups at any time point (P>0.05). Transplacental transmission was determined in all foetuses of groups A, B and C by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and nested PCR. This work showed that rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 proteins while immunogenic in cattle failed to prevent the foetal infection in pregnant cattle challenged at Day 70 of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental validation of the design method to prevent flow-induced vibration in high Reynolds-number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Morisita, Masaki; Iwata, Koji

    1998-08-01

    The incident of sodium leakage from a main pipe of the secondary heat transport system of Monju fast breeder reactor was caused by the failure of a thermometer well. 'Flow-induced vibration design guide for thermometer wells' (express as 'design guide') was proposed by PNC Working Group to prevent the same cause of the sodium leak incident in future. On this report, applicability of the 'design guide' was estimated to plant conditions in high Reynolds-number(approximately 3x10 5 ∼ 3x10 6 ) involving the supercritical region, by measured data on a vortex synchronized vibration and a turbulence induced vibration. Experiments were performed for cylindrical and taper shaped types of test pieces. As results, reduced velocity (Vr) at onsets of the inline synchronized vibration were evaluated to be grater than 1.0 in the range of experimental conditions. Fluctuating drag and lift coefficients, which were evaluated from power spectrum of turbulence for Vr < 1.0 condition, were 0.01 ∼ 0.05 for drag direction and 0.04 ∼ 0.13 for lift direction. The fluctuating drag and lift coefficients used in the 'design guide' were estimated to be conservative by comparison with these data. Correlation lengths for a cylinder and a taper shaped one in the high Reynolds-number region were estimated to be 1.6 times of the diameter(D) in the maximum case. The measured value of correlation length is enough smaller than the 'design guide' value of 3.0D. Displacement amplitudes of test pieces for Vr < 1.0 conditions were enough smaller (fives times) than calculated values based on the 'design guide'. Consequently, the applicability of the design guide' was confirmed in the range of experiments involving the super critical Reynolds-number region. (author)

  5. Effects of false yam tuber meals and charcoal on broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of replacing a portion of a commercial broiler feed with false yam tuber meals on broiler growth performance, feed conversion rate (FCR) and blood parameters. Furthermore, wood charcoal was added at various levels to the meals to explore their potential to attenuate toxic effects.

  6. Structural, morphological, and thermal characterization of kraft lignin and its charcoals obtained at different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Brazil, Tayra; Nunes Costa, Rogeria; Massi, Marcos; Cerqueira Rezende, Mirabel

    2018-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource that is becoming more import due to environmental concerns and possible oil crisis. Thus, optimizing its use is a current challenge for many researchers. Lignin, which is a macromolecule with complex chemical structure, valuable physicochemical properties, and varied chemical composition, is available in large quantities in pulp and paper companies. The objective of this work is the physicochemical characterization of two Kraft lignin samples with different purities, and the study of its thermal conversion into charcoal. The lignin characterization was based on chemical, TGA, DSC, FT-IR, particle sizes, and FEG-SEM analyses. These analyses show that the lignins are mainly composed of guaiacyl and syringyl units, with residues of 30–36 wt.%, in inert atmosphere, depending on the lignin purity. From these results, the more purified lignin with higher carbon yield (%C) was selected for charcoal production. The heat treatment (HT) for carbonization of lignin, at different times (90, 180, and 420 min), resulted in different %C (41–44 wt.%). Longer HT resulted in higher %C and in charcoals with smaller pore sizes. Nanopores (∼50 nm) are observed for the charcoal obtained with the longest HT.

  7. Adsorption of p-Nitrophenol (PNP) on new adsorbents prepared from diatomite and charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, B.; Khelifa, N.; Chernai-Hamdi, S.; Hadjari, H.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to mesoporous materials with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution because of their diverse applications (e. g., adsorbents, catalysts, and host materials). Inorganic composite materials (ICM) prepared by a mixture of natural diatomite (macroporous materials) and charcoal (microporous material) in particular operative conditions. (Author)

  8. A comparison of charcoal- and slag-based constructed wetlands for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CW) with charcoal- or slag-based bed matrices were investigated for their potential use in remediating acid mine drainage (AMD). A CW is effectively a reactor in which some components of the wastewater are broken down by the organisms occurring within the CW, whilst others may ...

  9. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd contaminated soil (Vertisol using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L. was investigated. The alleviation potential of Prosopis charcoal and Coir pith on the negative effects of Cd in soil was evaluated in pot culture experiments with Vigna radiata as the test plant, a Cd accumulator. Cadmium addition to soil resulted in accumulation of Cd in all plant parts of V. radiata predominantly in roots. The influence of Cd in the presence and absence of organic amendments on the various biological and chemical parameters of the soil, on the levels of Cd accumulation and on the growth attributes of V. radiata has been assessed. Among the organic amendments, Prosopis charcoal was found to be more effective in reducing the bioavailable levels of Cd in the soil artificially spiked with Cd in graded concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg g-1 and its accumulation in V. radiata, thus resulting in an increase in the root, leaf and stem biomass. Coir pith, however, was effective in increasing the total mycorrhizal colonization of roots and second in reducing Cd levels in plants. Therefore, Prosopis charcoal was considered best for stabilization of Cd in soil.

  10. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  11. Design, Fabrication and Installation of the Charcoal Filter Housing in RIPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jin; Lim, I. C.; Bang, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    In the Hot Cell Bank 3 of the Radioisotope Production Facility, production and dispense of I-131 solution and capsule that are used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer are made. The original charcoal filter housings installed in 1994 and were utilized until the leakage of a very small amount of radio-iodine was found due to the erroneous installation of the charcoal filter in the filter housing. Thus the production of I-131 was discontinued until the repair and performance testing of the filter housing and the inspection by the regulatory body were finished. Although the production of I-131 was resumed, there was a desire for installing the brand-new charcoal filter housing which has an intrinsically safe design and no possibility of leakage. This report describes the design, fabrication and installation of brand-new charcoal filter housing. And also were described the dismantlement of the old housings, the assessment of the structural integrity of the shielding concrete wall and the installation of the shielding doors

  12. Advanced Electrocardiogram Analysis in the Amitriptyline-poisoned Pig Treated with Activated Charcoal Haemoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Hoegberg, Lotte C.G.; Eriksen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal haemoperfusion (CAC-HP) does not reduce the plasma concentration in amitriptyline (AT)-poisoned pigs. The aim of this non-blinded, randomized, controlled animal trial was to determine if CAC-HP reduces the pathological ECG changes caused by AT poisoning. Fourteen female...

  13. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths c...

  14. Pyrolysis of blended animal manures to produce combustible gas and value-added charcoal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and rye grass were pyrolyzed using a skid-mounted sytem. Produced gas composition was analyzed for major hydrocarbons and S-containing compounds. Charcoal was analyzed for its surface functional groups, contact angles, HHV, and total element contents. Some of th...

  15. The effect of activated charcoal on drug exposure in healthy volunteers: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, G; Hoegberg, L C Groth; Graudal, N A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of activated charcoal (AC) administered during the first 6 h after drug intake and the effect of drug properties on drug exposure. Sixty-four controlled studies were integrated in a meta-analysis. AC administered 0-5 min after administration...

  16. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering

  17. Refinement of the charcoal meal study by reduction of the fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Helen; Ewart, Lorna; Bright, Jonathan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a shorter fasting period than the one historically employed for the charcoal meal test, could be used when measuring gastric emptying and intestinal transit within the same animal, and to ascertain whether the scientific outcome would be affected by this benefit to animal welfare. Rats and mice were fasted for 0, 3, 6 or 18 hours before the oral administration of vehicle or atropine. One hour later, the animals were orally administered a charcoal meal, then 20 minutes later, they were killed and the stomach and small intestine were removed. Intestinal transit time (the position of the charcoal front as a percentage of the total length of the small intestine) and relative gastric emptying (weight of stomach contents) were measured. Rats and mice fasted for six hours showed results for gastric emptying and intestinal transit which were similar to those obtained in animals fasted for 18 hours. Reducing the fasting period reduced the body weight loss in both species, and mice on shorter fasts could be group-housed, as hunger-induced fighting was lessened. Therefore, a fasting period of six hours was subsequently adopted for charcoal meal studies at our institution. 2011 FRAME.

  18. The rapid determination of 230Th by preconcentration of charcoal absorbing N-1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jiayuan; Wu Hanzhen.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation was made on concentration of 230 Th using charcoal, which had adsorbed amine N-1923 before hand. The separation of α-emitter U, Ra, Po also has been investigated. α-source was prepared by Powder-Pulp method. This method is simple, convenient and esay to operate

  19. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  20. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  1. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  2. Spectral analysis of charcoal on soils: Implications for wildland fire severity mapping methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Jan U. H. Eitel; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the Western United States have supported climate scenarios that predict a higher occurrence of large and severe wildfires. Knowledge of the severity is important to infer long-term biogeochemical, ecological, and societal impacts, but understanding the sensitivity of any severity mapping method to variations in soil type and increasing charcoal (char...

  3. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Maurice, Muchinda; Mukufute M, Mukelabai; J, Scholes Robert; Waldemar, Ziegler; L, Kutsch Werner

    2010-05-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to firewood but by having higher energy densities and thus being cheaper to transport. Over the last decades, charcoal production has become a full-time employment for migrant workers, resulting in very different and no longer sustainable deforestation patterns. Strategies to reduce the pressure on the miombo woodlands have to take aspects of employment and energy demand into account. The objectives of the study were to examine above- and belowground carbon losses from an intact miombo woodland (protected forest reserve) in comparison to a highly disturbed surrounding area due to charcoal production. Detection of changes in carbon concentrations and stocks were made possible by applying biomass- and soil inventories as well as the eddy-covariance method. These local results were up-scaled to countrywide estimates of carbon lost to the atmosphere by deforestation in addition to carbon losses fossil fuel combustion. The results show, that in the worst case scenario which does not assume any regeneration, a developing country as Zambia, can easily emit as much carbon per capita as a developed Western world country such as France, when deforestation is included in the national inventory (up to 9.1 t of CO2 per capita). However, regeneration is very probably when post-harvest disturbance is low. Further studies on miombo regeneration are highly demanded.

  4. Metabolite Profiling of Feces and Serum in Hemodialysis Patients and the Effect of Medicinal Charcoal Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixiu; Liang, Shanshan; Liu, Hua; Chen, Lei; Sun, Lingshuang; Wei, Meng; Jiang, Hongli; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-22

    Recently, the colon has been recognized as an important source of various uremic toxins in patients with end stage renal disease. Medicinal charcoal tablets are an oral adsorbent that are widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease in China to remove creatinine and urea from the colon. A parallel fecal and serum metabolomics study was performed to determine comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). The effects of medicinal charcoal tablets on the fecal and serum metabolomes of HD patients were also investigated. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the fecal and serum metabolic profiles of 20 healthy controls and 31 HD patients before and after taking medicinal charcoal tablets for 3 months. There were distinct metabolic variations between the HD patients and healthy controls both in the feces and serum according to multivariate data analysis. Metabolic disturbances of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism figured prominently in the serum. However, in the feces, alterations of tryptophan metabolism, lysine degradation and beta-alanine metabolism were pronounced, and the levels of several amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were increased dramatically. Nineteen fecal metabolites and 21 serum metabolites were also identified as biomarkers that contributed to the metabolic differences. Additionally, medicinal charcoal treatment generally enabled the serum and fecal metabolomes of the HD patients to draw close to those of the control subjects, especially the serum metabolic profile. Parallel fecal and serum metabolomics uncovered the systematic metabolic variations of HD patients, especially disturbances in amino acid metabolism in the colon. Medicinal charcoal tablets had an impact on the serum and fecal metabolomes of HD patients, but their exact effects still need to be studied further

  5. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg -1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  6. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  7. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  8. Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, K.

