WorldWideScience

Sample records for charcoal filtered chambers

  1. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  2. 3D-nuclear heat generation in PCC-charcoal filter in TAPP-3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Manish; Pradhan, A.S.; Kumar, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of 3D nuclear heat generation profile in the charcoal filter and subsequently the commencement time of Primary Containment Cleanup (PCC) system of 540MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). Fuel failure is predicted due to overheating of the fuel under loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) without Emergency Core Cooling System (LOCA without ECCS). Subsequently fission product gasses along with water vapours are released to Reactor Building (RB) atmosphere. Plate-out and water trapping mechanism stabilizes the concentration of significant fission products i.e. radioiodines in about 4 hours before being circulated through charcoal filters of Containment Cleanup system. After cleaning up the RB atmosphere, it is discharged to outside atmosphere through stack. The isotopes of radioiodine emit beta and gamma radiations. Gamma radiations are partly stopped within the charcoal and heat is generated. The part of gamma radiations escaping the bed produce heat in the adjacent beds also. PCC system can be operated, after 4 hours of LOCA, based on radioiodine concentration in RB atmosphere. During iodine removal, the iodine concentration in the charcoal filter goes through a peak value. Maximum heat is generated in the filter if PCC fans stops eventually when iodine concentration in the filter is maximum. Analysis done by TRAFIC code indicates that the system can be commenced after 7 hrs of LOCA so that desorption temperature of charcoal is not reached. Accuracy in estimating heat generation rates in charcoal helps in deciding commencement of the system after LOCA

  3. Design, Fabrication and Installation of the Charcoal Filter Housing in RIPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jin; Lim, I. C.; Bang, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    In the Hot Cell Bank 3 of the Radioisotope Production Facility, production and dispense of I-131 solution and capsule that are used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer are made. The original charcoal filter housings installed in 1994 and were utilized until the leakage of a very small amount of radio-iodine was found due to the erroneous installation of the charcoal filter in the filter housing. Thus the production of I-131 was discontinued until the repair and performance testing of the filter housing and the inspection by the regulatory body were finished. Although the production of I-131 was resumed, there was a desire for installing the brand-new charcoal filter housing which has an intrinsically safe design and no possibility of leakage. This report describes the design, fabrication and installation of brand-new charcoal filter housing. And also were described the dismantlement of the old housings, the assessment of the structural integrity of the shielding concrete wall and the installation of the shielding doors

  4. Comparing charcoal and zeolite reflection filters for volatile anaesthetics: A laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Louise W; Frennström, Jan O; Ilardi, Marcella; Reinstrup, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A modified heat-moisture exchanger that incorporates a reflecting filter for use with partial rebreathing of exhaled volatile anaesthetics has been commercially available since the 1990 s. The main advantages of the device are efficient delivery of inhaled sedation to intensive care patients and reduced anaesthetic consumption during anaesthesia. However, elevated arterial CO2 values have been observed with an anaesthetic conserving device compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger, despite compensation for larger apparatus dead space. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the properties of two reflecting materials (charcoal and zeolites). A controlled, prospective, observational laboratory study. Lund University Hospital, Sweden, from December 2011 to December 2012. None. Three filters, with identical volumes, were compared using different volatile anaesthetics at different conditions of temperature and moisture. The filtering materials were charcoal or zeolite. Glass spheres were used as an inert control. Consumption of volatile anaesthetics using different reflecting materials in filters at different conditions regarding temperature and moisture. CO2 reflection by the filtering materials: glass spheres, charcoal or zeolite. Isoflurane consumption in an open system was 60.8 g h(-1). The isoflurane consumption in dry, warm air was 39.8 g h(-1) with glass spheres. Changing to charcoal and zeolite had a profound effect on isoflurane consumption, 11.8 and 10.7 g h(-1), respectively. Heating and humidifying the air as well as the addition of N2O created only minor changes in consumption. The percentage of isoflurane conserved by the charcoal filter was independent of the isoflurane concentration (0.5 to 4.5%). Reflection of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane by the charcoal filter was similar to reflection of isoflurane. Both charcoal and zeolite filters had CO2 reflecting properties and end-tidal CO2 increased by 3 to 3.7% compared

  5. Methyl iodide trapping efficiency of aged charcoal samples from Bruce-A emergency filtered air discharge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J.; Rasmussenn, M.T.; Weaver, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Charcoal filters are installed in the emergency filtered air discharge system (EFADS) of multiunit stations to control the release of airborne radioiodine in the event of a reactor accident. These filters use highly activated charcoal impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA). The TEDA-impregnated charcoal is highly efficient in removing radioiodine from flowing airstreams. The iodine-removal efficiency of the charcoal is presumed to deteriorate slowly with age, but current knowledge of this effect is insufficient to predict with confidence the performance of aged charcoal following an accident. Experiments were performed to determine the methyl iodide removal efficiency of aged charcoal samples taken from the EFADS of Ontario Hydro's Bruce-A nuclear generating station. The charcoal had been in service for ∼4 yr. The adsorption rate constant and capacity were measured under post-loss-of-coolant accident conditions to determine the efficiency of the aged charcoal. The adsorption rate constants of the aged charcoal samples were observed to be extremely high, yielding a decontamination factor (DF) for a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal >1 X 10 15 . The results show that essentially no CH 3 I would escape from a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal and that the requirement for a DF of 1000 for organic iodides in the EFADS filters would be exceeded by a tremendous margin. With such high DFs, the release of iodine from a 20-cm-deep bed would be virtually impossible to detect. The adsorption capacities observed for the aged charcoal samples approach the theoretical chemisorption capacity of 5 wt% TEDA charcoal, indicating that aging in the EFADS for 4 yr has had a negligible impact on the adsorption capacity. The results indicate that the short- and long-term performances of the aged charcoal in the EFADS of Bruce-A following an accident would still far exceed performance requirements. (author)

  6. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    Described is a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time

  7. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time. 2 claims, 9 drawing figures

  8. Development of activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media : their characteristics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of its low maximum permissible concentration in air, air-borne radioiodine must be accurately monitored in contaminated air streams, in the working environment and handling facilities, before release to the environment from the nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media are found to be most suitable for monitoring airborne iodine-131. Because of its simplicity and reproducible nature in assessment of air-borne radioactive iodine, the work on the development of such media was undertaken in order to find a suitable substitute for imported activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media. Eight different media of such type were developed, evaluated and compared with two imported media. Best suitable medium is recommended for its use in air-borne iodine sampling which was found to be even better suited than imported media of such type. (author)

  9. Retrofitting of activated charcoal filters in the iodine removal system of Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, M.K.; Thomas, Shibu; Ullas, O.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Singh, Kapil Deo S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emergency exhaust system for removal of iodine in the 40 MWt Cirus reactor consisted of a caustic scrubber followed by a bank of silver-coated copper mesh filters. The latter filter elements are no longer commercially available, and moreover, there is need to upgrade the system to meet the current safety norms. An iodine removal system based on activated charcoal adsorbers has been selected for this purpose. The design of the system ensures high iodine removal efficiency and thermal safety of the filters for a postulated accident condition beyond design basis accident. The new iodine removal system has been retrofitted during the current refurbishing programme of Cirus and it has been commissioned and tested satisfactorily

  10. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3–5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. - Highlights: • Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface area of 32 cm"2 can be measured at level of 10 mBq/(m"2s) at the uncertainty ≤30%. • The method has a metrological justification. • No need to consider climate conditions, soil properties and conditions, mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil.

  11. Investigations of 131I concentration in indoor air using charcoal filters and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.W.; Pittauerova, D.; Foschepoth, S.; Poppe, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection standards require the recording of staff radiation dose in nuclear medicine thyroid radiotherapy. A commonly used method measures the 131 I thyroid activity externally with a gamma detector, followed by calculation of the committed equivalent thyroid dose. The main disadvantages are the low sensitivity and the uncertainty of the time of uptake, which can only be compensated by long measurement times and short measurement intervals. The measurements have to be applied to all staff members. An alternative can be provided by the measurement of the cumulated concentration of 131 I in indoor air using charcoal filters. The filters are placed in patient rooms at representative locations, exposed for several days and then investigated for absorbed 131 I activity. Both above mentioned disadvantages can be overcome: the measurement records the cumulated concentration history of the room and the obtained value can be used for dose calculation for all staff members knowing their working history. Standard charcoal filters (PicoRad vials, Accustar Labs, normally used for indoor radon measurements) were placed into patient rooms in a thyroid therapy department and exposed to room air for 72 hours. The vials were then subjected to high resolution low level gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium (hpGe) detector (50% relative efficiency, 10 cm lead shielding). Absolute activity determination was based on the net count rate in the 364 keV gamma peak and absolute counting efficiency obtained mathematically from detector and vial geometry using the commercial Labsocs (Canberra Inc.) program. Using the mean air activity/vial activity calibration factor obtained in a similar study pioneering this application, but using liquid scintillation spectroscopy as detection method (F. Jimenez et al, 2nd. European IRPA Congress, Paris 2006), mean air concentrations between 0.09 and 2.01 Bq/m 3 were found. The data correlated well with patient administered

  12. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m 2 /g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  13. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  14. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T, E-mail: tonggogo@hotmail.com [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 {mu}m. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m{sup 2}/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  15. Micromachined filter-chamber array with passive valves for biochemical assays on beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, Jan; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; De Rooij, Nico F.

    2001-01-01

    The filter-chamber array presented here enables a real-time parallel analysis of three different samples on beads in a volume of 3 nL, on a 1 cm2chip. The filter-chamber array is a system containing three filter-chambers, three passive valves at the inlet channels and a common outlet. The design

  16. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  17. Behavior of gasketless deep bed charcoal filters for radioiodine removal in LWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Deuber, H.; Furrer, J.; Gerlach, K.

    1981-01-01

    The removal efficiency of radioiodine filters can be affected by mechanical leakage, aging and poisoning, desorption of radioiodine originally removed by the activated carbon and also by the occurrence of penetrating iodine compounds. To provide high decontamination factors only the gasketless deep bed filter type seems to be appropriate. The experience gathered and the data given in this paper are based on the surveillance testing of radioiodine filters in all German nuclear power plants and on laboratory research work which has been done over years to evaluate the operating behavior of deep bed radioiodine filters and to prove their reliability

  18. Using date stone charcoal as a filtering medium for automobile exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahad, H.A.K.; Farhan, A.M. [University of Babylon (Iraq). College of Engineering; Saleh, H.A. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    A thermal reactor was designed and built to produce coal from date stones by pyrolysis. Five specimens of coal have been prepared at different maximum charring temperatures. It was found that, as the temperature increases, the properties of coal are improved (the percentage of carbon content increases). It was also found that, at 700{sup o}C, the percentage of carbon content remains constant. The coal prepared at this temperature was used as a filtering medium in an adsorption filter to purify the exhaust gases of a two stroke spark ignition engine. The results showed that the filter has a high adsorption ability for CO and CO{sub 2} gases. An ORSAT apparatus was used to measure the concentration of CO and CO{sub 2} in the exhaust gases before and after the filter. The filter reduced the concentration of CO and CO{sub 2} by 62 and 59%, respectively. (author)

  19. Fast Filter Central Drift Chamber Program. MAC Note 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1979-01-01

    A fast filter of the central detector tracking program was developed and tested. The search for tracks is conducted as in the full linking program - from the outermost layer hit to the next layer in. Any hit is accepted within a road centered which is large enough to allow for stero displacement and any curvature. With the fast filter, this is continued to the innermost layer, with five or more hits accepted as a track

  20. Micromachined filter-chamber array with passive valves for biochemical assays on beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H; van der Wijngaart, W; Stemme, G

    2001-01-01

    The filter-chamber array presented here enables a real-time parallel analysis of three different samples on beads in a volume of 3 nL, on a 1 cm2 chip. The filter-chamber array is a system containing three filter-chambers, three passive valves at the inlet channels and a common outlet. The design enables parallel sample handling and time-controlled analysis. The device is microfabricated in silicon and sealed with a Pyrex lid to enable real-time analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by using pyrosequencing has successfully been performed in single filter-chamber devices. The passive valves consist of plasma-deposited octafluorocyclobutane and show a much higher resistance towards water and surface-active solutions than previous hydrophobic patches. The device is not sensitive to gas bubbles, clogging is rare and reversible, and the filter-chamber array is reusable. More complex (bio)chemical reactions on beads can be performed in the devices with passive valves than in the devices without valves.

  1. Review of light water reactor regulatory requirements: Assessment of selected regulatory requirements that may have marginal importance to risk: Postaccident sampling system, Turbine missiles, Combustible gas control, Charcoal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.B.; Jamison, J.D.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Vo, T.V.

    1987-05-01

    In a study commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the costs and benefits of modifying regulatory requirements in the areas of the postaccident sampling system, turbine rotor design reviews and inspections, combustible gas control for inerted Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, and impregnated charcoal filters in certain plant ventilation systems. The basic framework for the analyses was that presented in the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines (NUREG/BR-0058) and in the Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (NUREG/CR-3568). The effects of selected modifications to regulations were evaluated in terms of such factors as public risk and costs to industry and NRC. The results indicate that potential modifications of the regulatory requirements in three of the four areas would have little impact on public risk. In the fourth area, impregnated charcoal filters in building ventilation systems do appear to limit risks to the public and plant staff. Revisions in the severe accident source term assumptions, however, may reduce the theoretical value of charcoal filters. The cost analysis indicated that substantial savings in operating costs may be realized by changing the interval of turbine rotor inspections. Small to moderate operating cost savings may be realized through postulated modifications to the postaccident sampling system requirements and to the requirements for combustible gas control in inerted BWR containments. Finally, the use of impregnated charcoal filters in ventilation systems appears to be the most cost-effective method of reducing radioiodine concentrations

  2. [Hygienic study of an activated fibrous charcoal material as a sorbing filtering element for drinking water afterpurification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Mironets, N V; Gakal, R K; Maktaz, E D; Dugan, A M; Teteneva, I A; Tarabarova, S B; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh D

    1993-01-01

    The results of complex toxicological and hygienic study showed that the quality of pipe water filtered through the activated carbonic fibrous material (ACFM) "Dnepr-F" forming a part of absorptive filtering element improved markedly. The content of organic substances decreased drastically as well as that of nitrates and iron. Microbiological indices did not suffer appreciable changes and were within permissible limits. The water filtered through the absorptive element with ACFM had no adverse influence on the organisms of warm-blooded animals. Proceeding from foregoing one can conclude that the "Dnepr-F" may be recommended as a part of absorptive filtering element for the final refinement of drinking water.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigation on adaptability of charcoal beds to containment filter venting in Italian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; Leonardi, A.; Perna, W.; Sgalambro, G.

    1989-01-01

    The work has been divided into three parts. The first one gives a description of the facilities under investigation during some selected accidental conditions, also described. The second part, which consists of an experimental work, tries to identify the behavior of charcoal beds in terms of pressure drop vs the aerosol mass loading and of aerosol retention efficiency. On the basis of the experimental findings, the prediction of the behavior of the real beds is carried out in the third part, as regards the pressure drop through the beds, related to the selected accident scenarios. In addition in this last part the results of a preliminary evaluation of the maximum decay power picked up by the beds without reaching the carbon self-ignition temperature have been reported

  4. Filtered air plastic chamber as an experimental facility to prove visible damage of crops due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y; Yoda, H; Omichi, S; Shiratori, K

    1975-01-01

    An experimental filtered air chamber was constructed to prove the visible damage of crops due to air pollution. The chamber was provided with another room into which non-filtered ambient air was introduced. The purified air was prepared by filtering ambient air with activated carbon. The average content of air pollutants in the purified air chamber was less than 10 to 20% of the ozone and 20% of the sulfur oxides in the ambient air. However, cultivated vegetables such as tobacco and spinach, which are susceptible to oxidant, showed no visible damage in the filtered air chamber, and showed the same damage in the nonfiltered air chamber as was seen in fields at the same time.

  5. Effects of fresh gas flow, tidal volume, and charcoal filters on the washout of sevoflurane from the Datex Ohmeda (GE) Aisys, Aestiva/5, and Excel 210 SE Anesthesia Workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, A Sassan; Lerman, Jerrold; Heard, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effects of tidal volume (VT), fresh gas flow (FGF), and a charcoal filter in the inspiratory limb on the washout of sevoflurane from the following Datex Ohmeda (GE) Anesthesia Workstations (AWSs): Aisys, Aestiva/5, and Excel 210SE. After equilibrating the AWSs with 2% sevoflurane, the anesthetic was discontinued, and the absorbent anesthesia breathing circuit (ABC), reservoir bag, and test lung were changed. The lung was ventilated with 350 or 200 mL·breath(-1), 15 breaths·min(-1), and a FGF of 10 L·min(-1) while the washout of sevoflurane was performed in triplicate using a calibrated Datex Ohmeda Capnomac Ultima™ and a calibrated MIRAN SapphIRe XL ambient air analyzer until the concentration was ≤ 10 parts per million (ppm). The effects of decreasing the FGF to 5 and 2 L·min(-1) after the initial washout and of a charcoal filter in the ABC were recorded separately. The median washout times with the Aisys AWS (14 min, P Excel 210SE (32 min). The mean (95% confidence interval) washout time with the Aisys increased to 23.5 (21.5 to 25.5) min with VT 200 mL·breath(-1) (P < 0.01). Decreasing the FGF from 10 to 5 and 2 L·min(-1) with the Aisys caused a rebound in sevoflurane concentration to ≥ 50 ppm. Placement of a charcoal filter in the inspiratory limb reduced the sevoflurane concentration to < 2 ppm in the Aisys and Aestiva/5 AWSs within two minutes. The GE AWSs should be purged with large FGFs and VTs ~350 mL·breath(-1) for ~25 min to achieve 10 ppm sevoflurane. The FGF should be maintained to avoid a rebound in anesthetic concentration. Charcoal filters rapidly decrease the anesthetic concentration to < 2 ppm.

  6. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  7. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  8. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  9. Study on a charcoal-based monitor for Rn-220 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqiao; Solomon, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been used in both passive monitors (Cohen, Pondy et al. 1987) and active monitors (Solomon and Gan, 1989) for the measurements of 222 Rn in air. Cooled, charcoal-impregnated filters, viewed in-situ by a solid state alpha detector, have been used for 220 Rn-in-breath studies. In general, γ ray counting of 220 Rn samples collected on activated charcoal has not been used. This paper describes the development and calibration of a charcoal based monitor designed to measure 220 Rn levels down to a lower limit of 10 Bq m -3 over sampling periods of 4 to 15 h. The activity of 212 Pb (10.6 h) produced from 220 Rn (55.6 s) collected in an activated charcoal-based sampler is 1/700 the total 220 Rn activity. A typical Hp-Ge detector has a MDL for a two-hours count of approximately 0.1 Bq of 212 Pb for the 239 keV γ-ray. For a MDL of 10 Bq·m -3 of 220 Rn in air, a volume of at least 7 m 3 must be sampled, assuming no breakthrough. The present charcoal-based 220 Rn monitor is designed to maximize the path length through the activated charcoal while sufficient cross-sectional area is retained to allow flow rates up to 0.03 m 3 ·kg -1 is packed into a specially designed aluminum container. The container is modeled on a Marinelli beaker to maximize the counting efficiency, while the sample flow through the chambers of the monitor is optimized to maintain radial symmetry. experiments demonstrated that 94% of 220 Rn was adsorbed by the charcoal in the monitor under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 at 25 degree C and 85%. RH in 15 h. The monitor is designed to fit over a 70 mm diameter Hp-Ge detector. Preliminary measurements of 220 Rn in two buildings and a cave, using the active monitors and 'grabing' samples under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 and a period of 4 h, indicated concentrations of between 18.6 and 142.0 Bq·m 3

  10. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  11. Zambian charcoal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidumayo, E.N.

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal production removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. Productivity is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect productivity. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal production. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)

  12. Charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Bashirelahi, Nasir; Reynolds, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Sales of charcoal dentifrices and powders have rapidly emerged into the Internet marketplace. The authors conducted a literature review to examine the efficacy and safety of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. The authors searched the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical studies on the use of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices and laboratory investigations on the bioactivity or toxicity of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices, published through February 2017. The authors used a defined search strategy to identify randomized, controlled clinical trials with a follow-up duration of 3 months or longer. In addition, the authors selected the first 50 consecutive charcoal dentifrices from Google.com and Amazon.com for ascertainment of product assortment and advertising promotions. The authors' literature search identified 118 potentially eligible articles. Thirteen studies reported brushing the teeth with raw charcoal or soot; however, none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies offered nonspecific caries reductions, 3 studies reported deleterious outcomes (increased caries, enamel abrasion, nonquantified negative impact), and 1 study indicated only that brushing with raw charcoal had no adverse effects on oral hygiene. Seven other studies reported only on the use of charcoal for oral hygiene. Internet advertisements included unsubstantiated therapeutic claims-such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and oral detoxification, as well as potentially misleading product assertions. One-third of the charcoal dentifrices contained bentonite clay, and 1 contained betel leaves. The results of this literature review showed insufficient clinical and laboratory data to substantiate the safety and efficacy claims of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. Larger-scale and well-designed studies are needed to establish conclusive evidence. Dental clinicians should advise their patients to be cautious when using charcoal and charcoal

  13. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  14. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  15. Determination of the attrition resistance of granular charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory procedure has been developed to evaluate the attrition of granular adsorbent charcoals on passing an air flow through the bed. Two factors observed in plant operations were selected as relevant: (1) the characteristic structural vibrations in plant scale equipment (motors, fans, etc.) that are transmitted to charcoal particles and cause the particles to move and rub each other, and (2) the rapid air flow that results in the movement of the attrited dust. In the test a container for charcoal [50 mm diameter and 50 mm high] was vibrated at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a constant energy input manually controlled using a vibration meter in the acceleration mode. Simultaneously, air was applied and exited through glass fiber filter paper. The quantity of dust trapped on the exit filter was then determined, either optically or gravimetrically. The dust formed per minute (attrition coefficient) was found to approach a constant value. The plateau-values from sequential determinations varied with the source of the charcoal; a 5-fold difference was found among a large variety of commercial products. The first testing of a sample released the excess dust accumulated in previous handling of the charcoal. The plateau values were then attained in the succeeding tests and these were characteristic of the material. The results were compared with those obtained for the same charcoals using older test methods such as the Ball and Pan Hardness Test described in RDTM16-1T

  16. Effect of service aging on iodine retention of activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The Savannah River reactor confinement systems are continuously operated offgas cleanup systems whose components include moisture separators, HEPA filters, and halogen adsorber beds of activated charcoal. Charcoal is removed from the system periodically and subjected to a variety of physical, chemical, and iodine penetration tests to ensure that the system will perform within specification in the event of an accidental release of activity from the reactor. Tests performed on the charcoals include pH measurement of water extracts, particle size distribution, ignition temperature, high-temperature (180 0 C) iodine penetration, and iodine penetration in an intense radiation field at high humidity. Charcoals used in the systems include carbon Types 416 (unimpregnated), G-615 (impregnated with 2 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI), and GX-176 (impregnated with 1 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI). Performance data are presented and compared

  17. Back to charcoal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areklett, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The ferro-alloy industry is currently evaluating the feasibility of using charcoal rather than fossil coal and coke. This is to avoid the emission of climate gases. Ferro-alloys are used in a wide variety of important products. However, the climate gas carbon dioxide is formed during their production. Oxides are the raw material in the production of these alloys. For the Norwegian company Elkem, the starting point is quartz, SiO 2 . The only reducing agent strong enough to break the bond between silicon and oxygen is solid carbon, which reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, the climate gas. Cleaning the waste gases is too expensive to be relevant, as they are very voluminous and have low concentration of CO 2 . The carbon source currently used by the ferro-alloy industry is fossil coal or coke, which can be replaced by charcoal by burning what is not carbon in the wood so that the result is coal with a high carbon fraction. Although the burning of charcoal is not free of CO 2 emission, biological material containing carbon will over time emit CO 2 to the atmosphere anyhow. Thus, CO 2 emission from biomass does not count in the climate accounts. With rational forest management, the use of biomass implies sustainable climate policy. The ferro-alloy industry is currently exempt from climate taxes, but this situation may not last long, which is why the sector is now considering biomass

  18. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalumiana, O.S.; Hibajene, S.H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  19. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  20. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  1. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  2. Ozone and Botrytis interactions in onion-leaf dieback: open-top chamber studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, R.T.; Hofstra, G.