    2008-12-01

    In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional

  9. Quantitative measurement of 222Rn in water by the activated charcoal passive collector method: 1. The effect of water in a collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Inoue, Yoriteru; Yoshimoto, Keizo

    1994-01-01

    The activated charcoal passive collector method can be applied to measure the concentration of 222 Rn in river water. The 222 Rn collector is composed of dry activated charcoal sealed in a polyethylene bag. However, we found it very difficult to keep activated charcoal in a collector dry during the period the collector was left in a river. The degree of dampness and the time lapsed when activated charcoal became wet were thought to affect the quantity of 222 Rn collected. First, we studied the effect of some parameters in the activated charcoal passive collector method qualitatively in three experiments. We found that the quantity of 222 Rn collected in a collector was not so sensitive to the quantity of activated charcoal in the collector or the thickness of polyethylene film under the condition of wet activated charcoal, and that wet activated charcoal accumulated less 222 Rn than dry activated charcoal. We present some equations which could explain how much 222 Rn was collected in a collector when activated charcoal was submerged directly in water and when activated charcoal was packed in a polyethylene bag but completely wet. These equations were proved effective by being compared with the results of the other experiments. Finally, we recommended some conditions which proved useful when measuring at an actual river

  10. A Model-Based Approach to Infer Shifts in Regional Fire Regimes Over Time Using Sediment Charcoal Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, M.; Finley, A. O.; Hooten, M.; Higuera, P. E.; Marlon, J. R.; McLachlan, J. S.; Kelly, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment charcoal records are used in paleoecological analyses to identify individual local fire events and to estimate fire frequency and regional biomass burned at centennial to millenial time scales. Methods to identify local fire events based on sediment charcoal records have been well developed over the past 30 years, however, an integrated statistical framework for fire identification is still lacking. We build upon existing paleoecological methods to develop a hierarchical Bayesian point process model for local fire identification and estimation of fire return intervals. The model is unique in that it combines sediment charcoal records from multiple lakes across a region in a spatially-explicit fashion leading to estimation of a joint, regional fire return interval in addition to lake-specific local fire frequencies. Further, the model estimates a joint regional charcoal deposition rate free from the effects of local fires that can be used as a measure of regional biomass burned over time. Finally, the hierarchical Bayesian approach allows for tractable error propagation such that estimates of fire return intervals reflect the full range of uncertainty in sediment charcoal records. Specific sources of uncertainty addressed include sediment age models, the separation of local versus regional charcoal sources, and generation of a composite charcoal record The model is applied to sediment charcoal records from a dense network of lakes in the Yukon Flats region of Alaska. The multivariate joint modeling approach results in improved estimates of regional charcoal deposition with reduced uncertainty in the identification of individual fire events and local fire return intervals compared to individual lake approaches. Modeled individual-lake fire return intervals range from 100 to 500 years with a regional interval of roughly 200 years. Regional charcoal deposition to the network of lakes is correlated up to 50 kilometers. Finally, the joint regional charcoal

  11. Diagnostic of the charcoal's productive and commercialize in the Pinar del Río's Integral Forest Company by matrix SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Anh Thi Nguyen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to diagnose the situation productive of charcoal in Pinar del Río EFI by SWOT matrix (weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities which consists of the collection of information from different sources related to the production of charcoal and thus a screening of ideas and through the technical working group with the presence of specialists proceeded develop the matrix with all components was performed. The results of the assessment of the productive situation of charcoal indicate an unfavorable position, resulting in a strategy of adaptive type, conditioned by economic, political and cultural factors.

  12. Macro-particle charcoal C content following prescribed burning in a mixed-conifer forest, Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Morgan L; Hurteau, Matthew D; Kaye, Jason P; Miesel, Jessica R

    2015-01-01

    Fire suppression and changing climate have resulted in increased large wildfire frequency and severity in the western United States, causing carbon cycle impacts. Forest thinning and prescribed burning reduce high-severity fire risk, but require removal of biomass and emissions of carbon from burning. During each fire a fraction of the burning vegetation and soil organic matter is converted into charcoal, a relatively stable carbon form. We sought to quantify the effects of pre-fire fuel load and type on charcoal carbon produced by biomass combusted in a prescribed burn under different thinning treatments and to identify more easily measured predictors of charcoal carbon mass in a historically frequent-fire mixed-conifer forest. We hypothesized that charcoal carbon produced from coarse woody debris (CWD) during prescribed burning would be greater than that produced from fine woody debris (FWD). We visually quantified post-treatment charcoal carbon content in the O-horizon and the A-horizon beneath CWD (> 30 cm diameter) and up to 60 cm from CWD that was present prior to treatment. We found no difference in the size of charcoal carbon pools from CWD (treatment means ranged from 0.3-2.0 g m-2 of A-horizon and 0.0-1.7 g m-2 of O-horizon charcoal) and FWD (treatment means ranged from 0.2-1.7 g m-2 of A-horizon and 0.0-1.5 g m-2 of O-horizon charcoal). We also compared treatments and found that the burn-only, understory-thin and burn, and overstory-thin and burn treatments had significantly more charcoal carbon than the control. Charcoal carbon represented 0.29% of total ecosystem carbon. We found that char mass on CWD was an important predictor of charcoal carbon mass, but only explained 18-35% of the variation. Our results help improve our understanding of the effects forest restoration treatments have on ecosystem carbon by providing additional information about charcoal carbon content.

  13. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  14. Use of Activated Charcoal for 220Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of 220 Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of 220 Rn in the range of 9 x 10 3 pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of 220 Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a 220 Rn adsorption media, the source term for available 220 Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to 220 Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10 9 for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10 6 . The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a 220 Rn activity on the order of 10 10 Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny

  15. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Vuijk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52%

  16. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    , the reductions compared to control (Hoegberg et al. 2002) varied between 11% and 26%. Even though a reduction in drug adsorption to activated charcoal was observed when food mixture or ice cream was added, the remaining adsorption capacity of both types of activated charcoal theoretically was still able......The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Lime-bassanite-charcoal Amendment on the Immobilization of Cadmium in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shunhong; Yang, Yi; Li, Qian; Su, Zhen; Yuan, Cuiyu; Ouyang, Kun

    2017-03-01

    The effects of amendments, such as lime, bassanite, sodium phosphate, steel slag and charcoal, and their compounds on the immobilization of cadmium (Cd) are investigated. The lime-bassanite-charcoal compound shows the best remediation performance compared to other agents in conducted experiments. The optimum condition for lime-bassanite-charcoal application in contaminated soil is lime-bassanite-charcoal with a mass ratio of 1:1/3:2/3, a dose of 2% of the soil weight, and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 35%-40%; additionally, the agents should be added before water addition. The highest Cd removal rate was 58.94% (±1.19%) with a ∆pH of 0.23, which is much higher than the rates reported in previous studies. The compound amendment was used in a field experiment, demonstrating a Cd removal efficiency of 48.78% (±4.23), further confirming its effectiveness.

  18. Influence of the particle size of activated charcoal on labeling efficiency with 67Ga-citrate for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Yu Lin; Shih-Chuan Tsai; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bor-Tsung Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Indium-111 and 99m Tc have been proposed for colonic transit study, but 111 In is expensive and the half-life of 99m Tc is too short for the study. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and has a suitable half-life. In our previous study, we successfully labeled 67 Ga-citrate activated charcoal, and the labeling efficiency exceeded 91% after a 96 hour incubation period. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the size of activated charcoal particles on the labeling efficiency with 67 Ga-citrate. The data showed that the influence of particle size on the labeling efficiency of activated charcoal with 67 Ga was insignificant. Both sizes of activated charcoal particles can be used for labeling with 67 Ga in colonic transit study. (author)

  19. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Zhu, Guoying; Jia, Xiuying; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Mi; Gao, Qing; Hu, Ciming; Xu, Shuying

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased. The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6:4, and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr. The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9337). Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM). Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9. Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 = 0.089 cm(-1)) in drinking water. This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  20. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  1. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  2. Conductometric Studies Of Adsorption Of Sulfide On Charcoal From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezwan Miah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of sulfide S2- from aqueous solution on commercial charcoal was studied using conductometric technique. A proportionally constant for concentration of S2- and its conductance was obtained by measuring conductance of S2- solution over a concentration range of 0.0005amp614850.02 M. The time-dependent measured conductance of S2- solution was converted to concentration using the obtained constant. The adsorption data were analyzed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. A surface coverage equal to 2.5 mg per gram of charcoal was obtained. The adsorption was found to follow first-order kinetics having rate constant equal to 2.65 amp61620 10amp614853 s-1.

  3. Penelitian Pembuatan Arang Bambu (Bamboo Charcoal pda Suhu Rendah untuk Produk Kerajinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suheryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProses pengarangan terjadi bila ada suatu benda yang dipanasi sampai mencapai titik bakarnya sehingga benda terlihat membara, kemudian pemasukan oksigen dihentikan atau dibatasi agar benda tersebut tidak terbakar menjadi abu. Untuk melakukan uji coba penelitiaan pengarangan bambu menggunakan 2 jenis tungku, yaitu: tungku Tipe-1 tungku pengarangan suhu rendah (<120°C, dan tungku Tipe-2 tungku pengarangan suhu menengah 120°C -260°C, yang terbuat dari drum dengan Ǿ 35 cm. Bahan bambu yang digunakan terdiri dari 3 jenis bambu, yaitu; bambu cendani, petung, dan legi, dan produk bambu setengan jadi. Prosedur pengerjaan meliputi, penyiapan bahan (pemotongan dan seleksi, pengeringan, pengukuanr kandungan air awal, pengarangan, pengamatan proses pengarangan, dan identifikasi tingkat keberhasilan pengarangan. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhi proses pengarangan dan kinerja tungku suhu rendah dan menengah. Dari hasil pengukuran kandungan air awal dari ke 3 jenis bambu yaitu dibawah 15%, sedangkan dari hasil pengamatan dan identifikasi pengarangan, pengarangan dengan menggunakan tungku Tipe-1, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 107,4 ºC dalam waktu 5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 60 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 73 %;  dengan tungku Tipe-2, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 112,8 ºC dalam waktu 3,5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 50 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 81 %. Kata kunci: arang bambu (bamboo charcoal, pengarangan, suhu, tungku pengarangan ABSTRACTA charcoal formation process occurs when an object is being heated until it reaches its burning point and smoldered, then the oxygen intake is stopped or restricted, so the object will not get burned into ashes. In this research, there are two tipes of furnaces being used, those are: Furnace Tipe-1, with low temperature (120°C and Furnace Tipe-2, with medium temperature (120°C 260

  4. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  5. Torrefaction of corncob to produce charcoal under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xian; Chen, Chang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Fei; Xiao, Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Corncob was torrefied under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres at 220-300 °C, obtaining solid products with mass yields of 69.38-95.03% and 67.20-94.99% and higher heating values of 16.58-24.77 MJ/kg and 16.68-24.10 MJ/kg, respectively. The changes of physicochemical properties of the charcoal was evaluated by many spectroscopies, contact angle determination, and combustion test. Hemicelluloses were not detected for the torrefaction under the hard conditions. As the severity increased, C concentration raised while H and O concentrations reduced. Combustion test showed that the burnout temperature of charcoal declined with the elevation of reaction temperature, and torrefaction at a high temperature shortened the time for the whole combustion process. Base on the data, torrefaction at 260 °C under carbon dioxide was recommended for the torrefaction of corncob. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Wichert, Marcos; Fallot, Abigail; Aimola, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  7. Anatomy Of Archaeological Wood Charcoals From Yenibademli Mound (Imbros), Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, B.

    In this study, the qualitative and quantitative anatomy of six wood charcoals from an early Bronze Age settlement in the island Imbros (Gökçeada) were presented. Taxonomic identification on the basis of wood anatomy showed that two of them belong to the genus Quercus (section Ilex and cf Quercus), and four of them belong to the genus Pinus. Any fireplace is absent at the location of wood charcoals in G9 plan square. It appears that the woody branches on the horizontal roof of the building fell down to the floor after a big fire. It is most likely that the woody genera identified in the study were used for roof construction.

  8. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    Described is a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time

  9. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time. 2 claims, 9 drawing figures

  10. Development of activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media : their characteristics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of its low maximum permissible concentration in air, air-borne radioiodine must be accurately monitored in contaminated air streams, in the working environment and handling facilities, before release to the environment from the nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media are found to be most suitable for monitoring airborne iodine-131. Because of its simplicity and reproducible nature in assessment of air-borne radioactive iodine, the work on the development of such media was undertaken in order to find a suitable substitute for imported activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media. Eight different media of such type were developed, evaluated and compared with two imported media. Best suitable medium is recommended for its use in air-borne iodine sampling which was found to be even better suited than imported media of such type. (author)

  11. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  12. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal which was made with babassu nut shell and designed for utilization in the steel industry in the function of the final carbonization temperature. All three layers of babassu nut shell (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp were used together. The initial temperature of the test was 100ºC and the final temperatures were: 450ºC, 550ºC, 650ºC, 750ºC and 850ºC. For the charcoals produced, the following properties were determined: apparent relative density, energy density and fixed carbon stock, in addition to chemical compositions (immediate and elemental and heating values (higher and lower. Charcoal made of babassu nut shell showed high values of apparent density and energy density, and has a potential to replace coal and wood charcoal in the steel industry. The effect of the final carbonization temperature was expressed for all characteristics evaluated, except for the nitrogen content. Babassu nut shell must be carbonized at temperatures higher than 550ºC, so that the charcoal produced can be used in steel-making blast furnaces.

  13. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.R.; Patterson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported

  14. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Carbon isotopes and charcoal in soils, vegetation changes and climate inferences in the southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gouveia, S.E.M; Aravena, R; Boulet, R; Bendassolli, J.A

    2001-01-01

    The use of carbon isotopes in studies of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics have been applied to infer information about vegetation and climate changes during the late Quaternary (Schwartz et al., 1986; Pessenda et al., 1996). This approach had also been used in different areas in Brazil to document vegetation changes during the Holocene (Desjardins et al., 1996; Gouveia et al., 1997; Pessenda et al., 1998a, b, 2001) and late Pleistocene/Holocene (Freitas et al., 2001). The application of carbon isotopes is based on the different 13 C composition of C 3 and C 4 plants and its preservation in SOM. 13 C values of C 3 plant species range from approximately -32% o to -20% o PDB, with a mean of -27% o . In contrast, δ 13 C of C 4 species range from -17% o to -9% o with mean of -13% o . Thus, C 3 and C 4 plant species have distinct δ 13 C values and differ from each other by approximately 14% o (Boutton, 1991). The study of charcoal fragments found in sediments and soils also supplies information about climatic conditions. Charcoal distribution in the soil profiles can provide information about the occurrence of paleofires (Pessenda et al., 1996), possibly associated with drier climate periods and/or human disturbance. In this paper we report δ 13 C data of soil and 14 C dates on charcoal from five soil profiles collected under natural vegetation in the Parana and Sao Paulo states, southeastern Brazil. Carbon isotopes are used to evaluate vegetation changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Charcoal distribution in the soil and its dating are used to infer linkage between forest fires and climate changes and to establish the chronology (au)

  16. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    OpenAIRE

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar; Duraisamy Prabha; Subpiramaniyan Sivakumar; Chandra Venkatasamy Subbhuraam

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil (Vertisol) using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L.) was investigated. The allevi...

  17. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  18. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, J R; Patterson, J R [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported.

  19. Use of wood anatomy to identify poisonous plants: Charcoal of Spirostachys africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Lennox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirostachys africana Sond. (tamboti/tambotie is a woodland tree that is often found near water. It has a poisonous and purgative latex. The archaeological site of Sibudu, a rock shelter in KwaZulu-Natal, has evidence, from well-preserved charcoal and seeds, of past environments and wood use from approximately 77–38 thousand years ago (ka. As their uses and environmental indicators are different, it is critical to confidently distinguish among the three anatomically similar woods of the Euphorbiaceae: Spirostachys africana, Sclerocroton integerrimus and Shirakiopsis elliptica. A detailed anatomical study of reference and archaeological charcoal shows that xylem vessel width increases proportionally as vessel frequency decreases, from Spirostachys africana, Sclerocroton integerrimus to Shirakiopsis elliptica. Crystals of calcium oxalate are present in ray cells of Spirostachys africana, whereas silica bodies are present in ray cells of Sclerocroton integerrimus and Shirakiopsis elliptica. Using these features, the presence of Spirostachys africana was confirmed amongst hearth charcoal of the Spotty Camel layer, with an age of approximately 58 ka and of the Mottled Deposit occupational layer, with an age of approximately 49 ka. The presence of this charcoal, collected from ancient fireplaces or sieved from surrounding sediments, implies that people at Sibudu understood and used this poisonous tree to their advantage. We are encouraged in this view by the presence of many Cryptocarya woodii leaves found on the surface of 77-ka sedge bedding at Sibudu (Wadley L et al., Science. 2011;334:1388–1391. Cryptocarya woodii has insecticidal and larvacidal properties and members of the Laurel family are well known for their medicinal properties.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  1. A chlorhexidine-releasing epoxy-based coating on titanium implants prevents Staphylococcus aureus experimental biomaterial-associated infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riool, M.; Dirks, A. J.; Jaspers, V.; de Boer, L.; Loontjens, T. J.; van der Loos, C. M.; Florquin, S.; Apachitei, I.; Rijk, L. N.; Keul, H. A.; Zaat, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) remains a challenging problem, in particular due to the increased risk of resistance development with the current antibiotic-based strategies. Metallic orthopaedic devices, such as non-cemented implants, are often inserted under high mechanical

  2. The contribution of charcoal burning to the rise and decline of suicides in Hong Kong from 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, Paul S F; Caine, Eric D

    2011-09-01

    There has been scant research exploring the relationship between choice of method (means) of self-inflicted death, and broader social or contextual factors. The recent emergence and growth of suicide using carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning charcoal in an enclosed space (hereafter, "charcoal burning") was related to an increase in the overall suicide rate in Hong Kong. The growth of this method coincided with changing economic conditions. This paper expands upon previous work to explore possible relationships further. This study aims to discern the role of charcoal burning in overall suicide rate transition during times of both economic recession and expansion, as captured in the unemployment rate of Hong Kong, and to examine whether there was evidence of an effect from means-substitution. Age and gender specific suicide rates in Hong Kong by suicide methods from 1997 to 2007 were calculated. To model the transition of suicide rate by different methods, Poisson regression analyses were employed. Charcoal burning constituted 18.3% of all suicides, 88% of which involved individuals drawn from the middle years (25-59) of life. During both periods of rising and declining unemployment, charcoal burning played an important role in the changing suicide rates, and this effect was most prominent among for those in their middle years. Means-substitution was found among the married women during the period of rate advancement (1997-2003). Compared to others, working-age adults preferentially selected carbon monoxide poisoning from charcoal burning.

  3. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO 2 did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  4. Effect of carbon black on thermal properties of charcoal and salacca leafstalk briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thassana, Chewa; Nuleg, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of a carbon black (CB) on the thermal properties of briquettes produced from the charcoal and the salacca leafstalk with and without CB have been investigated. Four thermal properties of a briquettes compose of the burning time, the calorific value, the percentage moisture (PMC) and an percentage ash content (PAC) were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Our results were indicated that the sallacca leafstalk mix a carbon black is the long burning times, high heating but a few ash content. Results shown that the burning time and the calorific value of a charcoal, a charcoal with CB, the salacca leafstalk and the salacca leafstalk with carbon black particles is about 58, 63, 76, 81 minutes, and 10.33, 12.96, 13.12, 14.63 MJ/kg, respectively. In addition, the PMC and PAC were in range of 11.6 - 8.14% and 9.33 - 5.42%. So, we can conclude that a cabon black affect on the thermal properties of a briquettes and salacca leaftstalk mixed CB has been most suited for briquetting.

  5. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J; Kasali, G B [Building and Industrial Minerals Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, (Zambia); Ellegaard, A [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO{sub 2} did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  6. Holocene elemental, lead isotope and charcoal record from peat in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tudyka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mid-resolution elemental, isotopic and charcoal record from 10700 BC to AD 500 in a peat core located in Żyglin (southern Poland. The objective is to give insight into the proxies with emphasis on lead (Pb sources in this minerogenic peat deposit. During the Early Holocene (10700–7550 BC the average 206Pb/207Pb quotient was around 1.196. This isotopic signature is consistent with natural dust derived from long-distance soil and rock weathering. The Mid-Holocene period (7550–3200 BC shows a significant change in the peat accumulation conditions. The growth rate is approximately 0.04 mm yr-1 and the 206Pb/207Pb quotients are shifted toward values that are found in local galena ores. This is simultaneous with a significantly increased lead flux which further confirms local sources of material in this peat deposit. In the Late Holocene period (3200 BC–AD 500 a large quantity of charcoal particles with diameters ranging from 2 mm up to 3 cm is found; also, Pb, Zn and Cu fluxes reach their highest values. This period corresponds to the Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, and human impact is recorded as charcoal.

  7. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  8. Thermal Properties of Green Fuel Briquettes from Residue Corncobs Materials Mixed Macadamia Shell Charcoal Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeta, Suminya; Nachaisin, Mali; Wanish, Suchana

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to produce green fuel briquettes from corncobs by adding macadamia shell charcoal powder. The study was sectioned into 3 parts: 1) Quality improvement of green fuel briquettes by adding macadamia; 2) Fuel property analysis based on ASTM standards and thermal fuel efficiency; and 3) Economics appropriateness in producing green fuel briquettes. This research produced green fuel briquettes using the ratio of corncobs weight and macadamia shell charcoal powder in 100:0 90:10 80:20 70:30 60:40 and 50:50 and pressing in the cold briquette machine. Fuel property analysis showed that green fuel briquettes at the ratio 50:50 produced maximum heating values at 21.06 Megajoule per kilogram and briquette density of 725.18 kilograms per cubic meter, but the percent of moisture content, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon were 10.09, 83.02, 2.17 and 4.72 respectively. The thermal efficiency of green fuel briquettes averaged 20.22%. Economics appropriateness was most effective where the ratio of corncobs weight to macadamia shell charcoal powder was at 50:50 which accounted for the cost per kilogram at 5.75 Baht. The net present value was at 1,791.25 Baht. Internal rate of return was at 8.62 and durations for a payback period of investment was at 1.9 years which was suitable for investment.

  9. Adsorption and Pore of Physical-Chemical Activated Coconut Shell Charcoal Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Umiatin, U.; Nasbey, H.; Bintoro, R. A.; Wulandari, Fi; Erlina, E.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of activated carbon of coconut shell charcoal on heavy metals (Cu and Fe) of the wastewater and its relation with the carbon pore structure was investigated. The coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours to produce charcoal and then shieved into milimeter sized granule particles. Chemical activation was done by immersing the charcoal into chemical solution of KOH, NaOH, HCl and H3PO4, with various concentration. The activation was followed by physical activation using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology of activated carbon were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Wastewater was made by dissolving CuSO4.5H2O and FeSO4.7H2O into aquades. The metal adsorption was analized by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The result shows that in general, the increase of chemical concentration cause the increase of pore number of activated carbon due to an excessive chemical attack and lead the increase of adsorption. However it tend to decrease as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing. In general, the adsorption of Cu and Fe metal from wastewater by activated carbon increased as the activator concentration was increased.

  10. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  11. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxi Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people’s health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO43 and 60 min or 100 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had five characteristic peaks of SS stretch, H2O stretch, OH stretch, CO stretch or CC stretch, and NO2 stretch at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1, respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Fe2(SO43, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 120 min. For S, the peaks at 3850 cm−1 and 3740 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min, the peaks at 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. It proved that bamboo charcoal could remove sulfur powder from air to restrain sulfur allergies.

  12. Comparison of two intervention strategies on prevention of bedsores among the bedridden patients: A quasi experimental community-based trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpal Kaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 80% of bedridden patients develop bedsores in home care settings. Training of informal caregivers can significantly affect the quality of care to these patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two caregiver training strategies on prevention of bedsores among bedridden patients. Methods: The study was carried out in Chandigarh. The study center was at PGIMER, Chandigarh. Seventy-eight bedridden patients being taken care in their homes were identified. These were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received Prevention Package I, i.e., self-instruction Manual (SIM, training, and counseling. Group B received Prevention Package 2, i.e., only SIM. All these patients were followed up periodically for 1 year. During each follow-up, patients were observed for bedsore development. Braden scale was used to assess the risk factors of bedsores. Katz scale was used to evaluate the level of functional dependence of patients. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Results: The percentage reduction of number of patients at risk of bedsore development as per various domains of Braden Scale was more in Group A as compared to Group B on each successive visit. There was 100% improvement in mobility level in the patients who were totally dependent in both the groups. However, in moderately dependant patients, the improvement in mobility level was more (87% in Group A as compared to Group B (75%. All the caregivers complied fully with instructions postintervention. Conclusion: Training of caregivers for the prevention of bedsores among the bedridden patients was effective in improving the practices of the caregivers and also in reducing the risk factors of bedsores. One-to-one training with SIM distribution yielded better results than the use of only SIM.

  13. Comparison of Two Intervention Strategies on Prevention of Bedsores among the Bedridden Patients: A Quasi Experimental Community-based Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhpal; Singh, Amarjeet; Tewari, Manoj K; Kaur, Tejinder

    2018-01-01

    More than 80% of bedridden patients develop bedsores in home care settings. Training of informal caregivers can significantly affect the quality of care to these patients. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two caregiver training strategies on prevention of bedsores among bedridden patients. The study was carried out in Chandigarh. The study center was at PGIMER, Chandigarh. Seventy-eight bedridden patients being taken care in their homes were identified. These were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received Prevention Package I, i.e., self-instruction Manual (SIM), training, and counseling. Group B received Prevention Package 2, i.e., only SIM. All these patients were followed up periodically for 1 year. During each follow-up, patients were observed for bedsore development. Braden scale was used to assess the risk factors of bedsores. Katz scale was used to evaluate the level of functional dependence of patients. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The percentage reduction of number of patients at risk of bedsore development as per various domains of Braden Scale was more in Group A as compared to Group B on each successive visit. There was 100% improvement in mobility level in the patients who were totally dependent in both the groups. However, in moderately dependant patients, the improvement in mobility level was more (87%) in Group A as compared to Group B (75%). All the caregivers complied fully with instructions postintervention. Training of caregivers for the prevention of bedsores among the bedridden patients was effective in improving the practices of the caregivers and also in reducing the risk factors of bedsores. One-to-one training with SIM distribution yielded better results than the use of only SIM.

  14. Prevention of diarrhoea using pathogen specific monoclonal antibodies in an experimental enterotoxigenic E. coli infection in germfree piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de B.; Harmsen, M.; Zijderveld, van F.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of oral application of mAB specific for ETEC F4(ac) fimbriae in an experimental ETEC challenge model in neonatal germfree piglets. The results show that mAB, specific for different F4(ac) epitopes protect animals against ETEC specific pathology. Moreover,

  15. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  16. Impact of charcoal waste application on the soil organic matter content and composition of an Haplic Cambisol from South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Leal, Otávio; Pinheiro Dick, Deborah; Cylene Lombardi, Kátia; Gonçalves Maciel, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    In some regions in Brazil, charcoal is usually applied to the soil with the purpose to improve its fertility and its organic carbon (SOC) content. In Brazil, the use of charcoal waste from steel industry with agronomic purposes represents also an alternative and sustainable fate for this material. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of Eucalyptus charcoal waste application on the SOC content and on the soil organic matter (SOM) composition. Increasing doses of charcoal (0, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1) were applied to an Haplic Cambisol, in Irati, South-Brazil. Charcoal was initially applied on the soil surface, and then it was incorporated at 10 cm with a harrow. Soil undisturbed and disturbed samples (four replicates) were collected in September 2011 (1 y and 9 months) after charcoal incorporation. Four soil depths were evaluated (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and each replicate was composed by three subsamples collected within each plot. The soil samples were air dried, passed through a 9.51 mm sieve and thereafter through a 2.00 mm sieve. The SOC content and total N were quantified by dry combustion. The SOM was concentrated with fluoridric acid 10% and then the SOM composition was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis along the soil profile. The main impact of charcoal application occurred at the 0-5 cm layer of the area treated with the highest dose: SOC content increased in 15.5 g kg-1 in comparison to the soil without charcoal application. The intermediary doses also increased the SOC content, but the differences were not significant. No differences for N content were found in this soil depth. Further results were observed in the 10-20 cm soil depth, where the highest dose increased the SOC content and N content. Furthermore, this treatment increased the recalcitrance of the SOM, mainly at the 0-5 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. No differences between doses of charcoal application were found in the 20-30 cm soil depth, suggesting

  17. Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rocío Chuguransky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPARγ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC.