    1977-09-01

    Paired open-top chambers were used to study interactions between Botrytis spp. and ozone in field-grown onions. Charcoal filters removed 35 to 65% of the ambient ozone, resulting in six-fold reduction of onion leaf dieback and a 28% increase in onion yield compared with unfiltered chambers. Symptoms of leaf injury appeared soon after ozone levels exceeded 294 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.15 ppm) for 4 hr. Lesions caused by Botrytis were few because no dew formed in the chambers. However, when leaves were wetted with foggers, inoculation with mycelial suspensions of B. sauamosa in late August produced significantly more lesions and leaf dieback in the unfiltered chamber. Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, B. allii, and several genera of secondary fungi were isolated from these lesions. Botrytis squamosa was recovered from lesions only, whereas B. cinerea and B. allii were associated more generally with onion leaf tissue regardless of lesions. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  3. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  4. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: As compared to wood charcoal the charcoal briquette produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no smoke at all) and reduce impact of deforestation. Key words: Pollution, deforestation, extruder, carbonizer, wood charcoal, briquette charcoal, agricultural wastes, ...

  5. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, W.J.; Cooley, D.R.; Tuttle, A.F.; Frenkel, M.A.; Bergweiler, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  6. Performance improvements on passive activated charcoal 222Rn samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1996-01-01

    Improvements have been made on passive activated charcoal 222 Rn samplers with sintered metal filters. Based on the samplers of good adaptability to temperature and humidity developed before, better charcoal was selected to further improve their performance in radon absorption ability and moisture-resistance. And charcoal quantity in samplers was strictly controlled. The integration time constant of the improved samplers was about 4.3 days. As the sampler was combined with gamma spectrometer to measure radon concentration, the calibration factor was 0.518 min -1 ·Bq -1 ·m 3 for samplers of 7 days exposure time, and the minimum detectable concentration 0.28 Bq·m -3 if counting time for both background and sample is 1000 minutes. The improved samplers are suited to accurately determine the indoor and outdoor average radon concentration under conditions of great variation in temperature and humidity

  7. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators with different pore sizes in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Separators are needed in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to reduce electrode spacing and preventing electrode short circuiting. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators in single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs was examined for their effect on performance. Larger pore nylon mesh were used that had regular mesh weaves with pores ranging from 10 to 160 μm, while smaller pore-size nylon filters (0.2-0.45 μm) and glass fiber filters (0.7-2.0 μm) had a more random structure. The pore size of both types of nylon filters had a direct and predictable effect on power production, with power increasing from 443 ± 27 to 650 ± 7 mW m-2 for pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm, and from 769 ± 65 to 941 ± 47 mW m-2 for 10 to 160 μm. In contrast, changes in pore sizes of the glass fiber filters resulted in a relatively narrow change in power (732 ± 48 to 779 ± 43 mW m-2) for pore sizes of 0.7 to 2 μm. An ideal separator should increase both power density and Coulombic efficiency (CE). However, CEs measured for the different separators were inversely correlated with power production, demonstrating that materials which reduced the oxygen diffusion into the reactor also hindered proton transport to the cathode, reducing power production through increased internal resistance. Our results highlight the need to develop separators that control oxygen transfer and facilitate proton transfer to the cathode. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Commercial Charcoal Characterisation For Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sumardjo; Sutisna; Handayani, Ari; Suprapti, Siti

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide a drinking water purification substance, has been studied the charcoal characterisation that based on a porous profile and an adsorption properties of the charcoal. There were using the commercial charcoal like wood charcoals, coconut shell charcoals and activated charcoals. The porous profile was studied by using an electron microscope SEM-EDX and the adsorption properties was studied by using the water sample simulation that contains several metal ions. The concentration of all ions was ten times greater that the maximum ions concentration that permissible in the drinking water. From the grain surface microscopic analysis was shown that the pore structure of the wood charcoal was more regular than the coconut shell charcoal. Mean while the activated charcoal has pore more than wood and coconut shell charcoal. Grains size was not an adsorption parameter. The absorptivitas charcoal was affected by pH solution, but this effect was not linear proportion. There are no significant deference in the adsorptivitas among the tree charcoals that has been studied for Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Ag 1 +, and Pb 2+ ions the adsorption was large enough (> 60%), for Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Se 4+ , Cd 2+ and Ba 2+ ions was 20%-60% dan for Mg 2+ , Na 1+ , Ca 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions was less than 20 %. Generally the wood and coconut shell charcoal absorptivity in the pH 4 solutions was lower than in the pH 5-7 solutions

  9. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 percent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine. 3 claims

  10. Nocturnal carbon efflux: reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsel, Eva Van.; Leuning, Ray; Cleugh, Helen A.; Suni, Tanja; Keith, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Micro meteorological measurements made on single towers often underestimate nighttime respiration of terrestrial ecosystems because they cannot account for vertical and horizontal advection, thereby causing systematic errors in estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange. We show that there is a maximum in the sum of the turbulent flux and change in storage of CO 2 in the early evening, R max , that is in close agreement with concurrent and independent estimates of net carbon exchange from soil and plant chambers. We hypothesize that the peak occurs because there is a time delay between the onset of radiative cooling and the development of temperature gradients that are strong enough to initiate thermally-driven horizontal and vertical flows that remove the stored CO 2 . We propose taking advantage of this time delay to develop relationships between R max and soil temperature and moisture. The new parameterization leads to realistic values of nighttime respiration, and therefore to improved estimates of net ecosystem exchange

  11. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  12. Charcoal as a capture material for silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Eoin; Morrison, Liam; Cormican, Martin; Morris, Dearbháile

    2017-04-01

    Background: The reported antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their incorporation into numerous consumer products including; textiles, domestic appliances, food containers, cosmetics, paints, medical and medicinal products. The AgNPs incorporated into these products can be released into the environment and aquatic system during their production, use and end of life disposal. In the aquatic environment, uncertainties surround the concentration, fate and effects of AgNPs. The aim of this project is to examine charcoal as a potential material for capture of silver nanoparticles from the aquatic environment. Material/methods: Activated charcoal is a commonly used filter material and was selected for this project to determine its suitability as a capture material for AgNPs in water samples. Activated charcoal (Norit® CA1 (Sigma-Aldrich)) was exposed to 100 ppb, 25 nm PVP coated AgNPs (nanoComposix) prepared in Milli-Q water. These solutions were exposed to unaltered charcoal granules for 20 hours after which the decrease of silver in the solution was measured using ICP-MS. In order to improve the removal, the surface area of the charcoal was increased firstly by grinding with a pestle and mortar and secondly by milling the charcoal. The milled charcoal was prepared using an agate ball mill running at 500 rpm for 5 minutes. The activated charcoal was then exposed to samples containing 10 ppb AgNPs. Results: In the initial tests, approximately 10% of the silver was removed from the water samples using the unaltered activated charcoal granules. Further experiments were carried out to compare the unaltered granules with the ground and milled charcoal. These tests were carried out similarly to the previous test however lower concentration of 10 ppb was used. After 20 hours of exposure the granule samples, as previously, showed approximately a 10% reduction in silver content with the ground charcoal giving approximately 30% reduction in silver

  13. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  14. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C x F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F. The charcoal laden with NH 4 F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH 4 F as a mixture of NH 3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH 4 F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH 3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  15. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  16. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.H.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P.K.; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  17. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  18. Effects of weathering on impregnated charcoal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.

    1977-10-01

    Commercial activated charcoals have been exposed to known contaminants under controlled laboratory conditions and also to large volumes of outdoor air and each sample then evaluated for methyl iodide penetration. There is strong evidence that the interaction of water vapor and the charcoal is a significant factor in the degradation of the charcoals when the relative humidity is 70% and greater. The laboratory air mixtures studied were water vapor, water vapor and sulfur dioxide, water vapor and ozone, and water vapor and carbon monoxide. The charcoal in each of the four 0.5-in. layers making up the 2-in. test bed was degraded by the contaminants, but the first layer was influenced most. For the same charcoal the cumulative effect during one, two, and three months of weathering with outdoor air led to a progressive increase in methyl iodide penetration. The experimentation is being extended to additional commercial charcoals and to additional contaminant species in the laboratory experiments

  19. Measurements of 222Rn flux with charcoal coanisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countess, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used to measure the 222 Rn flux from the ground are discussed. The most common method is the direct accumulation of radon in a closed container resting on the soil surface. An aliquot of the air is transferred from the accumulator either to an ionization chamber or to an alpha scintillation flask for radon analysis. An alternate method consists of entraining the radon emanating from a small area of the ground in an airstream moving in a closed system through a charcoal trap or cold trap. At the end of the sampling period, the trap is sealed and returned to the laboratory where the radon is transferred into an evacuated scintillation flask for analysis. Still another method consists of adsorbing radon in a layer of granular, activated charcoal spread directly on the ground. For analysis, the charcoal is bagged and the 0.61-MeV gamma activity of 214 Bi (RaC) is measured in a gamma spectrometer. These last two methods have the disadvantage that some radon may be lost in transfer prior to analysis. In an improved method, which is simpler than the preceding methods and eliminates this transfer problem, a modified U.S. Army M11 gas mask canister containing activated charcoal is placed directly in contact with the emanating surface and after an exposure period from several hours to several days, depending on the anticipated flux density, the canister is removed from the surface and counted directly in a gamma spectrometer. In addition to precluding losses in sample transfer, a major advantage is that numerous measurements can be made inexpensively due to the low cost of the canisters and their ease of deployment and recovery

  20. ECONOMICAL PLANS EFFECTS ON CHARCOAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira Rezende

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy is essential for human needs satisfaction. With the evolution of machinery, man becomes more and more dependent on the energy stocked in fossil fuels, comparatively to the primitive economy. Wood charcoal is a thermal-reducer used in Brazilian pig iron and steel industries, and its price is formed in an oligopsonic market. Over time, the charcoal prices have varied in function of endogenous and exogenous factors, needing, therefore, to be deflated so that they can be compared in two or more points in time. This work analyzed the variations of charcoal real prices, in national currency; compared and analyzed the real charcoal price in nominal and in real US Dollar and; analyzed the real prices of charcoal, comparatively to the real oil prices. The analyses were accomplished in the period from January 1975 to December 2002. The time series of charcoal prices, in domestic currency were deflated using IGP-DI, considering august, 1994=100, and charcoal prices were also converted to American dollar and deflated using CPI, considering the period 1982-84=100. It was compared, then, the real and nominal charcoal prices. It concluded that the real charcoal prices in Brazilian domestic currency, or in American dollar, presented a decreasing tendency along time. The inflationary disarray, in the 80´s and the first half of the 90 ´s, provoked a big price variation in the period; from the beginning the XXI century, charcoal prices were more influenced by the exchange rate; in the energy crisis period, charcoal prices suffered big changes that, however, did not persist along time.

  1. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  2. Filter to be tightly installed in a room as a partition and which can be filled with a contact material susceptible of being poured e.g. activated charcoal for cleaning especially radioactive air or gases in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    The filter is designed in such manner that it will resist all loads - including earthquake - without loosing its operability. It consists of a box formed by stable corner irons filled with absorbing material and bounded on two sides by sieves through which the radioactive gases can flow in and out. The invention especially concerns the configuration of the perforations and the screwing of the casing elements to the frame as well as the arrangement in the concrete wall. Measures for fire fighting are also provided for. (UWI) [de

  3. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  4. Phytohormones in needles of spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) under different levels of air pollution in the open-top chamber experiment at Edelmannshof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, A.; Frenzel, B. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik

    1997-12-01

    The plant hormones ethylene (ACC, MACC), abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid were investigated between August 1988 and December 1989 in current-year and one-year-old needles of the twelve spruce trees of the Edelmannshof experiment. Data from this period do not allow to reliably differentiate between consequences of the reduced impact of immissions (open-top chambers receiving charcoal-filtered air) and individual differences of the trees investigated. The conditions are discussed that might have made such a differentiation possible but which were not fulfilled at Edelmannshof. (orig.)

  5. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  6. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Cruz G, S. De la; Lopez M, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  7. ACTIVATED CARBON (CHARCOAL OBTAINING . APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon is a microporous sorbent with a very large adsorption area that can reach in some cases even 1500sqm / gram. Activated carbon is produced from any organic material with high carbon content: coal, wood, peat or moor coal, coconut shells. The granular activated charcoal is most commonly produced by grinding the raw material, adding a suitable binder to provide the desired hardness and shape. Enabling coal is a complete process through which the raw material is fully exposed to temperatures between 600-900 degrees C, in the absence of oxygen, usually in a domestic atmosphere as gases such as nitrogen or argon; as material that results from this process is exposed in an atmosphere of oxygen and steam at a temperature in the interval from 600 - 1200 degrees C.

  8. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  9. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  10. Domestic fuel question and the charcoal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Rao, E G

    1981-06-01

    Domestic fuel for cooking forms one of the basic needs of human society. In India, the pressure of this need has exceeded the regeneration potential of the growing forests which supply a large proportion of this basic need. The pressure can be greatly relieved by converting wood to charcoal before it reaches the consumer. The present paper examines this aspect and reviews the modern methods of charcoal production on fuelwood resources. Besides being a choice domestic fuel, charcoal is a valuable raw material in various industries. Charcoal making industry can be established as a rural based industry (as part of community forestry projects) and would generate much needed cash income at grassroot level. The strategy would be important in dealing with the problem of chronic poverty at this level. (Refs. 5).

  11. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators with different pore sizes in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    on performance. Larger pore nylon mesh were used that had regular mesh weaves with pores ranging from 10 to 160 μm, while smaller pore-size nylon filters (0.2-0.45 μm) and glass fiber filters (0.7-2.0 μm) had a more random structure. The pore size of both types

  12. A granular refillable filter for glas-flows contaminated by radioactive impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Description is given of a granular charcoal refillable filter adapted to adsorb the radioactive impurities of a gaseous flow. That flow comprises a number of filtering layers, the consumed charcoal of which can be discharged by a pneumatic device without exposing the personnel to radioactivity. This can be applied to emergency devices in nuclear facilities [fr

  13. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO 2 did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  14. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J; Kasali, G B [Building and Industrial Minerals Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, (Zambia); Ellegaard, A [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO{sub 2} did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  15. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  16. Performance study of coal-base charcoals for removing radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Wu Yanwei; Guo Liangtian; Jia Ming; Lu Xueshi; Zhang Hong

    1988-01-01

    In authos' laboratory sveral types of domestic coal-base charcoals are selected and impregnated and examined for their main physical and chemical performances. The results show that under the test conditions the iodine-removing efficiencies of these impregnated coal-base charcoals charcoals are not poorer than that of the impregnated fruit-shell base charcoals (such as coconut shell charcoal) and most of their physical properties can satisfy the requirements of the nuclear grade charcoals assigned in USA standards. More detailed studies will be made in the next programme

  17. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    is irreversible and currently there is no effective treatment aimed at curing this fatal ..... overexpression of Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 family. After treatment with ..... consequences of smoking: nicotine addiction: a report of the. Surgeon General ...

  18. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  19. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribot, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  20. Determination of recombination and polarity correction factors, kS and kP, for small cylindrical ionization chambers PTW 31021 and PTW 31022 in pulsed filtered and unfiltered beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmoser, Gregor; Saum, Rainer; Kranzer, Rafael

    2018-01-12

    The aim of this technical communication is to provide correction factors for recombination and polarity effect for two new ionization chambers PTW PinPoint 3D (type 31022) and PTW Semiflex 3D (type 31021). The correction factors provided are for the (based on the) German DIN 6800-2 dosimetry protocol and the AAPM TG51 protocol. The measurements were made in filtered and unfiltered high-energy photon beams in a water equivalent phantom at maximum depth of the PDD and a field size on the surface of 10cm×10cm. The design of the new chamber types leads to an ion collection efficiency and a polarity effect that are well within the specifications requested by pertinent dosimetry protocols including the addendum of TG-51. It was confirmed that the recombination effect of both chambers mainly depends on dose per pulse and is independent of the filtration of the photon beam. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  2. Assessment of household charcoal consumption in urban areas: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... respondents used charcoal as their main source of energy for cooking followed by gas (16.9%). ... sources of energy in order to reduce pressure on natural forests for the supply of charcoal.

  3. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  4. Charcoal Increases Microbial Activity in Eastern Sierra Nevada Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary W. Carter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important component of forests in the western United States. Not only are forests subjected to wildfires, but fire is also an important management tool to reduce fuels loads. Charcoal, a product of fire, can have major impacts on carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in forest soils, but it is unclear how these effects vary by dominant vegetation. In this study, soils collected from Jeffrey pine (JP or lodgepole pine (LP dominated areas and amended with charcoal derived from JP or LP were incubated to assess the importance of charcoal on microbial respiration and potential nitrification. In addition, polyphenol sorption was measured in unamended and charcoal-amended soils. In general, microbial respiration was highest at the 1% and 2.5% charcoal additions, but charcoal amendment had limited effects on potential nitrification rates throughout the incubation. Microbial respiration rates decreased but potential nitrification rates increased over time across most treatments. Increased microbial respiration may have been caused by priming of native organic matter rather than the decomposition of charcoal itself. Charcoal had a larger stimulatory effect on microbial respiration in LP soils than JP soils. Charcoal type had little effect on microbial processes, but polyphenol sorption was higher on LP-derived than JP-derived charcoal at higher amendment levels despite surface area being similar for both charcoal types. The results from our study suggest that the presence of charcoal can increase microbial activity in soils, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear.

  5. Guides to manufacturing and marketing charcoal in the Northeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons

    1957-01-01

    Charcoal manufacture has become the subject of a tremendous new interest in the Northeast in the past few years. In many communities, retailers have been unable to find enough charcoal to fill the demands - even though in the same localities there are large supplies of surplus wood that could be used in making charcoal. As a result of this unfilled demand, we have...

  6. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  7. Charcoal cuts the CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakervik, Anne Lise.

    1999-01-01

    According to this article, bio carbon, or charcoal, may be the way out for the Norwegian processing industry in attempting to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Norwegian ferro-alloy plants emit 3 million ton carbon dioxide per year, which comes from the use of coal and coke as reducing agents in the smelting process. If the fraction of bio carbon is increased by 15%, the emission of CO 2 may be reduced by about 1/2 million tonne per year. But the price of charcoal is much greater than that of fix C from coal and coke. Research is in progress on trying to produce bio carbon cheaper. Charcoal can be produced from all types of forest by pyrolysis. Waste heat from the pyrolysis can be sold and used for district heating. The most expensive part in the use of bio carbon will be timber felling and transport to the log pile. Small-scale and large-scale tests will be made to see if it is possible to make adequate charcoal from subarctic timber

  8. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London...

  9. Theory and practice of radon monitoring with charcoal adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Cohen, E S

    1983-08-01

    Because of interest in charcoal adsorption as an inexpensive radon monitoring technique that may be suitable for mass data collection, the theory of radon adsorption from air by a charcoal bed is developed, giving numerical estimates at all stages. The method is practical down to air concentrations of about 0.1 pCi/l. A simple charcoal bed is limited by the fact that its response is highly sensitive to the time interval before termination of the exposure, but two simple methods of avoiding this problem are developed. Simple methods for determining the diffusion constant for the charcoal being used, and for optimizing the depth of the charcoal bed, are presented.

  10. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  11. Improving the palatability of activated charcoal in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2007-06-01

    To compare the taste preference and ease of swallowing of activated charcoal among healthy teenagers when mixed separately with 3 different additives: chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water. Healthy volunteers between 14 to 19 years of age were selected for the study. Five grams of activated charcoal (25 mL of 0.2 g/mL of Charcodote [Pharma Science, Montreal, Canada]) was mixed with 25 mL of chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, or water individually to make up 50 mL. The volunteers drank the 3 cups of the charcoal-additive mixture separately and then rated taste and ease of swallowing on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. The subjects then indicated their preferred charcoal-additive mixture if he/she had to drink 9 more portions of charcoal (this would estimate the dose of charcoal for a 50-kg child). A total of 44 subjects were recruited (25 boys and 19 girls). The mean scores for taste preference for chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water mixtures of charcoal were 5.5, 6.3, and 2.0, respectively, on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Thus, subjects preferred the taste of charcoal mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola over charcoal mixed with water (P = 0.0003 for both comparisons). The subjects did not show a statistically significant difference for ease of swallowing between the 3 charcoal-additive mixtures. Overall, 48% preferred the chocolate milk mixture, 45% preferred the Coca-Cola mixture, and 7% preferred charcoal mixed with water. Healthy teenaged subjects identified that activated charcoal (Charcodote) mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola (in a 1:1 ratio) improved taste but had no significant effect on improving ease of swallowing. Overall, the addition of chocolate milk or coke improves the palatability of charcoal and is favored over charcoal mixed with water alone.

  12. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  13. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  14. A comparative study of reverse osmosis and activated charcoal, two inexpensive and very effective ways to remove waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.T.; Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two year comparative study of waterborne radon removal reveals that reverse osmosis is consistently more effective than the use of activated charcoal. Reverse osmosis is a process by which water is forced under a pressure sufficient to overcome osmotic pressure through a semipermeable membrane, leaving behind impurities. Removal effectiveness for dissolved organic, dissolved ionic and suspended impurities are typically above 90%. Systems designed for home use to remove impurities from water dispensed at a convenient tap cost about $2000 and commonly consist of a sediment filter, a carbon prefilter, and a reverse osmosis container. A tank of activated charcoal can work equally well, and cost $500-$1000. However, the tank of charcoal becomes measurably enriched in gamma-emitters

  15. Drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yosuke

    1977-01-01

    Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  17. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  18. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  19. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO 2 , NO 2 , CO 2 , methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  20. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A bottom loaded filter assembly for filtering radioactive liquids through a replaceable cartridge filter is disclosed. The filter assembly includes a lead-filled jacket enveloping a housing having a chamber therein for the filter cartridge. A track arrangement carries a hatch for sealing the chamber. A spacer plug supports the cartridge within guide means associated with the inlet conduit in the chamber. The plug and cartridge drop out of the chamber when the hatch is unbolted and move laterally of the chamber. During cartridge replacement, a new plug and cartridge are supported in the guide means by a spacer bar inserted across the track means under the chamber. The hatch is then slid under the chamber and bolted to the vessel, engaging an o-ring to seal the chamber

  1. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  4. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  5. Different carbonization process of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, S. S. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Bamboo charcoal has attracted a lot of interests due to their microporous structure, high surface area and great adsorption properties. Some of the applications utilizing this material focused on these advantages such as water purification, electromagnetic wave absorber and blood purification. However, these advantages really depend on the carbonization and activation process of bamboo charcoal. The production must be carried out in properly control environment with precise temperatures and timing. This paper report the production of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata in controlled environment at 500 °C for 1 hour (lab-prepared). Then the material was characterized for their dispersibility and adsorption behaviour. Furthermore, the bamboo charcoal that was produced commercially, by company, was also characterized and compared. The results show, bamboo charcoal produced by lab-prepared has similar qualities with the commercial bamboo charcoal.

  6. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Mitsuo

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect was measured for several kinds of heavy metal ions, Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ by passing them through activated charcoal beds and changing the pH values of solutions. The test procedure is to keep the pH value of solution more than 10 at first, filter heavy metal hydroxide deposit, measure the remaining ion concentration in filtrate, and also test the influence of the addition of alkali to each kind of ions. The individual test procedure for each kind of ions is explained. As for the Cd ions, after the detailed experimental procedure is explained, the adsorption characteristic line is shown as the relation between the adsorption quantity and the equilibrium concentration of Cd 2+ . The similar test procedure and the adsorption characteristic lines are shown and evaluated about Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ . These lines are all linear, but have different adsorption quantity and inclination in relation to heavy metal ion concentration. Concerning the influence of pH to adsorption, the characteristics of pH increase are presented, when alkali is added by various quantities to Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The pH of Pb 2+ increased to about 10 by adding 0.4 cc alkali and saturates, but the pH of the other ions did not saturate by adding less than 1.5 cc alkali. When the water containing heavy metals are treated, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are removed almost satisfactorily by passing them through active charcoal filters and keeping pH at 10. The experimental concentrations are 0.05 ppm at pH 10 in Cd, 0.86 ppm at 10.3 in Pb, 0 ppm at pH 9.6 in Cu, 0.06 ppm at pH 8.8 and 12.4 ppm at pH 9.8 in Zn. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamba, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m 3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected

  8. Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Alexandre; Le, Thiem Ngoc; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m 3 radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. - Research highlights: → The temperature effect on radon adsorption is proportional to αe β/T . → The calibration formula is CF(T,t)=3.1x10 -5 e (2887)/((T+273)) [1-e -0.080t ]. → The radon adsorption efficiency varies up to a factor of two for T = 8.5-31 o C. → The average temperature is suitable for estimating CF(T,t) in a fluctuating environment.