  18. Experimental research on preventing mechanical phlebitis arising from indwelling needles in intravenous therapy by external application of mirabilite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanyan; Hao, Chunyan; He, Wubin; Tang, Can; Shao, Zhenya

    2018-01-01

    Various types of complications arising from intravenous indwelling needles have become a challenge in clinical care. It is urgent to seek a simple and cost-effective method for prevention and treatment of phlebitis. We investigated the roles of mirabilite in preventing and treating phlebitis caused by intravenous indwelling needles and provide guidance for prevention and treatment of mechanical phlebitis caused by intravenous indwelling needles. A total of 57 healthy congeneric big-eared New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control, indwelling needle, and group with external application of mirabilite. The ear vein of each rabbit was punctured with an intravenous indwelling needle. The ear vein specimens were taken at 3, 5, and 7 days after indwelling. The hematoxylin and eosin stained pathological tissue sections of the ear veins of the rabbits in each group were observed. The expression levels of IL-1 and IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the vascular tissue of the ear veins of the rabbits in each group were detected with the immunofluorescence method. In the blank control group, there was no inflammatory cellular infiltration and no proliferation of fibrous tissue around the vascular wall. With the increase of the indwelling time, proliferation of fibrous tissue in vascular wall, increased inflammatory cellular infiltration and organized thrombus in the vascular tissue occurred in the ear veins of the rabbits in the indwelling needle group and group with external application of mirabilite. Compared with the indwelling needle group, the group with external application of mirabilite had significantly decreased fibrous tissue in the vascular wall and significantly decreased inflammatory cellular infiltration. At the same point in indwelling time, the expression levels of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in the indwelling needle and group with external application of mirabilite were significantly higher than that in the blank control

  19. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  20. Specific and strain-independent effects of dexamethasone in the prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, M; Mangano, K; Quattrocchi, C

    2010-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents (EAE) is a generally accepted in vivo model for immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS). There are, however, different forms of rodent EAE, and therapeutic regimens may affect these forms differently. We have therefore te...... predictors of drug efficacy in at least some variants of human MS. Better understanding of the clinical and immunopharmacologic features of these models might prove useful when testing new drug candidates for MS treatment....

  1. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  2. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  3. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  4. Treatment with metallothionein prevents demyelination and axonal damage and increases oligodendrocyte precursors and tissue repair during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by significant inflammation, demyelination, neuroglial damage, and cell death. Metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I + II) are antiinflammatory an......)beta, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), NT-4/5, and nerve growth factor (NGF). These beneficial effects of Zn-MT-II treatment could not be attributable to its zinc content per se. The present results support further the use of Zn-MT-II as a safe and successful therapy for multiple sclerosis....

  5. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.F.S.; Mostarda, C.T.; Rodrigues, B.; Moraes-Silva, I.C.; Feriani, D.J.; De Angelis, K.; Irigoyen, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg 2 ), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg 2 ). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement

  6. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  7. Topical application of sodium hyaluronate for preventing perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts in rabbits: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ke GUO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of topical application of sodium hyaluronate on preventing perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts in rabbits. Methods Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits, aged 5 months, were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups: groups A and B. Arterial defect model was established by cutting about 1cm artery from the middle part of the dissected left common carotid artery. A section about 3cm was cut from the right external jugular vein, and the harvested vein was inverted and anastomosed end-to-end to the artery defect. After the anastomosis, the adventitia and two anastomoses of the grafted veins in group A were coated locally with 0.2ml sodium hyaluronate. The grafted veins were obtained 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the operation, with the perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts being examined macroscopically before the resection. HE staining and Masson staining were preformed for histological changes of grafted vein wall and the perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts. At 2, 4 weeks postoperation, the perivascular adhesions of the vein grafts were graded by the grading criteria of adhesion in macroscopic evaluation and histological evaluation. Results At 1, 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively, the macroscopic and histological observation found that the perivascular adhesions in group A were looser than those in group B. The macroscopic grade and histological grade were lower in group A than in group B, there was a significant difference between the two groups at 2 and 4 weeks postoperation (P<0.05. Conclusion Topical application of sodium hyaluronate can reduce the perivascular adhesion and is an ideal treatment strategy for preventing perivascular adhesion of vein grafts. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.14

  8. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The retention of radioactive noble gases in nuclear power stations by means of activated charcoal delay systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s off-gas systems using activated charcoal have been used in BWRs and PWRs to minimize the release of radioactive noble gases and the resultant exposure of the environment. In practice, the power-related noble gas emission rate achieved is 1-10 Ci/MWa in the case of BWRs and 0.1-1 Ci/MWa for PWRs. The systems are relatively simple in design and operators state that they are easy and cheap to run. The activated charcoal used shows no signs of becoming spent and, if protected from humidity, retains its full efficiency. On the basis of the information to hand it has never been necessary to replace it. Experience to date suggests that a charge of activated charcoal can last the life of the facility as a whole. All knowledge and experience gained so far indicate that off-gas systems using activated delay systems for BWR facilities are indispensable and must therefore be considered an integral part of such facilities. Capital expenditure amounts to approximately 1% of the total cost and should, therefore, not be unacceptable. In PWRs off-gas systems using pressure vessels as delay trains are in competition with off-gas systems based on activated charcoal delay systems. The activated charcoal systems have proved themselves and their use, which involves capital expenditure equivalent to approximately of 0.5% to the overall cost, can be recommended without reservation

  10. FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    1998-09-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals were investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. The studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological characteristics of inertinite are a product of temperature, duration of heating and the nature of the initial plant material. The relationships between reflectance and temperature, as well as heating duration of charcoal formation are established as a reference for the examination of inertinite, and the probable temperature of inertinite precursor (fossil charcoal) formation in paleo-widlfire. Fungi do not directly contribute to the formation of charcoal and inertinite apart from the fungal bodies themselves (funginite: sclerotia and hyphae) and perhaps by increasing the extent of shrinkage and cracking (increasing surface area) of the plant materials and thus susceptibility to charring. Evidence of fungal activity progressively decreases with increasing degree of charing in response to duration of heating or increased charing temperature. The reflectance values and FTIR spectral characteristics of inertinites in Western Canadian coal suggest that most inertinite formed by wildfires at temperatures over 400{degree}C. The great abundance of semifusinite in Western Canadian coal may reflect frequent but short duration wildfires in precursor peat swamps. 44 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Atorvastatin and Ischemic Postconditioning Preventing on the Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury: Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Budib Dorsa Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Reperfusion injury leads to systemic morphological and functional pathological alterations. Some techniques are already estabilished to attenuate the damage induced by reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning is one of the standard procedures. In the last 20 years, several experimental trials demonstrated that the ischemic postconditioning presents similar effectiveness. Recently experimental trials demonstrated that statins could be used as pharmacological preconditioning. Methods: 41 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were distributed in 5 groups: Ischemia and Reperfusion (A, Ischemic Postconditioning (B, Statin (C, Ischemic Postconditioning + Statins (D and SHAM (E. After euthanasia, lungs, liver, kidneys and ileum were resected and submitted to histopathological analysis. Results: The average of lung parenchymal injury was A=3.6, B=1.6, C=1.2, D=1.2, E=1 (P=0.0029. The average of liver parenchymal injury was A=3, B=1.5, C=1.2, D=1.2, E = 0 (P<0.0001. The average of renal parenchymal injury was A=4, B=2.44, C=1.22, D=1.11, E=1 (P<0.0001. The average of intestinal parenchymal injury was A=2, B=0.66, C=0, D=0, E=0 (P=0.0006. The results were submitted to statistics applying Kruskal-Wallis test, estabilishing level of significance P<0.05. Conclusion: Groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning, to pre-treatment with statins and both methods associated demonstrated less remote reperfusion injuries, compared to the group submitted to ischemia and reperfusion without protection.

  13. Production and Composition of Dissolved Black Carbon from Various Biochars and Environmentally-aged Charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Wozniak, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter, or black carbon (BC), is the solid carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. While solid BC represents a long-lived portion of the C cycle, it releases pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (py-DOM) which may be more susceptible to mineralization and transformation. This py-DOM may impact environmental and public health and likely controls exchange between terrestrial and aquatic BC pools. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), produced by acid digestion of samples, are used as molecular markers for pyrogenic organic matter. Yet, we currently have a poor understanding of the controls on the production of py-DOM and its yield of BPCA compounds. In response, aqueous leaching time series experiments were carried out using a series of laboratory-made biochars and environmentally-aged charcoals. While non-charred oak biomass released 31.8 mg C/g (45% C loss), oak biochars prepared at low temperatures (250 and 400ºC), produced 9.9 and 2.6 mg C/g (11 and 2.3% C loss), respectively. Oak chars prepared at a higher temperatures (650ºC) leached only 1.85 mg C/g (1.5% C loss). In contrast, an environmentally-aged charcoal (30 y old cypress charcoal) leached 10.9% of its C. On average, 59% (ranging 38-80%) of oak pyrogenic DOC was converted into BPCAs, suggesting that oak py-DOM has a variably condensed aromatic proportion. However, much less BPCAs were generated by BC parent solids. In addition, trace amounts of BPCA were generated from non-pyrolyzed grass, oak wood, and compost leachates; these lend concern to the use of BPCAs as exclusive pyrogenic molecular markers. As expected, BPCA molecular distribution showed that condensation increased with pyrolysis temperature of solid biochars and their corresponding leachates. The comparison of these findings to 13C and 1H NMR spectra of charcoal parent solids and their leachates will further elucidate the chemistry and production mechanisms of py-DOM.

  14. Airborne radon-222 measurement by active sampling with charcoal adsorption and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Wen, Xiao-qiong; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hamanaka, Shun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for measuring radon concentration in air is presented. Airborne radon is adsorbed in a charcoal bed by an active air sampling. In time, the adsorbed radon comes to attain radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived progeny 214 Pb. Utilizing this fact, radon concentration is derived from γ-ray measurement of 214 Pb. This method is estimated to be capable of detecting radon concentration in air down to 0.79 Bq·m -3 . The adsorption coefficient obtained with the method is compared with what is obtainable with passive sampling. Applications of this method to indoor and outdoor radon measurements are described. (author)

  15. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    .5 l) were recovered. The aim of the work is to evaluate if water processing affects similarly all of taxa or instead, differences exists in the preservation of certain types of remains. To evaluate this, taxonomic and taphonomic analyses were carried out, including the recording of alterations...... the taxa present at the site. The results presented here warn against straightforward interpretations of wood charcoal frequencies in terms of original composition of past vegetation, and suggest that it would be advisable to use more than one recovery technique, along with recording of different types...

  16. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the cave A5-3 in Arsanjan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Shinji; Minami, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Modern humans (Homo-sapiens), who originated in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, migrated out of Africa about 130,000-60,000 years ago, dispersed in West Asia, and finally replaced Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. The region of West Asia, especially southern Iran, therefore, is very important to understand the evolution of modem humans. The Japan-Iran international research group, led by Professor Tsuneki of Tsukuba University, has investigated A5-3 cave in the Arsanjan archeological site in southern Iran since 2011. The sequence of layers in the cave is estimated to belong Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic period, based on the type of lithic artifacts excavated. In this study, we measured AMS- 14 C dates of charcoal fragments collected from the layers to reveal the chronology of the Arsanjan site. Charcoal samples collected from surface layer to Layer 4 in Trench E5 (total 6 layers) and Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 (total 10 layers) in the A5-3 cave were used. In Trench E5, charcoal samples of surface layer were dated at modern, samples of Layer 1 at 300-115 BP, samples of Layer 2 at 26,750-26,370 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 and samples of Layer 4 were older than 14 C-detection limit. In Trench B3, charcoal samples of Layer 2 were dated at 36,500-35,300 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 was dated at 36,890±190 BP. The layers in both Trenches E5 and B3 had been considered to correspond to each other base on the type of lithic artifacts, but the 14 C results show that the layers of Trench B3 are about 10,000 BP older than those of Trench E5. Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 belong to the early Upper Paleolithic period, contemporary with the result reported for AH IV layer in Ghar-e Boof archeological site at Dasht-e Rostam region, southwestern Iran. This study is the second finding of use of these micro-blades at 37,000 BP in Iran, following the Ghar-e Boof site. Layer 4 in Trench B3 includes Middle Paleolithic artifacts, and so 37,000 BP obtained for Layer 3

  17. Empagliflozin Prevents Worsening of Cardiac Function in an Experimental Model of Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole J. Byrne, BSc

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine whether the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin improved heart failure (HF outcomes in nondiabetic mice. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients trial demonstrated that empagliflozin markedly prevented HF and cardiovascular death in subjects with diabetes. However, despite ongoing clinical trials in HF patients without type 2 diabetes, there are no objective and translational data to support an effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac structure and function, particularly in the absence of diabetes and in the setting of established HF. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Following surgery, mice that progressed to HF received either vehicle or empagliflozin for 2 weeks. Cardiac function was then assessed in vivo using echocardiography and ex vivo using isolated working hearts. Although vehicle-treated HF mice experienced a progressive worsening of cardiac function over the 2-week treatment period, this decline was blunted in empagliflozin-treated HF mice. Treatment allocation to empagliflozin resulted in an improvement in cardiac systolic function, with no significant changes in cardiac remodeling or diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, isolated hearts from HF mice treated with empagliflozin displayed significantly improved ex vivo cardiac function compared to those in vehicle-treated controls. Empagliflozin treatment of nondiabetic mice with established HF blunts the decline in cardiac function both in vivo and ex vivo, independent of diabetes. These data provide important basic and translational clues to support the evaluation of SGLT2 inhibitors as a treatment strategy in a broad range of patients with established HF.

  18. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate associated to photobiomodulation prevents degenerative morphological changes in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Marcella; Assis, Lívia; Criniti, Cyntia; Fernandes, Danilo; Tim, Carla; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined treatment with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate (CS/Gl) and photobiomodulation (PBM) on the degenerative process related to osteoarthritis (OA) in the articular cartilage in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: OA control group (CG); OA animals submitted to PBM treatment (PBM); OA animals submitted to CS/Gl treatment (CS/Gl); OA submitted to CS/GS associated with PBM treatments (GS/Gl + PBM). The CS/Gl started 48 h after the surgery, and they were performed for 29 consecutive days. Moreover, PBM was performed after the CS/Gl administration on the left joint. Morphological characteristics and immunoexpression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and 1 beta (IL-1β) and collagen type II (Col II) of the articular cartilage were evaluated. The results showed that all treated groups (CS/Gl and PBM) presented attenuation signs of degenerative process (measured by histopathological analysis) and lower density chondrocytes [PBM (p = 0.0017); CS/Gl (p = 0.0153) and CS/Gl + PBM (p = 0.002)]. Additionally, CS/Gl [associated (p = 0.0089) or not with PBM (p = 0.0059)] showed significative lower values for OARSI grade evaluation. Furthermore, CS/GS + PBM decreased IL-1β protein expression (p = 0.0359) and increased IL-10 (p = 0.028) and Col II imunoexpression (p = 0.0204) compared to CG. This study showed that CS/Gl associated with PBM was effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing the articular tissue degradation in the knees OA rats.

  19. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L Badole

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine on cardiac myopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague Dawely rats by using intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Experimental rats were divided into Group I: non-diabetic control (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, p.o., II: diabetic control (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o., III: L-glutamine (500 mg/kg, p.o. and IV: L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.. All groups were diabetic except group I. The plasma glucose level, body weight, electrocardiographic abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and left ventricular contractile function, biological markers of cardiotoxicity, antioxidant markers were determined after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. Histopathological changes of heart tissue were carried out by using H and E stain. L-glutamine treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results from the present investigation demonstrated that L-glutamine has seemed a cardioprotective activity.

  20. A comparative study of reverse osmosis and activated charcoal, two inexpensive and very effective ways to remove waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.T.; Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two year comparative study of waterborne radon removal reveals that reverse osmosis is consistently more effective than the use of activated charcoal. Reverse osmosis is a process by which water is forced under a pressure sufficient to overcome osmotic pressure through a semipermeable membrane, leaving behind impurities. Removal effectiveness for dissolved organic, dissolved ionic and suspended impurities are typically above 90%. Systems designed for home use to remove impurities from water dispensed at a convenient tap cost about $2000 and commonly consist of a sediment filter, a carbon prefilter, and a reverse osmosis container. A tank of activated charcoal can work equally well, and cost $500-$1000. However, the tank of charcoal becomes measurably enriched in gamma-emitters

  1. Removal of Dissolved Cadmium by Adsorption onto Walnut and Almond Shell Charcoal: Comparison with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saeedi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, adsorption of dissolved Cadmium (Cd onto walnut and almond shell charcoal and the standard granular activated carbon (GAC has been investigated and compared. The effect of pH value, initial concentration of dissolved Cadmium and amount of adsorbent on the adsorption of Cd by the mentioned adsorbents were investigated. Results showed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on pH. Maximum Cd removal was achieved when the final pH of the mixture fell within 6.5-7. Adsorption test results revealed that Cd adsorption on the studied adsorbents could be better described by Longmuir isotherm. Maximum Cd removal efficiencies were obtained by walnut shell charcoal (91%, almond shell charcoal (85%, and GAC (81%.

  2. Finding the keys to successful adult-targeted advertisements on obesity prevention: an experimental audience testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; O'Hara, Blythe J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-20

    Mass media communications are an important component of comprehensive interventions to address population levels of overweight and obesity, yet we have little understanding of the effective characteristics of specific advertisements (ads) on this topic. This study aimed to quantitatively test audience reactions to existing adult-focused public health television ads addressing overweight and obesity to determine which ads have the highest levels of message acceptance, argument strength, personalised perceived effectiveness and negative emotional impact. 1116 Australian adults aged 21-55 years recruited from a national online panel participated in this web-based study. Quotas were applied to achieve even numbers of males and females, those aged 21-29 years and 30-55 years, and those with a healthy weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and overweight/obesity (BMI = 25+). Participants were randomly assigned to view and rate four of eight ads that varied in terms of message content (health consequences, supportive/encouraging or social norms/acceptability) and execution style (graphic, simulation/animation, positive or negative testimonial, or depicted scene). Toxic fat (a graphic, health consequences ad) was the top performing ad on all four outcome measures and was significantly more likely than the other ads tested to promote strong responses in terms of message acceptance, argument strength and negative emotional impact. Measure up (a negative testimonial, health consequences ad) performed comparably on personalised perceived effectiveness. Most ads produced stronger perceptions of personalised perceived effectiveness among participants with overweight/obesity compared to participants with healthy weight. Some ads were more likely to promote strong negative emotions among participants with overweight/obesity. Findings provide preliminary evidence of the most promising content and executional styles of ads that could be pursued as part of obesity prevention campaigns. Ads

  3. [The experimental study of captopril and valsartan on the preventing and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi-Wei; Zhao, Ping

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the action of Angiotensin II (AngII) on the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy and the effect of captopril and valsartan on preventing and treating diabetic retinopathy. Male C57BL/KsJ db/+ mice were obtained at 3 weeks of age and maintained on diets enriched animal fat for 4 weeks. After exposure to high-fat diet for 4 weeks, mice were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (STZ) 100 mg/kg body weight. After 2 weeks, nonfasting plasma glucose concentration was measured by nipping the distal part of the tail. Mice whose plasma glucose concentrations were higher than 11.1 mmol/L were selected for the study as model groups. Starting from day 2, captopril 12.5 mg/kg or valsartan 40 mg/kg was given to treatment group via the oral route After treatment for 4, 8, 12 weeks, respectively, eyeballs of mice from each group were enucleated, embedded in paraffin to make tissue sections for immunohistochemistry analysis. The instrument for computer image-analysis was used to analyze the expression of AngII and VEGF in ganglion cell layer. The analyzed indices were mean gray scale value and area density value. With increased duration of diabetes, the mean gray scale values of AngII and VEGF decreased significantly. At the same time, area density values of AngII and VEGF increased significantly. The area density values of VEGF in captopril treated-group was significantly lower than that in valsartan-treated group for the same duration. Moreover, the area density values of VEGF at 4 weeks was significantly lower than that at 8 weeks or 12 weeks. The area density value in captopril treated-group had a significant negative correlation with diabetes duration. AngII had significant positive correlation with VEGF. AngII possibly participated directly and/or indirectly in the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy via the upregulation the expression of VEGF. Early treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and

  4. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Chand Thakur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of agricultural soil which is attributed to the use of pesticides containing lead by using activated charcoal. Material and Methods: The lead contamination in agricultural soil and plant dry mass samples which increases due to the effect of pesticides was detected by using Field Portable X-Ray Fluroscence (FP-XRF spectrophotometer. Soil was taken in plastic trays and the plants were grown and watered daily. The collected ground water was also tested. For the estimation of lead in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS was employed. Results: This study suggested the remediation of soil lead content by using activated charcoal. The study also revealed that activated charcoal not only adsorbs lead but also inhibits the accumulation of lead in ground water. Conclusion: This study promotes a cost effective process to treat agricultural lands polluted with leaded pesticides. Water purifiers, refrigerator etc. contain varying amounts of activated charcoal, after usage of these appliances it can be recycled and used as a source of activated charcoal. This can be applied in pesticide contaminated fields either in the form of slurry or by spraying.

  5. Assessing the spatial representability of charcoal and PAH-based paleofire records with integrated GIS, modelling, and empirical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachula, R. S.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Lake sediment-based fire reconstructions offer paleoenvironmental context in which to assess modern fires and predict future burning. However, despite the ubiquity, many uncertainties remain regarding the taphonomy of paleofire proxies and the spatial scales for which they record variations in fire history. Here we present down-core proxy analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three size-fractions of charcoal (63-150, >150 and >250 μm) from Swamp Lake, California, an annually laminated lacustrine archive. Using a statewide historical GIS dataset of area burned, we assess the spatial scales for which these proxies are reliable recorders of fire history. We find that the coherence of observed and proxy-recorded fire history inherently depends upon spatial scale. Contrary to conventional thinking that charcoal mainly records local fires, our results indicate that macroscopic charcoal (>150 μm) may record spatially broader (250 μm) may be a more conservative proxy for local burning. We find that sub-macroscopic charcoal particles (63-150 μm) reliably record regional (up to 150 km) changes in fire history. These results indicate that charcoal-based fire reconstructions may represent spatially broader fire history than previously thought, which has major implications for our understanding of spatiotemporal paleofire variations. Our analyses of PAHs show that dispersal mobility is heterogeneous between compounds, but that PAH fluxes are reliable proxies of fire history within 25-50 km, which suggests PAHs may be a better spatially constrained paleofire proxy than sedimentary charcoal. Further, using a linear discriminant analysis model informed by modern emissions analyses, we show that PAH assemblages preserved in lake sediments can differentiate vegetation type burned, and are thus promising paleoecological biomarkers warranting further research and implementation. In sum, our analyses offer new insight into the spatial dimensions of paleofire

  6. In vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by SuperChar, USP and Darco G-60 activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.; Parks, K.S.; Bordelon, J.G.; Stewart, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by three activated charcoals. Solutions of sodium pentobarbital (20 mM) were prepared in distilled water and in 70% sorbitol (w/v). Radiolabeled ( 14 C) sodium pentobarbital was added to each solution to serve as a concentration marker. Two ml of each drug solution was added to test tubes containing 40 mg of either Darco G-60, USP, or SuperChar activated charcoal. The drug-charcoal mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for O, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Equilibrium, indicated by a constant percentage of drug bound for two consecutive time periods, was established immediately for the aqueous mixtures and for Darco G-60 in sorbitol. The time to equilibrium was prolonged for USP (2.5 min) and SuperChar (5 min) in the presence of sorbitol. In the second series of experiments, solutions of sodium pentobarbital (1.25 to 160 mM) were prepared in either distilled water or sorbitol. Amount of drug bound by 10 to 320 mg of activated charcoal within a 10 min incubation period was determined. Scatchard analysis determined maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) for each activated charcoal. In water, Bmax (mumoles/gm) was greatest for SuperChar (1141), followed by USP (580) and Darco G-60 (381), while the Kd's did not differ. Sorbitol did not change the Bmax or Kd of USP or Darco G-60, but the additive significantly decreased the Bmax (717) and increased the Kd for SuperChar (3.3 to 10.1 mM). The results suggest that relative binding capacity of activated charcoal is directly proportional to surface area, and that sorbitol significantly reduces sodium pentobarbital binding to SuperChar

  7. A bioabsorbable membrane (Seprafilm®) may prevent postoperative mediastinal adhesions following mediastinoscopy: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkale, Songül; Çıtak, Necati; İşgörücü, Özgür; Sayar, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the anti-adhesion property of a bioabsorbable membrane following mediastinoscopy in a rat model. The study was conducted in 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Mediastinoscopy was performed all of them. Rats were divided into two groups; control group (n=10); mediastinoscopy alone, study group (n=10); mediastinoscopy and sodiumhyaluronate-carboxymethlycellulose film (Seprafilm®; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, Mass. USA). It was used to the mediastinal surface at the end of the surgical procedure in study group. Re-mediastinoscopy was performed after 7 days. Adhesion and vascularity grade description scores were analyzed. The parameters evaluated were presence of polymorhphonucleer leucocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte, fibroblasts, edema, neovascularisation, collagenisation, and foreing body reaction. All the rats survived uneventfully until being sacrificed without any postoperative complications. The mean adhesion score was found to be significantly higher in control group (n=2.5±0.5) compared with study group (n=1.0±0.1) (P=0.007). Vascularity grade description score was significantly higher in control group (n=2.3±0.6) than in study group (n=1.4±0.6) (P=0.009). There were no statistical differences between the groups with regard to edema, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and foreign body reactions (P>0.05). The used of Seprafilm® during the primary procedure can reduce to the mediastinal adhesions. However, further studies are required to assess the precise impact of the anti-adhesive agents on adhesion.