  9. Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.cooper@gmail.co [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Le, Thiem Ngoc [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m{sup 3} radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. - Research highlights: {yields} The temperature effect on radon adsorption is proportional to {alpha}e{sup {beta}/T}. {yields} The calibration formula is CF(T,t)=3.1x10{sup -5}e{sup (2887)/((T+273))} [1-e{sup -0.080t}]. {yields} The radon adsorption efficiency varies up to a factor of two for T = 8.5-31 {sup o}C. {yields} The average temperature is suitable for estimating CF(T,t) in a fluctuating environment.

  10. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wangchang; Huang Yuying; Wu Yianwei; Jia Ming; Guo Liangtian

    1993-01-01

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  11. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  12. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  13. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A specification is given for a bottom loaded filter assembly for filtering radioactive liquids through a replaceable cartridge filter, which includes a lead-filled jacket enveloping a housing having a chamber therein for the filter cartridge. A track arrangement carries a hatch for sealing the chamber. A spacer plug supports the cartridge within guide means associated with the inlet conduit in the chamber. The plug and cartridge drop out of the chamber when the hatch is unbolted and moved laterally of the chamber along the track. During cartridge replacement a new plug and cartridge are supported in the guide means by a spacer bar inserted across the track means under the chamber. The hatch is then slid under the chamber and bolted to a flange on the housing, engaging an O-ring to seal the chamber. (author)

  17. Application of FIGAERO (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to field and chamber organic aerosol: Implications for carboxylic acid formation and gas-particle partitioning from monoterpene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase carboxylic acid containing compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. A prototype operated with acetate negative ion proton transfer chemistry was deployed on the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study a-pinene oxidation, and a modified version was deployed at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and SOAS, in Brent Alabama. We focus here on results from JPAC and Hyytiälä, where we utilized the same ionization method most selective towards carboxylic acids. In all locations, 100's of organic acid compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same composition acids detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. Particulate organics detected by FIGAERO are highly correlated with organic aerosol mass measured by an AMS, providing additional volatility and molecular level information about collected aerosol. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. Moreover the detailed structure in the thermal desorption signals reveals a contribution from thermal decomposition of large molecular weight organics and or oligomers with implications for partitioning measurements and model validation

  18. In-place testing of off-gas iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duce, S.W.; Tkachyk, J.W.; Motes, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, both charcoal and silver zeolite (AgX) filters are used for radioactive iodine off-gas cleanup of reactor systems. These filters are used in facilities which are conducting research in the areas of reactor fuel failure, reactor fuel inspection, and loss of fluids from reactor vessels. Iodine retention efficiency testing of these filters is dictated by prudent safety practices and regulatory guidelines. A procedure for determining iodine off-gas filter efficiency in-place has been developed and tested on both AgX and charcoal filters. The procedure involves establishing sample points upstream and downstream of the filter to be tested. A step-by-step approach for filter efficiency testing is presented

  19. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  20. Production of charcoal briquettes from biomass for community use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttibak, S.; Loengbudnark, W.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports of a study on the production of charcoal briquettes from biomass for community use. Manufacture of charcoal briquettes was done using a briquette machine with a screw compressor. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of biomass type upon the properties and performance of charcoal briquettes. The biomass samples used in this work were sugarcane bagasse (SB), cassava rhizomes (CR) and water hyacinth (WH) harvested in Udon Thani, Thailand. The char from biomass samples was produced in a 200-liter biomass incinerator. The resulting charcoal briquettes were characterized by measuring their properties and performance including moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash contents, elemental composition, heating value, density, compressive strength and extinguishing time. The results showed that the charcoal briquettes from CR had more favorable properties and performance than charcoal briquettes from either SB or WH. The lower heating values (LHV) of the charcoal briquettes from SB, CR and WH were 26.67, 26.84 and 16.76 MJ/kg, respectively. The compressive strengths of charcoal briquettes from SB, CR and WH were 54.74, 80.84 and 40.99 kg/cm2, respectively. The results of this research can contribute to the promotion and development of cost-effective uses of agricultural residues. Additionally, it can assist communities in achieving sustainable self-sufficiency, which is in line with our late King Bhumibol’s economic sufficiency philosophy.

  1. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  2. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  3. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-01-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  4. Behavior of highly radioactive iodine on charcoal in moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Manning, S.R.; Martin, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of highly radioactive iodine adsorbed on charcoal exposed to moist air (110 torr water vapor partial pressure) was investigated in a series of six experiments. The amount of radioactive 130 I on the well-insulated 28-cm 3 bed ranged from 50 to 570 Ci, and the relative humidity was 47 percent at the bed inlet temperature of 70 0 C. Radioactive iodine was released from the test beds at a continuous fractional release rate of approximately 7 x 10 -6 /hr for all types of charcoal tested. The chemical form of the released iodine was such that it was very highly penetrating with respect to the nine different types of commercial impregnated charcoals tested in backup collection beds. Two types of silver-nitrate-coated adsorption materials behaved similarly to the charcoals. Silver-exchanged type 13-X molecular sieve adsorbers were 20 to 50 times more efficient for adsorbing the highly penetrating iodine, but not as efficient as normally found for collecting methyl iodide. The chemical form of the highly penetrating iodine was not determined. When the moist air velocity was decreased from 28.5 fpm (25 0 C) to as low as 0.71 fpm (25 0 C), the charcoal bed temperature rose slowly and reached the ignition temperature in three of the experiments. At 0.71 fpm (25 0 C) the ignited charcoal beds reached maximum temperatures of 430 to 470 0 C because of the limited oxygen supply. The charcoal exposed for four years at Oak Ridge ignited at 283 0 C compared with 368 0 C for unused charcoal from the same batch. Two of the experiments used charcoal containing 1 or 2 percent TEDA (triethylene-diamine) and a proprietary flame retardant. The oxidation and ignition behavior of these charcoals did not appear to be affected adversely by the presence of the TEDA

  5. Adsorption of methyl iodide on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidajat, K.; Aracil, J.; Kenney, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption of non-radioactive methyl iodide has been measured experimentally over a range of conditions of concentration, and temperature on an activated charcoal. This is of interest since methyl iodide is formed from iodine fission products in gas cooled nuclear reactors. A mathematical model has also been developed which describes the rate of adsorption, under isothermal and linear adsorption isotherm conditions in a recycle adsorber. This model takes into account the resistance to adsorption caused by the surface adsorption, as well as the external and internal mass transfer resistances. The solution to the model for the recycle adsorber was obtained using a semidiscretisation method to reduce the partial differential equations to a system of stiff ordinary differential equations, and the resulting differential equations solved by a standard numerical technique. (author)

  6. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  7. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  8. Effect of humidity on thoron adsorption in activated charcoal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudeep Kumara, K.; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sapra, B.K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Kanse, S.D.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a well-known adsorber of 222 Rn and 220 Rn gases. This property can be effectively used for remediation of these gases in the workplaces of uranium and thorium processing facilities. However, the adsorption on charcoal is sensitive to variation in temperature and humidity. The successful designing and characterization of adsorption systems require an adequate understanding of these sensitivities. The study has been carried out towards this end, to delineate the effect of relative humidity on the efficacy of 220 Rn mitigations in a charcoal bed. Air carrying 220 Rn from a Pylon source was passed through a column filled with coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal. The relative humidity of the air was controlled, and the transmission characteristics were examined at relative humidity varying from 45% to 60%. The mitigation factor was found to decrease significantly with an increase of humidity in the air. (author)

  9. The analysis of charcoal in peat and organic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Mooney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of charcoal in sediments has been interpreted as a ‘fire history’ at about 1,000 sites across the globe. This research effort reflects the importance of fire in many ecosystems, and the diversity of processes that can be affected by fire in many landscapes. Fire appears to reflect climate through the intermediary of vegetation, but arguably responds faster than vegetation to climate change or variability. Fire and humans are also intricately linked, meaning that the activity of fire in the past is also of relevance to prehistoric and historic human transitions and to contemporary natural resource management. This article describes recent advances in the analysis of charcoal in peat and other sediments, and offers a simple method for the quantification of larger charcoal fragments (>100 µm and a standardised method for the quantification of microscopic charcoal on pollen slides. We also comment on the challenges that the discipline still faces.

  10. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  11. Feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a postfilter in the air cleaning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Jung, D. Y.; Byun, S. C.; Kim, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) is provided in a nuclear facility to filter the radioactive materials in gaseous effluents released from the facility during normal operation and during a postulated accident. The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) consists of pre-HEPA filters, charcoal adsorber, post HEPA filters, fans, etc. The charcoal filters keep on-site dose and off-site effluents ALARA, consistent with regulatory requirements. The function of HEPA filter downstream of charcoal(carbon) adsorber in ACU is to catch potential radioactive carbon dust and to be a backup in the event of failure of upstream HEPA. Previous Regulatory Guide use only post HEPA filter of charcoal adsorber downstream but the Regulatory Guide of current revisions allows use of 95% dust spot efficiency filters in lieu of HEPA at the downstream of the carbon adsorber. In this paper is described that the background information of filters, Current Regulatory Guide of revised by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a carbon adsorber post filter in the Air Cleaning Unit

  12. Constructed wetland using corncob charcoal substrate: pollutants removal and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao; Li, Boyuan; Xue, Yingwen; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using corncob charcoal substrate in constructed wetlands, four laboratory-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were built. Effluent pollutant (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations during the experiment were determined to reveal pollutant removal mechanisms and efficiencies at different stages. In the stable stage, a VFCW using clay ceramisite substrate under aeration attained higher COD (95.1%), and NH 4 + -N (95.1%) removal efficiencies than a VFCW using corncob charcoal substrate (91.5% COD, 91.3% NH 4 + -N) under aeration, but lower TP removal efficiency (clay ceramisite 32.0% and corncob charcoal 40.0%). The VFCW with raw corncob substrate showed stronger COD emissions (maximum concentration 3,108 mg/L) than the corncob charcoal substrate (COD was lower than influent). The VFCW using corncob charcoal substrate performed much better than the VFCW using clay ceramisite substrate under aeration when the C/N ratio was low (C/N = 1.5, TN removal efficiency 36.89%, 4.1% respectively). These results suggest that corncob charcoal is a potential substrate in VFCWs under aeration with a unique self -supplying carbon source property in the denitrification process.

  13. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetsky, A.E.; Vnukov, S.P.; Zalavutdinov, R.Kh.; Zakharov, A.P.; Buryak, A.K.; Ulyanov, A.V.; Federici, G.; Day, Chr.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal is a working material of sorption cryopumps in the ITER project. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by TDS (77-300 K) and sorption measurements at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with an H 2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H 2 in the gas mixture in the afterglow zone was ∼10 -4 , hydrogen flow and inlet pressure were 6.9 sccm and 30 Pa, respectively. After exposure in the H/H 2 mixture during 1 hour the marked change in the shape of the TD spectra and decrease of the charcoal sorption capacity for hydrogen and nitrogen were detected. A wide spectrum of hydrocarbon fragments formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal, which was measured by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, decreased directly as amount of H atoms passed through the section with charcoal. (author)

  14. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  15. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayawong, Nakorn; Saengow, Nakarin; Chaiya, Ekarin

    2010-07-01

    There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  16. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Ehsanul [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: khkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul Center, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (As) to 118 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  17. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  18. COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti, the burnout temperature (Tf, characteristic combustion index (S, ignition index (Di, time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp, and ignition time (tig were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.

  19. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  20. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  1. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  2. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  3. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (penamel.

  4. Potency of bio-charcoal briquette from leather cassava tubers and industrial sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrasari, Nita; Pinatih, Tety A.; Kuncoro, Eko P.; Soegianto, Agoes; Salamun, Irawan, Bambang

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the bio-charcoal briquette with materials from leather cassava tubers and sludge of wastewater treatment plant. The first, bio-charcoal briquette analized stability test and compressive strength. Then, bio-charcoal briquette with best value analyzed for parameter including moisture content, ash content, calorific content, and burned test. The result briquette quality based on compressive strength for bio-charcoal briquettes carbonated water content between 3.8%-4.5% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes between 5.2%-7.6%. Bio-charcoal carbonation briquette ash content was between 5.30%-7.40% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes was between 6.86%-7.46%. Bio-charcoal carbonation levels briquettes heated between 578.2 calories/g-1837.7 calories/g and non carbonatedbio-charcoal briquettes between 858.1 calories/g-891.1 calories/g. Carbonated bio-charcoal burned test was between 48-63 minutes and non-carbonated bio-charcoal was between 22-42 minutes. Emissions resulted from the bio-charcoal briquettes for carbonated and non carbonated composition according to the government regulations ESDM No. 047 of 2006 which, at 128 mg/Nm3 and 139 mg/Nm3.

  5. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf Jaffe; Yan Ding; Jutta Niggemann; Anssi V. Vahatalo; Aron Stubbins; Robert G. M. Spencer; John Campbell; Thorsten Dittmar

    2013-01-01

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent...

  6. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of rice husk charcoal bio briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Salsabila, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rice husk is the outermost part of the rice seed which is a hard layer and a waste material from rice milling. Rice husk includes biomass that can be exploited for various requirements such as industrial raw materials as well as energy sources or fuel but only a small group of people use it. This research is conducted utilizing the rice husk as an alternative fuel by making it as a charcoal briquette. To make the treatment easy, firstly the rice husk biomass was converted into charcoal powder by carbonization method using two kinds of furnace which have different heating behavior. The best carbonization results are obtained from the furnace, which has a constant temperature heating behavior. The process of making briquettes is prepared by adding tapioca starch of 6% concentration by weight as charcoal adhesive and then printed with the aid of pressing tools using loads at 1,000 kg/cm2. The resulting briquette has a calorific value about 3.126 cal/g, mass density is 0.86 g/cm3 and compressive strength is about 2.02 kg/cm2, so that the bio-briquette of charcoal produced can be used as alternative energy to replace the fossil fuel for domestic or household purposes.

  8. Determinants of Charcoal Production Efficiency in Ibarapa North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency and stochastic frontier production function. The study revealed that mean age of producers was 36 years; 96.9% were males and 3.1 were females. Majority of the producers (76.9%) had no formal training on how to produce charcoal, ...

  9. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  10. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  11. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  12. Effect of activated charcoal, abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Generation of horse chestnut somatic embryos is commonly achieved by transferring embryo- genic tissue onto an ABA, PEG and manitol-containing maturation media (Capuana and Deberg, 1997). Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media to darken the immediate media surroundings ...

  13. Dose Determination of Activated Charcoal in Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the doses of activated charcoal currently used in the management of acute amitriptyline-induced drug poisoning and explore the possibility of using lower doses. Methods: Albino male Wistar rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were used for the study. The animals were divided into four groups of eight animals ...

  14. Glove box chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.E.; Cox, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An environmental chamber is described which enables an operator's hands to have direct access within the chamber without compromising a special atmosphere within such chamber. A pair of sleeves of a flexible material are sealed to the chamber around associated access apertures and project outwardly from such chamber. Each aperture is closed by a door which is openable from within the sleeve associated therewith so that upon an operator inserting his hand and arm through the sleeve, the operator can open the door to have access to the interior of the chamber. A container which is selectively separable from the remainder of the chamber is also provided to allow objects to be transferred from the chamber without such objects having to pass through the ambient atmosphere. An antechamber permitting objects to be passed directly into the chamber from the ambient atmosphere is included. (auth)

  15. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  16. The ageing and poisoning of charcoal used in nuclear plant air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, D.

    1986-01-01

    Ageing and Poisoning are terms which are used to describe the in-service deterioration or weathering of activated charcoals used to remove radioiodine from air cleaning systems. This paper describes an investigation aimed at identifying the relative importance of the two effects and at comparing the resistance to weathering of potassium iodide (KI) impregnated charcoal with triethylene diamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoal. Some preliminary results are given on the rates of oxidative ageing of charcoals as a function of temperature and relative humidity. The effect on charcoal performance of organic poisons has been examined by measuring the index of performance (k-factor) of charcoals preloaded with a range of organic solvents. Finally the combined effect of oxidative ageing and organic poisoning has been measured using realistic operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The in-service deterioration of charcoal in air cleaning systems can be accounted for by a combination of oxidative ageing and poisoning by airborne organic solvents. (author)

  17. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  18. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: Application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S.

    1988-07-01

    Results of stratigraphic charcoal analysis from thin sections of varved lake sediments have been compared with fire scars on red pine trees in northwestern Minnesota to determine if charcoal data accurately reflect fire regimes. Pollen and opaque-spherule analyses were completed from a short core to confirm that laminations were annual over the last 350 yr. A good correspondence was found between fossil-charcoal and fire-scar data. Individual fires could be identified as specific peaks in the charcoal curves, and times of reduced fire frequency were reflected in the charcoal data. Charcoal was absent during the fire-suppression era from 1920 A.D. to the present. Distinct charcoal maxima from 1864 to 1920 occurred at times of fire within the lake catchment. Fire was less frequent during the 19th century, and charcoal was substantially less abundant. Fire was frequent from 1760 to 1815, and charcoal was abundant continuously. Fire scars and fossil charcoal indicate that fires did not occur during 1730-1750 and 1670-1700. Several fires occurred from 1640 to 1670 and 1700 to 1730. Charcoal counted from pollen preparations in the area generally do not show this changing fire regime. Simulated "sampling" of the thin-section data in a fashion comparable to pollen-slide methods suggests that sampling alone is not sufficient to account for differences between the two methods. Integrating annual charcoal values in this fashion still produced much higher resolution than the pollen-slide method, and the postfire suppression decline of charcoal characteristic of my method (but not of pollen slides) is still evident. Consideration of the differences in size of fragments counted by the two methods is necessary to explain charcoal representation in lake sediments.

  19. The influence of physical parameters on the adsorption of iodine 131 by activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Caron, J.; Van Der Meersch, J.

    1966-01-01

    Following an outline of the means of generating iodine 131 in the gas phase and a brief description of the apparatus used, the authors analyse the experimental results obtained on the trapping of iodine 131 by activated charcoal. The efficiency depends concurrently on the relative humidity and the iodine concentration of the air. While it is independent of this concentration in dry air, it does not exceed 50 in moist air, whatever the bed depth, when the concentration is less than 1 mCi/m 3 , then it increases with the concentrations to reach values close to those obtained in dry air for concentrations of around 1000 Ci/m 3 . At the same time the efficiency of a dust filter with respect to iodine remains very low in dry air whatever the iodine concentration; in moist air this efficiency, which is high at low concentrations, decreases when the latter increases. In addition if a charcoal bed is divided into several beds, separated by an amount corresponding to a passage time of about a second, it is found that the efficiency of the whole is appreciably higher than that of the initial bed. These results appear to establish the existence of at least two forms of iodine, one molecular form and one particulate form probably formed by clusters, the forms equilibrium being functions of the relative concentrations of iodine and water vapour in the air. The third form evidence, a gaseous form compound, remains hypothetical; the experimental curves can be explained either by the molecular and particular forms reversibility or by the increase of clusters size with the relative humidity of the air. (authors) [fr

  20. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  1. Apparatus for producing charcoal from fine lignocellulose wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R; Perzynski, B

    1979-05-15

    A continuous retort for the production of charcoal from sawdust, nut shells, wood chips, etc. consists of a cylindrical tower separated from the top into the drying, pyrolyzing, and cooling sections. Dry feed is introduced at the top where it is spread by stirrer blades on 2 trays kept at 120 degrees and 160 degrees by external heating. The feed falls through discharge slots into a 2nd section where it is contacted with a limited supply of hot air while the temperature rises to about 600 degrees. Hot charcoal is swept by stirrer blades toward discharge slots and falls into a 3rd section where it is cooled and discharged. Off gases are used for predrying the incoming feed, scrubbed, and vented through a stack.

  2. Activated charcoal-alum-zeolite improve the water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sutisna; Sumarjo; ZL, Wildan; Wahyuningsih; Suprapti, Siti

    2002-01-01

    The composite of charcoal-tawas-zeolite has been studied to improve a drinking water quality. This study was doing to find the optimum composition in preparation of a simple technology og bath and small volume drinking treatment this treatment consist of coagulation, floculation, precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. The improvement of water quality has been observed from a turbidity, a permanganate number and a quality of Cu, Cd, Pb, Al ions and coli bactery containing in the water after processing. It has been concluded that the composite materials has an ability to decrease the turbidity more than its components. The starch addition in the composite can be accelerate water clarity process. By this composite the turbidity, the permanganate number and the coli bacteria in the water can be decreased significantly. The optimum composite composition is 1000 mg activated charcoal, 1000 mg zeolite, 60 mg tawas, 40 mg natrium bicarbonate and 50 mg starch with grains size less than 80 mesh

  3. Stable carbon isotope ratios from archaeological charcoal as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available specific pyrolysis products, mostly furans and pyrans, and released (Steinbeiss et al., 2006). The removal of these compounds is driven by their relative chemical stability and strength of molecular cross bonds. Differences between how... to simulate natural burning conditions and left until completely charred. This produced charcoal under oxidizing (O2-rich) conditions. This process took less than 15 min for the largest disc (60 mm in diameter) and about five minutes for the smallest (30...

  4. Ashes to ashes, charcoal to dust: micromorphological evidence for ash-induced disintegration of charcoal in Early Neolithic (LBK) soil features in Elsloo (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Braadbaart, F.; Wijk, I.M. van; Os, B.J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Charcoal and other forms of charred organic material e an important part of the archaeological record e consist of benzenoids. Such components are unstable in basic or alkaline conditions. Since ashes are alkaline, this means that archaeological charcoal may have been disintegrated and lost if

  5. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  6. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  7. Double chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uman, M.F.; Winnard, J.R.; Winters, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ion source is comprised of two discharge chambers one of which is provided with a filament and an aperture leading into the other chamber which in turn has an extraction orifice. A low voltage arc discharge is operated in an inert gas atmosphere in the filament chamber while an arc of higher voltage is operated in the second ionization chamber which contains a vapor which will give the desired dopant ion species. The entire source is immersed in an axial magnetic field parallel to a line connecting the filament, the aperture between the two chambers and the extraction orifice. (author)

  8. The Marginalization of Sustainable Charcoal Production in the Policies of a Modernizing African Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Doggart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is the main cooking fuel for urban populations in many African countries. Urbanization and population growth are driving an increase in demand for charcoal, whilst deforestation reduces biomass stocks. Given increasing demand for charcoal, and decreasing availability of biomass, policies are urgently needed that ensure secure energy supplies for urban households and reduce deforestation. There is potential for charcoal to be produced sustainably in natural woodlands, but this requires supportive policies. Previous research has identified policy issues that have contributed to the charcoal sector remaining informal and environmentally destructive. In this paper, we describe how national policies in Tanzania on energy, forests, agriculture, land, and water, consider charcoal, and the degree to which they do, and do not, support sustainable charcoal production. The paper identifies policy gaps and a cross-sector tendency to marginalize natural forest management. By adopting a nexus approach, the paper highlights the inter-connections between sustainable charcoal production, ecosystem services, and trade-offs in the allocation of land, labor, and net primary production. In conclusion, sustainable charcoal production has been marginalized in multiple national policies. As a result, potential benefits of sustainable charcoal production are lost to multiple sectors.

  9. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... acceptance by the patients without loss of efficacy. In addition, paracetamol adsorption studies were carried out in vitro to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture. METHODS: In vivo: A randomized crossover study on 15 adult volunteers, using...... paracetamol 50 mg/kg as a simulated overdose. Each study day volunteers were given a standard meal 1 h before paracetamol, then 50 g activated charcoal 1 h later in either of two preparations: standard water slurry or mixed with 400 mL yogurt. Paracetamol serum concentrations were measured using HPLC...

  10. A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU's and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers

  11. Application of activated carbon fiber to a filter used for airborne radioiodine sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Murata, Mikio; Yoshikazu, Yoshida

    1988-01-01

    An airborne radioiodine sampling filter is required to have low pressure drop, mechanical strength enough to a practical use and high collection efficiency under high relative humidity(RH). To develop a filter to meet the requirements, the influences of impregnation amount of triethylenediamin(TEDA) on the collection efficiencies for methyl iodide and the reaction rates were investigated for several kinds of activated carbon fiber varied in specific surface area, pore diameter, etc. Silver silica gel(Sut Chemi, AC6120), silver zeolite(CTI Nuc., AgX Type III), silver alumina(Hitachi Co.) and granular activated charcoal were also examined for comparison. A new type filter made of activated carbon fiber (ACF filter) was developed based on the above experimental results. The ACF filter was examined for the pressure drop by the filter and collection efficiency for methyl iodide being compared with other types of filters such as an activated charcoal cartridge (ACC) and an activated charcoal filter paper (ACP)

  12. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  13. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  14. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the chamber... shall be 45±8 percent during all filter conditioning and weighing. The dew point shall be 6.4 to 12.4 °C...