  8. Microstructure of carbon derived from mangrove charcoal and its application in Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Luo Ruiying; Qiao Wenming; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the microstructure of mangrove-charcoal-derived carbon (MC) was studied using XRD, STM and TEM. MC was found to consist of aligned quasi-spherical structural units with diameters of around 5-20 nm. It shows typical hard carbon characteristics, including a strongly disoriented single graphene layer and BSU, formed by two or three graphene layers stacked nearly parallel. Some curved and faceted graphene layers, especially closed carbon nanoparticles with fullerene-like, were observed in the as-prepared samples. MC was also evaluated as an anodic material for Li-ion batteries. MC carbonized at 1000 deg. C possessed the highest available discharge capacity (below 0.5 V) of 335 mAh g -1 , the high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 73.7%, good rate and cyclic capability and PC-based electrolyte compatibility. 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of fully lithiated mangrove charcoal-derived carbons indicated the co-existence of three Li species.

  9. Microstructure of carbon derived from mangrove charcoal and its application in Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tao [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Ruiying, E-mail: ryluo@buaa.edu.c [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Qiao Wenming [College of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the microstructure of mangrove-charcoal-derived carbon (MC) was studied using XRD, STM and TEM. MC was found to consist of aligned quasi-spherical structural units with diameters of around 5-20 nm. It shows typical hard carbon characteristics, including a strongly disoriented single graphene layer and BSU, formed by two or three graphene layers stacked nearly parallel. Some curved and faceted graphene layers, especially closed carbon nanoparticles with fullerene-like, were observed in the as-prepared samples. MC was also evaluated as an anodic material for Li-ion batteries. MC carbonized at 1000 deg. C possessed the highest available discharge capacity (below 0.5 V) of 335 mAh g{sup -1}, the high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 73.7%, good rate and cyclic capability and PC-based electrolyte compatibility. {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of fully lithiated mangrove charcoal-derived carbons indicated the co-existence of three Li species.

  10. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  11. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S.; Maeder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg -1 of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg -1 , and total uptake from 2 to 1 μg in the 800 mg kg -1 AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  12. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  13. Using aerial photography to estimate wood suitable for charcoal in managed oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Mejía, D.; Gómez-Tagle, A.; Ghilardi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Mexican oak forests (genus Quercus) are frequently used for traditional charcoal production. Appropriate management programs are needed to ensure their long-term use, while conserving the biodiversity and ecosystem services, and associated benefits. A key variable needed to design these programs is the spatial distribution of standing woody biomass. A state-of-the-art methodology using small format aerial photographs was developed to estimate the total aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground woody biomass suitable for charcoal making (WSC) in intensively managed oak forests. We used tree crown area (CAap) measurements from very high-resolution (30 cm) orthorectified small format digital aerial photographs as the predictive variable. The CAap accuracy was validated using field measurements of the crown area (CAf). Allometric relationships between: (a) CAap versus AGB, and (b) CAap versus WSC had a high significance level (R 2 > 0.91, p < 0.0001). This approach shows that it is possible to obtain sound biomass estimates as a function of the crown area derived from digital small format aerial photographs.

  14. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  15. Characterization And Composition Liquid Smoke-charcoal-compost Bamboo Sawdust As Natural Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wijaya M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to produce liquid smoke through pyrolisis process and to get fractions of potential chemical components from bamboo wastes. Results of this research are expected to give benefits as follows: (1 Liquid smoke produced from wood and bamboo waste through pyrolisis process is able to diversify preservative products, (2 Rate reaction from value rate constanta by pyrolitic kinetic model resulted from this process can be used to find expected compounds in large quantities. Results of pyrolisis bamboo dust have the highest yield of liquid smokes as much as 18.18% in pyrolitic temperature of 200 C. The highest acid content of results of pyrolisis of bamboo dust with electrical reactor resulted at pyrolitic temperature of 400 C was 7,89%, whereas, in pyrolisis result of bamboo dust with electrical reactor was shown ar pyrolitic temperature of 500 C. In terms of the charcoal produced from pyrolisis process containing the highest yield was bamboo dust (33,28%. Identification of GC-MS of bamboo dust could provide compounds that mostly derived from acid group and was dominated by aceton, acetic acid, 3 hidroksi 2 butanone, icocyanat acid and n butana. Change kinetic model of bamboo wastes is energy activasi bamboo. The technology of integrated bamboo vinegar-charcoal-compost production hence deserved its dissemination throughout Indonesia, as pesticide natural.

  16. Mini-cusab kiln for rapid small-scale manufacture of charcoal from scrub, coconut wood and coconut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, E C.S.

    1978-05-01

    Following the development and operation of the mini-cusab kiln in New Zealand, FAO tested it successfully in the South Pacific where there is a glut of coconut wood, which has a very high moisture content. It is based on a 44 gallon drum and its construction and subsequent operation are described. It is designed to be supplied continuously with fuel until full of charcoal. The kilns have air ducts which are sealed with plugs as the level of charcoal formed by the continuous fueling rises within the kiln.

  17. Cryogenic adsorption of low-concentration hydrogen on charcoal, 5A molecular sieve, sodalite, ZSM-5 and Wessalith DAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The separation of low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium is a processing step that is required for ceramic lithium breeding blanket processing. Cryogenic adsorption is one method of effecting this separation. In this study live adsorbents were considered for this purpose: charcoal, 5A molecular sieve, UOP S-115, ZSM-5 and Wessalith DAY. The first two adsorbents exhibit good equilibrium loadings and are shown to be quite effective at adsorbing low-concentration hydrogen isotopes. The latter three adsorbents display considerably lower equilibrium loadings. This study concludes that by using either charcoal or 5A molecular sieve, cryogenic adsorption would be an effective means of separating hydrogen isotopes from helium

  18. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pasquale, G. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Impagliazzo, S., E-mail: stefania.impagliazzo@unina.i [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Lubritto, C. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Marziano, M. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Passariello, I. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Ermolli, E. Russo [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  19. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pasquale, G.; Impagliazzo, S.; Lubritto, C.; Marziano, M.; Passariello, I.; Ermolli, E. Russo

    2010-01-01

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  20. Determination of the suitability of chips from selected hardwoods for the production of furfural and charcoal. [Birches, beeches, oaks, alders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Z

    1979-01-01

    Debarked, cut beech, birch, alder, and oak residues from forestry and woodworking operations contain 16.56-19.73% pentosans and as such can be used for hydrolysis to furfural (I). The hydrolytic residue (mostly lignocellulose) can be carbonized at 400 degrees to charcoal. The hydrolysis is carried out continuously with steam at 250-300 degrees and 1.18 MPa. The residue chips are first soaked in water at 90 degrees for 4 hours and then fed into the hydrolyzer countercurrently to the steam. The yields of I are 5-6% and the yields of charcoal are approximately 20% on the chip weight.

  1. Evaluating the impact of water flotation and the state of the wood in archaeological wood charcoal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz

    2016-01-01

    . The aim of this work is to evaluate the assemblage and to determine the factors that conditioned the preservation or disintegration of wood charcoal remains. In particular, attention is paid to the distribution of the alterations (e.g. vitrification, decayed wood) by taxa, and the proportions with which...... they are present before and after flotation. To test some of the patterns observed in the archaeological material a small-scale experiment on modern wood charcoal remains is carried out. The results enable a critic reconstruction of the type of vegetation and firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North...

  2. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  3. Effectiveness of anonymised information sharing and use in health service, police, and local government partnership for preventing violence related injury: experimental study and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis; Brennan, Iain; Simon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of anonymised information sharing to prevent injury related to violence. Design Experimental study and time series analysis of a prototype community partnership between the health service, police, and local government partners designed to prevent violence. Setting Cardiff, Wales, and 14 comparison cities designated “most similar” by the Home Office in England and Wales. Intervention After a 33 month development period, anonymised data relevant to violence prevention (precise violence location, time, days, and weapons) from patients attending emergency departments in Cardiff and reporting injury from violence were shared over 51 months with police and local authority partners and used to target resources for violence prevention. Main outcome measures Health service records of hospital admissions related to violence and police records of woundings and less serious assaults in Cardiff and other cities after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Information sharing and use were associated with a substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence. In the intervention city (Cardiff) rates fell from seven to five a month per 100 000 population compared with an increase from five to eight in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.69). Average rate of woundings recorded by the police changed from 54 to 82 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with an increase from 54 to 114 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.68, 0.61 to 0.75). There was a significant increase in less serious assaults recorded by the police, from 15 to 20 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with a decrease from 42 to 33 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.38, 1.13 to 1.70). Conclusion An information sharing partnership between health services, police, and local government in Cardiff, Wales, altered policing

  4. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  5. Effects of compost amendment and the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea on the development of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a destructive pathogen causing charcoal rot of cowpea and other crops in the semi- arid areas of the Sahel (north-west Africa). Chemical management is not feasible in conditions of subsistence farming, and the plurivorous nature of the fungus limits the effectiveness of

  6. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m 2 /g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  7. Determination of gold in natural waters by neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry after preconcentration on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.W.; Ellis, J.; Florence, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the determination of gold at very low levels in waters is presented. The method involves batchwise pre-concentration of gold from 1 l of water at pH 3-4 onto 0.1 g of activated charcoal by shaking for 5 min and subsequent treatment of the activated charcoal by instrumental neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry. Activated charcoal quantitatively adsorbs ionic and colloidal gold from solutions prepared with distilled water and also from natural surface waters spiked and equilibrated with these two forms of gold. Three ion-exchange resins were evaluated for pre-concentration purposes; ionic gold removal was quantitative but colloidal gold removal was incomplete. Electrodeposition at a carbon fibre electrode gave similar results. The charcoal pre-concentration technique was tested on solutions containing 198 Au tracer and a total gold concentration of 1 μg l - 1 . The limit of detection of total gold (ionic and colloidal) for the carbon adsorption/neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry procedure is 0.3 ng l - 1 . The method was used to determine gold in surface waters from auriferous regions. (Auth.)

  8. PATHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDIES ON SOME SOYBEAN MUTANTS INDUCED BY GAMMA RAYS IN RELATION TO CHARCOAL ROT DISEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASHRY, N.A.; EL-DEMERDASH, H.M.; ABD EL-RAHMAN, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Egyptian soybean cultivar Giza-22 was used to induce resistant mutants for charcoal rot disease using gamma rays. Sixteen mutants and their parental cultivar were evaluated in M3 generation for their agronomic traits and for resistance to charcoal rot disease. Four mutants showed superiority in their agronomic traits as compared with their parental cultivar. Three mutants were significantly resistant to the disease than their parental cultivar (Giza-22). These three resistant mutants showed non-significant improvement in their agronomic traits as compared with Giza-22 cultivar. DNA extractions from the three resistant mutants and their parent were used to test the differences on the molecular level. Seven random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used to detect RAPD markers related to charcoal rot resistance in soybean, and to differentiate these mutants. Six RAPD-primers showed molecular markers associated with resistance to charcoal rot in soybean, where five RAPD-primers could differentiate each of the three mutants from each other and from their parental cultivar

  9. Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent-Bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Hui, E-mail: wanghui@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma Jianwei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted for the adsorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution by bamboo charcoal. The results showed that the adsorption of Cd (II) ions was very fast initially and the equilibrium time was 6 h. High pH ({>=}8.0) was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Cd (II) ions. Higher initial Cd concentrations led to lower removal percentages but higher adsorption capacity. As the adsorbent dose increased, the removal of Cd increased, while the adsorption capacity decreased. Adsorption kinetics of Cd (II) ions onto bamboo charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Cd (II) ions fitted Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms well, but followed Langmuir isotherm most precisely, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.08 mg/g. EDS analysis confirmed that Cd (II) was adsorbed onto bamboo charcoal. This study demonstrated that bamboo charcoal could be used for the removal of Cd (II) ions in water treatment.

  10. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  11. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  12. Selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1992-01-01

    A method concerning selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222 Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption. The proper parameter value of diffusion barrier is obtained by means of linearization of 222 Rn adsorption versus the exposure time. Thus, the influence of temperature on measured results may be greatly decreased, and higher sensitivity of the detector may be maintained

  13. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  14. In vitro adsorption of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid onto activated charcoal, resins and hydrous zirconium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Scholten, J.; de Koning, H. W.; Tijssen, J.; ten Hoopen, H. W.; Olthuis, F. M.; Feijen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Patients suffering from primary hyperoxaluria show elevated plasma concentrations of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid. The in vitro adsorption of these compounds into activated charcoal, a series of neutral and ion exchange resins and onto hydrous zirconium oxide has been investigated. Hydrous

  15. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T, E-mail: tonggogo@hotmail.com [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 {mu}m. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m{sup 2}/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  16. Linking sediment-charcoal records and ecological modeling to understand causes of fire-regime change in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda B. Brubaker; Philip E. Higuera; T. Scott Rupp; Mark A. Olson; Patricia M. Anderson; Feng Sheng. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between vegetation and fire have the potential to overshadow direct effects of climate change on fire regimes in boreal forests of North America. We develop methods to compare sediment-charcoal records with fire regimes simulated by an ecological model, ALFRESCO (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) and apply these methods to evaluate potential causes of a...

  17. Conceptual Analysis: The Charcoal-Agriculture Nexus to Understand the Socio-Ecological Contexts Underlying Varied Sustainability Outcomes in African Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Iiyama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of charcoal is an important socio-economic activity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Charcoal production is one of the leading drivers of rural land-use changes in SSA, although the intensity of impacts on the multi-functionality of landscapes varies considerably. Within a given landscape, charcoal production is closely interconnected to agriculture production both as major livelihoods, while both critically depend on the same ecosystem services. The interactions between charcoal and agricultural production systems can lead to positive synergies of impacts, but will more often result in trade-offs and even vicious cycles. Such sustainability outcomes vary from one site to another due to the heterogeneity of contexts, including agricultural production systems that affect the adoption of technologies and practices. Trade-offs or cases of vicious cycles occur when one-off resource exploitation of natural trees for charcoal production for short-term economic gains permanently impairs ecosystem functions. Given the fact that charcoal, as an important energy source for the growing urban populations and an essential livelihood for the rural populations, cannot be readily substituted in SSA, there must be policies to support charcoal production. Policies should encourage sustainable technologies and practices, either by establishing plantations or by encouraging regeneration, whichever is more suitable for the local environment. To guide context-specific interventions, this paper presents a new perspective—the charcoal-agriculture nexus—aimed at facilitating the understanding of the socio-economic and ecological interactions of charcoal and agricultural production. The nexus especially highlights two dimensions of the socio-ecological contexts: charcoal value chains and tenure systems. Combinations of the two are assumed to underlie varied socio-economic and ecological sustainability outcomes by conditioning incentive mechanisms to affect

  18. Numerical and analytical assessment of radon diffusion in various media and potential of charcoal as radon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalkin, Andrey

    Numerical assessments of radon diffusion together with analytical estimates for short-time and long-time exposure were the first objective of this thesis with the goal to demonstrate how radon propagates in various media. Theoretical predictions were compared to numerical simulations, and obtained values of total radon activities inside each material match quite well with the analytical estimates. These estimates, for activated and nonactivated charcoal, were then used to evaluate the possibility of designing a charcoal system to be used as a radon detector. Another objective was to use nonactivated charcoal samples and measure the level of radon accumulation, and use these data to estimate radon diffusion and adsorption coefficients. The analytical approach was developed to estimate these values. Radon adsorption coefficient in nonactivated charcoal was found to be from 0.2 to 0.4 m3/kg. Radon diffusion coefficient for nonactivated charcoal is in the range of 1.2×10-11 to 5.1×10-10 m2/s in comparison to activated charcoal with adsorption coefficient of 4 m3/kg and diffusion coefficient of 1.43×10-9 m2/s. The third objective was to use GEANT4 numerical code to simulate decay of 238U series and 222Rn in an arbitrary soil sample. Based on that model, the goal was to provide a guideline for merging GEANT4 radioactive decay modeling with the diffusion of radon in a soil sample. It is known that radon can be used as an earthquake predictor by measuring its concentration in groundwater, or if possible, along the faults. Numerical simulations of radon migration by diffusion only were made to estimate how fast and how far radon can move along the fault strands. Among the known cases of successful correlations between radon concentration anomalies and earthquake are the 1966 Tashkent and 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquakes. Thus, an idea of radon monitoring along the Wasatch Fault, using system of activated/nonactivated charcoals together with solid state radon detectors is

  19. Charcoal kiln sites, associated landscape attributes and historic forest conditions: DTM-based investigations in Hesse (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background An examination of the distribution of ancient charcoal kiln sites in the forest landscape seems to be worthwhile, since general trends in the selection of suitable kiln site locations in the past might become obvious. In this way forest landscape elements with a more intense usage by charcoal burning can be identified. By doing this, we can expect to gain information on the former condition and tree species composition of woodland. Investigations on the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in relation to landscape attributes are sparse, however, probably due to the high on-site mapping effort. The outstanding suitability of LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs for the detection of charcoal kiln sites has been recently proved. Hence, DTM-based surveys of charcoal kiln sites represent a promising attempt to fill this research gap. Methods Based on DTM-based surveys, we analyzed the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in two forest landscapes in the German federal state of Hesse: Reinhardswald and Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. In doing so, we considered the landscape attibutes "tree species composition", “water supply status”, “nutrient supply status”, “soil complex classes”, “altitude”, “exposition”, and “inclination”. Results We found that charcoal kiln sites were established preferably on hillside locations that provided optimal growing and regeneration conditions for European beech (Fagus sylvatica due to their acidic brown soils and sufficient water supply. These results are in line with instructions for the selection of appropriate kiln site locations, found in literature from the 18th to the 19th century. Conclusions We conclude that there were well-stocked, beech-dominated deciduous forest stands in northern Hesse before 1800, particularly at poorly accessible hillside locations. These large stocks of beech wood were utilized by the governments of the different Hessian territories

  20. Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Mary; Mahmoud, Yahia; Mendum, Ruth; Iiyama, Muyiki; Jamnadass, Ramni; Roing de Nowina, Kristina; Sundberg, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    Wood based energy is the main source of cooking and heating fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its use rises as the population increases. Inefficient cook stoves result in fuel wastage and health issues associated with smoke in the kitchen. As users are poor women, they tend not to be consulted on cook stove development, hence the need for participatory development of efficient woodfuel cooking systems. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Embu, Kenya to assess energy use efficiency and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter from charcoal produced using gasifier cook stoves, compared to conventional wood charcoal. Charcoal made from Grevillea robusta prunings, Zea mays cob (maize cob) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shells) had calorific values of 26.5 kJ g-1, 28.7 kJ g-1 and 31.7 kJ g-1 respectively, which are comparable to conventional wood charcoal with calorific values of 33.1 kJ g-1. Cooking with firewood in a gasifier cook stove and use of the resultant charcoal as by-product to cook another meal in a conventional charcoal stove saved 41% of the amount of fuel compared to cooking with firewood in the traditional three stone open fire. Cooking with firewood based on G. robusta prunings in the traditional open fire resulted in a concentration of fine particulate matter of 2600 μg m-3, which is more than 100 times greater than from cooking with charcoal made from G. robusta prunings in a gasifier. Thirty five percent of households used the gasifier for cooking dinner and lunch, and cooks preferred using it for food that took a short time to prepare. Although the gasifier cook stove is energy and emission efficient there is a need for it to be developed further to better suit local cooking preferences. The energy transition in Africa will have to include cleaner and more sustainable wood based cooking systems.

  1. Copaifera cf. langsdorfii Desf. AND Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Wild. CHARCOAL ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Rodrigues Ribeiro Batista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Species discrimination by charcoal analysis is possible, because the wood anatomical structure remains almost intact after carbonization process. Studies in this area are rare and directed to paleoecology and paleoetnobotany. Thus, this study aimed to characterize anatomically the carbonized wood of Copaifera cf. langsdorfii Desf. and Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Wild., proceeding from north region of Mato Grosso state, in order to provide information to manage its illegal commerce. From each species were carbonized ten samples with dimensions of 2 x 2 x 5 cm in muffle furnace, in stage program and highest temperature of 450°C for 30 minutes, for seven hours. Final temperature applied does not change anatomical structure from both species, allowing its differentiation. The crystals formatremained without alterations, being visible little split.

  2. Optimization of Electrochemical Parameters for Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Charcoal Base Metallic Composite Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd Ahmed Jumaah; Mohamed Rozali Othman

    2015-01-01

    Landfill leachate normally contains organic and inorganic pollutants in high concentrations. Electrochemical oxidation technique is an effective method to treat landfill leachate, have high efficiency in organic pollutants degradation and ammonia removal. In this study, a cost effective charcoal base metallic composite electrode to treat landfill leachate by electrochemical oxidation was fabricated. The effects of operational parameters such as supporting electrolyte, applied voltage and electrolysis time on the removal percentage of Color, COD, NH 3 -N and total-P (PO 4 -3 ) were carried out. The results obtained show that the removal percentage of Color, COD, NH 3 -N and total- P (PO 4 -3 ) are 70, 89, 73 and 80 % respectively. Under the optimum operating condition, sodium chloride concentration of 1.5 % (w/v), applied voltage of 10 V, operating time 180 min and C 60 C G 15 Co 10 - PVC 15 electrode as an anode were used. (author)

  3. Vegetable Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid: Technological, Economical and Legal Aspects of its Production and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable charcoal generates atmospheric emissions, which can be controlled by the instalation of collectors for the condensation of such emissions, forming the pyroligneous acid. The development of collectors for the condensations and characterization of the acid for commerce can contribute with the local sustainable development. This study intends to investigate the technological, economical and legal aspects of the production and commerce of the pyroligneous acid. The chosen method was case study in Presidente Lucena/RS, Brazil, with use of surveys, interviews with producers and responsible government sectors’ representatives. The results indicate that the pyroligneous acid extraction technique is little-known and little used by the producers, that the current market does not absorb the pyroligneous acid offering and the ruling is not relevant.

  4. Adsorption of 241Am and 226Ra from natural water by wood charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miro, C.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Pastor-Valle, J.F.; Pastor-Villegas, J.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am and 226 Ra from natural water by a granulated wood charcoal was investigated as a function of the solution pH, in the range 4-10, and of the water flow, in the range 3.5-42 cm 3 /min. The percentage adsorption of 241 Am (fairly constant at >80% for all pHs) was greater than that of 226 Ra (which increased with increasing pH from ∼40% up to >80%). The results are explained by considering the different species of each radionuclide present at the pH values of the solution at the end of the adsorbent column, and the pH of the point of zero charge of the adsorbent. At pH 6, the elimination of 241 Am from natural water was independent of the water flow, while the elimination of 226 Ra declined linearly as the flow rate was increased

  5. Simple analytical method for acrylamide in the workplace air adsorbed by charcoal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J S; Lee, M Y; Park, I J; Kang, S K [Korea Industrial Safety corporation, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    For the ambient monitoring of acrylamide, the adequate condition of sampling and analysis was checked. The adequate adsorbents and desorption solvents were tested. The combination of char-coal tube as a adsorbent and acetone as a desorption solvent showed 87% desorption efficiency. Flame ionization detector was used to detect acrylamide. The detection limit was 0.814 mg acrylamide in 1 L acetone. It is the equivalent concentration of 0.0203 mg acrylamide in 1 3{sup 3} air if the volume of air collected was 40 L. The permissible exposure level (PEL) of acrylamide in the workplace air recommended by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, USA) is 0.3 mg acrylamide in 1 m{sup 3} air. So, it is very simple and economic analytical method for acrylamide to be set in the industrial hygiene laboratories.

  6. Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal/silver biological protective material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, K.-H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: khwu@ccit.edu.tw; Liu, M.-J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-P. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, M.-K. [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) was prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution, silver ion (Ag{sup +}) release and antibacterial properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the Ag particles were distributed uniformly on the BC matrix. The Ag particle size was found to be less than 150 nm based on TEM. The Ag content and surface morphology of the BC/Ag composites depended on the initial concentration of AgNO{sub 3}, and the higher the Ag content, the smaller the specific surface area obtained on the BC. The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and by the plate-counting method, and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered.

  7. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  8. Retrofitting of activated charcoal filters in the iodine removal system of Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, M.K.; Thomas, Shibu; Ullas, O.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Singh, Kapil Deo S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emergency exhaust system for removal of iodine in the 40 MWt Cirus reactor consisted of a caustic scrubber followed by a bank of silver-coated copper mesh filters. The latter filter elements are no longer commercially available, and moreover, there is need to upgrade the system to meet the current safety norms. An iodine removal system based on activated charcoal adsorbers has been selected for this purpose. The design of the system ensures high iodine removal efficiency and thermal safety of the filters for a postulated accident condition beyond design basis accident. The new iodine removal system has been retrofitted during the current refurbishing programme of Cirus and it has been commissioned and tested satisfactorily

  9. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined

  10. Amazon soil charcoal: Pyrogenic carbon stock depends of ignition source distance and forest type in Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Carvalho, Lidiany C; Fearnside, Philip M; Nascimento, Marcelo T; Barbosa, Reinaldo I

    2018-04-18

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) derived from charcoal particles (paleo + modern) deposited in the soil column has been little studied in the Amazon, and our understanding of the factors that control the spatial and vertical distribution of these materials in the region's forest soils is still unclear. The objective of this study was to test the effect of forest type and distance from the ignition source on the PyC stocks contained in macroscopic particles of soil charcoal (≥2 mm; 1 m depth) dispersed in ecotone forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon. Thirty permanent plots were set up near a site that had been occupied by pre-Columbian and by modern populations until the late 1970s. The sampled plots represent seasonal and ombrophilous forests that occur under different hydro-edaphic restrictions. Our results indicate that the largest PyC stock was spatially dependent on distance to the ignition source ( 50 cm) in seasonal forests was limited by hydro-edaphic impediments that restricted the occurrence of charcoal. These results suggest that PyC stocks derived from macroscopic charcoal particles in the soil of this Brazilian Amazon ecotone region are controlled by the distance from the ignition source of the fire, and that forest types with higher hydro-edaphic restrictions can inhibit formation and accumulation of charcoal. Making use of these distinctions reduces uncertainty and improves our ability to understand the variability of PyC stocks in forests with a history of fire in the Amazon. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. CHARCOAL PRICE ANALYSIS IN FOUR REGIONS OF MINAS GERAIS STATE-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal, that is used as term-reducer of iron ore,for producing pig iron. This study analyzed the time series of charcoal prices in four regions of Minas Gerais State. For the analysisof the price series, the SARIMA model was used, for finding a model that better forecasts prices for the four studied areas. The mostappropriate models were chosen using graphical analyses of the standardized residues, autocorrelation functions and partialautocorrelations, stochastic tests and criteria of evaluation of the order of the model. It concluded that: the differences of charcoalprices occur, basically, due to the geographical location; the analyses of domain of the time and domain of the frequency showed thatthere is difference in the price series of the four studied areas; the areas of Sete Lagoas and Belo Horizonte, giving that they are closelylocated, possess similar prices and they generated similar model; the studied areas presented differentiated models and supplied goodadjustments for the observed series. The best models were SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Belo Horizonte; SARIMA (2,0,0x(2,1,212,for Divinópolis; SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Sete Lagoas and SARIMA (1,1,1x(1,1,112, for Vertentes. Such models presented in aparsimonious way, containing a small number of parameters. All models SARIMA (p,d,q (P,D,Qs, for the four studied areas,presented white noise and supplied adequate price forecast.