  15. Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Fernandes, M. de.

    1991-01-01

    The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  17. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  18. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  19. Soil particles reworking evidences by AMS 14C dating of charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcaillet, C.

    2001-01-01

    Soil charcoal dating is a time proxy for soil pedogenesis. I test the stratification hypothesis by AMS 14 C dating of charcoal fragments from soil profiles between 1700 and 1900 m with respect to altitude within the Alps. The charcoal fragments are around 1 mm in size. There is no age/depth relationship for charcoal particles of the size millimeter. The results are discussed in light of the role of soil fauna, up-rooting and colluvial processes. Although biotic pedoturbation is poorly described in mountain and sub-alpine elevation, I hypothesize that this process is very active and plays a major role on the soil functioning. (author)

  20. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  1. Evaluation of activated charcoal for dynamic adsorption of krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramarathinam, K.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    From the standpoint of radiation safety, the release of radioactive krypton and xenon from power reactors should be kept as low as practicable. The decay of shortlived isotopes of krypton and xenon by adsorptive delay on activated charcoal has shown promising results for this purpose. The delay provided by activated charcoal is proportional to the dynamic adsorption coefficients of these gases which are characteristic of the adsorbent. These coefficients were determined for krypton and xenon on indigenous gas-adsorbing activated charcoal at different moisture contents of carrier air stream and activated charcoal, concentrations of krypton around ambient temperatures, to find its suitability for designing adsorber columns. (author)

  2. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F 2 and UF 6 to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F 2 , the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F 2 -UF 6 gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined

  3. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  4. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  5. Adsorption of krypton from helium by low temperature charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Adsorption of krypton from helium by charcoal at temperatures from -100 0 C to -140 0 C was experimentally investigated to verify adsorption system design methods and to determine effects of regeneration for the Gas Purification System of the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Helium with two krypton concentrations, traced by krypton-85 at 0.0044 μCi/cm 3 , was passed through a 1/2-inch diameter, three-inch long trap packed with coconut charcoal. Breakthrough curves were measured by continuously recording the activity of the effluent gas using a sampler with a krypton-85 detection limit of about 5 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 . Experimental breakthrough curves with continuous feed for both concentrations and for superficial gas velocities of 5 to 28 cm/sec were closely fitted when the pore diffusion term was omitted from the Anzelius linear equilibrium adsorption model indicating that the adsorption process for this system was controlled by gas phase mass transport kinetics. Adsorption capacities determined in these experiments at -140 0 C agreed closely with published data. A discontinuity, however, was observed in the krypton adsorption coefficient between -100 and -120 0 C. This discontinuity may be caused by capillary condensation of krypton in the charcoal pores. Breakthrough times for pulse experiments at 400 ppM (vol.) krypton concentration were several times greater than breakthrough for continuous feed experiments at equivalent conditions. The differences in breakthrough times indicate that the adsorption isotherms are non-linear in this concentration range. Regeneration experiments showed that purging with helium at room temperature for 16 hours was inadequate, since lower breakthrough times were obtained after this treatment. Regeneration under vacuum at 100 0 C or 200 0 C for 16 hours resulted in satisfactory regeneration (i.e., no reduction in breakthrough times occurred in subsequent runs). (U.S.)

  6. Radon determination by activated charcoal adsorption and liquid scintillation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.O.; Canoba, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    A passive diffusion method for the determination of radon concentration has been optimised and calibrated. The device consists of a scintillation vial containing activated charcoal, a diffusion barrier and a desiccant agent. The response to diverse atmospheric humidity and variable exposure intervals was studied. The result is a detector, which is independent of atmospheric humidity for at least (up to) 7 days of exposure. The method was compared with electret detectors (US EPA) with very satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, low cost, low detection limit, the total automatization of the measurement and its total independence of humidity to measure in a wide range of radon concentrations. (author) [es

  7. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs

  8. A passive integrating charcoal detector for indoor radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Ren Tianshan; Li Guiyun

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the principle, design, calibration and characteristics of a passive integrating charcoal detector for measuring average radon concentration indoors. The uncertainties of the detector are also evaluated. Under conditions of room temperature at 17 deg C and relative humidity at 30%, the minimum limit of detection is 0.16 pCi/1 for 72 hours exposure. Besides higher sensitivity, the other advantages of this detector are passive, simple and less expensive. It requires no power and makes no noise and gives no interference to daily activities of the residents of dwellings being surveyed. Therefore the detector is suitable for a large-scale survey of radon levels indoors

  9. An electrodeless drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)

  10. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  12. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  13. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  14. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  15. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  16. Calibration of filters for detection of airborne I-131 in the environment of nuclear power plant; Kalibracija filtrov za detekcijo I-131 v zraku okolja jedrske elektrarne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M; Miklavzic, U; Pucelj, B [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1982-07-01

    A simple and clean method for efficiency calibration of filters for collection of airborne I and corresponding Ge(Li) spectrometer is described. As the calibrated source of gaseous I-131 the radiopharmaceutical water solution of NaI is used. As calibration example the absolute activity distribution of I-131 measured in a charcoal filter is shown. (author)

  17. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  18. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  19. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Liu, J.; Martens, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); and others

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity v{sub Rn} of radon and v{sub Xe} of xenon in the trap with v{sub Rn}/v{sub Xe}=(0.96{+-}0.10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at -85 Degree-Sign C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  20. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.; Daioglou, Vasileios; Braakhekke, M.C.; van Vuuren, Detlef

    Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to charcoal use because of easiness of production, access, transport, and tradition. Increasing demand for

  1. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron in soils amended with charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2006-11-01

    Charcoal derived from the partial combustion of vegetation is ubiquitous in soils and sediments and can potentially sequester organic contaminants. To examine the role of charcoal in the sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron pesticide in soil, synthetic charcoals were produced through carbonization of red gum (Eucalyptus spp.) wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (referred to as charcoals BC450 and BC850, respectively, in this paper). Pore size distribution analyses revealed that BC850 contained mainly micropores (pores approximately 0.49 nm mean width), whereas BC450 was essentially not a microporous material. Short-term equilibration (diuron in a soil amended with various amounts of charcoals of both types. The sorption coefficients, isotherm nonlinearity, and apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis markedly increased with increasing content of charcoal in the soil, more prominently in the case of BC850, presumably due to the presence of micropores and its relatively higher specific surface area. The degree of apparent sorption-desorption hystersis (hysteresis index) showed a good correlation with the micropore volume of the charcoal-amended soils. This study indicates that the presence of small amounts of charcoal produced at high temperatures (e.g., interior of wood logs during a fire) in soil can have a marked effect on the release behavior of organic compounds. Mechanisms of this apparent hysteretic behavior need to be further investigated.

  3. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  4. Charcoal as an alternative energy carrier. Pt. 2: Conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, A

    1978-12-01

    Terrestrial biomass, residues from forestry, agriculture and farming can be converted by biochemical or thermochemical techniques to fuels. The charcoal yield depends on the raw materials, moisture contents, the temperature of carbonisation and the processing equipment. The yield is reduced by 2 - 3% when using softwood and furthermore with higher temperature of carbonisation. Generally charcoal contains 80 - 90% carbon, 0,5 - 10% ash and 7 - 30% volatile matter. Theoretically the following products are obtained when pyrolising wood: 34,7% Charcoal, 24,9% H/sub 2/O, 10,9% CO/sub 2/, 4,15 CO, 1,6% Methanol, 5,9% Acetic Acid and 17,9% Tar. Units for production of charcoal are large and small kilns, transportable Thomas retorts and Cornell retorts with a production of 1,3 - 6 tons charcoal/day, and the large Lambiotte retort, multiple-hearth furnaces and fluidized-bed reactors. Interesting is also the new equipment of Skogens Kol in Sweden. These large units have a production capacity of 16 - 80 tons charcoal/day. Important production parameters include charcoal yield, labour requirements, air pollution and cost. Based on these parameters the Cornell retort is considered the best unit for production of small quantities of charcoal and Skogens Kol seems to be the most interesting large unit. 17 drawings, 14 tables.

  5. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  6. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis- based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  7. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  8. Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Streptomyces but with different species in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected actinomycetes have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal-rot disease in sorghum. Key words: Antagonistic actinomycetes, biocontrol, charcoal-rot, Macrophomina phaseolina. INTRODUCTION.

  9. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated

  10. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  11. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r = 0.957 **, P isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation ( DT50) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal inceased from 0 to 50 g kg - 1 (for Paddy soil, DT50 values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT50 from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT50 from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  12. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  13. Airborne radioiodine species sampler and it's application for measuring removal efficiencies of large charcoal adsorbers for ventilation exhaust air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, D.; Hetzer, D.; Pelletier, C.A.; Barefoot, E.D.; Cline, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A program, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, is underway to determine the chemical species of radioiodine coming from LWR power plants and their persistence in the nearby environment. In support of this program, an airborne radioiodine sampler, developed and used by the AEC was modified and tested. This sampler consists of five components. The components are: (1) a particulate filter, (2) CdI 2 on a matrix of chromosorb-P to retain I 2 , (3) 4-Iodophenol on a matrix of activated alumina to retain HOI, (4) silver exchanged molecular sieve-13X to retain organic iodides, and (5) impregnated charcoal to serve as a control. The AEC sampler has not been proof-tested for periods over 48 hours or for flow rates above 0.10 l/s. For maximum sensitivity, a sampler is required to be used for periods of one to two weeks and at a flow rate giving a bed residence time of 0.1 sec. The AEC sampler was scaled up in size to attain an air sampling rate of 0.9 l/s. Each media for this sampler (except the particulate filter) was tested in the laboratory for retention of the iodine species; I 2 , Organic, and HOI. The tests were conducted at typical conditions observed at the main iodine release points at nuclear power plants. Confirmatory tests were run at operating nuclear power plants. The test results showed that under normal plant conditions the sampler could be operated at flow rates up to 0.80 l/s and differentiate the iodine species I 2 , HOI, and CH 3 I. The retention efficiencies of each media for its specie of radioiodine were found to be: I 2 on CdI 2 - 87 +- 5%, HOI on IPH 94 +- 4%, and CH 3 I on Ag 13-X or KI charcoal 99 +- 1%

  14. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  15. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, V.; Nikezic, D.; Zekic, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  17. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  18. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Protásio, Thiago de Paula; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando; Mirmehdi, Seyedmohammad; Silva, Marcela Gomes da

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal ...

  20. The efficiency of Whatman Type ACG/B filter papers for methyl iodine retention in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.E.; Williams, J.M.E.

    1965-11-01

    Experiments are described in which charcoal impregnated glass fibre filter papers Type ACG/B were exposed to methyl iodide vapour and the penetration determined for iodide loadings ranging from 2 x 10 - 7 to 2x10 - 1 μg/cm 2 of filter area. Air was subsequently passed through the filters, and at intervals the amount of methyl iodide remaining on them was determined. Penetrations during loading varied from 30% to 80%, but after 10 minutes elution all filters retained less than 5% of the methyl iodide originally present. (author)

  1. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H.K.; Payer, H.D. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The ageing of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  2. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  3. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  4. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  5. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  6. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  7. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  8. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  9. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  10. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  11. Filter system for purifying gas or air streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlmeyer, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    1981-01-01

    A filter system is provided for purifying a gas stream by means of flowable or tricklable contact filter material, wherein the stream flows through the filter material and the filter material forms a movable bed. The system contains a filter chamber through which the filter material can flow and which is provided with an inlet opening and an outlet opening for the filter material between which the filter material is conveyed by gravity. The filter system includes deflection means for deflecting the stream , after a first passage of the stream through the filter bed to charge the filter bed for a first time, to a position above where the stream first passed through the filter bed and for conducting the stream at least once again transversely through the filter bed above the first charge so that the filter bed is charged a second time. The filter chamber contains a first opening where the stream enters the filter bed for the first time and is aligned with the deflection means, and a second opening aligned with the deflection means and above the first opening. The second opening is located where the stream leaves the filter bed for the second time, with a partial quantity of the gas stream being able to pass directly through the filter bed from the first opening to the second opening without going through the deflection means. The distance between the upper edge of the first opening and the lower edge of the second opening is at least twice the thickness of the filter chamber

  12. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  13. Soil charcoal from the plains to tundra in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, R. L.; Licata, C.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the forests of the central Rockies, soil charcoal from Holocene wildfires has been produced in response to wildland natural fire regimes. The extent and spatial distribution of soil charcoal production is poorly documented in this region, especially with regard to forests and shrublands at different elevations. Soil charcoal is a super-passive C pool derived from woody biomass that can be sequestered for millennia in forest soils. Recent research indicates that soil charcoal may promote enhanced soil fertility. Additionally, soil charcoal is an often overlooked component of soil C mass and flux. We hypothesize that differences in forest and shrubland fire regimes over the millennia have resulted in different soil charcoal amounts. Geospatial data were used to locate random sample plots in foothills shrublands (Cercocarpus montanus), and four forest types; ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii - Abies lasiocarpa). Sample plots were stratified to occur with the mid 200 m elevation band of each vegetation type with east aspect, and 10-30% slope. Soils were sampled widely at 0-10 cm depth and analyzed for total soil C and soil charcoal C via chemical digestion and dry combustion techniques. Overall, soil charcoal is four times more abundant in spruce-fir forests than in foothills shrublands (1.9 +/- 0.92 Mg C/ha versus 0.54 +/- 0.44 Mg C/ha). Soil charcoal is also abundant in lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine soils (1.4 +/- 1.02 Mg C/ha and 1.4 +/- 0.54 Mg C/ha respectively) but is less plentiful in Douglas-fir soils (1.0 +/- 0.67). Spruce-fir forests have the most above ground biomass, slower decomposition rates and a less frequent mean fire return interval than the other four forests, hence it makes sense that high per-fire rates of charcoal production would occur in the spruce-fir zone, given large amounts of surface fuels at the time of fire. In contrast

  14. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookings, C.H.; Ramsey, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available. (orig.) [de

  15. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  16. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  17. Performance Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery in a Charcoal Stove using a Thermo-Electric Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Judges Ajah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal stoves have widespread use among the poorer households and outdoor food vendors in Nigeria. In order to improve the efficiency of charcoal stoves, various researches have tried integrating a thermoelectric module in the charcoal stove. The researches, however did not exploit the performance of the thermoelectric modules at different ambient temperatures. To evaluate the performance of thermoelectric integrated charcoal stoves in the sub-Saharan Africa, a self-powered, forced air induced thermoelectric charcoal stove experiment was carried out at five different ambient temperatures of 36ºC, 33ºC, 32ºC, 30ºC and 29ºC and an average fuel hotbed temperature of 1023.75ºC. The thermoelectric charcoal stove generated a maximum voltage of 5.25V at an ambient temperature of 29ºC. The least maximum voltage was generated at the highest ambient temperature of 36ºC. It was observed that the maximum voltage increased with decreasing ambient temperature, this could be attributed to the ambient air being used to cool the thermoelectric generator. Therefore, it could be said that the performance of a forced draft thermoelectric charcoal stove increases with decrease in ambient temperature.

  18. The Impact of Charcoal Production on Forest Degradation: a Case Study in Tete, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Silva. J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multi-temporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Neutron flux filtration using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urcikan, Marian

    2005-01-01

    In the course of the WWER-440 start-up procedure the time dependent reactivity is determined from the measured ionization chamber signal by inverse kinetic method. Due to the random nature of the fission process and random nature the detection process the measured ionization chamber signal contains certain noise content. To minimize the unwonted noise on measured reactivity one of the possibility method is utilization Kalman filter, based on a stochastic model of reactor system (Author)

  20. On-site test of filters in nuclear facilities using radioactive sodium chloride (24Na)-aerosol and methyl iodide (131I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidam, N.Z.; Hansen, K.A.; Fenger, J.; Flyger, H.; Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1986-02-01

    The nuclar facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are equipped with high-efficiency filters to protect the environment from routine or accidental releases of radioactive material. The filter efficiency must be tested regularly and a method for on-site control is described. It is based on injection of a radioactive sample in the filter duct, followed by sampling before and after the filter. HEPA-filters are tested with a 24 NaCl-aerosol and charcoal filters with 131 ICH 3 . Normally samples of 1 mCi are used. Penetrations (1 - efficiency) can be determined with a relative uncertainty of 10-15%. (author)

  1. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of removing methyliodide 131 gas from the effluent of a reactor, comprises passing the effluent gas through a charcoal sorbent formed by first contacting charcoal with a liquid containing a hypoiodite obtained when an aqueous mixture of a first component comprising a salt of an iodine oxyacid selected from periodate, iodate and hypoiodite and a second component selected from iodine and/or an iodide salt is adjusted to a pH of about 10 by the addition of an inorganic base, and then contacting the resulting impregnated charcoal with a tertiary amine. (author)

  2. Study of adsorption properties of impregnated charcoal for airborne iodine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-dong, L.; Sui-yuang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of airborne radioiodine and methyl iodide on impregnated charcoal were investigated. The activated charcoal tested was made from home-made oil-palm shells, and KI and TEDA were used as impregnants. A new technique was used to plot the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm at challenge concentrations (concentration range of iodine: 1-20 ppm v/v). Some adsorption properties of the impregnated charcoal were estimated with the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm. The dependences of the adsorption capacity and penetration behavior for airborne iodine and methyl iodide on the ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and superficial velocity) were studied

  3. Study of properties of active charcoal used for measuring of low radon activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.

    2011-01-01

    We used the German charcoal Silicarbon for adsorption of radon from the air. From the column with activated carbon arranged in a row, we obtain cut-off dependence of radon on activated carbon at various temperatures, cooling and also at different speeds, drawing radon air through activated charcoal. From information we have chosen the most appropriate combination of temperature and cooling flow in order to maximize capture efficiency of radon in the first column of active charcoal. To change active carbon and optimization of operation allows us to measure the radon exhalation rate from various materials up to the level of 3·10 -9 Bq/s. (authors)

  4. Effects of insulin-free plasma on the charcoal-separation method for radioimmunoassay of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayn, K N [Medical Research Council, Carshalton (UK). Toxicology Unit

    1976-03-01

    Radioimmunoassay of insulin in rat plasma using a popular method involving charcoal-separation of free and antibody-bound insulin was found to be unsatisfactory despite inclusion in standard tubes of insulin-free plasma prepared in either of two ways. Insulin-free plasma and untreated plasma had different effects on adsorption of free insulin to the charcoal. It was concluded that separation with charcoal is very sensitive to any prior treatment of the plasma. Particular care must be taken to ensure that hormone-free plasma is identical in all other respects to untreated plasma.

  5. Nexusing Charcoal in South Mozambique: A Proposal To Integrate the Nexus Charcoal-Food-Water Analysis With a Participatory Analytical and Systemic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Martins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nexus analysis identifies and explores the synergies and trade-offs between energy, food and water systems, considered as interdependent systems interacting with contextual drivers (e.g., climate change, poverty. The nexus is, thus, a valuable analytical and policy design supporting tool to address the widely discussed links between bioenergy, food and water. In fact, the Nexus provides a more integrative and broad approach in relation to the single isolated system approach that characterizes many bioenergy analysis and policies of the last decades. In particular, for the South of Mozambique, charcoal production, food insecurity and water scarcity have been related in separated studies and, thus, it would be expected that Nexus analysis has the potential to provide the basis for integrated policies and strategies focused on charcoal as a development factor. However, to date there is no Nexus analysis focused on charcoal in Mozambique, neither is there an assessment of the comprehensiveness and relevance of Nexus analysis when applied to charcoal energy systems. To address these gaps, this work applies the Nexus to the charcoal-food-water system in Mozambique, integrating national, regional and international studies analysing the isolated, or pairs of, systems. This integration results in a novel Nexus analysis graphic for charcoal-food-water relationship. Then, to access the comprehensiveness and depth of analysis, this Nexus analysis is critically compared with the 2MBio-A, a systems analytical and design framework based on a design tool specifically developed for Bioenergy (the 2MBio. The results reveal that Nexus analysis is “blind” to specific fundamental social, ecological and socio-historical dynamics of charcoal energy systems. The critical comparison also suggests the need to integrate the high level systems analysis of Nexus with non-deterministic, non-prescriptive participatory analysis tools, like the 2MBio-A, as a means to

  6. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  7. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol...... was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found...

  8. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  9. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  10. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  11. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  12. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  13. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  15. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2 often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO43’s, Na2SO4’s, Na2S2O8’s, S’s, and Na2SO3’s optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO43, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 and 2925 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the

  16. Production of active charcoal and characteristic of volatile organic compounds in condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalik, V.; Knoskova, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade a production of charcoal and products from charcoal has been taking on an important position in a field of environmental technologies. Technological process of the production of charcoal is accompanied by formation of fluid and gaseous elements. These elements are ranked as pollutants from the legal point of view. There are mainly carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and other oxide compounds from the chemical point of view. Particularly acetic acid, methanol, 2-furaldehyde. Then aliphatic alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and other groups of substances. Law limits the quantity and concentration of these essentials emitted into the open air. This matter has to be taken care of during the production of charcoal. It is usually solved by condensation cooling and following burning gases and steams. Condensate is industrially processed or smaller technologies handle with it similar to taking care of wastewater. (authors)

  17. Development of a Metal Kiln for the Production of Charcoal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... The study established that the design upon modification would be environmentally safe, viable and an economic alternative for ... Keywords: Production, Smoking, Charcoal, Kiln, Design ...

  18. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Arun; Srinivas, C R; Mathew, Anil C

    2008-01-01

    Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall's Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  19. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  20. Development of the charcoal adsorption technique for determination of radon content in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paewpanchon, P.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. (authors)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-11-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Determination of the suitability of certain deciduous species for production of furfural and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, P.

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the suitability of chips of certain deciduous species for production of furfural and charcoal is discussed. The results of determination of suitability of unpeeled chips from cut branches (beech, birch, alder) and oak chips from wastes of production of furfural and also the suitability of cellolignin obtained from these chips for the production of charcoal are cited. An industrial unit of Swedish make equipped with a continuous hydrolyzer was used in hydrolysis tests of the deciduous chips. Unstripped birch, beech, and alder chips and oak chips from the wastes of wood processing contained 17-20 percent pentozanes and are suitable for industrial production of furfural. The content of substances soluble in an alcohol-benzene mixture in cellolignin from this feedstock was 21.1-30.5 percent. The amount of cellolignin obtained from chips of these species satisfied the demands of charcoal production. The charcoal yield was approximately 20 percent relative to the dry mass of carbonized cellolignin.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to charcoal use because of easiness of production, access, transport, and tradition. Increasing demand for charcoal, however, may lead to increasing impacts on forests, food, and water resources, and may even create additional pressures on the climate system. Here we assess how different charcoal scenarios based on the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP relate to potential biomass supply. For this, we use the energy model TIMER to project the demand for fuelwood and charcoal for different socio-economic pathways for urban and rural populations, globally, and for four tropical regions (Central America, South America, Africa and Indonesia. Second, we assess whether the biomass demands for each scenario can be met with current and projected forest biomass estimated with remote sensing and modeled Net Primary Productivity (NPP using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-GUESS. Currently one third of residential energy use is based on traditional bioenergy, including charcoal. Globally, biomass needs by urban households by 2100 under the most sustainable scenario, SSP1, are of 14.4 mi ton biomass for charcoal plus 17.1 mi ton biomass for fuelwood (31.5 mi ton biomass in total. Under SSP3, the least sustainable scenario, we project a need of 205 mi tons biomass for charcoal plus 243.8 mi ton biomass for fuelwood by 2100 (total of 450 mi ton biomass. Africa and South America contribute the most for this biomass demand, however, all areas are able to meet the demand. We find that the future of the charcoal sector is not dire. Charcoal represents a small fraction of the energy requirements, but its biomass demands are disproportionate and in some regions require a large fraction of forest. This could be because of large growing populations moving to urban areas

  4. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  5. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  6. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events

  7. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  8. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  9. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  10. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  11. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  12. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  13. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  14. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  15. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  16. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  17. Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Almond Charcoal Activated with Zinc Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in aquatic environments that can leached to water resources from various sources such as sewage, fertilizers and decomposition of organic waste. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in infant’s blood stream can cause “blue baby” disease in infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitrate removal from aqueous solutions using modified almond charcoal with zinc chloride. Materials &Methods: This study is an experimental survey. At the first charcoal almond skins were prepared in 5500C and then modified with ZnCl2. Morphologies and characterization of almond shell charcoal were evaluated by using FTIR, EDX, BET and FESEM. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 500 ml sample in Becker. The nitrate concentration removal, contact time, pH and charcoal dosage were investigated. The central composite design method was used to optimizing the nitrate removal process. The results analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: The best condition founded in 48 min, 1250 ppm, 125 mg/l and 3 for retention time, primary nitrate concentration, charcoal dosage and pH respectively. The results showed that the nitrate removal decreases with increasing pH. Modification of skin charcoal is show increasing of nitrate removal from aquatic solution. Conclusion: In this study, the maximum nitrate removal efficiency for raw charcoal and modified charcoal was determined 15.47% and 62.78%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used as an effective method for removing nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  20. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of usher wood and karkadeh stem for charcoal in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan)); Vergnet, L. (CTFT, 94 - Nogent s/Marne (France). Energie Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Two unusual biomass materials Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa (karkadeh) stem and Calotropis procera (usher) wood were investigated in the laboratory as potential raw materials for charcoal making in Sudan. The materials were characterised physically and chemically and despite the low density and high bark-to-wood ratio by volume, good yields and quality of charcoal were predicted. The carbonization trials with a laboratory retort at conditions close to those of field metal kiln gave very good charcoal yields (35% for karkadeh and 38% for usher) with high energy transformation (58% and 62%, respectively). The karkadeh charcoal, except for a somewhat high ash content, was good for domestic uses (79% fixed carbon and 30.3 MJ kg[sup -1] heat value). The usher charcoal was better with respect to fixed carbon (86.5%) and gross heat value (32.4 MJ kg[sup -1]). Both charcoals were of low density (140-160 kg m[sup -3]) and further assessment of their economic suitability should be carried out under field conditions. The carbonization by-products were also collected and characterized by means of gas chromatography. (author)

  2. The pH-dependent adsorption of tributyltin to charcoals and soot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liping; Borggaard, Ole K.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) poses a serious environmental problem. Adsorption by black carbon (BC) may strongly affect its behavior. The adsorption of TBT to well characterized soot and two charcoals with specific surface area in the range of 62-111 m 2 g -1 have been investigated with main focus on pH effects. The charcoals but not soot possess acidic functional groups. TBT adsorption reaches maximum at pH 6-7 for charcoals, and at pH > 6 for soot. Soot has between 1.5 and 15 times higher adsorption density (0.09-1.77 μmol m -2 ) than charcoals, but charcoals show up to 17 times higher sorption affinities than soot. TBT adsorption is successfully described by a new pH-dependent dual Langmuir model considering electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, and pH effects on TBT speciation and BC surface charge. It is inferred that strong sorption of the TBTOH species to BC may affect TBT toxicity. - Tributyltin adsorption to black carbon increases at increasing pH but charcoal exhibits electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, whereas soot only adsorbs hydrophobically.

  3. The pH-dependent adsorption of tributyltin to charcoals and soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Liping, E-mail: fang@life.ku.d [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Borggaard, Ole K.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) poses a serious environmental problem. Adsorption by black carbon (BC) may strongly affect its behavior. The adsorption of TBT to well characterized soot and two charcoals with specific surface area in the range of 62-111 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} have been investigated with main focus on pH effects. The charcoals but not soot possess acidic functional groups. TBT adsorption reaches maximum at pH 6-7 for charcoals, and at pH > 6 for soot. Soot has between 1.5 and 15 times higher adsorption density (0.09-1.77 {mu}mol m{sup -2}) than charcoals, but charcoals show up to 17 times higher sorption affinities than soot. TBT adsorption is successfully described by a new pH-dependent dual Langmuir model considering electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, and pH effects on TBT speciation and BC surface charge. It is inferred that strong sorption of the TBTOH species to BC may affect TBT toxicity. - Tributyltin adsorption to black carbon increases at increasing pH but charcoal exhibits electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, whereas soot only adsorbs hydrophobically.

  4. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  5. Carbon sequestration potential and physicochemical properties differ between wildfire charcoals and slow-pyrolysis biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Merino, Agustin; Bucheli, Thomas D; Bryant, Rob; Ascough, Philippa; Gao, Xiaodong; Masiello, Caroline A

    2017-09-11

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ 13 C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions. Wildfire charcoals were formed under higher maximum temperatures and oxygen availabilities, but much shorter heating durations than slow-pyrolysis biochars, resulting in differing physicochemical properties. These differences are particularly relevant regarding their respective roles as carbon sinks, as even the wildfire charcoals formed at the highest temperatures had lower carbon sequestration potentials than most slow-pyrolysis biochars. Our results challenge the common notion that natural charcoal and biochar are well suited as proxies for each other, and suggest that biochar's environmental residence time may be underestimated when based on natural charcoal as a proxy, and vice versa.

  6. Socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Olarinde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.

  7. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  8. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  9. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  10. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  11. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirika, V. I. O.

    2002-01-01

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  12. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  13. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  14. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  15. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  16. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  17. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  18. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  19. Argus drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P

    1983-11-15

    The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.

  20. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  1. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  2. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  3. A study of batch calibrations on 4 inch open faced charcoal adsorbers from four different manufacturers and how they compare to EERF's published calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Howell, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The EERF Standard Operating Procedures for Rn-222 Measurements Using Charcoal Canisters is quite explicit in stating that the calibration tables and curves published in this manual are only typical calibration data that were developed for a particular batch of canisters from a supplier, and that new calibration data are developed and used with each different lot of canisters. In this paper, batch calibrations were performed in the authors' radon chambers on so called EPA style canisters from four different companies. The authors then prepared calibration tables and curves for each batch and compared them to the EERF published tables. it was our premise that EPA never intended for their curves to be considered standard and that with more and more companies manufacturing canisters, the calibration factors could certainly vary and might significantly differ from those derived by EERF several years ago

  4. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  5. Respiratory health effects of occupational exposure to charcoal dust in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgabi, Nnenesi

    2016-01-01

    Background Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. Objective To determine dose–response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed, ambient and respirable dust levels were assessed in different work sections. Multiple logistic regression analysis estimated the overall effect of charcoal dust exposure on respiratory outcomes, while linear regression estimated the exposure-related effect on lung function. Workers were stratified according to cumulative dust exposure category. Results Exposure to respirable charcoal dust levels was above occupational exposure limits in most sectors, with packing and weighing having the highest dust exposure levels (median 27.7 mg/m3, range: 0.2–33.0 for the 8-h time-weighted average). The high cumulative dust exposure category was significantly associated with usual cough (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.0), usual phlegm (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.1), episodes of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–6.1), and shortness of breath. A non-statistically significant lower adjusted mean-predicted % FEV1 was observed (98.1% for male and 95.5% for female) among workers with greater exposure. Conclusions Charcoal dust levels exceeded the US OSHA recommended limit of 3.5 mg/m3 for carbon-black-containing material and study participants presented with exposure-related adverse respiratory outcomes in a dose–response manner. Our findings suggest that the Namibian Ministry of Labour introduce stronger enforcement strategies of existing national health and safety regulations within the industry. PMID:27687528

  6. Manufacture of mold of polymeric composite water pipe reinforced charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar; Misdawati; Idris, M.; Nasution, F. K.; Harahap, U. N.; Simanjuntak, R. K.; Jufrizal; Pranoto, S.

    2018-03-01

    In general, household wastewater pipelines currently use thermoplastic pipes of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This material is known to be not high heat resistant, contains hazardous chemicals (toxins), relatively inhospitable, and relatively more expensive. Therefore, researchers make innovations utilizing natural materials in the form of wood charcoal as the basic material of making the water pipe. Making this pipe requires a simple mold design that can be worked in the scale of household and intermediate industries. This research aims to produce water pipe mold with simple design, easy to do, and making time relatively short. Some considerations for molding materials are weight of mold, ease of raw material, strong, sturdy, and able to cast. Pipe molds are grouped into 4 (four) main parts, including: outer diameter pipe molding, pipe inside diameter, pipe holder, and pipe alignment control. Some materials have been tested as raw materials for outer diameter of pipes, such as wood, iron / steel, cement, and thermoset. The best results are obtained on thermoset material, where the process of disassembling is easier and the resulting mold weight is relatively lighter. For the inside diameter of the pipe is used stainless steel, because in addition to be resistant to chemical processes that occur, in this part of the mold must hold the press load due to shrinkage of raw materials of the pipe during the process of hardening (polymerization). Therefore, it needs high pressure resistant material and does not blend with the raw material of the pipe. The base of the mold is made of stainless steel material because it must be resistant to corrosion due to chemical processes. As for the adjustment of the pipe is made of ST 37 carbon steel, because its function is only as a regulator of the alignment of the pipe structure.

  7. Comparison of ionization chamber calibration for mimeographs in W/Mo and W/Al qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Lara; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Marcus; Ferreira, Mario; Garcia, Igor; Pires, Evandro; Leite, Handerson; Navarro, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of ionization chambers for mammography laboratories seek to keep pace with technological advancement of manufacturers who have used new combinations anode/filter in mammography beyond the classic combinations of molybdenum and rhodium. This paper proposes to investigate the equivalence between calibrations of chambers different using the combinations W/Mo and W/Al at LABPROSAUD. The results showed a variation less than 1% on relationship between the calibration coefficients obtained in the evaluated combinations anode/filter for an uncertainty of 2.4%. The excellent performance of the chambers suggests a new possibility of calibration in the mammography quality at LABPROSAUD. (author)

  8. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  9. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  10. An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in mine air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, T.; Chruscielewski, W.; Orzechowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in uranium mine air is described. The apparatus is useful for testing track detectors, air samplers, masks and filters and for determining occupational exposures. Increasing the humidity of the chamber air and increasing the amounts of aerosol injected both increase the values of the equilibrium factor, F. The equilibrium in the chamber air decreases after the aerosol injection but by using controlled pulse injections it was shown that the stability of F could be maintained inside the chamber for 4 hours. Results are also given for the structure of the equilibrium between radon and its daughters Qsub(i)/Q 0 in the chamber air as a function of the chamber air factor F and also for the potential α-energy of unattached products in relation to the total α-potential energy of radon daughter products in the chamber air as a function of factor F. (U.K.)

  11. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serenje, W.; Chidumayo, E.N.; Chipuwa, J.H.; Egneus, H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  13. The charcoal-degradation nexus: contested 'fuelscapes' in the sub-Saharan drylands of northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christoph; Petersen, Maike; Roden, Paul; Nüsser, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal ranks amongst the most commercialized but least regulated commodities in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its prevalence as an energy source for cooking and heating, localized environmental and livelihood impacts of charcoal production are poorly understood so far. The identified research deficit is amplified by widespread negative views of this activity as a poverty-driven cause of deforestation and land degradation. However, the charcoal-degradation nexus is apparently more complicated, not least because the extraction of biomass from already degraded woodlands can also be interpreted as an appropriate option under given management regimes. In order to better calibrate existing research agendas to site-specific geographies of charcoal production, we propose a re-conceptualization of such energy landscapes as 'fuelscapes' with complex material and social dimensions. The concept is tested with reference to a case study in Central Pokot, northern Kenya, where charcoal production only began in the early 1990's. Based on the assumption that the fine line between sustainable land management and degradation in dryland energy landscapes is not only highly variable but also increasingly contested, our study combines the knowledge input of different stakeholders with longitudinal time series of remote sensing data. Based on the results of our interdisciplinary analyses, we outline an integrated tool for the co-operative monitoring and management of prevailing degradation processes against the background of diversified livelihood activities in sub-Saharan drylands.

  14. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  15. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  16. Stability of Streamer Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi

    1982-08-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result.

  17. Stability of streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result. (author)

  18. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  19. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  20. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  1. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretzki, G.

    1981-01-01

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  3. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  4. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions

  5. Review of the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.; Moeller, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a critical review of the published literature on the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal. This review, which was supported by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, showed that (a) individual charcoals have a wide range of adsoprtion coefficients and therefore the performance of a given bed is heavily dependent on the quality of the charcoal it contains; (b) because of the detrimental effects of mass transfer on noble gas adsorption, consideration should be given to including this factor in developing technical specifications for adsorption beds; and (c) additional research is needed on the determination of the inter-relationship of moisture and temperature and their effects on adsorption bed performance

  6. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bamboo-Charcoal-Supported Nano-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong ZHOU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were prepared by precipitation with bamboo charcoal as support. Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. Photocatalytic degradation processes of methyl orange were studied. The results indicate that the structure of nano-ZnO is of the wurtzite type and the grain size is about 19-54 nm. The best preparation temperature for these composites is 500℃. The composites have better photocatalytic degradation ability than pure ZnO under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with the composites obeys first-order kinetics, and the composites can be recycled.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17397

  7. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions

  8. Charcoal and siderurgy in Brazilian Amazonia: what environmental improvement paths? Example of the Carajas pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Fonseca Morello, Thiago; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Behling, Maurel; Caldeira Pires, Armando; Oliveira Rodrigues, Thiago; Rousset, Patrick; Dufour, Thomas; Durieux, Laurent; Sist, Plinio; Vieira, Paulo; Lemenager, Tiphaine; Ernst, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The pig iron sector of Carajas, in the Brazilian Amazon, uses charcoal which is strongly criticized because of the charcoal production direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forests degradation. This publication identifies and analyzes some alternatives to decrease the charcoal production environmental negative externalities and the main technical, economic and institutional factors that may limit their adoption. Several alternatives are possible, based on more efficient carbonization technologies, reforestation or afforestation of degraded lands, and, to a lesser extent, the use of reduced impact logging residues. Some of the alternatives are cost-efficient in the long term and financing support is available to promote their adoption. Land tenure and environmental regularization is a necessary pre-requisite for their expansion. (authors)

  9. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  10. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Bakri, Fahrul [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia); Liong, Syarifuddin [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  11. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Flame Curtain Biochar Kilns Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. Biochar Characteristics A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16—PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Gas Emission Factors Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2. Implications With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission

  12. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67 Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67 Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67 Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67 Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In

  13. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  14. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner L; Merbold, Lutz; Ziegler, Waldemar; Mukelabai, Mukufute M; Muchinda, Maurice; Kolle, Olaf; Scholes, Robert J

    2011-08-19

    This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other

  15. Newspaper reporting and the emergence of charcoal burning suicide in Taiwan: A mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Biddle, Lucy; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Gunnell, David

    2016-03-15

    It has been suggested that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicide was a key factor in the rapid spread of this novel method in many East Asian countries. But very few empirical studies have explored the relationship between media reporting and the emergence of this new method of suicide. We investigated the changing pattern of media reporting of charcoal burning suicides in Taiwan during 1998-2002 when this method of suicide increased most rapidly, assessing whether the characteristics of media reporting were associated with the changing incidence of suicide using this method. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of newspaper content during 1998-2002 was used. We compared differences in reporting characteristics before and after the rapid increase in charcoal burning suicide. Point-biserial and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the associations between the media item content and changes in suicide rates. During the period when charcoal burning suicide increased rapidly, the number of reports per suicide was considerably higher than during the early stage (0.31 vs. 0.10). Detailed reporting of this new method was associated with a post-reporting increase in suicides using the method. Qualitative analysis of news items revealed that the content of reports of suicide by charcoal burning changed gradually; in the early stages of the epidemic (1999-2000) there was convergence in the terminology used to report charcoal burning deaths, later reports gave detailed descriptions of the setting in which the death occurred (2001) and finally the method was glamourized and widely publicized (2001-2002). Our analysis was restricted to newspaper reports and did not include TV or the Internet. Newspaper reporting was associated with the evolution and establishment of charcoal burning suicide. Working with media and close monitoring of changes in the incidence of suicide using a new method might help

  16. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold in activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austen, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the determination of gold in activated charcoal by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Compensation for matrix effects is achieved by means of platinum that is added for use as an internal standard. Calibration is achieved by use of a series of synthetic standards that are made by the spiking of barren charcoal with gold and platinum. The limit of determination is about 8 p.p.m. of gold, and the relative standard deviation is 1,2 per cent at a concentration level of 2300 p.p.m

  17. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan [Department of Radiological Technology, ChungTai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Tsai, Shih-Chuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160 Taichung Harbor Road, Section 3, 40705, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use {sup 67}Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with {sup 67}Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients

  18. Removal of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu Ions from Wastewater Using Cow Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow bone charcoal (CBC was synthesized and used for the removal of metals ions (manganese, iron, nickel and copper from aqueous solutions. Two different adsorption models were used for analyzing the data. Adsorption capacities were determined: copper ions exhibit the greatest adsorption on cow bone charcoal because of their size and pH conditions. Adsorption capacity varies as a function of pH. Adsorption isotherms from aqueous solution of heavy metals on CBC were determined. Adsorption isotherms are consistent with Langmuir´s adsorption model. Adsorbent quantity and immersion enthalpy were studied.

  19. What Does Psychological Autopsy Study Tell Us about Charcoal Burning Suicide--A New and Contagious Method in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sandra S. M.; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Wong, Paul W. C.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Law, Y. W.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong between 2002-2004 in the 15 to 59-year-old age group were investigated using the psychological autopsy method. The psychopathological profiles of charcoal burning suicides (N = 53) were compared against "other suicides" (N = 97). The two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of…

  20. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum

  1. Long and Short-Term Effects of Fire on Soil Charcoal of a Conifer Forest in Southwest Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Morrissette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the Biscuit Wildfire burned a portion of the previously established, replicated conifer unthinned and thinned experimental units of the Siskiyou Long-Term Ecosystem Productivity (LTEP experiment, southwest Oregon. Charcoal C in pre and post-fire O horizon and mineral soil was quantified by physical separation and a peroxide-acid digestion method. The abrupt, short-term fire event caused O horizon charcoal C to increase by a factor of ten to >200 kg C ha−1. The thinned wildfire treatment produced less charcoal C than unthinned wildfire and thinned prescribed fire treatments. The charcoal formation rate was 1 to 8% of woody fuels consumed, and this percentage was negatively related to woody fuels consumed, resulting in less charcoal formation with greater fire severity. Charcoal C averaged 2000 kg ha−1 in 0–3 cm mineral soil and may have decreased as a result of fire, coincident with convective or erosive loss of mineral soil. Charcoal C in 3–15 cm mineral soil was stable at 5500 kg C ha−1. Long-term soil C sequestration in the Siskiyou LTEP soils is greatly influenced by the contribution of charcoal C, which makes up 20% of mineral soil organic C. This research reiterates the importance of fire to soil C in a southwestern Oregon coniferous forest ecosystem.

  2. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  3. Has the woodfuel crisis returned? Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwampamba, Tuyeni Heita

    2007-01-01

    By lumping together charcoal and firewood consumption to determine the threats to forests from widespread use of woodfuel energy in sub-Sahara African, studies have greatly underestimated the individual impact of charcoal. Where high consumption levels are coupled with poor forest management and negligible regulation of the charcoal trade, the threat of an impending crisis caused by charcoal alone needs to be revisited. This study uses a survey of 244 households in six Tanzanian cities to determine whether current consumption levels, charcoal production techniques and forest management practices are sufficient to meet present and future charcoal demand. Projections to year 2100 were made to determine whether forests can continue to meet future demand under 24 scenarios that capture the numerous uncertainties that exist of converting charcoal consumption into forest needed. The findings suggest that the scenarios containing median consumption levels, low kiln efficiencies and low replenishment of harvested forests could deplete forests on public land by 2028. Best-case scenarios occurred when the opposite conditions existed. The study concludes that charcoal consumption is a real threat to the long-term persistence of forests in Tanzania and proposes policy interventions for alleviating forest loss

  4. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)

  5. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  6. Simulation of chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The description of the system of computer simulation of experiments conducted by means of track detectors with film data output is given. Considered is the principle of organization of computer model of the chamber experiment comprising the following stages: generation of events, generation of measurements, ge-- neration of scanning results, generation of distorbions, generated data calibration, filtration, events reconstruction, kinematic identification, total results tape formation, analysis of the results. Generation programs are formed as special RAM-files, where the RAM-file is the text of the program written in FORTRAN and divided into structural elements. All the programs are a ''part of the ''Hydra'' system. The system possibilities are considered on the base of the CDSC-6500 computer. The five-beam event generation, creation data structure for identification and calculation by the kinematic program take about 1s of CDC-6500 computer time [ru

  7. Nucleation in bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harigel, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various sources and mechanisms for bubble formation in superheated liquids are discussed. Bubble chambers can be filled with a great variety of liquids, such as e.g. the cryogenic liquids hydrogen, deuterium, neon, neon/hydrogen mixtures, argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen mixtures, or the warm liquids propane and various Freon like Freon-13B1. The superheated state is normally achieved by a rapid movement of an expansion piston or membrane, but can also be produced by standing ultrasonic waves, shock waves, or putting liquids under tension. Bubble formation can be initiated by ionizing particles, by intense (laser) light, or on rough surfaces. The creation of embryonic bubbles is not completely understood, but the macroscopic growth and condensation can be calculated, allowing to estimate the dynamic heat load [fr

  8. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  9. Peltier-based cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nar, Sevda Yeliz; Cakir, Altan

    2018-02-01

    Particles produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation and reactions can be identified through various methods. One of these methods that has been effective in the last century is the cloud chamber. The chamber makes visible cosmic particles that we are exposed to radiation per second. Diffusion cloud chamber is a kind of cloud chamber that is cooled by dry ice. This traditional model has some application difficulties. In this work, Peltier-based cloud chamber cooled by thermoelectric modules is studied. The new model provided uniformly cooled base of the chamber, moreover, it has longer lifetime than the traditional chamber in terms of observation time. This gain has reduced the costs which spent each time for cosmic particle observation. The chamber is an easy-to-use system according to traditional diffusion cloud chamber. The new model is portable, easier to make, and can be used in the nuclear physics experiments. In addition, it would be very useful to observe Muons which are the direct evidence for Lorentz contraction and time expansion predicted by Einsteins special relativity principle.

  10. Effect of sorbitol, single, and multidose activated charcoal administration on carprofen absorption following experimental overdose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigshof, Amy M; Beal, Matthew W; Poppenga, Robert H; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal, single dose activated charcoal with sorbitol, and multidose activated charcoal in reducing plasma carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Randomized, four period cross-over study. University research setting. Eight healthy Beagles. A 120 mg/kg of carprofen was administered orally to each dog followed by either (i) a single 2 g/kg activated charcoal administration 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (AC); (ii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal with 3.84 g/kg sorbitol 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (ACS); (iii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal 1 hour after carprofen ingestion and repeated every 6 hours for a total of 4 doses (MD); (iv) no treatment (control). Plasma carprofen concentrations were obtained over a 36-hour period following carprofen ingestion for each protocol. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed and time versus concentration, area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum concentration, and elimination half-life were calculated and compared among the groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Activated charcoal, activated charcoal with sorbitol (ACS), and multiple-dose activated charcoal (MD) significantly reduced the area under the curve compared to the control group. AC and MD significantly reduced the maximum concentration when compared to the control group. MD significantly reduced elimination half-life when compared to ACS and the control group. There were no other significant differences among the treatment groups. Activated charcoal and ACS are as effective as MD in reducing serum carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of AC, ACS, and MD in the clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  11. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  12. Off-gas filter system of the SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, L.; Jordan, S.; Schikarski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The Reventing-Exventing-System of the German Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Prototype SNR-300 is described. After an accident with major damage to the core the ventilation valves are quickly closed. At the same time the blower of the reventing system evacuates the reventing gap up to a pressure difference of 2 mbar between the containment and the outer atmosphere. This pressure difference prevents a leakage from the containment to the outside. The revented gas is recirculated into the outer-containment. Leaks from the atmosphere and possibly from the inner containment into the reventing gap increase the pressure in the outer-containment. Therefore depending on the pressure build-up which is determined by the course of the accident, it is necessary to exvent the containment after several days. The exvented gas is filtered by a filter combination consisting of pre-filters, charcoal-filters and HEPA-filters. Because accidental sodium fires produce high concentrations of sodium oxide-aerosols this filter system must resist chemical aggressive aerosols. (U.S.)

  13. Fuel filter device, particularly for Diesel fuel. Kraftstoffiltriereinrichtung, insbesondere fuer Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, S.B.

    1981-01-22

    The purpose of the invention is to describe a fuel filter device, particularly for Diesel fuel, where dirt is deposited in the expansion chamber without causing turbulence. In order to solve the problem the device is characterized by the fact that there are radial fins, which guide the fuel in laminar flow. These fins ensure that dirt can be deposited in the expansion chamber without causing turbulence. In order to avoid stuttering of the internal combustion engine due to the formation of air pockets in the filter, suitable inlets and outlets are provided for the filter chamber.

  14. Effects of false yam tuber meals and charcoal on broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of replacing a portion of a commercial broiler feed with false yam tuber meals on broiler growth performance, feed conversion rate (FCR) and blood parameters. Furthermore, wood charcoal was added at various levels to the meals to explore their potential to attenuate toxic effects.

  15. Structural, morphological, and thermal characterization of kraft lignin and its charcoals obtained at different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Brazil, Tayra; Nunes Costa, Rogeria; Massi, Marcos; Cerqueira Rezende, Mirabel

    2018-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource that is becoming more import due to environmental concerns and possible oil crisis. Thus, optimizing its use is a current challenge for many researchers. Lignin, which is a macromolecule with complex chemical structure, valuable physicochemical properties, and varied chemical composition, is available in large quantities in pulp and paper companies. The objective of this work is the physicochemical characterization of two Kraft lignin samples with different purities, and the study of its thermal conversion into charcoal. The lignin characterization was based on chemical, TGA, DSC, FT-IR, particle sizes, and FEG-SEM analyses. These analyses show that the lignins are mainly composed of guaiacyl and syringyl units, with residues of 30–36 wt.%, in inert atmosphere, depending on the lignin purity. From these results, the more purified lignin with higher carbon yield (%C) was selected for charcoal production. The heat treatment (HT) for carbonization of lignin, at different times (90, 180, and 420 min), resulted in different %C (41–44 wt.%). Longer HT resulted in higher %C and in charcoals with smaller pore sizes. Nanopores (∼50 nm) are observed for the charcoal obtained with the longest HT.

  16. Adsorption of p-Nitrophenol (PNP) on new adsorbents prepared from diatomite and charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, B.; Khelifa, N.; Chernai-Hamdi, S.; Hadjari, H.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to mesoporous materials with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution because of their diverse applications (e. g., adsorbents, catalysts, and host materials). Inorganic composite materials (ICM) prepared by a mixture of natural diatomite (macroporous materials) and charcoal (microporous material) in particular operative conditions. (Author)

  17. A comparison of charcoal- and slag-based constructed wetlands for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CW) with charcoal- or slag-based bed matrices were investigated for their potential use in remediating acid mine drainage (AMD). A CW is effectively a reactor in which some components of the wastewater are broken down by the organisms occurring within the CW, whilst others may ...

  18. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  19. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd contaminated soil (Vertisol using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L. was investigated. The alleviation potential of Prosopis charcoal and Coir pith on the negative effects of Cd in soil was evaluated in pot culture experiments with Vigna radiata as the test plant, a Cd accumulator. Cadmium addition to soil resulted in accumulation of Cd in all plant parts of V. radiata predominantly in roots. The influence of Cd in the presence and absence of organic amendments on the various biological and chemical parameters of the soil, on the levels of Cd accumulation and on the growth attributes of V. radiata has been assessed. Among the organic amendments, Prosopis charcoal was found to be more effective in reducing the bioavailable levels of Cd in the soil artificially spiked with Cd in graded concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg g-1 and its accumulation in V. radiata, thus resulting in an increase in the root, leaf and stem biomass. Coir pith, however, was effective in increasing the total mycorrhizal colonization of roots and second in reducing Cd levels in plants. Therefore, Prosopis charcoal was considered best for stabilization of Cd in soil.

  20. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  1. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time

  2. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  3. A Study of Polishing Feature of Ultrasonic-Assisted Vibration Method in Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Min Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the feature of porosity in bamboo charcoal, this study applies the ultrasonic-assisted vibration method to perform surface polishing of the silicon wafer workpiece. The self-developed bamboo charcoal polishing spindle and ultrasonic- assisted vibration mechanism are attached to a single lapping machine. In the machining process, ultrasonic vibration enables the diamond slurry to smoothly pass through the microscopic holes of bamboo charcoal; the end of the bamboo charcoalis able to continue machining on the surface of the workpiece through the grasping force which exists in the microscopic holes. Under the polishing and machining parameters of ultrasonic-assisted vibration, with a diamond slurry concentration of 0.3%, the experimental results show a polishing time of 20 min, a loading of 25 N on the workpiece surface, a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a vibration frequency of 30 kHz and the original surface roughness value of Ra 0.252 μm equals that of a mirror-like surface at Ra 0.017 μm. These research results prove that by using bamboo charcoal and ultrasonic-assisted vibration for polishing, a very good improvement can be achieved on the workpiece surface.

  4. Advanced Electrocardiogram Analysis in the Amitriptyline-poisoned Pig Treated with Activated Charcoal Haemoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Hoegberg, Lotte C.G.; Eriksen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal haemoperfusion (CAC-HP) does not reduce the plasma concentration in amitriptyline (AT)-poisoned pigs. The aim of this non-blinded, randomized, controlled animal trial was to determine if CAC-HP reduces the pathological ECG changes caused by AT poisoning. Fourteen female...

  5. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths c...

  6. Pyrolysis of blended animal manures to produce combustible gas and value-added charcoal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and rye grass were pyrolyzed using a skid-mounted sytem. Produced gas composition was analyzed for major hydrocarbons and S-containing compounds. Charcoal was analyzed for its surface functional groups, contact angles, HHV, and total element contents. Some of th...

  7. In vivo experiments with powder charcoal haemoperfusion (filmadsorber) in a pig model of hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berlo, G.M.W.; Groot, de G.H.; Schalm, S.W.; Jansen, P.P.; Vries, de E.H.; Fick, T.; Reuvers, C.; Boks, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The filmadsorber, an experimental haemoperfusion column containing activated powder charcoal embedded in a colloidal film, has been tested in pigs with ischaemicnecrosis of the Iiver. Haemoperfusion with aflow of 200 mI/min was perfermed for a duration of 4 to 6 hours. Bile acid clearances varied

  8. The effect of activated charcoal on drug exposure in healthy volunteers: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, G; Hoegberg, L C Groth; Graudal, N A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of activated charcoal (AC) administered during the first 6 h after drug intake and the effect of drug properties on drug exposure. Sixty-four controlled studies were integrated in a meta-analysis. AC administered 0-5 min after administration...

  9. Methyl iodide retention on charcoal sorbents at parts-per-million concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.O.; Vogt, G.J.; Kasunic, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Breakthrough curves for charcoal beds challenged by air containing parts-per-million methyl iodide ( 127 I) vapor concentrations were obtained and analyzed. A goal of this research is to determine if sorbent tests at relatively high vapor concentrations give data that can be extrapolated many orders of magnitude to the region of interest for radioiodine retention and removal. Another objective is to identify and characterize parameters that are critical to the performance of a charcoal bed in a respirator cartridge application. Towards these ends, a sorbent test system was built that allows experimental variations of the parameters of challenge vapor concentration, volumetric flow rate, bed depth, bed diameter, and relative humidity. Methyl iodide breakthrough was measured at a limit of 0.002 ppM using a gas chromatograph equipped with a linearized electron capture detector. Several models that have been proposed to describe breakthrough curves were tested against experimental data. A variety of charcoals used or proposed for use in radioiodine air filtration systems have been tested against 25.7 ppM methyl iodide to obtain these parameters and protection (decomtamination) factors. Effects of challenge concentration, relative humidity, and bed diameter were also investigated. Significant challenge concentration dependence was measured (more efficiency at lower concentration) for two types of charcoals. Increased relative humidity greatly decreased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Increased bed diameter greatly increased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Implications of these effects for a test method are discussed

  10. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering

  11. Refinement of the charcoal meal study by reduction of the fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Helen; Ewart, Lorna; Bright, Jonathan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a shorter fasting period than the one historically employed for the charcoal meal test, could be used when measuring gastric emptying and intestinal transit within the same animal, and to ascertain whether the scientific outcome would be affected by this benefit to animal welfare. Rats and mice were fasted for 0, 3, 6 or 18 hours before the oral administration of vehicle or atropine. One hour later, the animals were orally administered a charcoal meal, then 20 minutes later, they were killed and the stomach and small intestine were removed. Intestinal transit time (the position of the charcoal front as a percentage of the total length of the small intestine) and relative gastric emptying (weight of stomach contents) were measured. Rats and mice fasted for six hours showed results for gastric emptying and intestinal transit which were similar to those obtained in animals fasted for 18 hours. Reducing the fasting period reduced the body weight loss in both species, and mice on shorter fasts could be group-housed, as hunger-induced fighting was lessened. Therefore, a fasting period of six hours was subsequently adopted for charcoal meal studies at our institution. 2011 FRAME.

  12. The rapid determination of 230Th by preconcentration of charcoal absorbing N-1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jiayuan; Wu Hanzhen.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation was made on concentration of 230 Th using charcoal, which had adsorbed amine N-1923 before hand. The separation of α-emitter U, Ra, Po also has been investigated. α-source was prepared by Powder-Pulp method. This method is simple, convenient and esay to operate

  13. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  14. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  15. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  16. Spectral analysis of charcoal on soils: Implications for wildland fire severity mapping methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Jan U. H. Eitel; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the Western United States have supported climate scenarios that predict a higher occurrence of large and severe wildfires. Knowledge of the severity is important to infer long-term biogeochemical, ecological, and societal impacts, but understanding the sensitivity of any severity mapping method to variations in soil type and increasing charcoal (char...

  17. The little holographic bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, A.

    1983-01-01

    The lifetime study of the charmed particles has readvanced the idea to use holography for the little fast-cycle bubble chambers. A pilot experiment has been realised in 1982 with a little bubble chamber filled up with freon-115. 40000 holograms have been recorded [fr

  18. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  19. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  20. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  1. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Maurice, Muchinda; Mukufute M, Mukelabai; J, Scholes Robert; Waldemar, Ziegler; L, Kutsch Werner

    2010-05-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to firewood but by having higher energy densities and thus being cheaper to transport. Over the last decades, charcoal production has become a full-time employment for migrant workers, resulting in very different and no longer sustainable deforestation patterns. Strategies to reduce the pressure on the miombo woodlands have to take aspects of employment and energy demand into account. The objectives of the study were to examine above- and belowground carbon losses from an intact miombo woodland (protected forest reserve) in comparison to a highly disturbed surrounding area due to charcoal production. Detection of changes in carbon concentrations and stocks were made possible by applying biomass- and soil inventories as well as the eddy-covariance method. These local results were up-scaled to countrywide estimates of carbon lost to the atmosphere by deforestation in addition to carbon losses fossil fuel combustion. The results show, that in the worst case scenario which does not assume any regeneration, a developing country as Zambia, can easily emit as much carbon per capita as a developed Western world country such as France, when deforestation is included in the national inventory (up to 9.1 t of CO2 per capita). However, regeneration is very probably when post-harvest disturbance is low. Further studies on miombo regeneration are highly demanded.

  2. Metabolite Profiling of Feces and Serum in Hemodialysis Patients and the Effect of Medicinal Charcoal Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixiu; Liang, Shanshan; Liu, Hua; Chen, Lei; Sun, Lingshuang; Wei, Meng; Jiang, Hongli; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-22

    Recently, the colon has been recognized as an important source of various uremic toxins in patients with end stage renal disease. Medicinal charcoal tablets are an oral adsorbent that are widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease in China to remove creatinine and urea from the colon. A parallel fecal and serum metabolomics study was performed to determine comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). The effects of medicinal charcoal tablets on the fecal and serum metabolomes of HD patients were also investigated. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the fecal and serum metabolic profiles of 20 healthy controls and 31 HD patients before and after taking medicinal charcoal tablets for 3 months. There were distinct metabolic variations between the HD patients and healthy controls both in the feces and serum according to multivariate data analysis. Metabolic disturbances of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism figured prominently in the serum. However, in the feces, alterations of tryptophan metabolism, lysine degradation and beta-alanine metabolism were pronounced, and the levels of several amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were increased dramatically. Nineteen fecal metabolites and 21 serum metabolites were also identified as biomarkers that contributed to the metabolic differences. Additionally, medicinal charcoal treatment generally enabled the serum and fecal metabolomes of the HD patients to draw close to those of the control subjects, especially the serum metabolic profile. Parallel fecal and serum metabolomics uncovered the systematic metabolic variations of HD patients, especially disturbances in amino acid metabolism in the colon. Medicinal charcoal tablets had an impact on the serum and fecal metabolomes of HD patients, but their exact effects still need to be studied further

  3. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg -1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  4. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  5. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  6. Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, K.

    2008-12-01

    In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional

  7. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  8. Quantitative measurement of 222Rn in water by the activated charcoal passive collector method: 1. The effect of water in a collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Inoue, Yoriteru; Yoshimoto, Keizo

    1994-01-01

    The activated charcoal passive collector method can be applied to measure the concentration of 222 Rn in river water. The 222 Rn collector is composed of dry activated charcoal sealed in a polyethylene bag. However, we found it very difficult to keep activated charcoal in a collector dry during the period the collector was left in a river. The degree of dampness and the time lapsed when activated charcoal became wet were thought to affect the quantity of 222 Rn collected. First, we studied the effect of some parameters in the activated charcoal passive collector method qualitatively in three experiments. We found that the quantity of 222 Rn collected in a collector was not so sensitive to the quantity of activated charcoal in the collector or the thickness of polyethylene film under the condition of wet activated charcoal, and that wet activated charcoal accumulated less 222 Rn than dry activated charcoal. We present some equations which could explain how much 222 Rn was collected in a collector when activated charcoal was submerged directly in water and when activated charcoal was packed in a polyethylene bag but completely wet. These equations were proved effective by being compared with the results of the other experiments. Finally, we recommended some conditions which proved useful when measuring at an actual river

  9. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  10. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  11. A Model-Based Approach to Infer Shifts in Regional Fire Regimes Over Time Using Sediment Charcoal Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, M.; Finley, A. O.; Hooten, M.; Higuera, P. E.; Marlon, J. R.; McLachlan, J. S.; Kelly, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment charcoal records are used in paleoecological analyses to identify individual local fire events and to estimate fire frequency and regional biomass burned at centennial to millenial time scales. Methods to identify local fire events based on sediment charcoal records have been well developed over the past 30 years, however, an integrated statistical framework for fire identification is still lacking. We build upon existing paleoecological methods to develop a hierarchical Bayesian point process model for local fire identification and estimation of fire return intervals. The model is unique in that it combines sediment charcoal records from multiple lakes across a region in a spatially-explicit fashion leading to estimation of a joint, regional fire return interval in addition to lake-specific local fire frequencies. Further, the model estimates a joint regional charcoal deposition rate free from the effects of local fires that can be used as a measure of regional biomass burned over time. Finally, the hierarchical Bayesian approach allows for tractable error propagation such that estimates of fire return intervals reflect the full range of uncertainty in sediment charcoal records. Specific sources of uncertainty addressed include sediment age models, the separation of local versus regional charcoal sources, and generation of a composite charcoal record The model is applied to sediment charcoal records from a dense network of lakes in the Yukon Flats region of Alaska. The multivariate joint modeling approach results in improved estimates of regional charcoal deposition with reduced uncertainty in the identification of individual fire events and local fire return intervals compared to individual lake approaches. Modeled individual-lake fire return intervals range from 100 to 500 years with a regional interval of roughly 200 years. Regional charcoal deposition to the network of lakes is correlated up to 50 kilometers. Finally, the joint regional charcoal

  12. Diagnostic of the charcoal's productive and commercialize in the Pinar del Río's Integral Forest Company by matrix SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Anh Thi Nguyen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to diagnose the situation productive of charcoal in Pinar del Río EFI by SWOT matrix (weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities which consists of the collection of information from different sources related to the production of charcoal and thus a screening of ideas and through the technical working group with the presence of specialists proceeded develop the matrix with all components was performed. The results of the assessment of the productive situation of charcoal indicate an unfavorable position, resulting in a strategy of adaptive type, conditioned by economic, political and cultural factors.

  13. Macro-particle charcoal C content following prescribed burning in a mixed-conifer forest, Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Morgan L; Hurteau, Matthew D; Kaye, Jason P; Miesel, Jessica R

    2015-01-01

    Fire suppression and changing climate have resulted in increased large wildfire frequency and severity in the western United States, causing carbon cycle impacts. Forest thinning and prescribed burning reduce high-severity fire risk, but require removal of biomass and emissions of carbon from burning. During each fire a fraction of the burning vegetation and soil organic matter is converted into charcoal, a relatively stable carbon form. We sought to quantify the effects of pre-fire fuel load and type on charcoal carbon produced by biomass combusted in a prescribed burn under different thinning treatments and to identify more easily measured predictors of charcoal carbon mass in a historically frequent-fire mixed-conifer forest. We hypothesized that charcoal carbon produced from coarse woody debris (CWD) during prescribed burning would be greater than that produced from fine woody debris (FWD). We visually quantified post-treatment charcoal carbon content in the O-horizon and the A-horizon beneath CWD (> 30 cm diameter) and up to 60 cm from CWD that was present prior to treatment. We found no difference in the size of charcoal carbon pools from CWD (treatment means ranged from 0.3-2.0 g m-2 of A-horizon and 0.0-1.7 g m-2 of O-horizon charcoal) and FWD (treatment means ranged from 0.2-1.7 g m-2 of A-horizon and 0.0-1.5 g m-2 of O-horizon charcoal). We also compared treatments and found that the burn-only, understory-thin and burn, and overstory-thin and burn treatments had significantly more charcoal carbon than the control. Charcoal carbon represented 0.29% of total ecosystem carbon. We found that char mass on CWD was an important predictor of charcoal carbon mass, but only explained 18-35% of the variation. Our results help improve our understanding of the effects forest restoration treatments have on ecosystem carbon by providing additional information about charcoal carbon content.

  14. Realization of radioactive equilibrium in the KRISS radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Park, Tae Soon; Lee, Jong Man

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of radioactive equilibrium between radon and its decay products in a radon chamber is necessary to calibrate radon decay product monitors. In this study, the activity concentrations of radon decay products have been measured, and mosquito-repellent incense has been used to produce aerosol particles in the chamber. Filter papers with 8 μm pore size were used to collect aerosol in the chamber. The activity concentrations of radon decay products have been evaluated by the Modified Tsivoglou Method. The correction factors due to the differences in counting time requirements of the Modified Tsivoglou Method and the time delay between consecutive measurements have been determined. Finally, the radioactive equilibrium has been confirmed by applying the Bateman equation. - Highlights: • The activity concentrations of radon decay products are evaluated by the Modified Tsivoglou Method. • Mosquito-repellent incense is used to produce aerosol particles in the radon chamber. • The radioactive equilibrium in the chamber was achieved within 2 days and confirmed by the Bateman equation

  15. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  16. Use of Activated Charcoal for 220Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of 220 Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of 220 Rn in the range of 9 x 10 3 pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of 220 Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a 220 Rn adsorption media, the source term for available 220 Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to 220 Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10 9 for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10 6 . The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a 220 Rn activity on the order of 10 10 Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. INTERACTIONS OF ELEVATED CO2, NH3 AND O-3 ON MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION, GAS-EXCHANGE AND N-METABOLISM IN SAPLINGS OF SCOTS PINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; DUECK, TA; PUPPI, G; KUIPER, PJC

    Four-year-old saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed for 11 weeks in controlled-environment chambers to charcoal-filtered air, or to charcoal-filtered air supplemented with NH3 (40 mu g m(-3)), O-3 (110 mu g m(-3) during day/ 40 mu g m(-3) during night) or NH3 + O-3. All

  19. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  20. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  1. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  2. Advances on fission chamber modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, Philippe; Jammes, Christian; Geslot, Benoit; Veenhof, Rob

    2013-06-01

    In-vessel, online neutron flux measurements are routinely performed in mock-up and material testing reactors by fission chambers. Those measurements have a wide range of applications, including characterization of experimental conditions, reactor monitoring and safety. Depending on the application, detectors may experience a wide range of constraints, of several magnitudes, in term of neutron flux, gamma-ray flux, temperature. Hence, designing a specific fission chamber and measuring chain for a given application is a demanding task. It can be achieved by a combination of experimental feedback and simulating tools, the latter being based on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics. A computation route that simulates fission chambers, named CHESTER, is presented. The retrieved quantities of interest are the neutron-induced charge spectrum, the electronic and ionic pulses, the mean current and variance, the power spectrum. It relies on the GARFIELD suite, originally developed for drift chambers, and makes use of the MAGBOLTZ code to assess the drift parameters of electrons within the filling gas, and the SRIM code to evaluate the stopping range of fission products. The effect of the gamma flux is also estimated. Computations made with several fission chambers exemplify the possibilities of the route. A good qualitative agreement is obtained when comparing the results with the experimental data available to date. In a near future, a comprehensive experimental programme will be undertaken to qualify the route using the known neutron sources, mock-up reactors and wide choice of fission chambers, with a stress on the predictiveness of the Campbelling mode. Depending on the results, a refinement of the modelling and an effort on the accuracy of input data are also to be considered. CHESTER will then make it possible to predict the overall sensitivity of a chamber, and to optimize the design for a given application. Another benefit will be to increase the

  3. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  4. The OPAL vertex drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.R.; Elcombe, P.A.; Hill, J.C.; Roach, C.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Estabrooks, P.; Hemingway, R.; Karlen, D.; McPherson, A.; Pinfold, J.; Roney, J.M.; Routenburg, P.; Waterhouse, J.; Hargrove, C.K.; Klem, D.; Oakham, F.G.; Carter, A.A.; Jones, R.W.L.; Lasota, M.M.B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Pritchard, T.W.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A high precision vertex drift chamber has been installed in the OPAL experiment at LEP. The design of the chamber and the associated readout electronics is described. The performance of the system has been studied using cosmic ray muons and the results of these studies are presented. A space resolution of 50 μm in the drift direction is obtained using the OPAL central detector gas mixture at 4 bar. (orig.)

  5. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  6. THE USE OF SILICA SAND, ZEOLITE AND ACTIVE CHARCOAL TO REDUCE BOD, COD AND TSS OF LAUNDRY WASTE WATER AS A BIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Assiddieq

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment contaminated with detergent waste in high concentrations can endanger the lives human and biota in the water. This study aimed to determine the decrease of BOD, COD and TSS content of laundry liquid waste by using filter media of silica sand, zeolite, and activated charcoal. Filter medium 1a can reduce BOD level from 98.6 mg/L to 58.80 mg/L (40.36%, while medium 1b can decrease BOD level to 21.20 mg/L (78.48%. It showed that media 1a had not fulfilled the quality standard of BOD of waste water that is 50 mg/L, while media 1b had fulfilled the standard of quality. Filter media 1a can decrease COD level from 210 mg/L to 78.80 mg/L (62.47%, whereas medium 1b can decrease COD to 25.60 mg/L (87.80%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of COD of waste water that is 100 mg/L. Filter media 1a can decrease TSS level from 465 mg/L to 122.5 mg/L (73.65%, whereas medium 1b can decrease TSS level to 52.3 mg/L (88.75%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of TSS of waste water that is 150 mg/L.

  7. A study of the response of ionization chambers to mammography beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, G.; Burns, D.T.; Buermann, L.; Prez, L.A. de

    2007-03-01

    Some simulated mammography radiation beams have been established at the BIPM using a low-energy x-ray tube with a tungsten anode and molybdenum as a filter. The response of two ionization chambers of different types to these beams is compared with that obtained in mammography beams at the PTB and the NMi which were produced with x-ray tubes with molybdenum anodes and molybdenum filters. The relative differences between the chamber responses to these two different types of beams were less than 7 x 10 -3 which implies the uncertainty for the transfer of a calibration from one type of beam to the other. (authors)

  8. PEP quark search proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S I; Harris, F; Karliner, I; Yount, D [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Ely, R; Hamilton, R; Pun, T [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Guryn, W; Miller, D; Fries, R [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Proportional chambers are used in the PEP Free Quark Search to identify and remove possible background sources such as particles traversing the edges of counters, to permit geometric corrections to the dE/dx and TOF information from the scintillator and Cerenkov counters, and to look for possible high cross section quarks. The present beam pipe has a thickness of 0.007 interaction lengths (lambdasub(i)) and is followed in both arms each with 45/sup 0/ <= theta <= 135/sup 0/, ..delta..phi=90/sup 0/ by 5 proportional chambers, each 0.0008 lambdasub(i) thick with 32 channels of pulse height readout, and by 3 thin scintillator planes, each 0.003 lambdasub(i) thick. Following this thin front end, each arm of the detector has 8 layers of scintillator (one with scintillating light pipes) interspersed with 4 proportional chambers and a layer of lucite Cerenkov counters. Both the calculated ion statistics and measurements using He-CH/sub 4/ gas in a test chamber indicate that the chamber efficiencies should be >98% for q=1/3. The Landau spread measured in the test was equal to that observed for normal q=1 traversals. One scintillator plane and thin chamber in each arm will have an extra set of ADC's with a wide gate bracketing the normal one so timing errors and tails of earlier pulses should not produce fake quarks.

  9. Recirculating electric air filter for use in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed recirculating electric air filters for use in confined spaces where the existing ventilation system is not adequate for removing suspended particles. Two experimental filters were built and evaluated, both of which consisted of a cylindrical cartridge filter fitted over an air blower. In one design the cylindrical cartridge is a disposable unit with the electrodes and filter medium built as an integrated unit. The second design has a cylindrical cartridge that can be easily disassembled to allow replacement of the filter medium. Both designs were evaluated in a 354-ft 3 test cell using NaCl aerosols. The second design was installed and evaluated in a chamber where highly radioactive 238 PuO 2 powder is formed into pellets. We have derived equations that describe the theory of recirculating air filters. The predicted performance compares well with experimental measurements under controlled conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (DT)

  10. Gas permeability through thin-foil x-ray filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveekrem, June L.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Webb, Andrew T.

    1997-10-01

    We have measured the permeation rates of helium and water through thin-foil UV-blocking filters used in the ASTRO-E/x- ray spectrometer (XRS) instrument. In the XRS program, there is a concern that outgassed contaminants such as water could permeate through the outermost filter which will be at room temperature and freeze on the inner filters which will be at cryogenic temperatures. The filters tested consisted of approximately 1000 angstroms Al on approximately 1000 angstroms of either Lexan or polyimide. Measurements were made using a vacuum apparatus consisting essentially of two small chambers separated by the filter under test. A helium leak detector was used to measure helium permeation rates, and a residual gas analyzer (RGA) was used to detect water. Results discussed include permeation rate as a function of pressure difference across a filter, the ratio of helium permeation rate over water permeation rate, and the effect of the aluminum layer thickness on permeation.

  11. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  12. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    , the reductions compared to control (Hoegberg et al. 2002) varied between 11% and 26%. Even though a reduction in drug adsorption to activated charcoal was observed when food mixture or ice cream was added, the remaining adsorption capacity of both types of activated charcoal theoretically was still able......The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Lime-bassanite-charcoal Amendment on the Immobilization of Cadmium in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shunhong; Yang, Yi; Li, Qian; Su, Zhen; Yuan, Cuiyu; Ouyang, Kun

    2017-03-01

    The effects of amendments, such as lime, bassanite, sodium phosphate, steel slag and charcoal, and their compounds on the immobilization of cadmium (Cd) are investigated. The lime-bassanite-charcoal compound shows the best remediation performance compared to other agents in conducted experiments. The optimum condition for lime-bassanite-charcoal application in contaminated soil is lime-bassanite-charcoal with a mass ratio of 1:1/3:2/3, a dose of 2% of the soil weight, and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 35%-40%; additionally, the agents should be added before water addition. The highest Cd removal rate was 58.94% (±1.19%) with a ∆pH of 0.23, which is much higher than the rates reported in previous studies. The compound amendment was used in a field experiment, demonstrating a Cd removal efficiency of 48.78% (±4.23), further confirming its effectiveness.

  14. Influence of the particle size of activated charcoal on labeling efficiency with 67Ga-citrate for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Yu Lin; Shih-Chuan Tsai; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bor-Tsung Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Indium-111 and 99m Tc have been proposed for colonic transit study, but 111 In is expensive and the half-life of 99m Tc is too short for the study. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and has a suitable half-life. In our previous study, we successfully labeled 67 Ga-citrate activated charcoal, and the labeling efficiency exceeded 91% after a 96 hour incubation period. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the size of activated charcoal particles on the labeling efficiency with 67 Ga-citrate. The data showed that the influence of particle size on the labeling efficiency of activated charcoal with 67 Ga was insignificant. Both sizes of activated charcoal particles can be used for labeling with 67 Ga in colonic transit study. (author)

  15. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Zhu, Guoying; Jia, Xiuying; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Mi; Gao, Qing; Hu, Ciming; Xu, Shuying

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased. The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6:4, and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr. The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9337). Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM). Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9. Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 = 0.089 cm(-1)) in drinking water. This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  16. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  17. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  18. Conductometric Studies Of Adsorption Of Sulfide On Charcoal From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezwan Miah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of sulfide S2- from aqueous solution on commercial charcoal was studied using conductometric technique. A proportionally constant for concentration of S2- and its conductance was obtained by measuring conductance of S2- solution over a concentration range of 0.0005amp614850.02 M. The time-dependent measured conductance of S2- solution was converted to concentration using the obtained constant. The adsorption data were analyzed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. A surface coverage equal to 2.5 mg per gram of charcoal was obtained. The adsorption was found to follow first-order kinetics having rate constant equal to 2.65 amp61620 10amp614853 s-1.

  19. Penelitian Pembuatan Arang Bambu (Bamboo Charcoal pda Suhu Rendah untuk Produk Kerajinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suheryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProses pengarangan terjadi bila ada suatu benda yang dipanasi sampai mencapai titik bakarnya sehingga benda terlihat membara, kemudian pemasukan oksigen dihentikan atau dibatasi agar benda tersebut tidak terbakar menjadi abu. Untuk melakukan uji coba penelitiaan pengarangan bambu menggunakan 2 jenis tungku, yaitu: tungku Tipe-1 tungku pengarangan suhu rendah (<120°C, dan tungku Tipe-2 tungku pengarangan suhu menengah 120°C -260°C, yang terbuat dari drum dengan Ǿ 35 cm. Bahan bambu yang digunakan terdiri dari 3 jenis bambu, yaitu; bambu cendani, petung, dan legi, dan produk bambu setengan jadi. Prosedur pengerjaan meliputi, penyiapan bahan (pemotongan dan seleksi, pengeringan, pengukuanr kandungan air awal, pengarangan, pengamatan proses pengarangan, dan identifikasi tingkat keberhasilan pengarangan. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhi proses pengarangan dan kinerja tungku suhu rendah dan menengah. Dari hasil pengukuran kandungan air awal dari ke 3 jenis bambu yaitu dibawah 15%, sedangkan dari hasil pengamatan dan identifikasi pengarangan, pengarangan dengan menggunakan tungku Tipe-1, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 107,4 ºC dalam waktu 5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 60 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 73 %;  dengan tungku Tipe-2, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 112,8 ºC dalam waktu 3,5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 50 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 81 %. Kata kunci: arang bambu (bamboo charcoal, pengarangan, suhu, tungku pengarangan ABSTRACTA charcoal formation process occurs when an object is being heated until it reaches its burning point and smoldered, then the oxygen intake is stopped or restricted, so the object will not get burned into ashes. In this research, there are two tipes of furnaces being used, those are: Furnace Tipe-1, with low temperature (120°C and Furnace Tipe-2, with medium temperature (120°C 260

  20. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  1. Torrefaction of corncob to produce charcoal under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xian; Chen, Chang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Fei; Xiao, Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Corncob was torrefied under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres at 220-300 °C, obtaining solid products with mass yields of 69.38-95.03% and 67.20-94.99% and higher heating values of 16.58-24.77 MJ/kg and 16.68-24.10 MJ/kg, respectively. The changes of physicochemical properties of the charcoal was evaluated by many spectroscopies, contact angle determination, and combustion test. Hemicelluloses were not detected for the torrefaction under the hard conditions. As the severity increased, C concentration raised while H and O concentrations reduced. Combustion test showed that the burnout temperature of charcoal declined with the elevation of reaction temperature, and torrefaction at a high temperature shortened the time for the whole combustion process. Base on the data, torrefaction at 260 °C under carbon dioxide was recommended for the torrefaction of corncob. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Wichert, Marcos; Fallot, Abigail; Aimola, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  3. Anatomy Of Archaeological Wood Charcoals From Yenibademli Mound (Imbros), Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, B.

    In this study, the qualitative and quantitative anatomy of six wood charcoals from an early Bronze Age settlement in the island Imbros (Gökçeada) were presented. Taxonomic identification on the basis of wood anatomy showed that two of them belong to the genus Quercus (section Ilex and cf Quercus), and four of them belong to the genus Pinus. Any fireplace is absent at the location of wood charcoals in G9 plan square. It appears that the woody branches on the horizontal roof of the building fell down to the floor after a big fire. It is most likely that the woody genera identified in the study were used for roof construction.

  4. Methods for in-place testing of HEPA and iodine filters used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this work was a general investigation of existing in-place test methods and to build an equipment for in-place testing of HEPA and iodine sorption filters. In this work the discussion is limited to methods used in in-place testing of HEPA and iodine sorption filters used in light-water-cooled reactor plants. Dealy systems, built for the separation of noble gases, and testing of them is not discussed in the work. Contaminants present in the air of a reactor containment can roughly be diveded into three groups: aerosols, reactive gases, and noble gases. The aerosols are filtered with HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters. The most important reactive gases are molecular iodine and its two compounds: hydrogen iodide and methyl iodide. Of gases to be removed by the filters methyl iodide is the gas most difficult to remove especially at high relative humidities. Impregnated activated charcoal is generally used as sorption material in the iodine filters. Experience gained from the use of nuclear power plants proves that the function of high efficiency air filter systems can not be considered safe until this is proved by in-place tests. In-place tests in use are basically equal. A known test agent is injected upstream of the filter to be tested. The efficiency is calculated from air samples taken from both sides of the filter. (author)

  5. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal which was made with babassu nut shell and designed for utilization in the steel industry in the function of the final carbonization temperature. All three layers of babassu nut shell (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp were used together. The initial temperature of the test was 100ºC and the final temperatures were: 450ºC, 550ºC, 650ºC, 750ºC and 850ºC. For the charcoals produced, the following properties were determined: apparent relative density, energy density and fixed carbon stock, in addition to chemical compositions (immediate and elemental and heating values (higher and lower. Charcoal made of babassu nut shell showed high values of apparent density and energy density, and has a potential to replace coal and wood charcoal in the steel industry. The effect of the final carbonization temperature was expressed for all characteristics evaluated, except for the nitrogen content. Babassu nut shell must be carbonized at temperatures higher than 550ºC, so that the charcoal produced can be used in steel-making blast furnaces.

  6. Studies on entrained DNPPA separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous solutions generated during uranium recovery from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2010-01-01

    During the separation of metal ions by solvent extraction technique in hydrometallurgical operations, organic solvents either get entrained or dissolved in various types of aqueous streams, which need to be separated out to prevent environmental pollution and solvent loss. Generally entrained solvents are separated on plant scale by parallel plate separators or by froth floatation cells, while the dissolved solvents are recovered either by organic diluent wash or by charcoal adsorption. A novel process has been developed to recover uranium from merchant grade phosphoric acid (MGA) employing synergistic mixture of DNPPA (di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid ) and TOPO (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) dissolved in petrofin. After recovery of uranium, MGA has to be returned to the host company for the production of fertilizer. This MGA has to be free from any contamination due to DNPPA and TOPO. Separation of DNPPA and TOPO from MGA by diluent wash method has been reported. There is no information available in literature for the separation of DNPPA and TOPO from such aqueous streams by carbon adsorption. The present investigation describes the methodology based on charcoal adsorption study (batch and continuous column operation) to separate DNPPA from MGA. Three different types of charcoal namely coconut shell based, coal based and pelletized charcoal were evaluated for DNPPA separation from MGA containing 100 mg/L DNPPA. It was found that the % DNPPA adsorptions in single contact (0.5g C/50 ml) were 57, 34 and 10 in coconut shell, coal based and pelletised charcoal respectively. Based on the results, the coconut shell based charcoal was selected for further study. Adsorption of DNPPA by coconut shell based charcoal was investigated by carrying out the experiments with 50 ml MGA containing 770 mg/L DNPPA by adding 1 to 7 g charcoal respectively in separate beakers

  7. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.R.; Patterson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported

  8. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Carbon isotopes and charcoal in soils, vegetation changes and climate inferences in the southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gouveia, S.E.M; Aravena, R; Boulet, R; Bendassolli, J.A

    2001-01-01

    The use of carbon isotopes in studies of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics have been applied to infer information about vegetation and climate changes during the late Quaternary (Schwartz et al., 1986; Pessenda et al., 1996). This approach had also been used in different areas in Brazil to document vegetation changes during the Holocene (Desjardins et al., 1996; Gouveia et al., 1997; Pessenda et al., 1998a, b, 2001) and late Pleistocene/Holocene (Freitas et al., 2001). The application of carbon isotopes is based on the different 13 C composition of C 3 and C 4 plants and its preservation in SOM. 13 C values of C 3 plant species range from approximately -32% o to -20% o PDB, with a mean of -27% o . In contrast, δ 13 C of C 4 species range from -17% o to -9% o with mean of -13% o . Thus, C 3 and C 4 plant species have distinct δ 13 C values and differ from each other by approximately 14% o (Boutton, 1991). The study of charcoal fragments found in sediments and soils also supplies information about climatic conditions. Charcoal distribution in the soil profiles can provide information about the occurrence of paleofires (Pessenda et al., 1996), possibly associated with drier climate periods and/or human disturbance. In this paper we report δ 13 C data of soil and 14 C dates on charcoal from five soil profiles collected under natural vegetation in the Parana and Sao Paulo states, southeastern Brazil. Carbon isotopes are used to evaluate vegetation changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Charcoal distribution in the soil and its dating are used to infer linkage between forest fires and climate changes and to establish the chronology (au)

  10. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    OpenAIRE

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar; Duraisamy Prabha; Subpiramaniyan Sivakumar; Chandra Venkatasamy Subbhuraam

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil (Vertisol) using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L.) was investigated. The allevi...

  11. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  12. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, J R; Patterson, J R [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported.

  14. Use of wood anatomy to identify poisonous plants: Charcoal of Spirostachys africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Lennox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirostachys africana Sond. (tamboti/tambotie is a woodland tree that is often found near water. It has a poisonous and purgative latex. The archaeological site of Sibudu, a rock shelter in KwaZulu-Natal, has evidence, from well-preserved charcoal and seeds, of past environments and wood use from approximately 77–38 thousand years ago (ka. As their uses and environmental indicators are different, it is critical to confidently distinguish among the three anatomically similar woods of the Euphorbiaceae: Spirostachys africana, Sclerocroton integerrimus and Shirakiopsis elliptica. A detailed anatomical study of reference and archaeological charcoal shows that xylem vessel width increases proportionally as vessel frequency decreases, from Spirostachys africana, Sclerocroton integerrimus to Shirakiopsis elliptica. Crystals of calcium oxalate are present in ray cells of Spirostachys africana, whereas silica bodies are present in ray cells of Sclerocroton integerrimus and Shirakiopsis elliptica. Using these features, the presence of Spirostachys africana was confirmed amongst hearth charcoal of the Spotty Camel layer, with an age of approximately 58 ka and of the Mottled Deposit occupational layer, with an age of approximately 49 ka. The presence of this charcoal, collected from ancient fireplaces or sieved from surrounding sediments, implies that people at Sibudu understood and used this poisonous tree to their advantage. We are encouraged in this view by the presence of many Cryptocarya woodii leaves found on the surface of 77-ka sedge bedding at Sibudu (Wadley L et al., Science. 2011;334:1388–1391. Cryptocarya woodii has insecticidal and larvacidal properties and members of the Laurel family are well known for their medicinal properties.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  16. The contribution of charcoal burning to the rise and decline of suicides in Hong Kong from 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, Paul S F; Caine, Eric D

    2011-09-01

    There has been scant research exploring the relationship between choice of method (means) of self-inflicted death, and broader social or contextual factors. The recent emergence and growth of suicide using carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning charcoal in an enclosed space (hereafter, "charcoal burning") was related to an increase in the overall suicide rate in Hong Kong. The growth of this method coincided with changing economic conditions. This paper expands upon previous work to explore possible relationships further. This study aims to discern the role of charcoal burning in overall suicide rate transition during times of both economic recession and expansion, as captured in the unemployment rate of Hong Kong, and to examine whether there was evidence of an effect from means-substitution. Age and gender specific suicide rates in Hong Kong by suicide methods from 1997 to 2007 were calculated. To model the transition of suicide rate by different methods, Poisson regression analyses were employed. Charcoal burning constituted 18.3% of all suicides, 88% of which involved individuals drawn from the middle years (25-59) of life. During both periods of rising and declining unemployment, charcoal burning played an important role in the changing suicide rates, and this effect was most prominent among for those in their middle years. Means-substitution was found among the married women during the period of rate advancement (1997-2003). Compared to others, working-age adults preferentially selected carbon monoxide poisoning from charcoal burning.

  17. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of carbon black on thermal properties of charcoal and salacca leafstalk briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thassana, Chewa; Nuleg, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of a carbon black (CB) on the thermal properties of briquettes produced from the charcoal and the salacca leafstalk with and without CB have been investigated. Four thermal properties of a briquettes compose of the burning time, the calorific value, the percentage moisture (PMC) and an percentage ash content (PAC) were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Our results were indicated that the sallacca leafstalk mix a carbon black is the long burning times, high heating but a few ash content. Results shown that the burning time and the calorific value of a charcoal, a charcoal with CB, the salacca leafstalk and the salacca leafstalk with carbon black particles is about 58, 63, 76, 81 minutes, and 10.33, 12.96, 13.12, 14.63 MJ/kg, respectively. In addition, the PMC and PAC were in range of 11.6 - 8.14% and 9.33 - 5.42%. So, we can conclude that a cabon black affect on the thermal properties of a briquettes and salacca leaftstalk mixed CB has been most suited for briquetting.

  19. Holocene elemental, lead isotope and charcoal record from peat in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tudyka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a mid-resolution elemental, isotopic and charcoal record from 10700 BC to AD 500 in a peat core located in Żyglin (southern Poland. The objective is to give insight into the proxies with emphasis on lead (Pb sources in this minerogenic peat deposit. During the Early Holocene (10700–7550 BC the average 206Pb/207Pb quotient was around 1.196. This isotopic signature is consistent with natural dust derived from long-distance soil and rock weathering. The Mid-Holocene period (7550–3200 BC shows a significant change in the peat accumulation conditions. The growth rate is approximately 0.04 mm yr-1 and the 206Pb/207Pb quotients are shifted toward values that are found in local galena ores. This is simultaneous with a significantly increased lead flux which further confirms local sources of material in this peat deposit. In the Late Holocene period (3200 BC–AD 500 a large quantity of charcoal particles with diameters ranging from 2 mm up to 3 cm is found; also, Pb, Zn and Cu fluxes reach their highest values. This period corresponds to the Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, and human impact is recorded as charcoal.

  20. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  1. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Mulop; Mohd Suffian Abdul Rahim

    2000-01-01

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 o C for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  2. Thermal Properties of Green Fuel Briquettes from Residue Corncobs Materials Mixed Macadamia Shell Charcoal Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeta, Suminya; Nachaisin, Mali; Wanish, Suchana

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to produce green fuel briquettes from corncobs by adding macadamia shell charcoal powder. The study was sectioned into 3 parts: 1) Quality improvement of green fuel briquettes by adding macadamia; 2) Fuel property analysis based on ASTM standards and thermal fuel efficiency; and 3) Economics appropriateness in producing green fuel briquettes. This research produced green fuel briquettes using the ratio of corncobs weight and macadamia shell charcoal powder in 100:0 90:10 80:20 70:30 60:40 and 50:50 and pressing in the cold briquette machine. Fuel property analysis showed that green fuel briquettes at the ratio 50:50 produced maximum heating values at 21.06 Megajoule per kilogram and briquette density of 725.18 kilograms per cubic meter, but the percent of moisture content, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon were 10.09, 83.02, 2.17 and 4.72 respectively. The thermal efficiency of green fuel briquettes averaged 20.22%. Economics appropriateness was most effective where the ratio of corncobs weight to macadamia shell charcoal powder was at 50:50 which accounted for the cost per kilogram at 5.75 Baht. The net present value was at 1,791.25 Baht. Internal rate of return was at 8.62 and durations for a payback period of investment was at 1.9 years which was suitable for investment.

  3. Adsorption and Pore of Physical-Chemical Activated Coconut Shell Charcoal Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Umiatin, U.; Nasbey, H.; Bintoro, R. A.; Wulandari, Fi; Erlina, E.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of activated carbon of coconut shell charcoal on heavy metals (Cu and Fe) of the wastewater and its relation with the carbon pore structure was investigated. The coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours to produce charcoal and then shieved into milimeter sized granule particles. Chemical activation was done by immersing the charcoal into chemical solution of KOH, NaOH, HCl and H3PO4, with various concentration. The activation was followed by physical activation using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology of activated carbon were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Wastewater was made by dissolving CuSO4.5H2O and FeSO4.7H2O into aquades. The metal adsorption was analized by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The result shows that in general, the increase of chemical concentration cause the increase of pore number of activated carbon due to an excessive chemical attack and lead the increase of adsorption. However it tend to decrease as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing. In general, the adsorption of Cu and Fe metal from wastewater by activated carbon increased as the activator concentration was increased.

  4. Directional muon jet chamber for a muon collider (Groovy Chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1996-10-01

    A directional jet drift chamber with PAD readout is proposed here which can select vertex originated muons within a given time window and eliminate those muons which primarily originate upstream, using only a PAD readout. Drift time provides the Z-coordinate, and the center of gravity of charge distribution provides the r-ψ coordinates. Directionality at the trigger level is obtained by the timing measurement from the PAD hits within a given time window. Because of the long drift time between the bunch crossings, a muon collider enables one to choose a drift distance in the drift chamber as long as 50 cm. This is an important factor in reducing cost of drift chambers which have to cover relatively large areas

  5. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  6. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxi Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures to particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 may influence the risk of birth defects and make you allergic, which causes serious harm to human health. Bamboo charcoal can adsorb harmful substances,that was of benefitto people’s health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorbtion condition and the intrinsic change of bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal blast time was 80 min of Na2SO3, 100 min of Na2S2O8, 20 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO43 and 60 min or 100 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had five characteristic peaks of SS stretch, H2O stretch, OH stretch, CO stretch or CC stretch, and NO2 stretch at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1, respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 3430 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Fe2(SO43, the peaks at 3850 cm−1, 3740 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 120 min. For S, the peaks at 3850 cm−1 and 3740 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min, the peaks at 1630 cm−1 and 1530 cm−1 achieved the maximum at 40 min. It proved that bamboo charcoal could remove sulfur powder from air to restrain sulfur allergies.

  8. Pilot Scale Testing of Adsorbent Amended Filters under High Hydraulic Loads for Highway Runoff in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monrabal-Martinez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation of the service life of three filters composed of sand and three alternative adsorbents for stormwater treatment according to Norwegian water quality standards for receiving surface waters. The study conducted pilot scale column tests on three adsorbent amended filters for treatment of highway runoff in cold climates under high hydraulic loads. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high hydraulic loads and the application of deicing salts on the performance of these filters. From previous theoretical and laboratory analysis granulated activated charcoal, pine bark, and granulated olivine were chosen as alternative adsorbent materials for the present test. Adsorption performance of the filters was evaluated vis-à-vis four commonly found hazardous metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in stormwater. The results showed that the filters were able to pass water at high inflow rates while achieving high removal. Among the filters, the filters amended with olivine or pine bark provided the best performance both in short and long-term tests. The addition of NaCl (1 g/L did not show any adverse impact on the desorption of already adsorbed metals, except for Ni removal by the charcoal amended filter, which was negatively impacted by the salt addition. The service life of the filters was found to be limited by zinc and copper, due to high concentrations observed in local urban runoff, combined with moderate affinity with the adsorbents. It was concluded that both the olivine and the pine bark amended filter should be tested in full-scale conditions.

  9. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  10. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  11. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  12. An experimental propane bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozinski, A.

    1957-01-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [fr

  13. Equipment for handling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, J.

    1988-01-01

    The device consists of an ionization channel with an ionization chamber, of a support ring, axial and radial bearings, a sleeve, a screw gear and an electric motor. The ionization chamber is freely placed on the bottom of the ionization channel. The bottom part of the channel deviates from the vertical axis. The support ring propped against the axial bearing in the sleeve is firmly fixed to the top part of the ionization channel. The sleeve is fixed to the reactor lid. Its bottom part is provided with a recess for the radial bearing which is propped against a screw wheel firmly connected to the ionization channel. In measuring neutron flux, the screw wheel is rotated by the motor, thus rotating the whole ionization channel such that the ionization chamber is displaced into the reactor core.(J.B.). 1 fig

  14. General purpose nuclear irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah; Nuurul Iffah Che Omar; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Jaafar Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear technology has found a great need for use in medicine, industry, and research. Smoke detectors in our homes, medical treatments and new varieties of plants by irradiating its seeds are just a few examples of the benefits of nuclear technology. Portable neutron source such as Californium-252, available at Industrial Technology Division (BTI/ PAT), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, has a 2.645 year half-life. However, 252 Cf is known to emit gamma radiation from the source. Thus, this chamber aims to provide a proper gamma shielding for samples to distinguish the use of mixed neutron with gamma-rays or pure neutron radiation. The chamber is compatible to be used with other portable neutron sources such as 241 Am-Be as well as the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI for higher neutron dose. This chamber was designed through a collaborative effort of Kulliyyah Engineering, IIUM with the Industrial Technology Division (BTI) team, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (Author)

  15. Holography in small bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoq, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on an experiment to determine the total charm cross section at different incident momenta using the small, heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC. Holography in liquid hydrogen is also tested using the holographic lexan bubble chamber HOLEBC with the aim of preparing a future holographic experiment in hydrogen. The high intensity tests show that more than 100 incident tracks per hologram do not cause a dramatic effect on the picture quality. Hydrogen is more favorable than freon as the bubble growth is much slower in hydrogen. An advantage of holography is to have the maximum resolution in the full volume of the bubble chamber, which allows a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 10 compared to classical optics as 100 tracks per hologram look reasonable. Holograms are not more difficult to analyze than classical optics high-resolution pictures. The results show that holography is a very powerful technique which can be used in very high resolution particle physics experiments

  16. Assessing the Efficacy of Restricting Access to Barbecue Charcoal for Suicide Prevention in Taiwan: A Community-Based Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Chang, Shu-Sen; Wong, Jacky; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Charcoal-burning suicide has recently been spreading to many Asian countries. There have also been several cases involving this new method of suicide in Western countries. Restricting access to suicide means is one of the few suicide-prevention measures that have been supported by empirical evidence. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention program that restricts access to charcoal to prevent suicide in Taiwan. Methods and Findings A quasi-experimental design is used to compare method-specific (charcoal-burning suicide, non-charcoal-burning suicide) and overall suicide rates in New Taipei City (the intervention site, with a population of 3.9 million) with two other cities (Taipei City and Kaohsiung City, the control sites, each with 2.7 million residents) before (Jan 1st 2009- April 30th 2012) and after (May 1st 2012-Dec. 31st 2013) the initiation of a charcoal-restriction program on May 1st 2012. The program mandates the removal of barbecue charcoal from open shelves to locked storage in major retail stores in New Taipei City. No such restriction measure was implemented in the two control sites. Generalized linear regression models incorporating secular trends were used to compare the changes in method-specific and overall suicide rates before and after the initiation of the restriction measure. A simulation approach was used to estimate the number of lives saved by the intervention. Compared with the pre-intervention period, the estimated rate reduction of charcoal-burning suicide in New Taipei City was 37% (95% CI: 17%, 50%) after the intervention. Taking secular trends into account, the reduction was 30% (95% CI: 14%, 44%). No compensatory rise in non-charcoal-burning suicide was observed in New Taipei City. No significant reduction in charcoal-burning suicide was observed in the other two control sites. The simulation approach estimated that 91 (95%CI [55, 128]) lives in New Taipei City were saved during the 20

  17. Impact of charcoal waste application on the soil organic matter content and composition of an Haplic Cambisol from South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Leal, Otávio; Pinheiro Dick, Deborah; Cylene Lombardi, Kátia; Gonçalves Maciel, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    In some regions in Brazil, charcoal is usually applied to the soil with the purpose to improve its fertility and its organic carbon (SOC) content. In Brazil, the use of charcoal waste from steel industry with agronomic purposes represents also an alternative and sustainable fate for this material. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of Eucalyptus charcoal waste application on the SOC content and on the soil organic matter (SOM) composition. Increasing doses of charcoal (0, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1) were applied to an Haplic Cambisol, in Irati, South-Brazil. Charcoal was initially applied on the soil surface, and then it was incorporated at 10 cm with a harrow. Soil undisturbed and disturbed samples (four replicates) were collected in September 2011 (1 y and 9 months) after charcoal incorporation. Four soil depths were evaluated (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and each replicate was composed by three subsamples collected within each plot. The soil samples were air dried, passed through a 9.51 mm sieve and thereafter through a 2.00 mm sieve. The SOC content and total N were quantified by dry combustion. The SOM was concentrated with fluoridric acid 10% and then the SOM composition was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis along the soil profile. The main impact of charcoal application occurred at the 0-5 cm layer of the area treated with the highest dose: SOC content increased in 15.5 g kg-1 in comparison to the soil without charcoal application. The intermediary doses also increased the SOC content, but the differences were not significant. No differences for N content were found in this soil depth. Further results were observed in the 10-20 cm soil depth, where the highest dose increased the SOC content and N content. Furthermore, this treatment increased the recalcitrance of the SOM, mainly at the 0-5 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. No differences between doses of charcoal application were found in the 20-30 cm soil depth, suggesting

  18. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  19. Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.

    2006-01-01

    Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas

  20. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Lee, B.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Popovic, M.; Smith, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  1. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  2. The Mark III vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 μm at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 μm using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin

  3. The muon filter of the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Bocciolini, M.; Cartacci, A.M.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gallo, E.; Landi, G.; Marchionni, A.; Meschini, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Pieri, M.; Spillantini, P.; Wang, Y.F.; Florence Univ.

    1991-01-01

    In this article we describe the outer part (Muon Filter) of the Hadron Calorimeter of the L3 detector. Construction and performance of the brass chambers, which form the sensitive part of the detector, are reviewed. We also report the results from data taken on two beam tests, at CERN. (orig.)

  4. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  6. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  7. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  8. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  9. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  10. Bending-magnet vacuum chambers for VUV ring at LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.B. de; Rodrigues, A.R.D.; Gomes, P.A.P.; Baptista, C.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss design criteria dictated by optical, thermal, electrical impedance and structural considerations. The proposed chambers will provide 3 conventional light ports. A fourth port will allow extraction of back scattered soft X-rays. Cooled absorbers will collect the unused radiation while confining the photo-stimulated desorption to a vacuum antechamber away from the electron beam path. We describe the thermal considerations relating to the cooled sapphire filters needed in the visible light ports and the cooling requirements for the copper radiation absorbers. (author)

  11. Bending-magnet vacuum chambers for VUV ring at LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Castro, A.R.B.; Rodrigues, A.R.D.; Gomes, P.A.P.; Baptista, C.A.R.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses design criteria dictated by optical, thermal, electrical impedance and structural considerations. The proposed chambers will provide 3 conventional light ports. A fourth port will allow extraction of back scattered soft X-rays. Cooled absorbers will collect the unused radiation while confining the photo-stimulated desorption to a vacuum antechamber away from the electron beam path. The authors describe the thermal considerations relating to the cooled sapphire filters needed in the visible light ports and the cooling requirements for the copper radiation absorbers

  12. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  13. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  14. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  15. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  16. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  17. Penetration of Combustion Aerosol Particles Through Filters of NIOSH-Certified Filtering Facepiece Respirators (FFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Kim, Jinyong; Yermakov, Michael; Elmashae, Yousef; He, Xinjian; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are commonly worn by first responders, first receivers, and other exposed groups to protect against exposure to airborne particles, including those originated by combustion. Most of these FFRs are NIOSH-certified (e.g., N95-type) based on the performance testing of their filters against charge-equilibrated aerosol challenges, e.g., NaCl. However, it has not been examined if the filtration data obtained with the NaCl-challenged FFR filters adequately represent the protection against real aerosol hazards such as combustion particles. A filter sample of N95 FFR mounted on a specially designed holder was challenged with NaCl particles and three combustion aerosols generated in a test chamber by burning wood, paper, and plastic. The concentrations upstream (Cup) and downstream (Cdown) of the filter were measured with a TSI P-Trak condensation particle counter and a Grimm Nanocheck particle spectrometer. Penetration was determined as (Cdown/Cup) ×100%. Four test conditions were chosen to represent inhalation flows of 15, 30, 55, and 85 L/min. Results showed that the penetration values of combustion particles were significantly higher than those of the "model" NaCl particles (p combustion particles. Aerosol type, inhalation flow rate and particle size were significant (p combustion particles through R95 and P95 FFR filters (were tested in addition to N95) were not significantly higher than that obtained with NaCl particles. The findings were attributed to several effects, including the degradation of an N95 filter due to hydrophobic organic components generated into the air by combustion. Their interaction with fibers is anticipated to be similar to those involving "oily" particles. The findings of this study suggest that the efficiency of N95 respirator filters obtained with the NaCl aerosol challenge may not accurately predict (and rather overestimate) the filter efficiency against combustion particles.

  18. The retention of radioactive noble gases in nuclear power stations by means of activated charcoal delay systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s off-gas systems using activated charcoal have been used in BWRs and PWRs to minimize the release of radioactive noble gases and the resultant exposure of the environment. In practice, the power-related noble gas emission rate achieved is 1-10 Ci/MWa in the case of BWRs and 0.1-1 Ci/MWa for PWRs. The systems are relatively simple in design and operators state that they are easy and cheap to run. The activated charcoal used shows no signs of becoming spent and, if protected from humidity, retains its full efficiency. On the basis of the information to hand it has never been necessary to replace it. Experience to date suggests that a charge of activated charcoal can last the life of the facility as a whole. All knowledge and experience gained so far indicate that off-gas systems using activated delay systems for BWR facilities are indispensable and must therefore be considered an integral part of such facilities. Capital expenditure amounts to approximately 1% of the total cost and should, therefore, not be unacceptable. In PWRs off-gas systems using pressure vessels as delay trains are in competition with off-gas systems based on activated charcoal delay systems. The activated charcoal systems have proved themselves and their use, which involves capital expenditure equivalent to approximately of 0.5% to the overall cost, can be recommended without reservation

  19. FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    1998-09-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals were investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. The studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological characteristics of inertinite are a product of temperature, duration of heating and the nature of the initial plant material. The relationships between reflectance and temperature, as well as heating duration of charcoal formation are established as a reference for the examination of inertinite, and the probable temperature of inertinite precursor (fossil charcoal) formation in paleo-widlfire. Fungi do not directly contribute to the formation of charcoal and inertinite apart from the fungal bodies themselves (funginite: sclerotia and hyphae) and perhaps by increasing the extent of shrinkage and cracking (increasing surface area) of the plant materials and thus susceptibility to charring. Evidence of fungal activity progressively decreases with increasing degree of charing in response to duration of heating or increased charing temperature. The reflectance values and FTIR spectral characteristics of inertinites in Western Canadian coal suggest that most inertinite formed by wildfires at temperatures over 400{degree}C. The great abundance of semifusinite in Western Canadian coal may reflect frequent but short duration wildfires in precursor peat swamps. 44 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Establishment of a radon test chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chingjiang; Liu Chichang; Lin Yuming

    1993-01-01

    A walk-in type radon test chamber of 23 m 3 has been built for testing and calibration of radon measurement instruments. The environmental conditions of the test chamber can be varied within a wide range of values. The design objectives specification, monitoring instruments and testing results of this chamber are discussed. This test chamber is available for domestic radon researchers and its accuracy can be traced to the international standard. A routine intercomparison study will be held annually by using this chamber. Other tests like radon progeny and thoron standard may also be performed in this chamber. (1 fig.)

  1. Pencil-shaped radiation detection ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiation detection ionization chamber is described. It consists of an elongated cylindrical pencil-shaped tubing forming an outer wall of the chamber and a center electrode disposed along the major axis of the tubing. The length of the chamber is substantially greater than the diameter. A cable connecting portion at one end of the chamber is provided for connecting the chamber to a triaxial cable. An end support portion is connected at the other end of the chamber for supporting and tensioning the center electrode. 17 claims

  2. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. A male patient was brought to the emergency department to syncope and complained of left chest pain. Cardiac angiography and electrocardiography were performed to rule out acute ischemic heart disease, and cardiac markers were checked. After relief of the symptoms and stabilization of the cardiac markers, the patient was discharged without any complications. Electrocardiography was normal, but cardiac angiography showed up to a 40% midsegmental stenosis of the right coronary artery with thrombotic plaque. The level of cardiac markers was elevated at least 5 to 10 times higher than the normal value, and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration was 35% measured at one hour after syncope. Following the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy, the patient's medical history and work exposure history were examined. He was found to have been exposed to burning charcoal constantly during his work hours. Severe exposure to carbon monoxide was evident in the patient because of high carboxyhemoglobin concentration and highly elevated cardiac enzymes. We concluded that this exposure led to subsequent cardiac injury. He was diagnosed with acute carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy due to an unsafe working environment. According to the results, the risk of exposure to noxious chemicals such as carbon monoxide by workers in the food service industry is potentially high, and workers in this sector should be educated and monitored by the occupational health service to prevent adverse effects.

  4. Production and Composition of Dissolved Black Carbon from Various Biochars and Environmentally-aged Charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Wozniak, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter, or black carbon (BC), is the solid carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. While solid BC represents a long-lived portion of the C cycle, it releases pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (py-DOM) which may be more susceptible to mineralization and transformation. This py-DOM may impact environmental and public health and likely controls exchange between terrestrial and aquatic BC pools. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), produced by acid digestion of samples, are used as molecular markers for pyrogenic organic matter. Yet, we currently have a poor understanding of the controls on the production of py-DOM and its yield of BPCA compounds. In response, aqueous leaching time series experiments were carried out using a series of laboratory-made biochars and environmentally-aged charcoals. While non-charred oak biomass released 31.8 mg C/g (45% C loss), oak biochars prepared at low temperatures (250 and 400ºC), produced 9.9 and 2.6 mg C/g (11 and 2.3% C loss), respectively. Oak chars prepared at a higher temperatures (650ºC) leached only 1.85 mg C/g (1.5% C loss). In contrast, an environmentally-aged charcoal (30 y old cypress charcoal) leached 10.9% of its C. On average, 59% (ranging 38-80%) of oak pyrogenic DOC was converted into BPCAs, suggesting that oak py-DOM has a variably condensed aromatic proportion. However, much less BPCAs were generated by BC parent solids. In addition, trace amounts of BPCA were generated from non-pyrolyzed grass, oak wood, and compost leachates; these lend concern to the use of BPCAs as exclusive pyrogenic molecular markers. As expected, BPCA molecular distribution showed that condensation increased with pyrolysis temperature of solid biochars and their corresponding leachates. The comparison of these findings to 13C and 1H NMR spectra of charcoal parent solids and their leachates will further elucidate the chemistry and production mechanisms of py-DOM.

  5. ENERGY CONVERSION FROM WOODY BIOMASS STUFF: POSSIBLE MANUFACTURE OF BRIQUETTED CHARCOAL FROM SAWMILL-GENERATED SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Roliadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available There are three dominant kinds of wood industries in Indonesia which consume huge amount of  wood materials as well as generate considerable amount of  woody waste stuffs, i.e. sawmills, plywood, and pulp/paper. For the two latest industries, their wastes to great extent have been reutilized in the remanufacturing process, or burnt under controlled condition to supplement their energy needs in the corresponding factories, thereby greatly alleviating environmental negative impacts.  However, wastes from sawmills (especially sawdust still often pose a serious environmental threat, since they as of this occasion are merely dumped on sites, discarded to the stream, or merely burnt, hence inflicting dreadful stream as well as air pollutions. One way to remedy those inconveniences is by converting the sawdust into useful product, i.e. briquetted charcoal, as has been experimentally tried. The charcoal was at first prepared by carbonizing the sawdust wastes containing a mixture of the ones altogether from the sawing of seven particular Indonesia's wood species, and afterwards was shaped into the briquette employing various concentrations of starch binder at two levels (3.0 and 5.0 % and also various hydraulic pressures (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg/cm2.  Further, the effect of those variations was examined on the yield and qualities of the resulting briquetted charcoal. The results revealed that the most satisfactory yield and qualities of the briquetted sawdustcharcoal were acquired at 3 % starch binder concentration with 5.0 kg/cm2 hydraulic pressure. As such, the briquette qualities were as follows: density at 0.60 gram/cm3, tensile strength 15.27 kg/cm2, moisture content 2.58 %, volatile matter 23.35 %, ash content 4.10 %, fixed carbon 72.55 %, and calorific value 5,426 cal/gram. Those qualities revealed that the experimented briquetted sawdust charcoal could be conveniently used as biomass-derived fuel.

  6. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of lactic acid from fermentation broth onto activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seankham Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated charcoal was applied for the recovery of lactic acid in undissociated form from fermentation broth. Lactic acid was obtained from the fermentation of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1340 using acid hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetics for the lactic acid separation were investigated. The experimental data for lactic acid adsorption from fermentation broth were best described by the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics with R2 values of 0.99. The initial adsorption rate was 41.32 mg/g⋅min at the initial lactic acid concentration of 40 g/L.

  7. Airborne radon-222 measurement by active sampling with charcoal adsorption and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Wen, Xiao-qiong; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hamanaka, Shun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for measuring radon concentration in air is presented. Airborne radon is adsorbed in a charcoal bed by an active air sampling. In time, the adsorbed radon comes to attain radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived progeny 214 Pb. Utilizing this fact, radon concentration is derived from γ-ray measurement of 214 Pb. This method is estimated to be capable of detecting radon concentration in air down to 0.79 Bq·m -3 . The adsorption coefficient obtained with the method is compared with what is obtainable with passive sampling. Applications of this method to indoor and outdoor radon measurements are described. (author)

  8. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    .5 l) were recovered. The aim of the work is to evaluate if water processing affects similarly all of taxa or instead, differences exists in the preservation of certain types of remains. To evaluate this, taxonomic and taphonomic analyses were carried out, including the recording of alterations...... the taxa present at the site. The results presented here warn against straightforward interpretations of wood charcoal frequencies in terms of original composition of past vegetation, and suggest that it would be advisable to use more than one recovery technique, along with recording of different types...

  9. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the cave A5-3 in Arsanjan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Shinji; Minami, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Modern humans (Homo-sapiens), who originated in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, migrated out of Africa about 130,000-60,000 years ago, dispersed in West Asia, and finally replaced Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. The region of West Asia, especially southern Iran, therefore, is very important to understand the evolution of modem humans. The Japan-Iran international research group, led by Professor Tsuneki of Tsukuba University, has investigated A5-3 cave in the Arsanjan archeological site in southern Iran since 2011. The sequence of layers in the cave is estimated to belong Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic period, based on the type of lithic artifacts excavated. In this study, we measured AMS- 14 C dates of charcoal fragments collected from the layers to reveal the chronology of the Arsanjan site. Charcoal samples collected from surface layer to Layer 4 in Trench E5 (total 6 layers) and Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 (total 10 layers) in the A5-3 cave were used. In Trench E5, charcoal samples of surface layer were dated at modern, samples of Layer 1 at 300-115 BP, samples of Layer 2 at 26,750-26,370 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 and samples of Layer 4 were older than 14 C-detection limit. In Trench B3, charcoal samples of Layer 2 were dated at 36,500-35,300 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 was dated at 36,890±190 BP. The layers in both Trenches E5 and B3 had been considered to correspond to each other base on the type of lithic artifacts, but the 14 C results show that the layers of Trench B3 are about 10,000 BP older than those of Trench E5. Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 belong to the early Upper Paleolithic period, contemporary with the result reported for AH IV layer in Ghar-e Boof archeological site at Dasht-e Rostam region, southwestern Iran. This study is the second finding of use of these micro-blades at 37,000 BP in Iran, following the Ghar-e Boof site. Layer 4 in Trench B3 includes Middle Paleolithic artifacts, and so 37,000 BP obtained for Layer 3

  10. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  11. Dust collected in air filters - Possible source of volatile organic compounds and particles; Ger smutsiga luftfilter foersaemrad tilluft ? En studie av emissioner med ursprung i filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, J.H.P.; Rosell, Lars

    1998-06-01

    Emissions from dust collected in air filters have been investigated using in situ measurements. Two air filters of different classes (F6 and F8/9) have been exposed to outdoor air for a preconditioning period of six months. After this period measurements have been carried out using two operating conditions, continuous and intermittent. Air samples were taken both up- and downstream of the filters. The air samples were analysed regarding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and microbial VOCs (mVOC) and the samples of airborne dust were examined regarding the contents of colony forming units, ergosterol (marker of fungi), and endotoxin (marker of gram negative bacteria). Furthermore, a visual inspection of the airborne dust was conducted using SEM. Particles released when the fan was turned on and a short period after, were monitored using an optical particle counter, slitsamplers (fungus spores) and membrane filters for SEM analysis. After finishing the in situ measurements, the filters were placed in climate chambers for emission sampling. Finally, samples were cut out for analysis of microbial contents in the filter material, both on the dusty and `clean` side of the filters. No consistent change of VOC, aldehyde or mVOC concentrations across the filters could be measured. A significant ozone reduction was seen in one of the in situ measurements. The chamber experiments showed that the filters were a source of various VOCs, e.g. aldehydes and mVOCs. The emission of mVOCs in the chambers was significantly higher for the F8/9 filter, probably due to more and finer dust in that filter. Only a few colonization units (fungi) penetrate filters when running continuously but an increase was noted at the moment the fans were started. The same phenomenon was observed with the optical particle counter, but both the intensity and length of the increase, for colonization units and other particles, were moderate. Mycological examination of the filter

  12. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  13. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  14. Single wire drift chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  15. MPS II drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed

  16. GBO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  17. The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshikuni; Araoka, Osamu; Hayashi, Kohei; Hayashi, Yoshio; Hirabayashi, Hiromi.

    1978-03-01

    A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)

  18. Removal of Dissolved Cadmium by Adsorption onto Walnut and Almond Shell Charcoal: Comparison with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saeedi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, adsorption of dissolved Cadmium (Cd onto walnut and almond shell charcoal and the standard granular activated carbon (GAC has been investigated and compared. The effect of pH value, initial concentration of dissolved Cadmium and amount of adsorbent on the adsorption of Cd by the mentioned adsorbents were investigated. Results showed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on pH. Maximum Cd removal was achieved when the final pH of the mixture fell within 6.5-7. Adsorption test results revealed that Cd adsorption on the studied adsorbents could be better described by Longmuir isotherm. Maximum Cd removal efficiencies were obtained by walnut shell charcoal (91%, almond shell charcoal (85%, and GAC (81%.

  19. Measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient of Xe on coconut charcoal in CO2 streams by gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xinxi; Huang Yuying; Li Wangchang

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the dynamic adsorption coefficients of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 in CO 2 carrier streams by SP-2305E gas chromatograph with the thermal conductivity cell. The adsorption column is made of stainless steel (diameter 4 x 240 mm) packed with 60-80 mesh coconut charcoal II-2. The CO 2 content in carrier streams is about 87%. Three groups of data of Xe dynamic adsorption coefficient were obtained at temperature 15.5 deg C, 31.5 deg C and 50.5 deg C by pulse injection respectively. Another group was obtained at temperature approx. 16 deg C by continueous injection. In addition, adsorption isotherms and adsorption isometrics were determined. In this experimental system, the adsorption heat of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 is 2820 cal/mole

  20. Dorsal skinfold chamber models in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiter, Jeannine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The use of dorsal skinfold chamber models has substantially improved the understanding of micro-vascularisation in pathophysiology over the last eight decades. It allows pathophysiological studies of vascularisation over a continuous period of time. The dorsal skinfold chamber is an attractive technique for monitoring the vascularisation of autologous or allogenic transplants, wound healing, tumorigenesis and compatibility of biomaterial implants. To further reduce the animals’ discomfort while carrying the dorsal skinfold chamber, we developed a smaller chamber (the Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber and summarized the commercial available chamber models. In addition we compared our model to the common chamber. Methods: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber was applied to female mice with a mean weight of 22 g. Angiogenesis within the dorsal skinfold chamber was evaluated after injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran with an Axio Scope microscope. The mean vessel density within the dorsal skinfold chamber was assessed over a period of 21 days at five different time points. The gained data were compared to previous results using a bigger and heavier dorsal skinfold model in mice. A PubMed and a patent search were performed and all papers related to “dorsal skinfold chamber” from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2015 were evaluated regarding the dorsal skinfold chamber models and their technical improvements. The main models are described and compared to our titanium Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber model.Results: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber fulfils all requirements of continuous models known from previous chamber models while reducing irritation to the mice. Five different chamber models have been identified showing substantial regional diversity. The newly elaborated titanium dorsal skinfold chamber may replace the pre-existing titanium chamber model used in Germany so far, as it is smaller and lighter