  12. Adsorption of actinides by chelating agents containing benzene rings, fixed on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini Ganzerli, M.T.; Crespi Caramella, V.; Maggi, L.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the actinides in the hydrosphere to study their environmental dispersion. The 8-hydroxyquinoline family and the benzohydroxamic acid have a complexing ability towards the actinides, even if in different oxidation states. Taking advantage of this ability, their salts with some organic acids or bases were prepared. In this way compounds were obtained easily incorporated into active charcoal. Only a small amount of the prepared adsorber may be equilibrated with large sample volumes. Subsequently it can be recovered by filtration. The adsorbed ions may be then re-dissolved with a small volume of the appropriate eluting solution. The 8-hydroxy-quinolines and the 8-hydroxyquinoline produced salts with the benzilic acid. These compounds similarly behave and show wide adsorption coefficients for solutions of pH higher than 3. The adsorption takes place by means of the formation of a complex of the actinide ion with the hydroxyquinoline moiety and also with the benzilic anion. Provided that the active extracting agent is not dissolved in a medium but fixed into a solid phase, the whole adsorption process may be regarded as a solvent extraction reaction. The benzohydroxamic acid was treated with the diphenylamine or with the tribenzylamine to obtain salts, later adsorbed into the charcoal. The adsorption of actinide ions seems to take place by means of a precipitation mechanism of the actinide ions with the hydroxamate ions for solution of pH higher than 3.5. Also in this case high values were obtained for the distribution coefficients. The actinide ions act similarly in the +4 or +6 oxidation state towards the prepared adsorber series. Therefore, it is possible to use only one adsorber to concentrate all actinides. Methods of analysis of actinides in the environment may be suitably set up and the concentration step based on these new prepared adsorber may improve the whole procedure. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  14. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  15. [Effect of bio-charcoal on the trans of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil-plant system with composted sludge application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Li; Chen, Ying-xu; Wu, Wei-xiang; Ma, Hong-rui

    2009-08-15

    The effects of bio-charcoal acted as sludge-composting additive on soil characteristics and plant growth were studied. Compared with the treatment of composted sludge without bio-charcoal, soil cation exchange capacity in treatment of composted sludge with bio-charcoal increased over 5% and 10% respectively and soil nitrogen content increased 13% and 18% respectively for two kind soils. The composted sludge with bio-charcoal also resulted in 23% higher enhancement on ryegrass biomass and 8%-10% higher enhancement on ryegrass chlorophyll content. In addition, with the amendment of bio-charcoal, the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in composted sludge was decreased, which resulted in the lower absorption and accumulation of ryegrass to PAHs. Compared with the control, the PAHs concentration in ryegrass amended composted sludge with bio-charcoal decreased 27%-34%. The results indicated that composted sludge with bio-charcoal resulted in much more improvement on the plant growth as well as less negative effect on environment. Therefore, biocharcoal was in favor of the safe land application of sewage sludge.

  16. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  17. Community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women in the reproductive age in Northwestern Ethiopia: a protocol for quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Torpey, Kwasi; Manu, Abubakar; Assefa, Nega; Ankomah, Augustine

    2017-11-21

    Violence against women is a well understood devastating global pandemic, and human right violation. One in three women experienced intimate partner violence worldwide. In Ethiopia, the level of domestic violence against women is one of the highest in the world. However, Ethiopia is signatory for various conventions and incorporated in legal frameworks. Nevertheless, effective implementation of the existing policy documents, and engaging different stakeholders is very limited. Therefore, we aimed to pilot feasibility of implementing available research evidence and policy documents at community level to prevent domestic violence against women in Awi zone, northwestern Ethiopia. A community-based quasi-experimental study design will be employed using mixed method. Multistage stratified systematic sampling and purposive sampling will be used to recruit quantitative and qualitative study participants, respectively. A total of 1,269 women will be participated in the intervention, active comparator and control groups. Pre and post-test quantitative data will be collected using face-to-face interview. Qualitative data will be collected through in-depth, key informant interview and focus group discussions. advocacy meeting will be held to persuade local politicians and sustain the implementation of community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women. Community representatives will be trained to enhance peer education to promote community awareness and engage stakeholders to transform the traditional gender norm within local context. Awareness creation and husband involvement will be made through integrating the intervention with community health extension program. Only husband involvement will not be promoted in the active comparator to test the role of husband involvement on the domestic violence prevention activities. Intervention progress will be monitored regularly. Gathered data will be entered in Epidata and exported to SPSS (23.0) software for

  18. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a multinational medical-student-delivered smoking prevention programme for secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-09-18

    To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11-15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11-15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10-15 years), grade (6-8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Bas, Sevda; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ozgu, Emre; Terzioglu, Gokay Serdar; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Akbay, Serap; Caydere, Muzaffer; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been known to possess an efficacy in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRP on post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat study. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hyaluronic acid, and PRP treatment groups and operated on for uterine horn adhesion modeling. Blood was collected to produce a PRP with platelet counts of 688 × 10(3)/μL, and 1 ml of either hyaluronic acid gel or PRP was administered over the standard lesions, while the control group received no medication. The evaluation of post-operative adhesions was done on the 30th post-operative day. The location, extent, type, and tenacity of adhesions as well as total adhesion scores, tissue inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expressions were evaluated. The total adhesion score was significantly lower in the PRP group (3.2 ± 1.5) compared with the hyaluronic acid (5.0 ± 1.3) and control (8.1 ± 1.7) groups. The extent of the adhesions was significantly lower in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the type and tenacity of adhesions between the hyaluronic acid and the PRP group. The level of inflammation was significantly higher in the control group than the others, while there was no difference between the PRP and hyaluronic acid groups. TGF-1β expression was significantly lesser in the PRP group than the control and hyaluronic acid groups. PRP is more effective than hyaluronic acid treatment in preventing post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat uterine horn adhesion model.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  1. The wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba at the end of the Middle Ages: an example of exploitation of the Mediterranean mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López Rider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate and explain, the practice of wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba during the Middle Ages Period. In the absence of anthracological studies; the documentary sources reveal the typology of existing charcoals, how this raw material was obtained, which its uses were, how it was transported to the city and in wich ways it was commercialized. Thanks to all this information we come to understand the importance of wood charcoal production for our ancestors, who have left us a carboniferous legacy we still use.

  2. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  3. Efficacy of linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin in prevention of an experimental polytetrafluoroethylene graft infection model caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mese, Bulent; Bozoglan, Orhan; Elveren, Serdal; Eroglu, Erdinc; Gul, Mustafa; Celik, Ahmet; Ciralik, Harun; Yildirimdemir, Halil Ibrahim; Yasim, Alptekin

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin in prevention of prosthetic vascular graft infections in a vascular graft infection model. Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups. A polytetrafluoroethylene graft was implanted on the back of each rat. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain was inoculated into all rats except Group 1. Group 2 was not given any treatment, Group 3 received linezolid, Group 4 received vancomycin, and Group 5 received teicoplanin. The grafts were removed for microbiological and histological examinations on the 7th day. In addition, C-reactive protein and prealbumin levels and leukocyte counts in obtained blood specimens were determined. Group 1 did not have infection. Group 2 had bacteria 5.7 × 10(4) CFU/cm(2). Group 3 and Group 4 had less bacterial growth. Group 5 had no bacterial growth. The number of bacteria was significantly higher in Group 2 than in the other experimental groups and the control group (pprevention of prosthetic vascular graft infections.

  4. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  5. Prevention and reversal of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in mice by administration of anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody at different stages of disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, S J; Kyriakos, M; Sharp, G C; Braley-Mullen, H

    1988-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be induced in CBA/J mice following the transfer of spleen cells from mouse thyroglobulin (MTg)-sensitized donors that have been activated in vitro with MTg. Since L3T4+ T cells are required to transfer EAT in this model, the present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GK1.5 in preventing or arresting the development of EAT. Spleen cells from mice given mAb GK1.5 prior to sensitization with MTg and adjuvant could not transfer EAT to normal recipients and cells from these mice did not proliferate in vitro to MTg. Donor mice given GK1.5 before immunization did not develop anti-MTg autoantibody and recipients of cells from such mice also produced little anti-MTg. GK1.5 could also prevent the proliferation and activation of sensitized effector cell precursors when added to in vitro cultures. When a single injection of mAb GK1.5 was given to recipients of in vitro-activated spleen cells, EAT was reduced whether the mAb was given prior to cell transfer or as late as 19 days after cell transfer. Whereas the incidence and severity of EAT was consistently reduced by injecting recipient mice with GK1.5, the same mice generally had no reduction in anti-MTg autoantibody. Since EAT is consistently induced in control recipients by 14-19 days after cell transfer, the ability of mAb GK1.5 to inhibit EAT when injected 14 or 19 days after cell transfer indicates that a single injection of the mAb GK1.5 can cause reversal of the histopathologic lesions of EAT in mice. These studies further establish the important role of L3T4+ T cells in the pathogenesis of EAT in mice and also suggest that therapy with an appropriate mAb may be an effective treatment for certain autoimmune diseases even when the therapy is initiated late in the course of the disease.

  6. Adjusting tidal volume to stress index in an open lung condition optimizes ventilation and prevents overdistension in an experimental model of lung injury and reduced chest wall compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Gutierrez, Andrea; Tusman, Gerardo; Carbonell, Jose; García, Marisa; Piqueras, Laura; Compañ, Desamparados; Flores, Susanie; Soro, Marina; Llombart, Alicia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-13

    The stress index (SI), a parameter derived from the shape of the pressure-time curve, can identify injurious mechanical ventilation. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting tidal volume (VT) to a non-injurious SI in an open lung condition avoids hypoventilation while preventing overdistension in an experimental model of combined lung injury and low chest-wall compliance (Ccw). Lung injury was induced by repeated lung lavages using warm saline solution, and Ccw was reduced by controlled intra-abdominal air-insufflation in 22 anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated pigs. After injury animals were recruited and submitted to a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration trial to find the PEEP level resulting in maximum compliance. During a subsequent four hours of mechanical ventilation, VT was adjusted to keep a plateau pressure (Pplat) of 30 cmH2O (Pplat-group, n = 11) or to a SI between 0.95 and 1.05 (SI-group, n = 11). Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain a 'normal' PaCO2 (35 to 65 mmHg). SI, lung mechanics, arterial-blood gases haemodynamics pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology were analyzed. In addition Computed Tomography (CT) data were acquired at end expiration and end inspiration in six animals. PaCO2 was significantly higher in the Pplat-group (82 versus 53 mmHg, P = 0.01), with a resulting lower pH (7.19 versus 7.34, P = 0.01). We observed significant differences in VT (7.3 versus 5.4 mlKg(-1), P = 0.002) and Pplat values (30 versus 35 cmH2O, P = 0.001) between the Pplat-group and SI-group respectively. SI (1.03 versus 0.99, P = 0.42) and end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PTP) (17 versus 18 cmH2O, P = 0.42) were similar in the Pplat- and SI-groups respectively, without differences in overinflated lung areas at end- inspiration in both groups. Cytokines and histopathology showed no differences. Setting tidal volume to a non-injurious stress index in an open lung condition improves

  7. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  8. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7.......2 (intestinal environment), and with and without 10% ethanol. METHODS: Activated charcoal, at both gastric or intestinal pHs, and paracetamol were mixed, resulting in activated charcoal-paracetamol ratios from 10:] to 1:1. In trials with ethanol, some of the gastric or intestinal fluid was replaced...

  9. Investigations of 131I concentration in indoor air using charcoal filters and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.W.; Pittauerova, D.; Foschepoth, S.; Poppe, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection standards require the recording of staff radiation dose in nuclear medicine thyroid radiotherapy. A commonly used method measures the 131 I thyroid activity externally with a gamma detector, followed by calculation of the committed equivalent thyroid dose. The main disadvantages are the low sensitivity and the uncertainty of the time of uptake, which can only be compensated by long measurement times and short measurement intervals. The measurements have to be applied to all staff members. An alternative can be provided by the measurement of the cumulated concentration of 131 I in indoor air using charcoal filters. The filters are placed in patient rooms at representative locations, exposed for several days and then investigated for absorbed 131 I activity. Both above mentioned disadvantages can be overcome: the measurement records the cumulated concentration history of the room and the obtained value can be used for dose calculation for all staff members knowing their working history. Standard charcoal filters (PicoRad vials, Accustar Labs, normally used for indoor radon measurements) were placed into patient rooms in a thyroid therapy department and exposed to room air for 72 hours. The vials were then subjected to high resolution low level gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium (hpGe) detector (50% relative efficiency, 10 cm lead shielding). Absolute activity determination was based on the net count rate in the 364 keV gamma peak and absolute counting efficiency obtained mathematically from detector and vial geometry using the commercial Labsocs (Canberra Inc.) program. Using the mean air activity/vial activity calibration factor obtained in a similar study pioneering this application, but using liquid scintillation spectroscopy as detection method (F. Jimenez et al, 2nd. European IRPA Congress, Paris 2006), mean air concentrations between 0.09 and 2.01 Bq/m 3 were found. The data correlated well with patient administered

  10. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamen