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Sample records for charcoal filter testing

  1. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  2. Evaluation of Rn equilibrium factor using charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and new evaluation system for radon equilibrium factor has been developed. Radon equilibrium factor is defined as a ratio between radon progeny concentration and radon concentration in air. Radon progeny in air becomes one of the main factors of public dose. However radon concentration itself in air has usually been estimated, because its detection is much easier than that of its progeny. In this dosimetry technique, radon equilibrium becomes the most important parameter we must adequately evaluate in advance. In this study, a new system using a charcoal filter for evaluation of radon equilibrium factor using charcoal filter was discussed. Two filters are combined to sample the airborne radioactivity of radon family. One of them is the charcoal filter, where is the main point of this study. Radon concentration is estimated based on the radioactivity sampled on a charcoal filter, and radon progeny concentration is based on the radioactivity on a glass-fiber filter. We have already fully known the characteristics of the glass-fiber filter for radon progeny. Therefore we tested charcoal filters here and obtained some characteristics on its sampling ability for radon. Especially we focused on the variety of sample abilities based on sampling flow-rate (L/min) and sampling duration (min). As a result, the most optimum sampling flow-rate was determined as 20 L/min and sampling duration was 10 min, based on the results gained by several experiments. According to this new evaluation system, we can calculate more adequate radon equilibrium factor easily because both concentrations of radon and its progeny in a same sample air can be determined at the same time. We can well adopt this system in special environments like in mines and undergrounds. (author)

  3. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  4. Thermal testing methods in determination of characterization of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守新; 张世润; 礼波宁; 朱文红

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis testing methods were used in determination of the characterization of charcoals. Thermogravimetry (TG) method was adopted to determine the composition of charcoals, which include moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and ash contents. The result showed that this method could detect the subtle change of charcoal composition, even the variation of different parts of material. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and related methods were also used to investigate reactivity of charcoals. The ignition temperature decrease with increasing carbon content was detected by these methods.

  5. Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R

    2004-08-01

    This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are

  6. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  7. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B Chatterjee

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 g/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  8. Simulating water and pollutant transport in bark, charcoal and sand filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuk Karlsson, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    A septic tank combined with a sand filter is the most common onsite wastewater treatment system worldwide, since it is a simple, lowcost and reliable treatment method. Alternatives to sand in filters could be advantageous in terms of availability of material and enhanced treatment properties. In this study, flow dynamics and pollutant transport in three filter materials; sand, pine bark and activated charcoal, intermittently dosed with artificial greywater, were simulated using the HYDRU...

  9. 40 CFR 59.208 - Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each test run (grams VOC/start ) A=Hydrocarbon molecular weight =14.0268 grams per gram-mole (14.0268 pounds per pound-mole) B=Carbon number =1 C=Average concentration for each duplicate run of total gaseous... emissions resulting from the ignition of the barbecue charcoal are, on average, less than or equal to...

  10. Testing Iodine Filters for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of iodine filters for nuclear installations has been tested The test method in use includes laboratory tests of the adsorber material (under MCA conditions for temperature, relative humidity, pressure, loading, stay time and bed depth) and in-place tests at the site of the installation. For removal of methyl iodide under high relative humidity Kl-impregnated charcoal is widely used. Most of the data for charcoal removal efficiency available today result from experiments with tracer amounts of CH3131I mixed with CH3127I. Considering MCA conditions, the validity of those data should be confirmed for specific activities on charcoal 103 - 106 times higher. Experimental data are given for realistic loadings with CH3131I up to 10 Ci/g charcoal under 100% relative humidity. For standard laboratory adsorber tests a method is discussed for humidification and control of gas streams up to 100% relative humidity at elevated temperatures. The apparatus used is described. Experimental data are given for the removal efficiency and the adsorption of water in charcoal samples from long-time tests under 100% relative humidity. The overall test period was up to 98 h, simulating the phase of elevated pressure and, therefore, high iodine release from the reactor containment. The reproducibility of long-time tests under extremely high relative humidity is shown and discussed. A description of the hardware for in-place tests is included and results are given. (author)

  11. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  12. Defueling filter test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor (TMI-2) has sustained core damage creating a significant quantity of fine debris, which can become suspended during the planned defueling operations, and will have to be constantly removed to maintain water clarity and minimize radiation exposure. To accomplish these objectives, a Defueling Water Cleanup System (DWCS) has been designed. One of the primary components in the DWCS is a custom designed filter canister using an all stainless steel filter medium. The full scale filter canister is designed to remove suspended solids from 800 microns to 0.5 microns in size. Filter cartridges are fabricated into an element cluster to provide for a flowrate of greater than 100 gals/min. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) under contract to GPU Nuclear Corporation has evaluated two candidate DWCS filter concepts in a 1/100 scale proof-of-principle test program at BandW's Lynchburg Research Center. The filters were challenged with simulated solids suspensions of 1400 and 140 ppm in borated water (5000 ppm boron). Test data collected includes solids loading, effluent turbidity, and differential pressure trends versus time. From the proof-of-principle test results, a full-scale filter canister was generated

  13. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T, E-mail: tonggogo@hotmail.com [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 {mu}m. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m{sup 2}/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  14. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  15. Study of the performance of charcoal filters under post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the performance of TEDA- and KI-impregnated charcoals has been done under reactor accident conditions. The efficiency of these charcoals in removing CH3I and I2 was studied as a function of temperature, relative humidity, radiation field with and without H2, contaminants and other factors. In addition to determining the decontamination factor, in certain cases, the distribution of activity along the length of the charcoal bed was monitored as a function of purging time. Activity distribution measurements were useful in understanding the chemistry of these systems

  16. DOE HEPA filter test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL)

  17. DOE HEPA filter test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  18. A Study of Containment Sprays and Charcoal Filters for the Removal of Iodine Following a PWR Loss of Coolant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes a study of the radioiodine problem associated with the siting of the current generation of nuclear power stations in the United States, and compares the effectiveness of containment spray systems and charcoal filter systems for the removal of the radioiodine following a PWR loss of coolant accident. The study showed that, based on the present reactor siting criteria in the United States, the ultimate iodine removal system must provide an iodine dose reduction factor (DRF) of 13 in the first two hours and then eventually achieve a DRF of 50. This means that about 2% of the iodine need never be removed from the containment atmosphere if the other 98% is removed sufficiently fast. The performance of iodine removal systems is shown as a function of operating time and design capacity. For removal systems operated in a recirculating mode, the system's iodine removal efficiency is relatively unimportant when compared with the effect of the presence of a small quantity of a penetrating component. The slow response time of a charcoal filter system limits the maximum dose reduction factor that can be practically obtained in the first two hours to between 5 and 8. However, the fast response of a containment spray system provides the capability of achieving an iodine dose reduction factor of about 50 within the first two hours after an accident. If a small quantity of a penetrating component is present, the charcoal filter system will eventually catch up to the spray system, and both systems will approach the same dose reduction factor. (author)

  19. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  20. Economic comparison of an improved nuclear filter system considering space, operation, testing, and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an all-welded charcoal adsorber design for increased system iodine removal efficiency has provided certain other unique advantages of particular interest to nuclear power plant personnel involved in health/safety, operation, maintenance, testing and space allocation for nuclear filter systems. The design features providing these unique advantages have been refined and tested and are available and installed on operating reactors as the HECA filter system. Health/safety aspects of the system are improved through the use of a unique pneumatic conveying system which eliminates the need for entrance of maintenance personnel into the filter housing during removal and replacement of spent charcoal and; thereby, minimizes radiation exposure of occupational personnel. Operational and maintenance costs, after capital investment, for nuclear filter systems being of particular interest to utility operations management are compared with conventional iodine absorber systems. The material cost savings in charcoal replacement with the system can exceed capital investment costs for given operating conditions. Testing and retest for by-pass leakage location and correction experiences are described and comparisons drawn between the HECA system and conventional designs. Space allocation improvements for actual nuclear filter system installations are described using the HECA system in conjunction with 1500 CFM ''superflow'' absolute filter modules. Features of the separatorless absolute superflow filter that complement the like design features of the all-welded HECA charcoal adsorber are described and operational and test data are presented. (U.S.)

  1. Testing Dual Rotary Filters - 12373

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTekR Rotary Micro-filter units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system and develop a multi-filter automated control scheme. Developing and testing the control of multiple filters was the next step in the development of the rotary filter for deployment. The test stand was assembled using as much of the hardware planned for use in the field including instrumentation and valving. The control scheme developed will serve as the basis for the scheme used in deployment. The multi filter setup was controlled via an Emerson DeltaV control system running version 10.3 software. Emerson model MD controllers were installed to run the control algorithms developed during this test. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel developed the software used to operate the process test model. While a variety of control schemes were tested, two primary algorithms provided extremely stable control as well as significant resistance to process upsets that could lead to equipment interlock conditions. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The equipment selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve, the pressure transmitters, and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual rotary filter system. Experience acquired on a multi-filter system behavior and with the system layout during this test helped to identify areas where the current deployment rotary filter installation design could be improved. Completion of this testing provides the necessary information

  2. High-sensitive integral method of volume 222Rn activity determination on the base of charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report was to develop the sensitive method for integral measurement of radon-222 which is based on its capture on the activated charcoal. We obtained the time dependence of the charcoal adsorption of radon on the exposure time for the used type of the charcoal and filter paper. We tested the application of the different detector system for the determination of the radon activity adsorbed on the charcoal. The high sensitivity of the determination of the radon activity can be reached by means of the one litre scintillation chamber into which the radon is transported from the charcoal. (authors)

  3. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  4. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  5. Determination of the attrition resistance of granular charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory procedure has been developed to evaluate the attrition of granular adsorbent charcoals on passing an air flow through the bed. Two factors observed in plant operations were selected as relevant: (1) the characteristic structural vibrations in plant scale equipment (motors, fans, etc.) that are transmitted to charcoal particles and cause the particles to move and rub each other, and (2) the rapid air flow that results in the movement of the attrited dust. In the test a container for charcoal [50 mm diameter and 50 mm high] was vibrated at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a constant energy input manually controlled using a vibration meter in the acceleration mode. Simultaneously, air was applied and exited through glass fiber filter paper. The quantity of dust trapped on the exit filter was then determined, either optically or gravimetrically. The dust formed per minute (attrition coefficient) was found to approach a constant value. The plateau-values from sequential determinations varied with the source of the charcoal; a 5-fold difference was found among a large variety of commercial products. The first testing of a sample released the excess dust accumulated in previous handling of the charcoal. The plateau values were then attained in the succeeding tests and these were characteristic of the material. The results were compared with those obtained for the same charcoals using older test methods such as the Ball and Pan Hardness Test described in RDTM16-1T

  6. Summary of performance test for filtered vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOSHIBA has been carried tests to evaluate performance of the filtered vent system. In order to apply several parameters and functions, test facility is useful and has much flexibility. The filtered vent system has 2 functions, one is scrubbing in water and the other is metal filter. Test results show a good performance. We will introduce a outline of the filtered vent system examination. (author)

  7. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile flow problems (cholestasis) during pregnancy. ... pregnancy, according to some early research reports. Preventing hangover. Activated charcoal is included in some hangover remedies, ...

  8. Comparison of charcoal- and starch-based media for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species to macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones.

    OpenAIRE

    Pendland, S L; Martin, S J; Chen, C.; Schreckenberger, P C; Danziger, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    We compared growth characteristics of 46 Legionella strains grown on buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE alpha) agar and buffered starch yeast extract (BSYE) agar and MICs of macrolides, azalides, and fluoroquinolones for these organisms. Growth was poor and not reproducible on BSYE agar. Growth was excellent on BCYE alpha, and MICs were easy to interpret. BCYE alpha is superior to BSYE for testing susceptibilities of Legionella species by agar dilution.

  9. Methods for in-place testing of HEPA and iodine filters used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was a general investigation of existing in-place test methods and to build an equipment for in-place testing of HEPA and iodine sorption filters. In this work the discussion is limited to methods used in in-place testing of HEPA and iodine sorption filters used in light-water-cooled reactor plants. Dealy systems, built for the separation of noble gases, and testing of them is not discussed in the work. Contaminants present in the air of a reactor containment can roughly be diveded into three groups: aerosols, reactive gases, and noble gases. The aerosols are filtered with HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters. The most important reactive gases are molecular iodine and its two compounds: hydrogen iodide and methyl iodide. Of gases to be removed by the filters methyl iodide is the gas most difficult to remove especially at high relative humidities. Impregnated activated charcoal is generally used as sorption material in the iodine filters. Experience gained from the use of nuclear power plants proves that the function of high efficiency air filter systems can not be considered safe until this is proved by in-place tests. In-place tests in use are basically equal. A known test agent is injected upstream of the filter to be tested. The efficiency is calculated from air samples taken from both sides of the filter. (author)

  10. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  11. On-site test of filters in nuclear facilities using radioactive sodium chloride (24Na)-aerosol and methyl iodide (131I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclar facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are equipped with high-efficiency filters to protect the environment from routine or accidental releases of radioactive material. The filter efficiency must be tested regularly and a method for on-site control is described. It is based on injection of a radioactive sample in the filter duct, followed by sampling before and after the filter. HEPA-filters are tested with a 24NaCl-aerosol and charcoal filters with 131ICH3. Normally samples of 1 mCi are used. Penetrations (1 - efficiency) can be determined with a relative uncertainty of 10-15%. (author)

  12. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  13. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder

  14. Characterization Tests of WFC3 Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, S.; Boucarut, R.; Telfer, R.; Quijano, J. Kim; Quijada, M.; Arsenovic, P.; Brown, T.; Dailey, M.; Figer, D.; Hilbert, B.

    2006-01-01

    The WFC3 instrument to be installed on HST during the next servicing mission consists of a UVIS and an IR channel. Each channel is allocated its own complement of filters: 48 elements for the UVIS (42 filters, 5 quads, and 1 UV grism) and 17 slots for the IR (15 filters and 2 grisms). While a majority of the UVIS filters exhibit excellent performance consistent with or exceeding expectations, a subset show significant filter ghosts. Procurement of improved replacement filters is in progress and a summary of the characterization tests being performed on the new filters is presented. In the IR channel, while no filter ghosting was detected in any of the filters during thermal vacuum testing, the grisms were found to be installed incorrectly; they have been removed and will be reinstalled. In addition, due to the significantly improved response blueward of 800nm expected in the new substrate-removed IR detector (see Invited talk by R.A.Kimble, this volume), two IR filters originally constructed on a fused silica substrate are being remade using an IR transmitting color glass to block any visible light transmission. Tests of the new IR filters and preparations for the grism reinstallation are summarized

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigation on adaptability of charcoal beds to containment filter venting in Italian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work has been divided into three parts. The first one gives a description of the facilities under investigation during some selected accidental conditions, also described. The second part, which consists of an experimental work, tries to identify the behavior of charcoal beds in terms of pressure drop vs the aerosol mass loading and of aerosol retention efficiency. On the basis of the experimental findings, the prediction of the behavior of the real beds is carried out in the third part, as regards the pressure drop through the beds, related to the selected accident scenarios. In addition in this last part the results of a preliminary evaluation of the maximum decay power picked up by the beds without reaching the carbon self-ignition temperature have been reported

  16. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  18. Supplementary test method for carbon filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test method for carbon filters using freon to detect leakage is described. The filters are used in nuclear power plants and in air-raid shelters to separate radioactive iodine.Sampling and detection limits are described and a proposal for a complete equipment is made.(G.B.)

  19. Testing Of The Dual Rotary Filter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  20. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  1. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  2. 水力负荷对木炭填料生物滤池处理污水的影响%Effect of Hydraulic Loading on Charcoal Biological Aerated Filter for Treatment of Sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱姣; 陶涛; 边朝辉; 呼永锋

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal was adopted as filler in biological aerated filter and compared with ceramsite.The treatment efficiency of sewage under different hydraulic loading was investigated. The results show that change in hydraulic loading has little influence on removal of COD but has significant influence on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in both filters. The removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and TN in the charcoal filter is superior to that in ceramsite filter. When the hydraulic loading is 4 m~3/(m~3·d),the nitrogen removal efficiency is the best. Under this hydraulic loading, the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the effluent of charcoal filter and ceramsite filter is 4.7 mg/L and 7.7 mg/L with the removal rate of 80% and 65% respectively. By the comprehensive comparison of removal rates of COD, NH_4~+-N,TN and TP in the charcoal filter, the optimum hydraulic loading is 4 m~3/(m~3·d).%以木炭作为曝气生物滤池的填料,并与陶粒填料作对比,考察了其在不同水力负荷下对污水的处理效能.结果表明,改变水力负荷对两个反应器的出水COD影响不大,但对其脱氮除磷效果的影响较显著.木炭滤池对氨氮和TN的去除效果要好于陶粒滤池的,当水力负荷为4m~3/(m~3·d)时,两反应器的脱氮效果最佳,此时木炭和陶粒滤池的出水氨氮浓度分别为4.7、7.7mg/L(去除率分别为80%和65%).综合考虑木炭滤池对COD、NH_4~+-N、TN和TP的去除效果,确定其最佳水力负荷为4 m~3/(m~3·d).

  3. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares; Jasmin Lemke; Ruben Auccaise; Daniele Avilez Duó; Roberta Lourenço Ziolli; Witold Kwapinski; Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE) using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear m...

  4. DOE standard: Quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This standard establishes essential elements for the quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters by US Department of Energy (DOE)-accepted Filter Test Facilities (FTF). The standard specifies HEPA filter quality assurance inspection and testing practices established in DOE-STD-3022-98, DOE HEPA Filter Test Program, and provides a basis for the preparation of written operating procedures for primary FTF functions.

  5. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance

  6. Tests of Event Filter Configuration Software

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F.J.

    TDAQ - Tests of Event Filter configuration software Within Trigger/DAQ a major consideration is how well the performance of the system components scale in going from the small set-ups used for development work to the final system with many hundreds of processors and links. In the case of the Event Filter, which makes the final stage of on-line event selection, plus on-line calibrations and monitoring, more than a thousand processors are envisaged. These processors will be divided into sub-farms, most will be remote from the detector and some could even be at institutes far from CERN. As part of the on-line system it is important that the software in the sub-farms can be reconfigured rapidly as runs start and stop, and that the system be fault tolerant. The flow of data inside a sub-farm involves many processes, for distribution and collection of results in addition to those for event processing itself. Supervision code written in Java has been developed to manage the processes within a cluster, with XML f...

  7. 硝酸处理对竹炭曝气生物滤池性能的影响%The Influence of Nitric Acid Modification on Aerated Bio-filter with Bamboo Charcoal as Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗舒君

    2015-01-01

    以硝酸处理竹炭作为曝气生物滤池填料,通过研究硝酸处理对竹炭吸附性能、表面官能团等的影响,考查硝酸处理竹炭对反应器性能的影响.结果表明,硝酸处理后竹炭表面含氧官能团增加,有利于微生物的附着,仅4d就完成挂膜, 反应器对有机负荷具有良好的去除能力, 在COD负荷为1.8和4.8 kg/(m3·d) 时, 平均去除率分别为83.3%和79.4%.%In this study, the influence of nitric acid modification on the adsorption performance and the surface functional groups of the bamboo charcoal was investigated. After that, the modified bamboo charcoal was employed as the bio-filter for wastewater treatment to study its performance on dealing with organic matter. The results indicated that the nitric acid modification increased surface oxygen functional groups of bamboo charcoal. The modification also promoted the growing of the microorganism, and shortened the mature period of bio-film to 4 days. The reactor was good at COD treatment. On condition that COD volume loaded of system was 1.8 and 4.8 kg/(m3·d), the removal efficiency can reached to 83.3%and 79.4%, respectively.

  8. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Devesh Chand Thakur; Vaishnavi Akunuri; Priyanka Mummaneni; Sujatha Christopher; Nanjundiaha Shashidhara; Venkatesh Thuppil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of ag...

  9. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  10. Uncertainty in in-place filter test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some benefits of accounting for uncertainty in in-place filter test results are explored. Information the test results provide relative to system performance acceptance limits is evaluated in terms of test result uncertainty. An expression for test result uncertainty is used to estimate uncertainty in in-place filter tests on an example air cleaning system. Modifications to the system test geometry are evaluated in terms of effects on test result uncertainty

  11. Testing HEPA filter response to high flow velocity and overpressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HEPA filters presently on the market and modified versions were tested using the LANL blowdown facility. The filter response during the test was documented on high speed films which indicated, among other information, the load when first failure occurred and the failure mode. Differential pressure through the filter and velocity were measured with variable reluctance pressure transducers and an oscilloscope recorder. New HEPA filters show first failures already at differential pressures between some 4 kPa and 17 kPa. The better results are obtained with conventionally pleated filter paper packs sealed in a wooden frame with a polyurethane material. However, these filters cannot be used under accident conditions. Metal frame filters considered as potential filters for accident situations showed only poor resistance against overpressures. The weakest point in such filters proved to be the attachment of the filter pack in the metal frame, which limited the loadability to about 10 kPa. As soon as proper attachment is assured, the integrity of the filter pack limits the admissible differential pressure. Through some modifications of wood frame filters, physical integrity was improved to a failure pressure of 24 kPa. During operation, the filter elements are loaded with dust. Dust loading up to 1000 Pa pressure drop at rated flow, which was simulated with polystyrene latex aerosols, was found to reduce the mechanical stability by up to 40%. Pressure drop characteristics of HEPA filters influence the occurrence of high differential pressures and high mechanical loads. Pressure drops (δp) of unloaded and preloaded filters were investigated up to high flow velocities (v). Measured data can be presented in the form of δp=av+bv2, where a and b are constants. Theory, in contrast, predicts a linear relationship. The deviation is due to deformations of the pleated filter paper pack with increasing flow velocity and

  12. Experience in the quality assurance testing of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter quality-assurance test program was initiated in 1960 to ensure the supply of adequate filters for environmental control applications in DOE operations. The program has played a significant role in the development and improvement of HEPA filters, and has more than paid for itself. However, the receipt of large numbers of filters which require repair or waiver of specification requirements, even as recent as 1980 and 1981, indicates that there are problems in the HEPA filter manufacturing industry. It is clear that DOE users are receiving the 'cream of the crop' of HEPA filters, but that other users who do not avail themselves of the DOE testing service are receiving filters of lesser quality. (author)

  13. Test of coal/particle filters in an emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the result of tests of combined coal/particle filters in an simulated emergency situation. The tests were carried out at two different situations: 1. Room temperature and high pressure. 2. Increased temperature and supersaturated moist air. The results show that airpressure higher than 60 kPa may cause a filter collapse. Moist and steam reduce the efficiency of both the coal and particles filters. (K.A.E.)

  14. Standardized methods for in-place filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, M.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawski, J.

    1997-08-01

    The conference minutes of a US DOE meeting held on in-place filter testing are presented. The purpose of the conference was to transfer technical in-place testing knowledge throughout the DOE complex. Major items discussed included purchase requisitions, in-place testing, instrumentation, and in-place test personnel qualifications and training. Future actions identified by conference attendees centered on establishing complex-wide DOE policies on training, inspection and testing, and filter specifications.

  15. Evaluation of data from HEPA filter quality assurance testing stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide 1.52, issued in July 1976, the NRC recommended that high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for use in engineered safety features (ESF) atmosphere cleanup systems be visually inspected and dioctylphtalate (DOP) tested at either of two Department of Energy (DOE) operated QA Filter Testing Stations prior to their installation and use in commercial nuclear power plants. This practice was initiated because filter vendors were unable to consistently provide a HEPA filter that would meet the stringent requirements established by DOE and NRC and its predecessor the AEC. In 1977, the NRC staff undertook a program to revise Regulatory Guide 1.52 to reflect recently issued industry standards (e.g., ANSI N509 and N510) and current industry practices. Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide 1.52 was formally issued in March 1978. In conducting this review, the recommendation that HEPA filters, intended for use in ESF systems in commercial nuclear power plants, be routinely tested at the DOE-QA Filter Testing Stations was revaluated. As part of this evluation a detailed analysis of the filter test results recorded by the two QA Testing Stations during the period 1971 to 1977 was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis and explains the rationale for deleting the requirement that all HEPA filters intended for use in ESF systems be tested at the AQ Testing Station

  16. Charred by charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Taskeen

    2014-01-01

    A boy borne down with charcoal on his chukudu (home-made cycle), Goma. In an environment where the rebel groups have established a shadow state and economy in a political economy framed by war, charcoal as a necessity is traded every day in Goma, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is this charcoal trading that allows the boy to survive; it then bites back with violence that is financed by the very same things. In contrast to existing scholarship on internationally traded high value comm...

  17. In-situ testing of HEPA filters in the nuclear Karlsruhe filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plant operators and filter manufacturers are endeavouring to improve environmental protection by intensifying process control and/or improving filter quality. In-situ testing is an important element in these efforts since it represents a direct means of checking the success or otherwise of a particular development. The arrangements for in-situ testing should satisfy the following minimum requirements: the staff should not be exposed to risk during the test; the test method should be objective and reproducible as well as being as sensitive as possible; the test method should permit detection of individual leaks in the filter system so that they can be remedied as efficiently as possible; the test equipment should not necessitate modifications to the extract systems or plant construction; the test should be simple and capable of being carried out with a minimum of effort and equipment. GfK has developed the 'Nuclear-Karlsruhe' filter housing in accordance with these principles. This housing permits in-situ testing similar to the DIN 24184 visual oil-fog test or the DOP test. External visual checks on the general condition of the filter is also possible. A safe system of filter changing with a specially designed plastic bag attachment at an accessible height considerably increases the degree of protection of operating personnel

  18. Development of a standardized test rig for HEPA filter units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to guarantee the safety margins of filter units during their entire service lives, filter performance needs to be verified under standardized test conditions that take into consideration the particularly adverse effects of filter exposure to super - saturated airflows and elevated differential pressure. The detail construction for a rig to type test filter units under fog conditions and increased pressure drop was finished, and the components of the test facility were delivered. The build up of the test rig is nearly closed on. In order to know the quantity of water and the loss of time, necessary for a decided differential pressure of an filter unit, a small test facility was build up. A small dust preloaded filter was fixed in a circular channel and loaded with small droplets from an air atomizing nozzle. The pressure drop of the test filter increases with increased preloading and increased quantity of water in the air. Tests with sub - saturated air (humidity up to 94%) showed, that the pressure drop gradient increases with increased preloading and decreases with increased velocity. Unloaded, high strength filters show no change in pressure drop. (orig.)

  19. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  20. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the CxF to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH4F. The charcoal laden with NH4F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH4F as a mixture of NH3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH4F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  1. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  2. Mathematical test criteria for filtering complex systems: Plentiful observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important emerging scientific issue is the real time filtering through observations of noisy turbulent signals for complex systems as well as the statistical accuracy of spatio-temporal discretizations for such systems. These issues are addressed here in detail for the setting with plentiful observations for a scalar field through explicit mathematical test criteria utilizing a recent theory [A.J. Majda, M.J. Grote, Explicit off-line criteria for stable accurate time filtering of strongly unstable spatially extended systems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (4) (2007) 1124-1129]. For plentiful observations, the number of observations equals the number of mesh points. These test criteria involve much simpler decoupled complex scalar filtering test problems with explicit formulas and elementary numerical experiments which are developed here as guidelines for filter performance. The theory includes information criteria to avoid filter divergence with large model errors, asymptotic Kalman gain, filter stability, and accurate filtering with small ensemble size as well as rigorous results delineating the role of various turbulent spectra for filtering under mesh refinement. These guidelines are also applied to discrete approximations for filtering the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation with very turbulent and noisy signals with either an equipartition of energy or -5/3 turbulent spectrum with infrequent observations as severe test problems. The theory and companion simulations demonstrate accurate statistical filtering in this context with implicit schemes with large time step with very small ensemble sizes and even with unstable explicit schemes under appropriate circumstances provided the filtering strategies are guided by the off-line theoretical criteria. The surprising failure of other strongly stable filtering strategies is also explained through these off-line criteria

  3. Operational evaluation of the high flow alternative filter test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative to the current filter test system (Q107) used to test Size 4 (500 cubic feet per min rated flow) and larger nuclear grade high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters at DOE Filter Test Facilities (FTFs) has been developed. This new test system, called the High Flow Alternative Filter Test System (HFATS), has undergone a long-term operational evaluation at the Oak Ridge FTF (ORFTF) for: comparison between HEPA filter penetration measurements made with the HFATS and with the Q107; assessment of the HFATS' long-term routine operational performance in the FTF environment; and determination of the potential operational impacts of the HFATS on the FTFs. Data for the operational evaluation were collected by the Oak Ridge staff using both test systems. These data were analyzed and interpreted by Los Alamos staff. A total of 849 filters were tested in the evaluation. The data provided by the HFATS easily permits filter penetration to be reported in terms of: penetration at the size of maximum penetration; number, surface area, or mass penetration; or penetration at 0.3 μm for reference to historical data. Results of the penetration measurement comparisons show that the HFATS measurements at about 0.3 μm aerosol diameter do not differ significantly from the Q107 measurements. Analysis of the HFATS penetration data indicates that for the 100% flow tests maximum penetration most frequently occurs at an aerosol diameter of about 0.15 μm as measured by a laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS). The 0.15 μm HFATS measurements at 100% test flow were markedly higher than the corresponding Q107 measurements. These measurements resulted in over 18% of the filters being rejected by the HFATS only, compared to no filters being rejected only by the Q107 and approximately 0.2% being rejected by both systems

  4. Structural testing of salt loaded HEPA filters for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant described in this paper were performed by personnel from New Mexico State Univ. in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse Corporation. High efficiency particulate air filters (0.61m by 0.61m by 0.3m) of the type in use at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were loaded with salt aerosol provided from that site. The structural strength of salt-loaded, high-efficiency filters was investigated at two humidity levels, high (75%RH) and low (13-14% RH), by subjecting the filters to pressure transients of the types expected from tornadoes. Filters loaded under the high humidity condition proved to have a greater structural strength than did the filters loaded under the low humidity conditions, when both types were subjected to tornado-like pressure pulses. This unexpected results was apparently due to the crystallization of salt upon the wire face guard of the HEPA filter loaded under the high humidity condition which kept salt from penetrating the filter medium while still providing a substantial pressure drop at the standard flow rate. Results are also presented for HEPA filters pre-conditioned at 100% RH before structural testing and for HEPA filters in series with pre-filters

  5. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  6. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance

  7. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  8. Comparative study of in-situ filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available methods of testing high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filters in-situ have been reviewed. In order to understand the relationship between the results produced by different methods a selection has been compared. Various pieces of equipment for generating and detecting aerosols have been tested and their suitability assessed. Condensation-nuclei, DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and sodium-flame in-situ filter test methods have been studied, using the 500 cfm (9000 m3/h) filter test rig at Harwell and in the field. Both the sodium-flame and DOP methods measure the penetration through leaks and filter material. However the measured penetration through filtered leaks depends on the aerosol size distribution and the detection method. Condensation-nuclei test methods can only be used to measure unfiltered leaks since condensation nuclei have a very low penetration through filtered leaks. A combination of methods would enable filtered and unfiltered leaks to be measured. A condensation-nucleus counter using n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid has the advantage of being able to detect any particle up to 1 μm in diameter, including DOP, and so could be used for this purpose. A single-particle counter has not been satisfactory because of interference from particles leaking into systems under extract, particularly downstream of filters, and because the concentration of the input aerosol has to be severely limited. The sodium-flame method requires a skilled operator and may cause safety and corrosion problems. The DOP method using a total light scattering detector has so far been the most satisfactory. It is fairly easy to use, measures reasonably low values of penetration and gives rapid results. DOP has had no adverse effect on HEPA filters over a long series of tests

  9. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  10. Test Of A Microwave Amplifier With Superconductive Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes design and low-temperature tests of low-noise GaAs microwave amplifier combined with microstrip band-pass filter. Two versions of microstrip filter used in alternate tests; in one version, microstrips formed as films of high-transition-temperature superconductor Y/Ba/Cu/O on lanthanum aluminate substrate with gold film as ground plane. Other version identical except microstrips as well as ground plane made of gold, normally conductive.

  11. Preparation and performance study of impregnated charcoal used for removing gaseous radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many kinds of domestic charcoal have been tested. The results show that Type-1 Beijing Coconut Charcoal, Shanghai Oil Palm Charcoal and Type-201 Wild Nut Charcoal can meet the requirements of base carbon used for preparing impregnated charcoals. Using the three kinds of charcoal mentioned above as base carbon, impregnated charcoals were prepared with 4% KI3 and 5% EDTA. The results indicate that their main performances all come up to the requirements for nuclear grade gas phase adsorbent used for removing gaseous radioiodines from off-gas. In addition, the results also indicate that performances of the six kinds of impregnated charcoal prepared in the laboratory can compare with that of same kinds of products (e.g. Type-BC-727 and NUSORB KITEG II impregnated charcoal) made in U.S.A

  12. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  13. Technology development: HEPA filter service life test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, K.N.; Cummings, K.G.; Leck, W.C.; Fretthold, J.K.

    1995-05-31

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site) has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and also during potential design-based accidents. The operational integrity of the HEPA filter plenums is essential to maintaining the margins of safety as required by building specific Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARS) for protection of the public and environment. An Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD), USDQ-RFP94.0615-ARS, was conducted in 1994 addressing the potential inadequacy of the safety envelope for Protected Area building HEPA plenums. While conducting this USQD, questions were raised concerning the maximum service life criteria for HEPA filters. Accident scenarios in existing FSARs identify conditions that could potentially cause plugging or damage of down stream HEPA filters as a result of impaction from failed filters. Additionally, available data indicates that HEPA filters experience structural degradation due to the effects of age. The Unresolved Safety Question (USQ) compensatory measures thus require testing and analysis of used HEPA filters in order to determine and implement service life criteria.

  14. In-place leak testing of multiple HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. K.; Hong, K. P.; Jun, Y. B.; Min, D. K.; Park, K. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Lee, E. P.; Hwang, Y. H.; Su, H. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kwon, H. M. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In-place leak test for the filter banks with multiple high efficiency particulate air(HEPA) filters was carried in KAERI. As a result of the test, in the air flow capacity of 31,500 CMH and 22,800 CMH, penetration rate appeared to be 0.015 {approx} 0.036 %. These values satisfy the Regulatory Guide 1.14 reference, 0.05%. Although test has a complicated procedure, the testing technique was established by KAERI, and will be contributed to the safety inspection of ventilation system in nuclear facilities in the future.

  15. Direct assay of filter media following DEOX testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct assay of filter media by gamma spectrometry following DEOX testing has distinct advantages over analytical chemistry. Prior to using gamma spectrometry for the quantification of cesium (Cs- 137), a calibration must be established with known sources since gamma spectrometry yields relative results. Quantitative analytical chemistry, in particular ICP-MS, has been performed on the filter media for comparison to the gamma spectrometry data. The correlation of gamma spectrometry to ICP-MS data is presented to justify the continued use of gamma spectrometry for filter media. (authors)

  16. A Transmission-Filter Coronagraph: Design and Test

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a transmission-filter coronagraph for direct imaging of Jupiter-like exoplanets with ground-based telescopes. The coronagraph is based on a transmission filter that consists of finite number of transmission steps. A discrete optimization algorithm is proposed for the design of the transmission filter that is optimized for ground-based telescopes with central obstructions and spider structures.We discussed the algorithm that is applied for our coronagraph design. To demonstrate the performance of the coronagraph, a filter was manufactured and laboratory tests were conducted. The test results show that the coronagraph can achieve a high contrast of 10 to -6.5 at an inner working angle of 5{\\lambda}/D, which indicates that our coronagraph can be immediately used for the direct imaging of Jupiter-like exoplanets with ground-based telescopes.

  17. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  18. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning. PMID:26403022

  19. Moisture insensitive charcoal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in the air in houses is the most appropriate approach for the real-time measurements, but this requires complex and expensive instruments and is not practical for large studies. Activated carbon canisters have been used extensively for determining the average concentration over a period of a few days. The ''open face'' charcoal detectors have an integration time constant of about 14 h so that they are sensitive to short-term transient changes in the radon concentration. In addition, water uptake at high relative humidities reduces the radon uptake by the charcoal. The addition of a diffusion barrier and a nylon screen results in a charcoal detector with an integration half-time ranging from 20 to 60 h and a reduced uptake of water at high humidities. Silicone rubber sheeting is relatively permeable to radon and impermeable to water vapor. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the effect of a silicone barrier on the charcoal canister radon collective device. 3 refs

  20. THE RESEARCH ON THE START-UP OF CAMPUS SEWAGE TREATMENT WITH TWO-STAGE BAMBOO CHARCOAL BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTER%2级竹炭曝气生物滤池处理校园污水的启动性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雷; 季芳芳; 江小林

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the start rule of the two-stage bamboo charcoal biological up-flow aerated filters in the treatment of campus domestic wastewater. Using the two levels of biological aerated filters connected in series, The compound inoculation is used to start the BAF. The design time is 31 d to accomplished the forming bio-film and discuss the removal performance of COD, BOD, and NH3-N. Because the bamboo charcoal has certain adsorption, so do the blank test to verify the adsorption efficiency of COD. The results show that: after 15 d, the COD and BOD, removal efficiency can reach stability above 80%.The change in the content of NHrN with further research, the removal rate is above 70%. The result of the experiment shows that the biological film starting is successfully.%研究了上流式2级竹炭曝气生物滤池(UBAF)处理校园生活污水的启动规律.利用2级曝气生物滤池串联的方式,采用复合式接种挂膜的方法对曝气生物滤池进行挂膜启动.设计挂膜时间为31d,探讨了挂膜过程中COD、BOD5以及NH3-N随时间的变化规律.由于竹炭本身具有一定吸附性,因此以空白试验验证其对COD的吸附效率.结果表明,在挂膜开始的第15天,COD与BOD5的去除率均达到80%以上,进一步以NH3-N含量变化研究,其去除率达到70%以上.表明此时曝气生物滤池挂膜启动成功.

  1. Discrimination of Ishihara Test Plates Through a Red Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the Ishihara Color Vision Test performance of color-deficient subjects through red filters. Material and Method: Thirty color-defective male subjects and 30 color normal male subjects were included in the study. The median age was 26.5 (min-max: 17-61 and 28.0 (min-max: 18-60 years in color deficient and in normal subjects respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding the age (p=0.62. All the subjects were tested with the Ishihara Color Vision Test, 38-plate edition without filter and with red filter from trial lens set and red acetate paper. Results: Through red filters all of the color vision defective subjects were able to read the plates with zero error (p<0.001 and the performance of color normal subjects also increased significantly (p=0.014. In both groups, all the subjects were able to read all the plates without errors. Discussion: It was concluded that the color-deficient subjects can perform Ishihara Test without errors through red filter.

  2. In-place HEPA filter testing summary (1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the latest in a series of annual reports regarding the in-place testing program for highly efficient filtration systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This testing is conducted to maintain regulatory permits and verify the performance levels of these filtration systems have not deteriorated over the last operating cycle. In-place testing is also conducted on systems when maintenance and/or repair to the filtration system have been performed to verify that the system components have been installed correctly and there has been no damage to the filter media. Performance testing of negative air pressure machines and HEPA filtered vacuums has been included as part of the decontamination and decommissioning activities and the asbestos management program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report provides a brief overview of the testing procedures used to conduct in-place tests, a summary of individual system performance, and trends observed since the previous year

  3. Multiple HEPA filter test methods, January--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, B.; Kyle, T.; Osetek, D.

    1977-06-01

    The testing of tandem high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems is of prime importance for the measurement of accurate overall system protection factors. A procedure, based on the use of an intra-cavity laser particle spectrometer, has been developed for measuring protection factors in the 10/sup 8/ range. A laboratory scale model of a filter system was constructed and initially tested to determine individual HEPA filter characteristics with regard to size and state (liquid or solid) of several test aerosols. Based on these laboratory measurements, in-situ testing has been successfully conducted on a number of single and tandem filter installations within the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as well as on extraordinary large single systems at Rocky Flats. For the purpose of recovery and for simplified solid waste disposal, or prefiltering purposes, two versions of an inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner have been devised and are undergoing testing. Initial experience with one of the systems, which relies on an electrostatic spraying phenomenon, indicates performance efficiency of greater than 99.9% for flow velocities commonly used in air cleaning systems. Among the effluents associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing is /sup 129/I. An intra-cavity laser detection system is under development which shows promise of being able to detect mixing ratios of one part in 10/sup 7/, I/sub 2/ in air.

  4. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Rainier Imaña; Álvaro Nogueira de Souza; Humberto Ângelo; Márcio Lopes da Silva; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2015-01-01

    In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the prod...

  5. A review of DOE HEPA filter component test activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slawski, J.W.; Bresson, J.F. [Informatics Corp., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scripsick, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    All HEPA filters purchased for installation in DOE nuclear facilities are required to be tested at a Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. The number of HEPA filters purchased by DOE has been reduced so much that the Hanford FTF was closed. From Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 to 1994, funding was not provided to the FTF Technical Support Group (TSG) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As a consequence, Round Robin Tests (RRTs), performed twice each year by the FTFs to assess constituency of test results among the FTFs, were not performed in FY 1992 and FY 1993. The Annual Reports of FTF test activities were not prepared for FY 1992 - 1995. Technical support provided to the FTFs was minimal. There is talk of closing a second FTF, and ongoing discussions as to whether DOE will continue to fund operation of the FTFs. In FY 1994, DOE Defense Programs commenced funding the TSG. RRT data for FY 1994 and 1995 have been entered into the database; the FY 1994 RRT report has been issued; and the FY 1995 RRT report is in progress. Data from semiannual reports have been retrieved and entered into the database. Standards related to HEPA filter test and procurement activities are now scheduled for issuance by FY 1996. Continuation of these activities depends on whether DOE will continue to support the HEPA filter test program. The history and activities of the FTFs and the TSG at Los Alamos have been reported at previous Air Cleaning Conferences. Data from the FY 1991 Annual Report of FTF activities was presented at the 1992 Air Cleaning Conference. Preparation of the Annual Reports was temporarily suspended in 1992. However, all of the FTF Semiannual report data have been retrieved and entered into the data base. This paper focuses primarily on the results of HEPA filter tests conducted by FTFs during FY 1992 - FY 1995, and the possible effects of the DOE program uncertainties on the quality of HEPA filters for installation at the DOE sites. 15 refs., 13 tabs.

  6. A review of DOE HEPA filter component test activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All HEPA filters purchased for installation in DOE nuclear facilities are required to be tested at a Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. The number of HEPA filters purchased by DOE has been reduced so much that the Hanford FTF was closed. From Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 to 1994, funding was not provided to the FTF Technical Support Group (TSG) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As a consequence, Round Robin Tests (RRTs), performed twice each year by the FTFs to assess constituency of test results among the FTFs, were not performed in FY 1992 and FY 1993. The Annual Reports of FTF test activities were not prepared for FY 1992 - 1995. Technical support provided to the FTFs was minimal. There is talk of closing a second FTF, and ongoing discussions as to whether DOE will continue to fund operation of the FTFs. In FY 1994, DOE Defense Programs commenced funding the TSG. RRT data for FY 1994 and 1995 have been entered into the database; the FY 1994 RRT report has been issued; and the FY 1995 RRT report is in progress. Data from semiannual reports have been retrieved and entered into the database. Standards related to HEPA filter test and procurement activities are now scheduled for issuance by FY 1996. Continuation of these activities depends on whether DOE will continue to support the HEPA filter test program. The history and activities of the FTFs and the TSG at Los Alamos have been reported at previous Air Cleaning Conferences. Data from the FY 1991 Annual Report of FTF activities was presented at the 1992 Air Cleaning Conference. Preparation of the Annual Reports was temporarily suspended in 1992. However, all of the FTF Semiannual report data have been retrieved and entered into the data base. This paper focuses primarily on the results of HEPA filter tests conducted by FTFs during FY 1992 - FY 1995, and the possible effects of the DOE program uncertainties on the quality of HEPA filters for installation at the DOE sites. 15 refs., 13 tabs

  7. Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...

  8. Home-made carbonaceous adsorbents for the iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming, that at the moment, an activated charcoal is the most widely used adsorbent in off-gas cleaning systems for elemental iodine removal, it was analyzed how to improve the adsorption properties of this filter material for removing the organic iodine compounds, especially in the presence of high relative humidity. Three different indigenous activated charcoals were selected for studies: two kinds of charcoal, designated as type A and N, as well as the charcoals used for flue gas desulfurization, as the third type S. These charcoals were impregnated with tin iodide (SnI2), potassium iodide (KI) and triethylenediamine (TEDA). Considering the results of the laboratory tests of the efficiency methyl iodide retention by the impregnated charcoals, it was concluded, that the carbonaceous adsorbent containing 1+1.5% KI showed efficient retention of the methyl iodide (CH3I), compared with, for example, foreign activated charcoals, as, NORIT-CGI 1% KI (West Germany) and GA-1 0.5% KI (Czechoslovakia). (author)

  9. Design and Set up of an Air Filter Testing Unit to Demonstrate Characteristics and Performance of Particulate Air Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Smigielski; Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    An air filter is a significant element of any mechanical ventilation system. However, the importance and performance evaluation of air filters have not been well publicized and related scientific reports are scarce. In this study, a transportable, off-line, air filter-testing unit (the Unit) was designed and utilized to simulate the filter housing of a mechanical ventilation system. The Unit was designed, assembled, and operated in a laboratory. To demonstrate the applications of the Unit, a ...

  10. Generation of aerosols for filter efficiency testing in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Research Contract No. 1815 was to develop a new method of sodium chloride aerosol generation for filter efficiency testing in nuclear installations. The first phase of the study was devoted to the development of a suitable aerosol generator. The first NaCl aerosol generator enabled determination of the influence various parameters like nozzle diameter, air flow rate, NaCl concentration in solution, solution temperature, etc., on the generation capacity and aerosol characteristics. The drawbacks of this generator were removed by modifying the design. Sodium chloride aerosol concentration was measured by means of a portable sodium flame photometer, and the particle size distribution was determined by a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor. For particle shape analysis electron microscopy was used. By using the aerosols generated the efficiency of air filters was tested. The results showed that the optimum parameters for atomization of 24NaCl solution are: Nozzle diameter 0.5x10-3m; compressed air pressure 196.132kPa; air flow rate 6.1x10-5m3/s. Under these conditions test aerosols of 0.335x10-6m mass median diameter were obtained with a geometrical standard deviation, sigma=2.04. Preliminary high efficiency particulate air filter tests with the above 24NaCl aerosols showed the minimum filter penetration of the order of 5x10-5% with a relative standard deviation not exceeding 15%. This showed that the 24NaCl aerosol generated from liquid phase can be successfully used for filter testing in nuclear installations

  11. Study on the charcoal delay bed for radioactive noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of bench test and engineering scale test on the performance of charcoal delay bed for radioactive noble gases. Many kinds of home-made charcoals were tested for their adsorption performances for noble gases and the correlations between Kr and Xe adsorption coefficients were found. The influence on the delay bed performances of many parameters, such as temperature, system pressure, gas superficial velocity, relative humidity of gas stream and water content of charcoal, adsorbate concentration and bed structure were studied

  12. Sensitivity tests for an ensemble Kalman filter for aerosol assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. J. Schutgens; T. Miyoshi; Takemura, T.; Nakajima, T

    2010-01-01

    We present sensitivity tests for a global aerosol assimilation system utilizing AERONET observations of AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and AAE (aerosol Ångström exponent). The assimilation system employs an ensemble Kalman filter which requires optimization of three numerical parameters: ensemble size nens, local patch size npatch and inflation factor ρ. In addition, experiments are performed to test ...

  13. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  14. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  15. Design and Set up of an Air Filter Testing Unit to Demonstrate Characteristics and Performance of Particulate Air Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Smigielski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An air filter is a significant element of any mechanical ventilation system. However, the importance and performance evaluation of air filters have not been well publicized and related scientific reports are scarce. In this study, a transportable, off-line, air filter-testing unit (the Unit was designed and utilized to simulate the filter housing of a mechanical ventilation system. The Unit was designed, assembled, and operated in a laboratory. To demonstrate the applications of the Unit, a series of air filter handling and installation scenarios was performed to determine the characteristic curve and capture efficiencies of a selected set of HEPA filters. The research project produced a transportable, closed system air filter testing unit. The Unit incorporated a fan, a damper to adjust air flowrate, a filter-housing (consisting of a mixing chamber, a filter-frame, and a pressure-gauge, and ducting with ports to introduce challenge particles and monitor them after filtration. By using the Unit, the detrimental effects of damaged filter-media, damaged filter-gasket, and improper installation of air filters on their capture efficiencies were clearly demonstrated. An air filter testing unit, similar to the Unit presented here, can readily be designed, fabricated, and assembled to simulate the filter-housing of mechanical ventilation systems. The assembled unit can be used (1 to determine capture efficiency of air filters and their characteristic curve, (2 to demonstrate the negative effects of improper handling and installation of air filters, and (3 as an effective investigative and educational tool.

  16. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    indicate that the carbon rich kiln residuals have a higher field capacity than the surrounding Arenosols. The matrix potential of the carbon rich kiln substrate is high and water drop penetration time tests show high water repellency. Our findings suggest that although the charcoal production led to an enrichment of carbon in the landscape, the hydraulic properties of the remaining ash layers can have negative effects on the water supply for plants.

  17. The quality and the markets of charcoal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Charcoal production in Finland' started in the spring 1993. The aim of the research was to study the domestic markets and production of charcoal, and to produce information for promotion of domestic production of charcoal. In addition to the literature survey, information was collected via inquiry addressed to producers of charcoal, and via telephone inquiries to the wholesalers. The inquiries were carried out in 1993. The quality of the charcoal as well as the quality comparisons of the charcoal in the markets were done. The quality comparisons are based on tests made in the spring 1993. Charcoal is used in Finland mainly as fuel in households. It is usually imported to the country, the amount being about 4 700 tons, and the value of the import about 6.0 million FIM. Domestic charcoal production is minimal only about 1 000 tons/a, the value of it being 2-3 million FIM. The problems in small-scale production of charcoal are the poor quality and the large quality variation of the product. This is due to batch based processes, in which the reaction conditions (e.g. the temperature) in different parts of the reactor are different. Additionally, the charring conditions, and the quality of the raw material can vary from one batch to another. In spite of long lasting smoke formation, noticed while using some charcoals, and fast burning of some samples, the quality variation played not remarkable role in the outdoor barbecuing. (33 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs., 1 app.)

  18. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  19. Test benches facilities for PAUCam: CCDs and filters characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Casas, Ricard; Castilla, Javier; Grañena, Ferran; de Vicente, Juan; Maiorino, Marino; Sevilla, Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The PAUCam [1] is an optical camera with a 18 CCDs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) mosaic and up to 42 narrow- and broad-band filters. It is foreseen to install it at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain. As required by the camera construction, a couple of test bench facilities were developed, one in Madrid (CIEMAT) that is mainly devoted to CCDs read-out electronics development and filter characterization [2], and another in Barcelona (IFAE-ICE) that has as its main task to characterize the scientific CCDs in terms of Dark Current, CTE, QE, RON and many other parameters demanded by the scientific performance required. The full CCDs characterization test bench layout, its descriptions and some optical and mechanical characterization results are summarized in this paper.

  20. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  1. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  2. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  3. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  4. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot UVtreatment’ (ballasting and deballasting the same day) in order to evaluate the effect of the filters on the overall treatment efficacy.

  5. Discrimination of Ishihara Test Plates Through a Red Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the Ishihara Color Vision Test performance of color-deficient subjects through red filters. Material and Method: Thirty color-defective male subjects and 30 color normal male subjects were included in the study. The median age was 26.5 (min-max: 17-61) and 28.0 (min-max: 18-60) years in color deficient and in normal subjects respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding the age (p=0.62). All the subjects were teste...

  6. Comparison of HEPA filter test methods in corrosive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the three HEPA filter test methods in corrosive environments was conducted: the dioctyl phthalate (DOP) method (US Standard Method ANSI N-101.1-1972), the sodium chloride method (British Standard 3928:1969), and the soda-fluorescein or uranine method (French Standard AFNOR STD NFX 44-011). The effects of humidity, temperature and oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) on each method was examined. The experimental design used in the evaluation measured and separated both the effect of each variable and any interaction between variables on the test method. Recommendations for changes in the standard methods to reduce erratic online results are presented

  7. Comparison of HEPA filter test methods in corrosive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-plant testing of process off-gas high efficiency particular air (HEPA) filters is an important quality control activity of the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) policy at nuclear facilities. Imprecise and irreproducible data were recorded during DOP testing at the Atmospheric Protection System (APS) of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The tests at the APS are performed in an environment that has high humidity, high temperatures and has NO/sub x/ present. An evaluation of three HEPA filter test methods in corrosive environments was conducted: the dioctyl phthalate (DOP) method (US Standard Method ANSI N-101.1-1979) the sodium chloride method (British Standard 3928:1969), and the soda-fluorescein or uranine method (French Standard AFNOR STD NFX 44-011). The effects of high humidity, temperature, and oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) on each method was examined. The effects of each variable and any interaction between variables on the test methods were examined. Recommendations for changes in the standard methods to reduce erratic on-line results are presented

  8. Proposed retrofit of HEPA filter plenums with injection and sampling manifolds for in-place filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of testing HEPA filter exhaust plenums with consideration for As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) will require that new technology be applied to existing plenum designs. HEPA filter testing at Rocky Flats has evolved slowly due to a number of reasons. The first plenums were built in the 1950's, preceding many standards. The plenums were large, which caused air dispersal problems. The systems were variable air flow. Access to the filters was difficult. The test methods became extremely conservative. Changes in methods were difficult to make. The acceptance of new test methods has been made in recent years with the change in plant mission and the emphasis on worker safety

  9. A Novel Approach for Testing Stability of 1-D Recursive Digital Filters Based on Lagrange Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Santhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital filters have found their way into many products from every day consumer items such as mobile phones to advanced maritime and military communications and avionics systems. Design of digital filters faces two fundamental problems, their stability and synthesis. Recursive filters have more stability problems than nonrecursive filters. Stability of a filter can be determined by the location of the zero valued region of the denominator polynomial of its transfer function. Stability of recursive filters has been studied by many researchers for the past three decades. Several theorems on stability testing and stabilizing recursive digital filters have been already proposed. We present a new approach to test the stability problem of the one-dimensional (1-D recursive digital filters using Lagrange Multipliers. This method not only tests the stability of recursive digital filters, but also provides the stable version of the filter's transfer function if found to be unstable.

  10. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, L.D. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Rahimi, R.S. [Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States); Edling, D. [Edling & Associates, Inc., Russel Springs, KY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV's. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Waste to energy. Making charcoal fines useable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumwesige, Vianney [Makerere Univ., Kampala (UG). Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

    2011-07-01

    Agricultural wastes and charcoal fines can be transformed into charcoal briquettes, and this could result in decreased exploitation of rain forests. This paper discusses charcoal briquette production and reports a study on perceptions of these briquettes from 25 charcoal consumers. (orig.)

  13. Elemental composition of charcoal sorbants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the widespread use of charcoal sorbants in the collection of vapor phase chemicals and trace atmospheric gases, the charcoal's initial elemental composition is frequently not well characterized. This information is important in predicting possible reactions of collected chemicals within the charcoal matrix, the production of artifacts, and the possible sample loss during sampling. Also, it is critical in choosing the proper analytical technique for chemical measurement. For example, the authors have recently found that instrumental neutron activation analysis cannot be applied to measure mercury concentrations in oil bottom ashes, which are similar to some charcoals, due to the analytical interference of high levels of rare earth elements in these matrices. It is therefore vital to have at least a general knowledge of the major constituents of the sampling media for proper sampling and the selection of suitable analytical techniques

  14. Implementation and full scale test of sand bed filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All French PWR's operating plants are now equipped with a containment postaccident decompression filtration system using a sand bed filter. The system also possesses a real time gamma spectrometry radioactivity monitor. First, the paper covers: the design and sizing requirements of the system resulting from a R and D program (PITEAS) carried out at the Cadarache Nuclear Studies Center jointly by Electricite de France and the French Atomic Energy Commission; the detailed description of the radioactivity monitor which would display the activity concentration for the main radioactive elements (iodine, caesium, etc) with a large range; the principles and the results of full scale tests carried out on a test loop (FUCHIA) with a representative geometry of the French plants. The aim was to know the operating limits of the system in two different kinds of tests; filtration efficiency tests with aerosols generated by means of plasma torches; thermohydraulic and thermic behaviour tests with residual power simulation by means of electrical heaters. The FUCHIA tests have definitively qualified the system showing global efficiencies of about 200 for the aerosols. In its present state the system is able to mitigate most cases of severe accident scenarios. Nevertheless, Electricite de France has decided to improve the ability of the system and to reduce the dose rate on site in still severer postaccident conditions. Therefore, the paper also covers: the design of the complementary radiological shieldings, for the 900 MW series and the first 1300 MW series these consist of glass fiber thermosetting resin containers filled with water at the right time, for all other series they consist of a concrete slab; the principle of the sand bed filter heat removal, after use the filter tank can be water sprinkled or cooled by a sufficient fresh air flow; the design of the hydrogen risk protection by preheating, this consists of heated air flow blown with a fixed fan and an electric heater

  15. Visualization test of filtered vent and evaluation of source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a great deal of radioactive material was released to surrounding environment. After the accident, the Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) that can remove radioactive material from steam in containment vessel has attracted a great deal of attentions. However, there is few knowledge of filtered vent in Japan because almost filtered vent were developed in Europe after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Therefore, our purpose is getting the knowledge of filtered vent through experiments that simulate various filter vents in Europe. Also using the knowledge gotten through experiment, we aim at developing high efficiency filtered containment venting system using zeolite. (author)

  16. THE BLENDING EFFECT OF COALITE, COCONUT SHELL CHARCOAL AND GELAM WOOD CHARCOAL ON CALORIFIC VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Nukman; Riman Sipahutar; Irsyadi Yani; Taufik Arief

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to scrutinize the effect of blend solid fuels consisting of coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal on calorific value. Coalite is the solid fuels made from coal that is mined from the earth, while coconuts shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are processed from natural plants. Coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are solid fuels which was obtained from carbonization process or pyrolitic process of fuel material. Gelam wood char...

  17. Alternative HEPA Filter Full-Scale Single Element Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.J.

    2003-01-15

    Conventional disposable glass-fiber high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are used throughout the Department of Energy complex in various process systems. Alternative filter media is being addressed that would have a long life on the HLW tanks.

  18. The selection of optimum conditions and influencing factors of activated charcoal adsorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal adsorption systems have been widely used for uranium exploration. Based upon the test results of charcoal adsorption systems for radonmetry, the authors have selected the optimum conditions for adsorption systems, including types of adsorbent and desiccator, sensitivity of the systems, exposure time of buried adsorber, relationship of Rn with volume and adsorptive content of adsorber and so on. In addition to this, some factors such as desorption temperature and time of activated charcoal and influence of different moisture on adsorption capability of activated charcoal were studied. Some test data are given in detail

  19. New procedure for testing HEPA filters: a method omitting testing at 20% rated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical analysis of HEPA penetration vs. pinholes in filter media is presented. A calculation formula which shows the tendency of such changes was derived and has been demonstrated experimentally. By this formula equivalent penetration was calculated. Nomograms were used to facilitate the work. As a result, testing needs to be performed only at rated flow

  20. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  1. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  2. Testing of ceramic filter materials at the PCFB test facility; Keraamisten suodinmateriaalien testaus PCFB-koelaitoksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P.; Tiensuu, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula, Finland since 1986. In 1989, a 10 MW PCFB test facility was constructed. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1994 for obtaining data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main objective of the project Y53 was to evaluate advanced candle filter materials for the Hot Gas Clean-up Unit (HGCU) to be used in a commercial PCFB Demonstration Project. To achieve this goal, the selected candle materials were exposed to actual high temperature, high pressure coal combustion flue gases for a period of 1000-1500 h during the PCFB test runs. The test runs were carried out in three test segments in Foster Wheeler`s PCFB test facility at the Karhula R and D Center. An extensive inspection and sampling program was carried out after the second test segment. Selected sample candles were analyzed by the filter supplier and the preliminary results were encouraging. The material strength had decreased only within expected range. Slight elongation of the silicon carbide candles was observed, but at this phase the elongation can not be addressed to creep, unlike in the candles tested in 1993-94. The third and last test segment was completed successfully in October 1996. The filter system was inspected and several sample candles were selected for material characterization. The results will be available in February - March 1997. (orig.)

  3. GRANULOMETRIC INFLUENCE ON THE COMBUSTION OF CHARCOAL FOR BARBECUE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed characteristics of charcoal used for barbecue and mainly took interest in the influence of the granulometry in the combustion process. The material have been tested for four different grain size (8, 16, 32 and 50 mm following a combustion test called combustion index (ICOMcv, which takes in consideration time processing, temperature generated and the mass consumed. The characterization of charcoal was done according to the following parameters, moisture, apparent density, grain density, volatile materials content, ash content, fixed carbon content and calorific value. The proofed charcoal presented standard indicators for use in barbecue and was noticed the relationship between granulometric analysis and the ICOMcv. The 16 mm grain size charcoal sample showed the best results for combustion. By contrast, the largest grain size sample presented lower results compared to the other samples. Thus, establishing unprecedented quantitative indicators in relation to those observed in practice, regarding the influence of grain size on the efficiency of combustion of the charcoal when used for barbecue.

  4. Chest radiographs obtained with shaped filters: evaluation by observer performance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of a shaped filter in improving nodule and infiltrate detection was measured by observer performance testing. Seven observers read 152 test radiographs of the chest obtained from human volunteers. Half the test radiographs had target image observer performance in detecting nodule or infiltrate images was compared with the shaped-filter system and with a conventional chest imaging system. The results were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) techniques and indicate that the filter technique was not significantly different from the conventional technique in infiltrate depiction. Observer performance in detecting nodules was slightly worse on images obtained with the shaped-filter system

  5. Seismic qualification of HEPA filters by test in an actual operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flander's Filters, Inc., has completed an analysis and test program which has resulted in a seismically prequalified high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter housing with the HEPA filters installed and operating during the qualification testing. The nuclear seismic qualification program was performed by Corporate Consulting and Development Company, Ltd. During the seismic qualification testing a dioctylphthalate (DOP) test was performed for the duration of the shake table test and the system performed successfully. The details of the seismic qualification test procedure, housing and filter design, and the structural performance results are presented. Comparisons are made between theoretically predicted results and test results. The preliminary test program pointed out some potential vibration problems with separator type filters due to media puncture during shaking. HEPA filters have typically been given less emphasis from a seismic qualification standpoint than the primary structure and equipment (such as fans, cooling coils, heaters, etc.) in filter trains and/or air handling units. This nuclear seismic qualification program has shown that this design for filters and housing will withstand the seismic occurrence and perform its required safety related function during and after the seismic occurrence. Conclusions resulting from this test program are presented and some recommendations and precautions are given

  6. Efficiency of HEPA filters at elevated temperatures: investigations with the TiO2 test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the variations in HEPA filter efficiency at elevated temperatures is an important prerequisite for estimating the release of particulate radioactivity in the case of an accident in a nuclear power plant. The experimental data available up to now cannot be considered sufficient for reliable estimates. Efficiency measurements were carried out with the TiO2-test method, specially suited for use under extreme conditions. Standard size deep-pleat HEPA filters from four different manufacturers were tested at temperatures up to 250 degree C under static and at rated airflow of 1700 m3/h. The experimental results in partial contradiction to filtration theory showed both increases and decreases in efficiency with rising temperature. This may be explained by structural changes observed in the filter medium of the filter units tested. All units tested under airflow showed a loosening of the filter pack. In some cases kinks in the filter pleats near the bottom close to the frame were observed. Local damages resulting from such structural changes may have caused reductions in filtration efficiency, apparently supported by partial decomposition of the organic binder. This was confirmed by additional efficiency measurements carried out at room temperature on filter units after repeated exposure to 250 degree C in an oven. The findings show that the efficiency of filter units at elevated temperatures is governed not only by the effects of temperature on the filtration mechanisms but can also be influenced by filter mechanical alterations resulting from thermal stress

  7. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  8. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  9. High-efficiency particulate air filter test activities at the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 2 years, test activities at the three Department of Energy HEPA Filter Test Facilities (FTFs) have been conducted under a unified set of operating standards intended to help achieve consistency in test methods and test results. Reviews of test operations are conducted at each FTF annually, and technical support and guidance are provided on request. Round Robin tests are conducted twice a year to compare penetration and resistance test results among the three FTFs. The FTFs prepare summary test data twice a year, and the data is analyzed for trends with respect to ongoing quality of HEPA filters in nuclear facilities. Data and conclusions from both the Round Robin tests and semiannual reports are discussed, the latter without reference to specific manufacturers. The new DOE standards include provisions for consideration and approval of new test aerosols or test methods, under closely controlled change procedures. Progress in obtaining DOE approval for DOS as a new aerosol, and for the Alternative Test System (ATS) developed by, and reported on by the LANL, as an approved new test method are discussed, as are 2 significant changes in standard NE-F-3-43, related to (a) toxicology test alternatives, and (b) the test aerosol definition. Finally, the emergence of new, higher flow rated HEPA filters and Ultra Low Particulate Air (ULPA) filters will impact DOE's design, procurement, testing and use of HEPA filters in the near future

  10. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  11. Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session, following the precedents of earlier meetings, related the operating requirements placed on the high efficiency filter and the capacity of industry to meet them. To this end, the collected talents of the assembled body were unified toward the problems of the particulate filter, its components, and its methods of test. The following seven subjects were discussed: round robin paper test program; DOP (di-octyl phthalate) carcinogenicity; DOP substitute (thermal); DOP substitute (air); filter materials in corrosive environments; fire retardant filter frames; and filter unit leakage. Highlights of the session are: results of the round robin filter exchange test program to ascertain the accuracy and reproducibility of the Q127 filter media tester indicated that the overall agreement between the widely dispersed instruments were much better than expected and previously determined; the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expected to issue in the near future an intelligence bulletin, pointing out that some carcinogenic effect was noted of DOP from bioassay data; it was recommended that polyethylene glycol 400 be accepted as a substitute for DOP in thermal generators; for the Laskin-type air-operated generators, dioctyl sebacate appeared to give the most promising results; a strong recommendation was made that all polyurethane foams be excluded from specifications and use where the filter unit will be exposed to acid environments; filter unit leakage was attributed to a lack of or insufficient adhasive and/or improper application of adhesie

  12. Investigation of HEPA filters subjected to tornado pressure pulses. Initial structural testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial results from a program to determine response of 610- x 610-mm (24- x 24-in.) HEPA filters to tornado-induced pressure transients are described. Filters were structurally tested by subjecting them to 20.7-kPa (3-psi) pressure differentials at pressurization rates from 6.9 kPa/s (1 psi/s) to 34.5 kPa/s (5 psi/s). Two sizes of filters were used in the tests: 149 mm (57/8 in.) thick and 292 mm (111/2 in.) thick. The 149-mm (57/8 in.-) thick filters failed catastrophically at 20.7-kPa (3-psi) pressure differentials. Pressure drop across the filters, not pressurization rate, appears to be the primary cause of failure. The 292-mm- (111/2-in.) thick filters were also tested with the above pressurization rates. These units failed by breakage of the folded downstream ends of the fiber mat. Of four 292-mm- (111/2-in.-) thick filters tested, a 20.7-kPa (3-psi) pressure differential produced failure at the lowest and highest pressurization rates, but not at two intermediate rates. Additional tests will be required to determine a possible relationship between structural failure and pressurization rate. Flow-resistance data were also obtained for the 610- x 610-mm (24- x 24-in.) filters. Other activities described concern construction of small-scale particulate-loading and pressure-testing devices. These devices will be used to test 203- x 203-mm (8- x 8-in.) filters so that methods of testing and instrumentation requirements can be established for the full-scale tests. Progress is also reported on the data acquisition systems, the laser instrumentation system, and the construction of a building over the facility test section

  13. Spatial Qualification Tests for Highly Selective Compact Micromachined Band Pass Planar Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghida Hajj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly selective planar band pass filter is proposed for satellite receivers to suppress intermodulation components. The 4-pole filter has a center frequency of 19.825 GHz with a bandwidth of 240 MHz. The measured quality factor is over 600 and the insertion losses are 4.1 dB. The micromachining technological process is used to fabricate this filter. A BCB (benzocyclobutene thin layer is used as an electrical and mechanical support for the filter. The compatibility of the BCB with the spatial constraints was tested. Various tests were accomplished for this purpose and the results of all these tests are presented in the paper. The tests showed a very small influence of the temperature variation and high temperature storage test and practically no influence of the radiation test on the circuit.

  14. Performance test of filtering system for controlling the turbidity of secondary cooling water in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is about 80 m3/h loss of the secondary cooling water by evaporation, windage and blowdown during the operation of HANARO, 30 MW research reactor. When the secondary cooling water is treated by high Ca-hardness treatment program for minimizing the blowdown loss, only the trubidity exceeds the limit. By adding filtering system it was confirned, through the relation of turbidity and filtering rate of secondary cooling water, that the turbidity is reduced below the limit (5 deg.) by 2 % of filtering rate without blowdown. And it was verified, through the field performace test of filtering system under normal operation condition, that the circulation pumps get proper capacity and that filter units reduce the turbidity below the limit. Therefore, the secondary cooling water can be treated by the high Ca-hardness program and filter system without blowdown

  15. A unified set-based test with adaptive filtering for gene-environment interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianying; Chen, Lin S; Nicolae, Dan L; Pierce, Brandon L

    2016-06-01

    In genome-wide gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies, a common strategy to improve power is to first conduct a filtering test and retain only the SNPs that pass the filtering in the subsequent GxE analyses. Inspired by two-stage tests and gene-based tests in GxE analysis, we consider the general problem of jointly testing a set of parameters when only a few are truly from the alternative hypothesis and when filtering information is available. We propose a unified set-based test that simultaneously considers filtering on individual parameters and testing on the set. We derive the exact distribution and approximate the power function of the proposed unified statistic in simplified settings, and use them to adaptively calculate the optimal filtering threshold for each set. In the context of gene-based GxE analysis, we show that although the empirical power function may be affected by many factors, the optimal filtering threshold corresponding to the peak of the power curve primarily depends on the size of the gene. We further propose a resampling algorithm to calculate P-values for each gene given the estimated optimal filtering threshold. The performance of the method is evaluated in simulation studies and illustrated via a genome-wide gene-gender interaction analysis using pancreatic cancer genome-wide association data. PMID:26496228

  16. Potencial do carvão ativado, filtro amarelo e interação fotoperíodo/temperatura na formação de raízes tuberosas de batata-doce in vitro Potential of active charcoal, yellow filter and interation photoperiod/temperature on the formation of tuber roots of sweet potato in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Monteiro Corrêa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste presente trabalho, avaliou-se o potencial do carvão ativado, filtro amarelo e a interação fotoperíodo/temperatura na formação de estruturas semelhantes a raízes tuberosas de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam em condições in vitro. O experimento com carvão ativado foi conduzido em tubos de ensaio de 150mm x 25mm, contendo 10 ml de meio de cultura por tubo. Nos experimentos com filtro amarelo e fotoperíodo/temperatura foram utilizados frascos contendo 15 e 30ml, respectivamente de meio de cultura por frasco. O meio de cultura utilizado em todos os tratamentos foi o MS. Nos 3 experimentos, avaliou-se o número de estruturas semelhantes a raízes tuberosas, peso seco de raízes e parte aérea. Em relação ao carvão ativado, notou-se que a sua associação com ácido naftaleno acético, benzilaminopurina e cinetina prejudicou a formação de estruturas semelhantes a raízes tuberosas além de proporcionar baixo peso seco de raízes e parte aérea. Em relação ao filtro amarelo, notou-se que sua presença com a associação de reguladores de crescimento (ácido nafatleno acético, benzilaminopurina e cinetina proporcionou maior formação de estruturas semelhantes a raízes tuberosas, maior peso seco de raízes e parte aérea. Com relação à interação fotoperíodo e temperatura, os tratamentos que mantiveram a temperatura constante de 15ºC, submetidos a fotoperíodos de 8, 10 e 12h luz, mesmo na presença de ácido naftaleno acético e cinetina, reduziram a formação de estruturas semelhantes a raízes tuberosas, peso seco de raízes e parte aérea .In this present work the activated charcoal potential, yellow filter and photoperiod/temperature interaction in vitro on the formation of structures like tuber roots of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L. Lam were evaluated. The experiment with activated charcoal was carried out in glass culture, each tube with 10ml of culture medium. The experiments with yellow filter and

  17. Charcoal production from Pinus species in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Charcoal produced from wood of Pinus strobus var. chiapensis (13 years old) and P. elliottii var. elliotti (15 years old) was compared with charcoal from Eucalyptus maculata and E. camaldulensis (both 4-5 year old). Although their charcoal was inferior to E. maculata charcoal in several respects, both pine species produced better charcoal than E. camaldulensis.

  18. OFF-SITE MONITORING FOR THE MIGHTY OAK NUCLEAR TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a nuclear explosives test, code name Mighty Oak, the tunnel leading to the test point became contaminated with radioactive debris. To re-enter and recover valuable equipment and data, the DOE purged the tunnel air using particulate and charcoal filters to minimize discharge...

  19. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth;

    2002-01-01

    not provided evidence of additional efficacy compared with the use of activated charcoal alone. There are also doubts regarding the efficacy of activated charcoal, when administered more than 1 h after the overdose. The aim of this study was to examine if there was a difference in the effect of the two.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  20. Use of pressure-hold test for sterilizing filter membrane integrity in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bubble point test is the de facto standard for postproduction filter membrane integrity test in the radiopharmaceutical community. However, the bubble point test depends on a subjective visual assessment of bubbling rate that can be obscured by significant diffusive gas flows below the manufacturer's prescribed bubble point. To provide a more objective means to assess filter membrane integrity, this study evaluates the pressure-hold test as an alternative to the bubble point test. In our application of the pressure-hold test, the nonsterile side of the sterilizing filter is pressurized to 85% of the predetermined bubble point with nitrogen, the filter system is closed off from the pressurizing gas and the pressure is monitored over a prescribed time interval. The drop in pressure, which has a known relationship with diffusive gas flow, is used as a quantitative measure of membrane integrity. Characterization of the gas flow vs. pressure relationship of each filter/solution combination provides an objective and quantitative means for defining a critical value of pressure drop over which the membrane is indicated to be nonintegral. The method is applied to sterilizing filter integrity testing associated with the commonly produced radiopharmaceuticals, [18F]FDG and [11C]PIB. The method is shown to be robust, practical and amenable to automation in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing environments (e.g., hot cells).

  1. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of...

  2. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for 'High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA)' are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows 'local' efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF TEST FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang; Eric K. Johnson

    2003-07-14

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure pulse of gas to back flush the filter. After this cleaning process has been completed there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may then lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A Room Temperature Test Facility (RTTF) and a High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) were built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at room and selected high temperatures. The RTTF system was used to gain experience with the selected instrumentation and develop an operating procedure to be used later at elevated temperatures. The HTTF system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time. Coal ash sample obtained from the Power System Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, AL was used at the

  5. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Runnels, Joel T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-02

    A portable instrument has been developed to assess the functionality of filter sand o-rings on nuclear material storage canisters, without requiring removal of the canister lid. Additionally, a set of fifteen filter standards were procured for verifying aerosol leakage and pressure drop measurements in the Los Alamos Filter Test System. The US Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for storing nuclear material in different chemical and physical forms. Specialized filters are installed into canister lids to allow gases to escape, and to maintain an internal ambient pressure while containing radioactive contaminants. Diagnosing the condition of container filters and canister integrity is important to ensure worker and public safety and for determining the handling requirements of legacy apparatus. This report describes the In-Place-Filter-Tester, the Instrument Development Plan and the Instrument Operating Method that were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the “as found” condition of unopened storage canisters. The Instrument Operating Method provides instructions for future evaluations of as-found canisters packaged with nuclear material. Customized stainless steel canister interfaces were developed for pressure-port access and to apply a suction clamping force for the interface. These are compatible with selected Hagan-style and SAVY-4000 storage canisters that were purchased from NFT (Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO). Two instruments were developed for this effort: an initial Los Alamos POC (Proof-of-Concept) unit and the final Los Alamos IPFT system. The Los Alamos POC was used to create the Instrument Development Plan: (1) to determine the air flow and pressure characteristics associated with canister filter clogging, and (2) to test simulated configurations that mimicked canister leakage paths. The canister leakage scenarios included quantifying: (A) air leakage due to foreign material (i.e. dust and hair

  6. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  7. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  8. Chest radiography with a shaped filter has no diagnostic advantage: Demonstration by observer performance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of a shaped filter in improving the detection of mediastinal and retrocardiac abnormalities on 140-kV posteroanterior chest radiographs was measured by observer performance testing. The filtered and unfiltered radiographs of 50 patients were randomly selected from 1,000 radiographs obtained from 500 ambulatory or hospitalized patients and were independently read by five observers. Observer performance in detecting abnormalities in the central area was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) techniques. The results indicate that the use of a filter has no significant diagnostic advantage, regardless of type or location of lesions over the mediastinum and the retrocardiac areas

  9. Short time bacterial endotoxins test for positron emission tomography by means of positively charged filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have very short physical half-lives. It is hard to complete a bacterial endotoxins test prior to release from medical institutes. For endotoxin quantitative determination, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reagent and kinetic-turbidimetry system were previously developed. We investigated the possibility of a short time test by means of positively charged filters. As a result of this study, the effects of positively charged filters on endotoxin removal were over 99.5% for [18F]FDG and [18F]NaF, which were contaminated with the indicated concentration of endotoxin. Combining this filter and the kinetic-turbidimetric method, it was possible to complete a bacterial endotoxins test in 5 min prior to the patient's administration. This test should be required prior to release for PET radiopharmaceutical quality control. It has been suggested that this combination is a good method for this purpose. (author)

  10. In-place leak test for HEPA filter using emery 3004 aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. K.; Jeon, Y. B.; Park, K. J.; Yang, S. W.; Lee, E. P.; Hwang, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    New air filter leak testing aerosol, Emery 3004, was used to carry out the in-place leak test for High Efficiency Particulate Air(HEPA) filters at PIEF in KAERI. As a result of leak test, penetration rate appeared to be 0.003 {approx} 0.006 %. These values satisfy that of Regulatory Guide 1.14 reference, 0.05%. Therefore, Emery 3004 aerosol which has not any elements causing the cancers, was confirmed to be able to employ as the HEPA filter leak test aerosol in place of DOP(Dioctyl Phthlate). And also it can reduce some additional works such as wearing mask and cloths for protecting the personnel from poisonous gas.

  11. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-09-05

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (V&V) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification.

  12. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the local made charcoal tubes against adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene vapors. Results indicate that desorption capacity and the recovery percentage decrease as the benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations and also relative humidity increase. It is concluded that the water vapor is the major interfere in the adsorption of mentioned vapors when the air is passed through the activated charcoal bed. The experiments show that the local made charcoal tubes are suitable for sampling in the predicted ranges existing in the work place.

  13. TSH measurements from blood spots on filter paper: a confirmatory screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, J H; Parlow, A; Letarte, J; Guyda, H; Laberge, C

    1976-10-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for the measurement of TSH in the eluate of blood spotted on filter paper has been developed. The method is consistently sensitive to 0.1 to 0.25 muU of TSH and enables the detection of values equivalent to 6 to 15 muU/ml of serum. The measurement of TSH in the filter paper spot in all infants with low filter paper spot T4 has permitted rapid confirmation of 10 cases of neonatal hypothyroidism. However, cases of hypothalamic hypothyroidism with low or normal filter paper spot TSH concentrations would have been missed using only this method. Since these patients represent approximately 10% of our neonatal hypothyroid population, we do not recommend this method as a primary screening procedure, but rather as a confirmatory test which will accelerate the diagnosis and therefore the onset of therapy. PMID:956996

  14. 40 CFR 53.57 - Test for filter temperature control during sampling and post-sampling periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to facilitate measurement of sampler... recommended. (6) Sample filter or filters, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (d... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for filter temperature...

  15. Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

    2014-05-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

  16. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    OpenAIRE

    Alula Gebresas; Haftom Asmelash; Hadush Berhe; Tsegay Tesfay

    2015-01-01

    Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a p...

  17. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; F Golbabaie; K. Mehrain; A. Hematian

    1994-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the local made charcoal tubes against adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene vapors. Results indicate that desorption capacity and the recovery percentage decrease as the benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations and also relative humidity increase. It is concluded that the water vapor is the major interfere in the adsorption of mentioned vapors when the air is passed through the activated charcoal bed. The experiments show th...

  18. EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Fábio Akira Mori; Ana Luiza Lino

    2001-01-01

    Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus ...

  19. Trends and developments for in-situ testing of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many on-site tests are mainly tests of holes or sealing leaks as they employ heterodisperse clouds of particles, significant fractions of which are too large for penetration of intact HEPA filters. If it can be assumed that the filter material, when intact, is of high efficiency towards submicrometre particles, it is at least arguable that these types of test are adequate and that laboratory or factory rig tests are unnecessary. For detection of holes in systems the aerosol size is relatively unimportant and it is found in practice that different size distributions give similar results. There is, however, likely to be a need for on-site tests which give a true value - that is, of filter penetration plus leakage - when the system is challenged with submicrometre aerosols. An example appears to be in processing plutonium. We may therefore address ourselves to two types of on-site assessment. Firstly to search for holes (leakages) and secondly to measure the passage of submicrometre particles. Improvements in the first type are likely to be concerned with mixing and sampling of aerosols while the second, additionally, requires investigation into generation and detection methods. In all tests it is important that results are reliable. This involves thorough mixing of aerosol both upstream and downstream of the filter. Unfortunately few systems have been designed for ease of on-site tests and operators have to employ makeshift devices, often in cramped and uncomfortable situations. This paper gives examples of the need for mixing and sampling and of the penetration of intact filters by aerosols of different size distributions. Tests in common use are outlined, together with problems and likely developments. (author)

  20. Smoke and pollutant filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smoke and pollutant filtering device comprising a mask having a filter composed of a series of contiguous, serial layers of filtering material. The filter consists of front and rear gas permeable covers, a first filter layer of pressed vegetable matter, a second filter layer comprising a layer of activated charcoal adjacent a layer of aqua filter floss, a third filter comprising a gas permeable cloth situated between layers of pressed vegetable matter, and a fourth filter layer comprising an aqua filter floss. The first through fourth filter layers are sandwiched between the front and rear gas permeable covers. The filtering device is stitched together and mounted within a fireretardant hood shaped to fit over a human head. Elastic bands are included in the hood to maintain the hood snugly about the head when worn

  1. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length. Internationaly, NT is defined as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the length mentioned above, thus, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature, such as high strength, unique surface structure, soft feeling, durability, water resistance, incombustibility, antimicrobial property, and so on. Indeed, NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research, by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries. This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT, its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  2. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K; Parsons, Michael S; Unz, Ronald J; Waggoner, Charles A

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m(3)/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome. PMID:22667655

  3. Estimation of Filtration Potential of an Effective Biosand Filter for Removal of Iron, Turbidity From Various Sources of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Sarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted for designing, constructing and evaluating of an effective biosand filter. Different types of charcoal mixture such as bamboo, coconut and wood and carbon mat as an important filter media was used for the modification of biosand filter. The filter had seven layers with gravel, sand, carbon mat and charcoal which were responsible for filtration process. The filtered water analysed in every 20 min interval. The raw ground water pH was 6.12 while it passes through bamboo, coconut and wood mixture filter, the filtered water showed higher pH value. The filter in which mixture of charcoal used as filter media showed better removal efficiency of turbidity compared to control filter without charcoal and mat. The value of turbidity in filtered water of charcoal mixture filter was below 2 NTU which is the permissible limit of drinking water according to World Health Organization but for control it was average 14 NTU. Initially the flow rate was higher and gradually decreases with time. The flow rate of the Biosand filtered water decreases significantly with increase in turbidity. The charcoal based filter showed better removal of iron (II (95-98% compared to control (73-76%. The charcoal based filter resulted tastier water by enriching of water with mineral like sodium and potassium.

  4. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret

  5. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Vleminckx

    Full Text Available The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i the relative abundance of each guild, (ii each species and family abundance and (iii mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16 and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP, and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii the prevalence of other

  6. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental

  7. Moving granular-bed filter development program, Option III: Development of moving granular-bed filter technology for multi-contaminant control. Task 14: Test plan; Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J.C.; Olivo, C.A.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    An experimental test plan has been prepared for DOE/METC review and approval to develop a filter media suitable for multi-contaminant control in granular-bed filter (GBF) applications. The plan includes identification, development, and demonstration of methods for enhanced media morphology, chemical reactivity, and mechanical strength. The test plan includes media preparation methods, physical and chemical characterization methods for fresh and reacted media, media evaluation criteria, details of test and analytical equipment, and test matrix of the proposed media testing. A filter media composed of agglomerated limestone and clay was determined to be the best candidate for multi-contaminate control in GBF operation. The combined limestone/clay agglomerate has the potential to remove sulfur and alkali species, in addition to particulate, and possibly halogens and trace heavy metals from coal process streams.

  8. A Mathematical Model for Assaying Gaseous Radioiodine in Charcoal Cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling radioiodine in ambient air or gaseous effluent streams is accomplished by passing an air sample through a charcoal cartridge. Since gaseous radioiodine may be presented in various chemical forms including elemental and organic species, the charcoal is impregnated with 5% TEDA (TetraEthylenDiAmine) to convert organic iodide species to forms that can be collected on charcoal. Charcoal cartridges' producers test their cartridges against nonradioactive iodine at concentrations that are about 9-10 orders of magnitude higher than radioiodine concentrations that could be encountered in nuclear industry. Thus, the suitability of their reported adsorption efficiencies to the radioiodine concentration range is doubtful. The analysis of a cartridge containing radioiodine is generally performed by germanium gamma ray spectrometer. The cartridge is counted with the inlet side facing the detector and assuming most of the activity is concentrated in the front side of the cartridge. When sampling is performed for long periods (over several days), radioiodine can be found in deeper parts of the cartridge. In such cases the analysis may lead to major discrepancies between the measured value and the true value. Another problem rises in very long sampling periods (around one month) where breakthrough of the cartridge may occur. In such a case, the measured value does not account for the radioiodine that crossed the cartridge. In the present study, a numerical model was developed, to estimate the total amount of radioiodine that is adsorbed in the cartridge and the amount that breaks-through the cartridge. In order to use the model, the cartridge was divided into 14 layers and calibration was performed for the counting of each layer from the front and rear sides of the cartridge. Such a calibration has to be performed for each radionuclide and for each detector

  9. Design and construction of a type testing and production test facility for HEPA filters to be installed in ventilation systems of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA filters) in nuclear plants frequently constitute part of the last barrier separating potentially contaminated areas from the environment. Their failure may cause radioactive substances to be released. The sensitivity of the filter media employed, and the problems associated with manufacturing the HEPA filters normally used in nuclear plants, result in considerable differences in the quality of commercial HEPA filters. Aging of filter components during operation may greatly reduce the loading capacity of the entire filter. A relatively large number of HEPA filters were found to be defective at the end of service life. In order to be able to guarantee the removal efficiency of HEPA filters over a sufficient length of service life and under accident conditions, quality control measures must be introduced. Type tests of the HEPA filters to be used in nuclear plants must include a number of criteria beyond the loads imposed by the rated volumetric flow rate under the usual room air conditions. These criteria have been combined in a special type test (DIN 25 414), and passing this test should be made a prerequisite for the use of HEPA filters in nuclear plants. In addition, random inspections of production HEPA filters should be carried out to allow an adequate standard of quality to be guaranteed for a long time. (orig./GL)

  10. Test Study on Airtight Capability of Filter Cakes for Slurry Shield and Its Application in a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Fanlu Min; Wei Zhu; Shengquan Xia; Rui Wang; Daiwei Wei; Teng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    To learn the airproof capacity of filter cakes as opening chambers under air pressure, a series of tests were carried out. The variations of discharged water with air pressure and time were observed, and the relationship between airproof capacity of filter cakes and surrounding air pressure was analysed. The test results indicated that there were three stages as compressed air acting on filter cakes: completely not infiltration, a very small amount of infiltration, and penetration leakage. Th...

  11. Prototype development of filter monitor for 131I processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (131I) is used extensively in nuclear medicine because of its short half-life and useful beta emission. Isotope Production and Applications Division (IP and AD) of BARC produces 131I in its processing plant. The charcoal filters that are capable of extracting high levels of radioactive iodine and particulates in the suction flow are installed in the plant. The radioactive iodine is fully removed and deposited onto activated charcoal impregnated with potassium iodide. These charcoal filters get saturated over a period of use and need to be replaced with fresh ones. A 5-channel Filter monitor for online measurement of radiation level of trapped 131I on the charcoal filter is being developed by IP and AD, BARC. The unavailability of this type of instrument motivated to undertake this development. Current paper deals with a prototype filter monitor developed with single detector. Some results prove the functionality of the system. (author)

  12. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  13. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended

  15. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W

    1993-02-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L(-1) and Cd up to 20 mg L(-1). Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L(-1) for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L(-1), respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT. PMID:24227383

  16. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  17. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  18. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  19. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

  20. ASME N510 test results for Savannah River Site AACS filter compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.D.; Punch, T.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site recently implemented design improvements for the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) by procuring, installing, and testing new Air Cleaning Units, or filter compartments, to ASME AG-11, N509, and N510 requirements. Specifically, these new units provide documentable seismic resistance to a Design Basis Accident earthquake, provide 2 inch adsorber beds with 0.25 second residence time, and meet all AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements for testability and maintainability. This paper presents the results of the Site acceptance testing and discusses an issue associated with sample manifold qualification testing.

  1. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed in... shell of the vessel, the deck, and the overhead. No more than 40,600 kg (89,508 pounds) of charcoal...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO-STAGE BAMBOO CHARCOAL MEDIA BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTER IN THE TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE%2级竹炭曝气生物滤池处理生活污水试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雷; 裴玉娇

    2011-01-01

    Two-Stage bamboo charcoal media biological aerated filter could be used in the treatment of domestic wastewater by studying the characteristics of it.When the first stage air/water ratio was 4:1, the second stage air/water ratio was 1:1, the hydraulic loading was 0.5 m3·m-2·h-1, and the water temperature was 25.8 to 33.4 ℃ ,the treatment efficiency of the system was high, Removal efficiencies of COD, turbidity, NH3-N, TN, TP reached 88.24%, 92.80%, 81.69%, 40.30%, respectively.The effluent of COD less than 50 mg·L-1, the turbidity less than 10 NTU,ρ (NH3-N)< 15 mg·L-l, the treated effluent met the water reusing standard.%研究了以竹炭为填料的2级上向流曝气生物滤池工艺处理生活污水的性能及污染物沿滤池高度的降解规律,确定了该工艺以竹炭为填料的可行性和运行参数.结果表明,当一级、二级气水体积比分别为4:1、1:1,水力负荷为0.5m3·m-2·h-1,温度为25.8~33.4℃,COD、浊度、氨氮、TN去除率分别为88.24%、92.80%、81.69%、40.30%.出水COD<50mg·L-1,浊度均<10NTU,氨氮的质量浓度<15mg·L-1,满足中水回用标准.

  3. Magnetisation distribution measurements from powders using a 3He spin filter: a test experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetisation distribution maps deduced from the measurement of polarization dependent cross-sections have provided information that has been key to our understanding of the detailed electronic configurations and mechanisms of superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance and molecular magnets. Presently, the absence of any installation on a powder instrument limits its application largely to single crystals. This article details a test experiment carried out using polarized 3He spin filters on a powder diffractometer together with the technical background and data analysis considerations

  4. Multiple HEPA filter test methods, July 1, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory apparatus has been constructed for testing two HEPA filters in a series configuration. The apparatus consists of an instrumented wind tunnel in which the HEPA filters are mounted, and an auxiliary wind tunnel for obtaining diluted samples of the challenge aerosol upstream of the first filter. Measurements performed with a single particle aerosol spectrometer demonstrate the capability for measuring overall protection factors of greater than 2.5 x 108. The decay of penetration as a function of time in individual HEPA filters indicates no preferential size discrimination in the range of 0.1 μm to 1.0 μm; nor is there a preferential size discrimination of penetration in this same range. A theoretical feasibility study has been performed on the use of an inhomogeneous electric field/induced aerosol electric dipole interaction for potential use as an air cleaning mechanism. Numerical evaluation of a coaxial cylinder geometry indicates that the method is feasible for collection of particles down to 0.1 μm under typical airflow velocity conditions. Small modifications in the geometry may be incorporated to create an instrument capable of measuring particle size. Geometries other than coaxial cylinders are also under investigation

  5. Test Study on Airtight Capability of Filter Cakes for Slurry Shield and Its Application in a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlu Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To learn the airproof capacity of filter cakes as opening chambers under air pressure, a series of tests were carried out. The variations of discharged water with air pressure and time were observed, and the relationship between airproof capacity of filter cakes and surrounding air pressure was analysed. The test results indicated that there were three stages as compressed air acting on filter cakes: completely not infiltration, a very small amount of infiltration, and penetration leakage. The certain air pressure between the first and second stages was called the airproofing value of filter cake. And a capillary bundle model was used to explain the mechanism of air tightness of filter cakes. In Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel, a 5 cm thickness filter cake was formed in gravel sand, and its airproofing value was a little lower than 0.12 MPa. The air pressure used as opening chamber should be equal to the summation of water pressure in sand and airproofing value of filter cake. While the air pressure is larger than the summation, the filter cake would be gas permeable. The slurry formulation and airproofing value of filter cakes obtained in the tests were applied successfully in Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel.

  6. Comparing modeled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruecher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes.

  7. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored. PMID:26476306

  8. Vision function testing for a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis: effects of image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nick; Scott, Adele F.; Lieby, Paulette; Petoe, Matthew A.; McCarthy, Chris; Stacey, Ashley; Ayton, Lauren N.; Sinclair, Nicholas C.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Lovell, Nigel H.; McDermott, Hugh J.; Walker, Janine G.; BVA Consortium, for the

    2016-06-01

    Objective. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of prosthetic vision devices is to process incoming images to ensure that key information can be perceived by the user. This paper presents the first comprehensive results of vision function testing for a suprachoroidal retinal prosthetic device utilizing of 20 stimulating electrodes. Further, we investigate whether using image filtering can improve results on a light localization task for implanted participants compared to minimal vision processing. No controlled implanted participant studies have yet investigated whether vision processing methods that are not task-specific can lead to improved results. Approach. Three participants with profound vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa were implanted with a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. All three completed multiple trials of a light localization test, and one participant completed multiple trials of acuity tests. The visual representations used were: Lanczos2 (a high quality Nyquist bandlimited downsampling filter); minimal vision processing (MVP); wide view regional averaging filtering (WV); scrambled; and, system off. Main results. Using Lanczos2, all three participants successfully completed a light localization task and obtained a significantly higher percentage of correct responses than using MVP (p≤slant 0.025) or with system off (p\\lt 0.0001). Further, in a preliminary result using Lanczos2, one participant successfully completed grating acuity and Landolt C tasks, and showed significantly better performance (p=0.004) compared to WV, scrambled and system off on the grating acuity task. Significance. Participants successfully completed vision tasks using a 20 electrode suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Vision processing with a Nyquist bandlimited image filter has shown an advantage for a light localization task. This result suggests that this and targeted, more advanced vision processing schemes may become important components of retinal prostheses

  9. In-place testing of tandem HEPA filter stages using fluorescent aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.C.; Kyle, T.G.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluorescent test aerosols were used in field testing of large multiple-stage HEPA filter systems. The technique excluded interference from non-fluorescent background particles known to leak into the plenum or ducting between the filters and the downstream sampling probe. This technique solved the problem of measuring extremely low concentrations of the test aerosol in the presence of background aerosol. The upstream fluorescent test aerosol was diluted with clean air and drawn into a single particle aerosol spectrometer capable of counting, sizing, and detecting fluorescence of each particle. The particle sizing function was performed on light scattered by the particle passing through the beam of a helium-cadmium laser. Concurrently the fluorescence excited by the laser illumination was detected at a longer wavelength. Since spectrometer response in the fluorescent mode was <2% of naturally occurring aerosols, background aerosols were insignificant as an interference to the downstream concentration measurement. Decontamination factors (DF) on the order of 10/sup 8/ were measured in the field studies on >9.4 m/sup 3//s (20,000 cfm) systems. Additional generator capacity and acceptably lower test aerosol to background aerosol concentraion ratios could be used to extend this capability to measure DF greater than 10/sup 8/. Dye-tagged DOP aerosols were generated either by gas-thermal or sonic nozzle generators. Experiments with the gas-thermal generator showed only 20% of fluorescence from the dye was degraded by the vaporization process. A single sonic nozzle was shown to aerosolize 0.7 to 1.0 L/h of dye-tagged DOP aerosol in the proper size range for HEPA filter testing. A multiple sonic nozzle generator is a practical consideration to provide greater capacity.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  11. Integrity testing of Planova™ BioEX virus removal filters used in the manufacture of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Shinya; Komuro, Masayasu; Sohka, Takayuki; Sato, Terry

    2015-05-01

    Confirmation of virus filter integrity is crucial for ensuring the safety of biological products. Two main types of virus filter defects may produce inconsistent and undesirable performance in virus removal: improper pore-size distribution across the membrane; and specific damage, such as tears, broken fibers, or pinholes. Two integrity tests are performed on each individual filter manufactured by Asahi Kasei Medical to ensure the absence of these defects prior to shipment. In this study, we verified that typical usage of Planova™ BioEX filters would not improperly shift the pore-size distribution. Damage occurring during shipment and use (e.g., broken fibers or pinholes) can be detected by end-users with sufficient sensitivity using air-water diffusion based leakage tests. We prepared and tested filters with model pinhole defects of various sizes to develop standard acceptance criteria for the leakage test relative to porcine parvovirus infectivity logarithmic reduction values (LRVs). Our results demonstrate that pinhole defects at or below a certain size for each effective filter surface area have no significant impact on the virus LRV. In conclusion the leakage test is sufficiently sensitive to serve as the sole end-user integrity test for Planova™ BioEX filters, facilitating their use in biopharmaceuticals manufacturing. PMID:25753822

  12. A Study on Replacement of HEPA Filter In-place Leak Test Challenge Agent from DOP to PAO in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmosphere cleanup system of nuclear power plants is a gas waste treatment system to minimize the leakage of radioactive materials produced during normal operation and accidents. The HEPA(High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter in this system has the major role to filter the particulate radioactive materials. The leak test method of HEPA filter conforms to the Reg. Guide 1.140 and Reg. Guide 1.52 of USNRC, which were both revised in 2001. The revisions include the permission of alternative challenging aerosol agents besides DOP (dioctyl phthalate) for HEPA filter in-place leak test. US DOE is demanding to stop using DOP since DOP was suspected as a carcinogen. Currently, industries other than nuclear power plants mostly use PAO (polyalpha olefin) as HEPA filter leak test challenge aerosol agent. Due to Reg. Guide 1.140(Rev.2) and 1.52(Rev.2), only DOP has been allowed to be used in nuclear power plants. As a result, nuclear power plant workers have been exposed to mental and physical risks whenever there is HEPA filter in-place leak test. In this paper, the leak test results using DOP and PAO are compared to verify that DOP can be replaced with non-carcinogenic PAO for HEPA filter leak test in nuclear power plants

  13. A Study on Replacement of HEPA Filter In-place Leak Test Challenge Agent from DOP to PAO in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. K.; Kim, K.; Sohn, S. H. [KEPRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, J. C.; Park, J. S.; Cho, B. H. [KHNP, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Yu, B. J. [KPS, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S. J. [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. H. [KFTL, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Atmosphere cleanup system of nuclear power plants is a gas waste treatment system to minimize the leakage of radioactive materials produced during normal operation and accidents. The HEPA(High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter in this system has the major role to filter the particulate radioactive materials. The leak test method of HEPA filter conforms to the Reg. Guide 1.140 and Reg. Guide 1.52 of USNRC, which were both revised in 2001. The revisions include the permission of alternative challenging aerosol agents besides DOP (dioctyl phthalate) for HEPA filter in-place leak test. US DOE is demanding to stop using DOP since DOP was suspected as a carcinogen. Currently, industries other than nuclear power plants mostly use PAO (polyalpha olefin) as HEPA filter leak test challenge aerosol agent. Due to Reg. Guide 1.140(Rev.2) and 1.52(Rev.2), only DOP has been allowed to be used in nuclear power plants. As a result, nuclear power plant workers have been exposed to mental and physical risks whenever there is HEPA filter in-place leak test. In this paper, the leak test results using DOP and PAO are compared to verify that DOP can be replaced with non-carcinogenic PAO for HEPA filter leak test in nuclear power plants.

  14. Data analysis of in place tests of iodine filters in the French nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper is devoted to the characteristics of the iodine adsorbers which equip French air cleaning systems and to their operating conditions. The analysis of the data obtained with in place testing of iodine filters is developed further on. Data already available and new complementary data to be obtained are examined. An analysis of the results of in place tests will give an idea of the rejection level observed for acceptance tests and will show the possible influence of several parameters (air velocity, relative humidity, ageing) upon the measured decontamination factors. Finally, an assessment is made of the evolution of French cleaning systems during the last few years and of the complementary measurements to be carried out in the frame of the standardized test method

  15. A stand for determining CH3I, I2 and radioiodine aerosols removal efficiency on filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a filter testing laboratory stand for studying airborne radioiodine removal efficiency. The stand is constructed by using a Pyrex glass on NS 14 ground glass joints. As the stand is assembled mainly from standard elements, it is multipurpose and allows to test different filters including charcoal ones. The radioiodine supply system can feed elementary iodine, CH3I and radioiodine aerosols. The I-131 labeled CH3I is synthesized when necessary in the Laboratory of the IRNE, BAS. The stand allows to study the filter parameters in different conditions. Depending on the investigation, the filter bed used is either scanned by a 25x25 mm NaI detector situated in a lead shielding with a collimator, or the activity is washed out and measured on a 50x50 mm NaI detector. A single-channel analyzer is used. Charcoal filters 89 Reactor B/St from AUER (Germany) which are used in BERTHOLD Outdoor I-131 Monitor have been studied on the stand. (author)

  16. Charcoal and the Record of Fire-related Sedimentation in Holocene Alluvial Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Holocene. Charcoal macrofossils provide a test for the hypothesis that Gambel oak shrubfields in the Sacramentos were initiated and maintained by severe fires that destroyed conifer stands. Charcoal in alluvial deposits allows examination of Holocene fire-climate- geomorphic relations in diverse environments, aiding in assessment of the potential impacts of future climatic change.

  17. Long-term desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoals loaded with CH3I, under simulated post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term (1100 h) desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoal filters, loaded with CH3I, has been studied under simulated post-LOCA conditions. A charcoal filter bed (20 cm long, 5.0 cm in diameter), which was pre-equilibrated with air at 353 K and a relative humidity of 72%, was exposed to 1.7 g of CH3I (containing 320 MBq of 131I) over a period of one hour. The 131I released was monitored continuously during loading and during the 1100-h purging period. The activity distribution along the length of the charcoal filter was also monitored during purging, using an external γ-ray detector. Iodine-131 released rates (Bq.h-1) as a function of purging time (in hours) were: 2.3 x 106 t/sup -6.26 +/- 0.32/ (for t = 1-5 h) and 2.0 x 103 t/sup -0.64 +/- 0.08/ (for t = 5-1100 h). The 131I activity distribution along the length of the charcoal bed decreased exponentially from inlet to outlet. Also, a small broadening and displacement (towards the outlet) of the initial 131I distribution were observed during purging. These data show that in post-accident environments deep-bed charcoal filters impregnated with KI are effective barriers to both the short-term and long-term release of CH3131I

  18. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building.

  19. Test plan for N2 HEPA filters assembly shop stock used on PFP E4 exhaust system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-09-01

    At Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Self-contained HEPA filters, encased in wooden frames and boxes, are installed in the E4 Exhaust Ventilation System to provide confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. Recently during the routine testing in-leakage was discovered downstream of the Self-contained HEPA filters boxes. This Test Plan describes the approach to conduct investigation of the root causes for the in-leakage of HEPA filters.

  20. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building

  1. Study on DOP substitutes for leaking rate testing of HEPA filter used in nuclear air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on an extensive investigation over available literatures concerning HEPA filter testing, PEG400, SHELL on dina oil 15 and P.a. were chosen as candidates for Dop substitutes, and on which a series of tests were conducted about their aerosol conversion rate, particle size distribution, Dop detector response and leaking rate in H EPA filter. With consideration of technical properties, safety performance and economy, homemade P.a. is finally selected as the best substitute for Dop among the three. (authors)

  2. Comparison of two quantitative fit-test methods using N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietsema, Margaret; Brosseau, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Current regulations require annual fit testing before an employee can wear a respirator during work activities. The goal of this research is to determine whether respirator fit measured with two TSI Portacount instruments simultaneously sampling ambient particle concentrations inside and outside of the respirator facepiece is similar to fit measured during an ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test. Sixteen subjects (ten female; six male) were recruited for a range of facial sizes. Each subject donned an N95 filtering facepiece respirator, completed two fit tests in random order (ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test and two-instrument real-time fit test) without removing or adjusting the respirator between tests. Fit tests were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The real-time two-instrument method fit factors were similar to those measured with the single-instrument quantitative fit test. The first four exercises were highly correlated (r > 0.7) between the two protocols. Respirator fit was altered during the talking or grimace exercise, both of which involve facial movements that could dislodge the facepiece. Our analyses suggest that the new real-time two-instrument methodology can be used in future studies to evaluate fit before and during work activities. PMID:26963561

  3. Introduction to Test Facility for Iodine Retention in Filtered Containment Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jaehoon; An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In many countries the implementation of FCVS's is under discussion to mitigate fission product release not only in the short-term but also in the long-term view. To verify the performance of FCVS, the large-scaled tests have been performed such as advanced containment experiments (ACE), the iodine and aerosol retention rate test facility (JAVA), etc. The elemental and organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment atmosphere. For the iodine retention, experimental programs have confirmed the existence of gaseous organic iodine in some cases in higher concentrations than for gaseous molecular iodine (I{sub 2}). The Reaction of Methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) with surfaces and the removal by containment filters and scrubbers is less efficient in comparison to molecular iodine. In the recent years, an experimental and analytical work has been conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to develop a process leading to a fast, comprehensive and reliable retention of volatile iodine species in aqueous solutions. New FCVS test facility to verify the performance of FCVS is designed and under construction. The iodine retention tests are planned with elemental iodine or with organic iodide loaded carrier gas consisting of pure non-condensable gas, pure steam and of typical mixtures of non-condensable gas/steam. This paper introduces the iodine generation and measurement system for the iodine retention test of FCVS. In severe accidents elemental and organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment atmosphere. Release of the gaseous species in sufficient quantities from containment to environment generates a risk for public health. The filtered containment venting systems (FCVS) can considerably reduce the leakage of radioactive materials to the environment. New integral test facility is prepared to verify a performance of the FCVS. The test facility consists of a test vessel, thermal-hydraulic, and aerosol/iodine generation and

  4. Application of Emery 3004 as a substitute for DOP in the HANARO HEPA filter In-place leakage test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. G.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Wu, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter system is installed on the outlet duct of the Reactor hall HVAC system of HANARO and it filters the particulate from the exhaust air. Although most HEPA filter manufacturers guarantee a minimum 99.97% efficiency when challenged with an aerosol of 0.3 {+-} 0.03 {mu}m an in-place leakage test of a HEPA filter is still required after a filter replacement, after any maintenance activity in the filter housing, or every 18 months to verify that the filters have been installed properly, that there are no leaks in the mounting frame, and that the system contains no bypassing. DOP (dioctylphtalate) had been widely used as a tracer gas for a HEPA filter in-place leak test. In April, 1986, U.S. Army's Office of the Surgeon General (OTSG) announced that the DOP posed potentially serious health risks to workers, and placed severe restrictions upon a testing with it. For this reason, they commenced study for finding a substitute material for DOP and finally found a synthetic lubricant named Emery 3004 from the class of compound called poly-alpha olefin. We could find from the DOE conference proceeding that it was approved by the OTSG after a successful completion of a mutagenicity testing in Jan. 8, 1992. And we could find that Emery 3004 has already been used for the Brookhaven National Laboratory's HEPA Filter In-place Leakage Test procedure and HEPA Filter and In-place Leak Testing Standard of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In HANARO, we performed the HEPA Filter In-place Leakage Test using both tracer agents in order to compare the performance of Emery 3004 with that of DOP. As a result, we found that the characteristics of Emery 3004 is very much similar to that of DOP and it was easy to handle the chemical compound since it has no toxicity. We finally came to the conclusion that Emery 3004 will be a good substitute for DOP through the test result and we are trying to revise the relevant documents and test

  5. Application of Emery 3004 as a substitute for DOP in the HANARO HEPA filter In-place leakage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter system is installed on the outlet duct of the Reactor hall HVAC system of HANARO and it filters the particulate from the exhaust air. Although most HEPA filter manufacturers guarantee a minimum 99.97% efficiency when challenged with an aerosol of 0.3 ± 0.03 μm an in-place leakage test of a HEPA filter is still required after a filter replacement, after any maintenance activity in the filter housing, or every 18 months to verify that the filters have been installed properly, that there are no leaks in the mounting frame, and that the system contains no bypassing. DOP (dioctylphtalate) had been widely used as a tracer gas for a HEPA filter in-place leak test. In April, 1986, U.S. Army's Office of the Surgeon General (OTSG) announced that the DOP posed potentially serious health risks to workers, and placed severe restrictions upon a testing with it. For this reason, they commenced study for finding a substitute material for DOP and finally found a synthetic lubricant named Emery 3004 from the class of compound called poly-alpha olefin. We could find from the DOE conference proceeding that it was approved by the OTSG after a successful completion of a mutagenicity testing in Jan. 8, 1992. And we could find that Emery 3004 has already been used for the Brookhaven National Laboratory's HEPA Filter In-place Leakage Test procedure and HEPA Filter and In-place Leak Testing Standard of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In HANARO, we performed the HEPA Filter In-place Leakage Test using both tracer agents in order to compare the performance of Emery 3004 with that of DOP. As a result, we found that the characteristics of Emery 3004 is very much similar to that of DOP and it was easy to handle the chemical compound since it has no toxicity. We finally came to the conclusion that Emery 3004 will be a good substitute for DOP through the test result and we are trying to revise the relevant documents and test procedures

  6. Melanosis ilei induced by prolonged charcoal ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun Min; Jun, Eun Jung; Kim, Yong Cheol; Park, Jin Min; Hong, Seok In; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Youn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal melanosis is observed most frequently in the colon it also can develop in the ileum, duodenum and esophagus very rarely. Melanosis ilei was thought that causative materials such as aluminum, magnesium, silicate, titanium and other compounds entered the body through the ingestion of agents. We experienced a case of melanosis in the terminal ileum that a 65-year-old female patient ingested 10 g edible charcoal everyday for 3 years to address symptoms of chronic abdominal pain. ...

  7. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  8. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO2, NO2, CO2, methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  9. Evaluation of Regulatory and Standard Performance Testing Techniques for HEPA Filters Used in Radiological and Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the recent remarkable growth in peaceful applications of radiation technology and nuclear energy in various human activation, the protection of personnel and environmental against radiation hazards is an important safety related issue. In this context High Efficiency Particulate Air filters units (HEPA) are the main components in VACS system used in radiological and nuclear installations to guarantee air quality and environmental control for safety of personnel and protection of safety related and control instruments. Several investigations have been carried out for the evaluation of different HEPA filter technical standard test methods. In this paper, a set of new ten HEPA filter units from different manufactures were tested by different four testing techniques. More important safety related parameters like for the decontamination factors (DF) and removal efficiency have been determined, compared and evaluated for the four methods. The results indicated that; the (Ur) method is more suited only for the laboratory investigations of filter media because of its longer duration of testing and of its high sensitivity. The sodium chloride test is fast and reproducible adapt for large scale evaluation of filters and as an accurate laboratory test. The method is difficult to adapt as an in-situ test method because of the limitation of using flame photometry at the site. Correlations resulting from this study enable the user and the manufacturer to select and adapt the proper testing technique for the evaluation of their VACS systems

  10. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  11. Design and operation of optimized high efficiency filter element test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses significant improvements in the design and operation of high efficiency filter test systems. The major areas discussed are the optimization of system hardware and the application of statistical analysis to expedite the test procedure. This has resulted in systems which can verify HEPA performance in 15 seconds, ULPA performance in 60 seconds, with low mass loading of non-DOP aerosols. Performance data are presented for two systems spanning a flow rate range of 1 to 65 m/sub 3//min (30 to 2000 cfm) and capable of determining fractional penetrations down to 10/sup -7/ (efficiencies up to 99.99999%) for particles from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometers

  12. Studies on the adsorption of copper(II) by activated charcoal and its application in the treatment of textile industry effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of divalent copper ions on activated charcoal was studied as a function of pH, amount of charcoal and the concentration of copper ions to optimize the operational conditions for the removal of copper ions using activated charcoal. The cross-interferences with other ions or matrix components of the textile industries effluents were also investigated. The applicability of Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations for the said system was tested. Thermodynamic parameters, such as free energy change (delta G), enthalpy change (delta H), and entropy change (delta S) during the adsorption were computed. The treatment of textile industries wastes, containing higher concentrations of copper ions, has been evaluated using activated charcoal based on adsorption technique. The overall performance of the treatment system indicated that activated charcoal can be utilized as a potential decontaminate for the removal of copper ions from textile effluents before discharge into the hydrosphere. (author)

  13. Plasma grid design for optimized filter field configuration for the NBI test facility ELISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: riccardo.nocentini@ipp.mpg.de; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Maintenance-free RF sources for negative hydrogen ions with moderate extraction areas (100-200 cm{sup 2}) have been successfully developed in the last years at IPP Garching in the test facilities BATMAN and MANITU. A facility with larger extraction area (1000 cm{sup 2}), ELISE, is being designed with a 'half-size' ITER-like extraction system, pulsed ion acceleration up to 60 kV for 10 s and plasma generation up to 1 h. Due to the large size of the source, the magnetic filter field (FF) cannot be produced solely by permanent magnets. Therefore, an additional magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid (PG current) is required. The filter field homogeneity and the interaction with the electron suppression magnetic field have been studied in detail by finite element method (FEM) during the ELISE design phase. Significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity have been introduced compared to the ITER reference design. Also, for the same PG current a 50% higher field in front of the grid has been achieved by optimizing the plasma grid geometry. Hollow spaces have been introduced in the plasma grid for a more homogeneous PG current distribution. The introduction of hollow spaces also allows the insertion of permanent magnets in the plasma grid.

  14. Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the accomplishments of the air filtration programs achieved thus far have been due to the efforts of an informed working group concerned with high efficiency filters. The existence of this group has now spanned eleven conferences and has drawn expanded attendance and technical contributions at each one. From the original participants and their open and often argumentative mode of operation, the sessions have progressed to an invited audience with a permanent chairman and a prepared agenda. The most recent session of this group was devoted to a series of discussions on current interest subjects. Although the major portion of the group were from industry, government agencies, academic and contract investigators, over eight international groups were represented. All of the facets of the industrial complex were present, from the basic fiber suppliers, through media producers and, finally, to the filter unit fabricators. Various test facilities and evaluation groups also contributed to the overall process. R and D organizations from government and national laboratories, and academic institutions, all contributed status reports on work currently underway. Users at various levels expressed their problems and actively participated in the discussions. A review, in abstract form, of the items of deliberation is presented. The items are addressed in the order of their discussion, and not in any priority

  15. First results of testing a stepwise rotated aerosol filter system for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of the gross beta aerosol activity released from nuclear facilities is of great importance for environmental surveillance. In order to measure this activity by one monitor, both during normal operation (down to 10-2 Bq/m3) and in the case of an accident (up to 106 Bq/m3) this device must cover a range of more than eight orders of magnitude. Moreover this equipment should not be too expensive in construction and operation, it should be very simple in regard to the sampling technique and it should comply with all requirements made by national regulations and modern data handling. Until now no such monitor has been available. In the past few years the Nuclear Research Center Julich has developed a stepwise rotated aerosol filter system for environmental monitoring. The system and the first results of its tests will be reported in this paper

  16. Modeling and Testing of a PV/T hybrid system with Water based Optical Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model has been developed for the Non-imaging V-trough hybrid PV/T concentrator systems along with optical filter and validated with the designed and fabricated system to assess over all thermal efficiency of the PV/T system. A V-trough concentrator system has been developed for two axes tracking. Commercially available solar modules were evaluated for their usability under 2-sun concentration. V-trough concentrator with geometric concentration ratio of 2 (2-sun, we are getting an average overall efficiency of the PV/T system increased by 23.54 % extra overall thermal efficiency of the PV/T system as compared to the solar module efficiency at standard test conditions.

  17. In-situ tests on absolute filters at the Fessenheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fessenheim nuclear power station is of the PWR type and is situated on the Alsace Grand Canal near the village of Fessenheim (Upper Rhine). It comprises two blocks, each with a capacity of 900 MWe, the first of which should be commissioned before the end of 1976. The absolute filters installed in the power station ventilation systems (individual systems for the auxiliary equipment block, the fuel store, the containment penetration zone, and the control room will be in-situ tested before start-up using the sodium fluoresceinate method as developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Following a brief review of the principles of this method, a description is given of the circuits and equipment installed at Fessenheim (injection and sampling points) which permit checks to be carried out

  18. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration workplan for Corrective Action Unit 198: Test Cell C filter tank closure, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan addresses characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 198 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The site is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 Test Cell C Complex. The CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-12 which includes two aboveground radioactive wastewater filter tanks. The tanks have an estimated capacity of 2,271 liters (600 gallons) each and were used to filter radioactive wastewater originating from the Test Cell C ''Nuclear Furnace 1'' testing. The tanks contain radioisotopes. Process knowledge indicates that the most likely isotopes of concern include 90Strontium and 137Cesium

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 198: Test Cell C Filter Tank Closure Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This closure report (CR) provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 198 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The site is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 Test Cell C Complex (Figure 1). The CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-12 which includes two aboveground radioactive wastewater filter tanks used during the Nuclear Furnace Testing at Test Cell C. The Test Cell C complex was one of several facilities dedicated to the development of nuclear rocket technology. Test Cell C was designed to test nuclear rocket reactors. Part of the testing program included Nuclear Furnace Tests. The Nuclear Furnace was a water-moderated, hydrogen-cooled, 44-megawatt reactor used to test fuel elements for the nuclear rocket engine. The Nuclear Furnace in itself was not a nuclear rocket engine. During testing, hydrogen exited the reactor at a temperature of 2,440 degrees Kelvin. Water was injected into the gas stream to cool the hydrogen and capture the various radiological isotopes. Hydrogen gas effluent was decontaminated through a multistage process before being burned at the Test Cell C flare stack. A by-product of the decontamination process produced water contaminated with mixed fission products. Prior to discharge to a tile drain system (CAU 267) the water was filtered through the two 2271-liters (600-gallon) filter tanks (Department of Energy [DOE], 1998). Reactor development, engine testing, and rocket development activities were ended in the early 1970s. The filter tanks have remained inactive since that time. The site is currently roped off and posted with ''Caution Radiation Area'' signs. The filter tanks were located on the east side of Test Cell C, approximately 15.2 meters (50 feet) from the facility fence line (Figure 2)

  20. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  1. Experimental tests of the Bonner Sphere spectrometer using filtered neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of a Bonner Sphere neutron detector system has been tested using several unqiue neutron sources. Filtered neutron beams at beamport F at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) were used as a source of known quasi-monoenergetic neutrons for precise energy spectra analysis and calibration. A PuBe neutron source was used for absolute flux magnitude and spectral verification. Two computer codes, SWIFT and Least Squares Unfolding Techniques (LSUT), were used to unfold the experimental data. Several operational problems were encountered during these tests. First, many of the measurements involved neutron beam measurements in which the beams had a smaller diameter than the moderating spheres. This caused partial illumination of the spheres for which correction factors had to be developed. A partial illumination correction factor has been proposed and tested to account for this problem. Second, reactor core gamma-ray contamination in the neutron beams was of sufficient magnitude to interfere with some measurements. Gamma-ray background subtraction techniques using a multi-channel analyzer were used to alleviate this problem. After correcting for gamma-ray background and applying partial illumination correction factors, unfolded neutron spectra from the unfolding codes gave good results for most neutron sources. In particular the SWIFT results were quite good, exceeding expectations in terms of energy resolution and spectral accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Uncertainty evaluation in radon concentration measurement using charcoal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. The contributions to the final measurement uncertainty are identified, based on the equation for radon activity concentration calculation. Different methods for setting the region of interest for gamma spectrometry of canisters were discussed and evaluated. The obtained radon activity concentration and uncertainties do not depend on peak area determination method. - Highlights: • Measurement uncertainty budget for radon activity concentration established. • Three different methods for ROI selection are used and compared. • Recommend to use one continuous ROI, less sensitive to gamma spectrometry system instabilities

  3. Formulation of a charcoal suspension for intratumoral injection. Study of galenical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme-Faivre, L; Mathieu, M C; Depraetere, P; Grossiord, J L; Orbach-Arbouys, S; Puisieux, F; Seiller, M

    1999-02-01

    To tattoo human breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery, thus allowing a better localization of the remaining tumor by the surgeon, we developed a formulation containing 10% charcoal suspended in water for parenteral preparations. The present study concerns a new step in the development of the charcoal suspension. We sought to determine whether the addition of various excipients could improve the formulation properties and affect the labeling of tumor by the suspension. We have tested surfactants (egg lecithin, polysorbate 80, Cremophor EL, and Pluronic F68), isotonisants (sugars such as glucose and mannitol), polysaccharides (dextrans 20 and 40), and Cabosil, a pyrogenated silica. Except for glucose and mannitol, which were added at a 5% concentration, the other excipients were added at a 0.1% concentration, they were dissolved in water for parenteral injection and sterilized at 120 degrees C for 20 min. We then measured diffusion in vivo in mammary tumor. In vivo, when injected intratumorally in mice, a greater diffusion of charcoal particles was noted within the tumor (in the case of egg lecithin, polysorbate 80, dextran 20 and 40, and glucose) and sometimes in some organs (e.g., Cremophor EL and mannitol). Pluronic F68 slightly improved the stability of the suspension and did not lead to marked diffusion at the injection site, but it showed slight toxicity and cannot be used in the formulation. We concluded that the best formulation was an aqueous 10% micronized peat charcoal suspension. PMID:10065351

  4. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow. PMID:26964338

  5. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  6. In-place testing of HEPA filter using monodisperse DOP aerosols in the most penetrating particle size range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent filtration studies have revealed that the most penetrating particle size MPPS, through HEPA filter is smaller than 0.3 μm, which is the test aerosol size in the current filter testing. Furthermore, in the radiation protection field the filter performance is required to be linked to a DF (Decontamination Factor). To meet this evaluation criterion, a new in-place filter test system was developed. Our system consists of a newly designed aerosol generator and a computer-aided aerosol measuring system. The aerosol generator, which is a vaporization-condensation type, generates DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) aerosols in the most penetrating particle size range from 0.1 to 0.2 μm with a geometric standard deviation (σg) less than 1.2. This high monodispersity makes possible to use a CNC (Condensation Nucleus Counter) for determination of aerosol penetration. Test aerosols are simultaneously measured by using a laser aerosol spectrometer in the upstream and the CNC in the downstream. It was shown that the collection efficiency of seven-nine percentage class for the MPPS range can be measured at air flow of 7800 m3/hr in in-place test. (4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  7. Low-cost, charcoal-based passive method for measuring radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive samplers represent an attractive approach for indoor air quality surveys. For radon, the passive activated charcoal technique developed by the US Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory is a useful screening tool because sampling can be conducted over 3 to 7 days with a simple device followed by straightforward laboratory analysis. This paper describes the results of testing such a system in a small chamber and in instrumented test houses. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  8. A novel test method to determine the filter material service life of decentralized systems treating runoff from traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Dierschke, Martina; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the development and application of technical decentralized filter systems for the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. However, there are still many uncertainties regarding the service life and the performance of filter materials that are employed in decentralized treatment systems. These filter media are designed to prevent the transport of pollutants into the environment. A novel pilot-scale test method was developed to determine - within a few days - the service lives and long-term removal efficiencies for dissolved heavy metals in stormwater treatment systems. The proposed method consists of several steps including preloading the filter media in a pilot-scale model with copper and zinc by a load of n-1 years of the estimated service life (n). Subsequently, three representative rain events are simulated to evaluate the long-term performance by dissolved copper and zinc during the last year of application. The presented results, which verified the applicability of this method, were obtained for three filter channel systems and six filter shaft systems. The performance of the evaluated systems varied largely for both tested heavy metals and during all three simulated rain events. A validation of the pilot-scale assessment method with field measurements was also performed for two systems. Findings of this study suggest that this novel method does provide a standardized and accurate estimation of service intervals of decentralized treatment systems employing various filter materials. The method also provides regulatory authorities, designers, and operators with an objective basis for performance assessment and supports stormwater managers to make decisions for the installation of such decentralized treatment systems. PMID:27179341

  9. Comments on IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Center for Ecotoxicological Researches of Montenegro participated last year in the IAEA-CU-2006-11 Proficiency Test on the Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Air Filters. Test was organized as a part of the IAEA Project RER/8/009 Air pollution monitoring in Mediterranean region. In our analyses of the test samples obtained from IAEA, we have found very obvious proofs that a significant quantity of radionuclides has been transferred from the inner filter papers - samples, to the outer - protective ones. For example, for Cs isotopes this transfer goes up to 40 % of the activity of a sample. The Test Report, published by IAEA, confirms indirectly our conclusion. It follows from that Report that the most of participating laboratories have had results which are bellow the 'exact' values given by the IAEA test organizers

  10. Reliability testing of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signals and signal artifact reduction by order statistic filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo NMR spectroscopy (MRS) is a technique that enables non-invasive measurement of metabolite concentrations in patients. Assessment of signal-quality and reliability of clinical MRS data is a task which requires much expert knowledge and cannot be handled by clinicians. To bridge this gap, statistical methods are proposed enabling unsupervised testing of spectral quality and reliability as well as a reconstructive filtering technique for signal-artifact reduction. Separate storage of MRS data is a prerequisite of reliability testing, which includes the computation of the first four central moments (mean, variance, skewness and excess kurtosis). Reliability test-parameters related to the estimated central moments are introduced. Reconstructive filtering by means of all rank selection order statistic filtering (ARSOS) applied to unreliable MRS data is proposed, aiming for minimization of signal artifacts. The properties of ARSOS filtering are described. A parameter accounting for the MRS signal quality is proposed. Illustrative examples of the proposed methods applied to in vivo MRS signals are presented. The mathematics of unsupervised methods for quality and reliability testing of localized clinical MRS signals are described. The described methods are generally applicable to any type of repetitively measured signal

  11. ILIAD Testing; and a Kalman Filter for 3-D Pose Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. O.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a two-part project. The first part presents results of performance assessment tests on an Internet Library Information Assembly Data Base (ILIAD). It was found that ILLAD performed best when queries were short (one-to-three keywords), and were made up of rare, unambiguous words. In such cases as many as 64% of the typically 25 returned documents were found to be relevant. It was also found that a query format that was not so rigid with respect to spelling errors and punctuation marks would be more user-friendly. The second part of the report shows the design of a Kalman Filter for estimating motion parameters of a three dimensional object from sequences of noisy data derived from two-dimensional pictures. Given six measured deviation values represendng X, Y, Z, pitch, yaw, and roll, twelve parameters were estimated comprising the six deviations and their time rate of change. Values for the state transiton matrix, the observation matrix, the system noise covariance matrix, and the observation noise covariance matrix were determined. A simple way of initilizing the error covariance matrix was pointed out.

  12. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  13. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  14. Solutions for Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) tested high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters destined for disposal at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, Argonne National Laboratory East, Environmental and Waste Management Program, learned that a chemical material used for testing of all HEPA filters at the primary source, Flanders Filter, Inc. in Washington, NC, was considered a hazardous chemical by Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations. These regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Washington Administration Code, Chapter 173-303, and therefore directly under impact the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria. Dioctyl Phthalate, ''DOP'' as it is referred to in chemical abbreviation form, is added in small test quantities at the factory, at three Department of Energy (DOE) operated HEPA filter test facilities, and in the installed duct work at various operating laboratories or production facilities. When small amounts of radioactivity are added to the filter media in operation, the result is a mixed waste. This definition would normally only develop in the state of Washington since their acceptance criteria is ten times more stringent then the US Environmental Protection Agencys' (US EPA). Methods of Processing will be discussed, which will include detoxification, physical separation, heat and vacuum separation, and compaction. The economic impact of a mixed waste definition in the State of Washington, and an Low Level Waste (LLW) definition in other locations, may lend this product to be a prime candidate for commercial disposal in the future, or a possible de-listing by the State of Washington

  15. Efficacy of serum samples stored on filter paper for the detection of antibody to Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R M; Romero, E C

    2012-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microagglutination test (MAT) results in serum samples dried on filter paper and stored at different temperatures during 1day, 7days, 30days and 1year to determine the stability of sera antibody against leptospires. Serum samples collected onto filter paper for the detection of leptospires antibody was compared with MAT in a study of 300 serum samples from patients with suspected leptospirosis. Among 300 fresh serum samples analyzed by MAT 156 (52%) were positive and 144 (48%) negative. All the negative fresh serum samples were negative when dried on filter paper (specificity 100%). The sensitivity of MAT performed on dried serum samples was 100%. Storage on filter paper at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 and 7days did not affect the MAT titers. For up to 7days, 98.72% of dried serum samples had titers identical to those of the corresponding serum samples, and 1.18% of dried serum samples showed 1 dilution of difference. After a storage period of one month a prozone phenomenon was observed. After a storage period of one year all serum samples were negative. Serum samples collected onto filter paper are a convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. PMID:22960422

  16. Jump conditions for filtered quantities at an under-resolved discontinuous interface. Part 2: A priori tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study and validate the jump conditions established in part 1, we realize a priori tests thanks to the data of a 3D Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a strongly deformable bubble in a spatially decaying turbulence. The complex interactions between interface and turbulence are fully resolved. An explicit filtering of the DNS has been employed to evaluate the filtered quantities and to check the potential of the models for two-phase flows in the Interface and Sub-grid Scales (ISS) modeling case proposed in part 1. The ISS concept is our proposal of a two-phase equivalent for the one-phase Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling case with sharp-interfaces. In this concept, bubbles remain bigger than the mesh size. Due to the impossibility to define a filter equivalent to the matched asymptotic expansions, we only test the modeling of the equivalent interface transport (the momentum jump conditions are not tested in this article, but will deserve additional results in a posteriori tests). Because the closure of the transport equation of the under-resolved discontinuous interface requires more modeling assumptions than the closure of the momentum equation, we think that the most relevant test has been done. The a priori tests realized show excellent agreement between the ISS models and the real contributions. (authors)

  17. The effect of cholestyramine and activated charcoal on glipizide absorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1990-01-01

    1. The interference of cholestyramine and activated charcoal with the absorption of glipizide was studied. 2. In a cross-over study comprising three phases, single doses of cholestyramine (8 g), activated charcoal (8 g) or water only were given to six healthy volunteers together with a single dose of glipizide. 3. The absorption of glipizide was moderately (29%, P less than 0.01) reduced by cholestyramine and greatly reduced (81%, P less than 0.01) by activated charcoal. 4. If cholestyramine ...

  18. Tests on the sampling performance of 3 kinds of filters for α-radioactive aerosol sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filter for α-radioactive aerosol sampling is one of the important parts in radioactive aerosol detection. Filter with high efficiency, low self-absorption and high-performed surface collection will improve the speed of monitoring and energy resolution of α. In this study, 3 different types of filters were chosen for sampling of natural radon daughter aerosol. The parameters of collection efficiency, self-absorption, surface collection characteristics and flow rate under the same resistance were measured. In the same condition of the aerosol concentration, sampling flow rate and sampling time, the membrane filter which is made of mixed cellulose ester with the mean pore radius of 0.8 μm, has the highest filter efficiency and less self-absorption; heavy-ion microporous membrane with pore radius of 0.4μm has minimal self-absorption and superior surface collection, which is important in improving the α energy resolution; the glass fiber filter has the lowest resistance, suiting for large flow rate in sampling. (authors)

  19. HEAPA Filter Bank In-Place Leak Test for ACUs of Advanced Fuel Science Building in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning units installed in the Advanced Fuel Science Building were performed visual inspection, airflow capacity test, and HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test in accordance with ASME N-510-1989. All the above inspections was acceptable. Visual inspection was satisfied to AUC-556 and AUC-557. Airflow capacity was 96%(30,240 m3/h) of design airflow capacity(31,500 m3/h) for AUC-556 and was 97%(22,800 m3/h) of design airflow capacity(22,800 m3/h) for AUC-557, and was maintained within ±10% of the specified value. Penetration of HEAPA filter bank in-place leak test was 0.009% for AUC-556 and was 0.013% for AUC-557 and these values were maintained less than the acceptance criteria(0.05%)

  20. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported

  1. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  2. Development and Acceptance Testing of the Dual Wheel Mechanism for the Tunable Filter Imager Cryogenic Instrument on the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Martin; Ahmad, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will carry four scientific instruments, one of which is the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI), which is an instrument within the Fine Guidance Sensor. The Dual Wheel (DW) mechanism is being designed, built and tested by COM DEV Ltd. under contract from the Canadian Space Agency. The DW mechanism includes a pupil wheel (PW) holding seven coronagraphic masks and two calibration elements and a filter wheel (FW) holding nine blocking filters. The DW mechanism must operate at both room temperature and at 35K. Successful operation at 35K comprises positioning each optical element with the required repeatability, for several thousand occasions over the five year mission. The paper discusses the results of testing geared motors and bearings at the cryogenic temperature. In particular bearing retainer design and PGM-HT material, the effects of temperature gradients across bearings and the problems associated with cooling mechanisms down to cryogenic temperatures. The results of additional bearing tests are described that were employed to investigate an abnormally high initial torque experienced at cryogenic temperatures. The findings of these tests, was that the bearing retainer and the ball/race system could be adversely affected by the large temperature change from room temperature to cryogenic temperature and also the temperature gradient across the bearing. The DW mechanism is now performing successfully at both room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The life testing of the mechanism is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2010.

  3. Evaluating the efficiency of Diesel Particulate Filters in high-duty vehicles: Field operational testing in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tente, H.; Gomes, P.; Ferreira, F.; Amorim, J. H.; Cascão, P.; Miranda, A. I.; Nogueira, L.; Sousa, S.

    2011-05-01

    The higher fuel economy allowed by diesel engines in comparison with Otto cycle based engines drove them to a progressive lead in vehicle fleet shares, especially within high-duty fleets, during last years. However, diesel engines have also other less welcome properties such as considerable tailpipe Particulate Matter (PM) emissions that contribute to adverse health effects and also to ecosystems and built heritage degradation. This burden requires straightforward mitigation measures and one of the most frequent in Europe has been the operational use of particle traps in a great diversity of fleets, in particular captive ones. These captive fleets account for an important percentage of annual mileage in urban areas. Nevertheless there's a lack of information on filters efficiency under real operational conditions as also of an affordable and easily accessible method for doing this evaluation, since the typical methodology for testing particle traps is used only for homologation purposes. Aiming to operationally test Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) performances using different engine types and emission technologies (EURO standards) tests were implemented in a total of 12 vehicles equipped with 4 different commercially available wall-flow DPF. These tests were done in the two largest Portuguese metropolitan areas, Lisbon and Oporto. Several opacity measurements using the free acceleration test were performed with and without the filter installed for at least 200 running hours per vehicle. Other relevant data (such as fuel consumption) were recorded for evaluating also other possible secondary effects on the vehicle performance. Results indicate an average reduction of 92% in opacity, while no significant changes in fuel consumption and engine power were registered. Conclusions highlight not only the adequacy of the filters tested for PM reduction as well as an inexpensive methodology with potential for ensuring its efficiency in high-duty vehicle fleets real

  4. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  5. Reduction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of charcoal smoke during grilling by charcoal preparation using high carbonisation and a preheating step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaemsai, Suriyapong; Kunanopparat, Thiranan; Srichumpuang, Jidapa; Nopharatana, Montira; Tangduangdee, Chairath; Siriwattanayotin, Suwit

    2016-03-01

    Charcoal-grilling may lead to contamination of food with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the grilling process. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of charcoal preparation on 16 USEPA priority PAHs in the smoke produced during the grilling process. Firstly, mangrove charcoal was prepared at carbonisation temperatures of 500, 750 and 1000°C. The charcoal were then preheated by burning at 650°C. This preheating step is usually used to prepare hot charcoal for the grilling process in the food industry. In this study, charcoal was preheated at different burning times at 5, 20 min and 5 h, at which time partial and whole charcoal glowed, and charcoal was completely burnt, respectively. Finally, PAHs in the smoke were collected and determined by GC/MS. The result showed that charcoal prepared at a carbonisation temperature of 500°C had higher levels of PAHs released into the smoke. In contrast, charcoal produced at 750 and 1000°C had lower PAHs released for all burning times. In addition, PAHs released for 5, 20 min and 5 h of burning time were about 19.9, 1.2 and 0.7 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 500°C, and about 0.9-1.4, 0.8-1.2 and 0.15-0.3 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 750 and 1000°C, respectively. Therefore, this research suggests that food grilled using charcoal carbonised at a high temperature of about 750°C presents a lower risk of PAH contamination. In addition, in the preheating step, whole charcoal should fully glow in order to reduce the PAH content in charcoal before grilling. PMID:26785749

  6. Yttrium-90-charcoal as a new agent for internal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Y-EDTA was eluted from 90Sr/90Y generator, labelled activation charcoal. The upper liquid was removed with centrifugation. The labelled yield was over 95%. 90Y-charcoal was very stable in saline. After i.m or i.p to mice, the over 99% radioactivity were remained in the point of injection after 72h. The uptake of femur is (0.0019 +- 0.0010)%ID/g by i.m, and (0.0453 +- 0.0051)% ID/g after 72h by i.p. The other's organic activity is nearly background. In conclusion, 90Y-charcoal is stable and does not degraded in vivo. It suggested that 90Y-charcoal may be a potential agent for internally therapeutic use as other particles like glass-microsphere

  7. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  8. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; F Golbabaie; S. Nasseri; M. Mahmoodi; K. Mehrain

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of...

  9. Studies on radon adsorption characteristics of different charcoals used as amplifiers for the track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosma, C; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    Ten sorts of charcoals were studied regarding their use as amplifier in the design of a personal dosimeter. It consists of a combination of a Makrofol detector and activated charcoal. The calibration factor for the Makrofol using the charcoals as an amplifier is about ten times higher comparing with an exposure without charcoal. The best results were obtained with Carboxen 564. The background radioactivity of charcoals must also be considered in the dosimeter's design.

  10. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  11. Effect of particle-size variation on filtration efficiency measured by the HEPA-filter quality-assurance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model has been used to calculate the filtration efficiency that would be indicated by the photometer for challenge aerosols of different size distributions and HEPA filters with different efficiencies as functions of particle size. The model compares the calculated overall efficiency indicated by the photometer with efficiencies calculated with respect to particle number and mass. This calculation assumes three aerosol distributions previously measured at the Filter Test Facilities and four different filtration efficiency versus size curves. The differences in efficiency measured by the QA test procedure and the efficiencies with respect to aerosol mass and number have been calculated for a range of different size particles. The results of these calculations are discussed

  12. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: When the inner surface of the ITER pumping duct is covered with a thin αN-tilde:H film, the hydrogen recombination coefficient can be reduced. In this case, atomic hydrogen can reach the cryopump region and interact with charcoal cryosorbent. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by sorption measurements and TDS at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with H2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H2 in mixture in the afterglow zone was 1/10000. After exposure in H/H2 mixture the tube section with charcoal was warmed up to 300 K. In reference experiments the same sample of charcoal was exposed successively in H2 and CH4. After sample exposure in H/H2 mixture, the TD peak shifted to higher temperatures from 125 K (peak temperature after exposure in H2) to 150 K. The high temperature shoulder of this peak coincided with the temperature of methane release. The wide spectrum of heavy hydrocarbons formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal measured by N2 adsorption at 77 K decreased by 10-15%. (author)

  13. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  14. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charcoal is a working material of sorption cryopumps in the ITER project. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by TDS (77-300 K) and sorption measurements at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with an H2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H2 in the gas mixture in the afterglow zone was ∼10-4, hydrogen flow and inlet pressure were 6.9 sccm and 30 Pa, respectively. After exposure in the H/H2 mixture during 1 hour the marked change in the shape of the TD spectra and decrease of the charcoal sorption capacity for hydrogen and nitrogen were detected. A wide spectrum of hydrocarbon fragments formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal, which was measured by N2 adsorption at 77 K, decreased directly as amount of H atoms passed through the section with charcoal. (author)

  15. Utilization of Roselle charcoal as nitrate-nitrogen adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimrattanabovorn, J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the attempts have been made by utilizing natural material as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment due to its low cost, low energy requirement and the fewer chemicals used. In this study, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. altissima was prepared to use as a charcoal adsorbent in the treatment process. The nitrate-nitrogen adsorption capacities of Roselle charcoal with 2 different particle sizes, A (4.75- .30 mm and B (2.00-4.75 mm were measured and compared with an activated carbon (AC. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich Isotherm. The K values related to the capacity of adsorbent for nitratenitrogen of such charcoal studied were in the following orders: AC > B > A expressed as 0.0321, 0.0147 and 0.0071 respectively. In addition, activated carbon required less contact time to reach equilibrium than both of Roselle charcoal A and B. Although removal efficiency of activated carbon was higher than that of Roselle charcoal, Roselle charcoal is an interesting alternative adsorbent due to the lower cost of its production.

  16. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

  17. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO2e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO2e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  18. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO2 did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  19. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B. [Building and Industrial Minerals Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO{sub 2} did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  20. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  1. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  2. Resonant tunneling of UCN through the moving interference filter and experimental test of the UCN dispersion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim to test experimentally the dispersion law validity for very slow neutrons a spectrum of ultracold neutrons (UCN) under the condition of resonance tunneling through the moving Neutron Interference Filter was investigated. The neutron spectrum in this case has a narrow width resonance, whose parameters depend on the filter characteristics and dispersion law of neutron waves in matter. For a number of samples a noticeable shift of the resonance position when the filter moved parallel to its surface was detected. This shift is in strong contradiction with the commonly accepted dispersion law. Further investigations have shown that the spectrum of tunneling neutrons is not exactly defined by the solution of one-dimensional quantum problem, but substantially affected by neutron scattering from filter imperfections. The cross section of this scattering depends on the neutron wave number and increases dramatically in resonance conditions. Experimental results as well as comprehensive theoretical analysis have led us to the unambiguous conclusion that observed phenomena of the resonance shift in a moving sample are caused by scattering of neutron tunneling states rather than by a deviation from the commonly accepted dispersion law. (author)

  3. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CHARCOAL-MAKING KILNS IN THAILAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measurements of airborne emissions, during typical operating conditions, from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in the developing world. The kilns tested were of five types: brick beehive, mud beehive, earth mound, rice husk mound, and single (oil) d...

  4. Biased relevance filtering in the auditory system: A test of confidence-weighted first-impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, D; Winkler, I; Damaso, K; Heathcote, A; Whitson, L; Provost, A; Todd, J

    2016-03-01

    Although first-impressions are known to impact decision-making and to have prolonged effects on reasoning, it is less well known that the same type of rapidly formed assumptions can explain biases in automatic relevance filtering outside of deliberate behavior. This paper features two studies in which participants have been asked to ignore sequences of sound while focusing attention on a silent movie. The sequences consisted of blocks, each with a high-probability repetition interrupted by rare acoustic deviations (i.e., a sound of different pitch or duration). The probabilities of the two different sounds alternated across the concatenated blocks within the sequence (i.e., short-to-long and long-to-short). The sound probabilities are rapidly and automatically learned for each block and a perceptual inference is formed predicting the most likely characteristics of the upcoming sound. Deviations elicit a prediction-error signal known as mismatch negativity (MMN). Computational models of MMN generally assume that its elicitation is governed by transition statistics that define what sound attributes are most likely to follow the current sound. MMN amplitude reflects prediction confidence, which is derived from the stability of the current transition statistics. However, our prior research showed that MMN amplitude is modulated by a strong first-impression bias that outweighs transition statistics. Here we test the hypothesis that this bias can be attributed to assumptions about predictable vs. unpredictable nature of each tone within the first encountered context, which is weighted by the stability of that context. The results of Study 1 show that this bias is initially prevented if there is no 1:1 mapping between sound attributes and probability, but it returns once the auditory system determines which properties provide the highest predictive value. The results of Study 2 show that confidence in the first-impression bias drops if assumptions about the temporal

  5. The PC-based ATLAS event filter prototype: supervision design, implementation and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies undertaken to prepare the Technical Design Report of the ATLAS 3rd Level Trigger (Event Filter) are performed on different prototypes based on different technologies. The authors present here the most recent results obtained for the supervision of the prototype based on conventional, off-the-shelf PC machines and Java mobile agent technology

  6. The PC—Based ATLAS Event Filter Prototype:Supervision Design,Implementation and Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.P.Bee; F.Etienne; 等

    2001-01-01

    The studies undertaken to prepare the Technical Design Report of the ATLAS 3rd Level Trigger(Event Filter)are performed on different prototypes based on different technologies.we present here the most recent results obtained for the supervision of the prototype based on conventional,off-the-shelf PC machines and Java Moblie agent technology.

  7. Estimation of Filtration Potential of an Effective Biosand Filter for Removal of Iron, Turbidity From Various Sources of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Lopa Sarkar; Biswal, S. K.; R. K. Panigrahi; Bikash Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    A study has been conducted for designing, constructing and evaluating of an effective biosand filter. Different types of charcoal mixture such as bamboo, coconut and wood and carbon mat as an important filter media was used for the modification of biosand filter. The filter had seven layers with gravel, sand, carbon mat and charcoal which were responsible for filtration process. The filtered water analysed in every 20 min interval. The raw ground water pH was 6.12 while it passes through bamb...

  8. Optimum Parameters for the Formulation of Charcoal Briquettes Using Bagasse and Clay as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya generates about 1.6 million tones of sugarcane bagasse which has enormouspotential for exploitation in modern commercial applications. Due to rising fossilfuel prices, availability in large quantity and rapidly growing interest in bio-energyas well as technological advances and environmental concerns , bagasse could beutilized for the formulation of charcoal briquettes for household use tosupplement wood charcoal. In this study briquettes were formulated usingcarbonized bagasse, clay as a binder and molasses as a filler. Bagasse was obtainedfrom sugar factories for carbonization. Carbonization was carried out using abrick-built kiln while blending used a manually operated drum mixer. A piston typebriquetting press fitted onto a universal strength testing machine was used for theproduction of briquettes. The most optimum parameters that produced briquetteswhich complied to current charcoal specifications for household use were in theratio of 1:1:40 for molasses, clay and carbonized bagasse respectively at0.50N/mm2 pressure. At this formulation, briquettes were produced whose ashcontent, volatile matter and calorific energy were 36.4%, 27.2% and 4.390 Kca/grespectively. The briquettes produced burnt without sparks and were smokeless,producing no irritating smell. They ignited easily and took relatively long beforethey extinguished. They were recommended for household use in Kenya.

  9. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  10. Feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a postfilter in the air cleaning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) is provided in a nuclear facility to filter the radioactive materials in gaseous effluents released from the facility during normal operation and during a postulated accident. The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) consists of pre-HEPA filters, charcoal adsorber, post HEPA filters, fans, etc. The charcoal filters keep on-site dose and off-site effluents ALARA, consistent with regulatory requirements. The function of HEPA filter downstream of charcoal(carbon) adsorber in ACU is to catch potential radioactive carbon dust and to be a backup in the event of failure of upstream HEPA. Previous Regulatory Guide use only post HEPA filter of charcoal adsorber downstream but the Regulatory Guide of current revisions allows use of 95% dust spot efficiency filters in lieu of HEPA at the downstream of the carbon adsorber. In this paper is described that the background information of filters, Current Regulatory Guide of revised by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a carbon adsorber post filter in the Air Cleaning Unit

  11. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal

  12. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-22

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal.

  13. A test of maternal human chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy as an adaptive filter of human gestations

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckner, Tim A; Saxton, Katherine B.; Pearl, Michelle; Currier, Robert; Kharrazi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The risk of abnormalities and morbidity among live births increases with advanced maternal age. Explanations for this elevated morbidity invoke several maternal mechanisms. The relaxed filter stringency (RFS) hypothesis asserts that mothers, nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, reduce the stringency of a screen of offspring quality in utero based on life-history traits of parity and interbirth interval (IBI). A separate line of research implicates human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...

  14. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as...... fixed dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g...

  15. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    ® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as......Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix...... fixed dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g...

  16. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  17. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  18. Utility of Filter Paper for Preserving Insects, Bacteria, and Host Reservoir DNA for Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimian

    2011-12-01

    Methods: Total body or haemolymph of individual mosquitoes, sand flies or cockroaches squashed or placed on the paper respectively. Extracted DNA of five different bacteria species as well as blood specimens of human and great gerbil Rhombomys opimus was pipetted directly onto filter paper. The papers were stored in room temperature up to 12 months during 2009 until 2011. At monthly intervals, PCR was conducted using a 1-mm disk from the DNA impregnated filter paper as target DNA. PCR amplification was performed against different target genes of the organisms including the ITS2-rDNA of mosquitoes, mtDNA-COI of the sand flies and cockroaches, 16SrRNA gene of the bacteria, and the mtDNA-CytB of the vertebrates. Results: Successful PCR amplification was observed for all of the specimens regardless of the loci, taxon, or time of storage. The PCR amplification were ranged from 462 to 1500 bp and worked well for the specified target gene/s. Time of storage did not affect the amplification up to one year. Conclusion: The filter paper method is a simple and economical way to store, to preserve, and to distribute DNA samples for PCR analysis.

  19. PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD HYBRIDS AND CHARCOAL AT THREE AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vássia Carvalho Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present studied was investigated hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in three different ages. Wood and charcoal characteristics as well as the influence of wood characteristics on the charcoals produced were evaluated. Chemical analyzes (extractives, lignin, ash, elemental analysis, basic density and calorific value - PCS were performed for wood. The charcoals were produced in a muffle type furnace with a heating rate of 1.67 °C.min-1 and an end temperature of 450 °C. Volatile material content, ash content, fixed carbon content, elemental analysis and gravimetric yield of the pyrolysis process were performed for the charcoals. An increase in density values , extractives content, carbon content and C/H rate were observed with the maturity of the tree. Other features such as ash content and S/G ratio decreased with the age of the tree. Greater gravimetric yield in charcoal and non-condensable gases were found in more mature materials.

  20. The Recent Development of the Test Standards for Ventilation air filters and Cabin Air Filters%通风和座舱空气过滤器试验标准的最新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰兰

    2011-01-01

    The test standards and methods for two different air filters of ventilation air filters and cabin air filters were introduced,especially the difference of the test standards and methods between the ventilation air filters and cabin air filters.And the international present situation and the problem existed internal were also pointed,finally the development of cabin air filters were analyzed.%主要介绍了通风用空气过滤器和座舱式空气过滤器两个不同类型的空气过滤器的试验方法和标准,重点介绍了各试验方法和标准的区别,阐述分析了目前国际的现状和国内普遍存在的问题,最后介绍了目前座舱式空气过滤器的发展,为进一步研究提供参考。

  1. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  2. Comparison of different agars used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of agar type used for buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate was tested based on the growth and size of Legionella pneumophila. Oxoid Agar no. 1, Difco Bacto and Bitek agars, and BBL Granulated, Grade A, and Select agars were tested. For colony size the agars were ranked in the following order: Oxoid agar no. 1 much greater than Bacto greater than Bitek approximately Granulated approximately Grade A greater than Select. Colony yield per pl...

  3. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  4. DISCLOSURE POLICY AND PRICE VOLATILITY: A THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION AND EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THE 'FILTER EFFECT'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangminChen; JianghuiLin

    2004-01-01

    In the context of a push towards full disclosure by the regulatory authorities of securities markets, we evaluate the effectiveness of corporate disclosure policy by examining the 'filter effect'. Controlling for firm size and earnings changes, we conduct an empirical test of various disclosure options. Our results shows that the recent increase in disclosure frequency in mainland China's securities markets has not yet achieved its anticipated objective. Disclosure quality remains low and small firms often manipulate their stock prices through selective release of information.

  5. Technologies for Decentralized Fluoride Removal: Testing Metallic Iron-based Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the realization in the 1930s that elevated fluoride concentrations in drinking water can have detrimental effects on human health, new methods have been progressively developed in order to reduce fluoride to acceptable levels. In the developing world the necessity for filtration media that are both low-cost and sourced from locally available materials has resulted in the widespread use of bone char. Since the early 1990s metallic iron (Fe0 has received widespread use as both an adsorbent and a reducing agent for the removal of a wide range of contaminant species from water. The ion-selectivity of Fe0 is dictated by the positively charged surface of iron (hydroxides at circumneutral pH. This suggests that Fe0 could potentially be applied as suitable filter media for the negatively charged fluoride ion. This communication seeks to demonstrate from a theoretical basis and using empirical data from the literature the suitability of Fe0 filters for fluoride removal. The work concludes that Fe0-bearing materials, such as steel wool, hold good promise as low-cost, readily available and highly effective decentralized fluoride treatment materials.

  6. Fuel from the Savannah: Understanding the Climate Change Impacts of Large-Scale Charcoal Production in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Bailis, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Kenya consumes 4-7 thousand tons of charcoal per day. Much of Kenya’s charcoal comes from shrubland or savannah. After harvest, this land may be allowed to regenerate, but increasingly charcoal is used as a means to clear land for crop cultivation. This is particularly true in Narok District, one of Kenya’s main charcoal production areas and an increasingly important grain production zone. Land management specifically for charcoal is extremely rare. Charcoal production and use is associated w...

  7. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  8. Development possibilities of the charcoal project in Lampung, S. Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandiona, M.K.S.

    1974-01-01

    Reports and economic analysis of pilot charcoal operations in 1971 to 1972 at two places equipped with Ishikawa kilns. The principal raw materials were branchwood of Adina polycephala and Leucaena glauca. It is estimated that the pilot project would give a return on investment of 18.8% at its rated capacity of 100 t/year, and that further development is feasible (using unmerchantable wood from virgin forest concessions). Annual statistics are tabulated for charcoal exports from Indonesia in 1968 to 1972, which are increasing.

  9. Do gastric contents modify antidotal efficacy of oral activated charcoal?

    OpenAIRE

    Olkkola, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of food on the antidotal efficacy of activated charcoal was studied in six healthy volunteers, who ingested aspirin 1000 mg, mexiletine 200 mg and tolfenamic acid 400 mg in a randomized cross-over study. Activated charcoal 25 g, suspended in water, was administered 5 min or 60 min after the drugs were taken on an empty stomach or after a standard meal. The serum concentrations and the cumulative excretion into urine of the drugs were followed for 48 h. When the drugs were taken on ...

  10. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  11. 125I disk source using charcoal activated polyurethane foam rubber mat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform 125I disk sources were prepared as a reference source to calibrate NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to measure 125I activity on a filter of air monitor in a laboratory. The base of the disk source was a charcoal activated polyurethane foam rubber mat of 75 mm in diameter, 2 mm in thickness. 125I disk sources of approximate 0.5 kBq, 1 kBq, and 10 kBq were obtained through immersing disks in ethanol solution containing Na125I of 0.5 kBq/ml, 1 kBq/ml and 10 kBq/ml, respectively, and then drying up them. The uniformity of the distribution of 125I on the disk source was estimated by analyzing the autoradiograph of the disk source using an imaging analyzer. The radioactivity of 125I was distributed uniformly on the surface of the disk source within an uncertainty of about 10%. (author)

  12. Emergency Response Proficiency Test for Japanese Laboratories: Determination of Selected Radionuclides in Water, Soil, Vegetation and Aerosol Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary for compliance with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness in this regard by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, rapid and consistent worldwide response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. In addition, the IAEA coordinates the worldwide network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA). After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, Japan requested the IAEA to organize an emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories with the aim of assessing their capacity to rapidly and accurately measure radionuclides in environmental samples. The IAEA responded to the request by assembling a special sample set covering the main environmental samples and radionuclides of interest in the case of a nuclear emergency situation. Water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filter samples were made available to Japanese laboratories for analysis by gamma ray spectrometry. This report presents the results of the IAEA-TEL-2011-08 emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories on the determination of selected radionuclides in water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filters. The report includes descriptions of the methodologies and data evaluation approach used, as well as summary evaluations of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports of each laboratory. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in their efforts to improve the quality of

  13. Effect of activated charcoal on frusemide induced diuresis: a human class experiment for medical students.

    OpenAIRE

    Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1990-01-01

    We have introduced to the course in pharmacology for medical students a simple human experiment that demonstrates the efficacy of activated charcoal in gastrointestinal drug binding. Sixty-one students were given 40 mg frusemide with water, water only, or 40 mg frusemide and 8 g activated charcoal with water either immediately or after different time intervals. The diuretic effect of frusemide was totally prevented when taken together with charcoal, but became apparent gradually when charcoal...

  14. An Independent Filter for Gene Set Testing Based on Spectral Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, H Robert; Li, Zhigang; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Gene set testing has become an indispensable tool for the analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. An important motivation for testing gene sets, rather than individual genomic variables, is to improve statistical power by reducing the number of tested hypotheses. Given the dramatic growth in comm

  15. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-Tank Precipitation is a process for removing radioactivity from the salt stored in the Waste Management Tank Farm at Savannah River. The process involves precipitation of cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and adsorption of strontium and actinides on insoluble sodium titanate (ST) particles. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs Program. The primary objective of the filter-stripper test runs and quiet time runs program is to ensure that the facility will fulfill its design basis function prior to the introduction of radioactive feed. Risks associated with the program are identified and include hazards, both personnel and environmental, associated with handling the chemical simulants; the presence of flammable materials; the potential for damage to the permanenet ITP and Tank Farm facilities. The risks, potential accident scenarios, and safeguards either in place or planned are discussed at length

  16. RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

    Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

  17. Calibration of filters for detection of airborne I-131 in the environment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and clean method for efficiency calibration of filters for collection of airborne I and corresponding Ge(Li) spectrometer is described. As the calibrated source of gaseous I-131 the radiopharmaceutical water solution of NaI is used. As calibration example the absolute activity distribution of I-131 measured in a charcoal filter is shown. (author)

  18. A statistical analysis of the auto thermal fast pyrolysis of elephant grass in fluidized bed reactor based on produced charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents and discusses the results of product yields, higher heating value, proximate and ultimate analyses of the charcoal obtained in the Fast Pyrolysis Plant – PPR-200. It is a fast pyrolysis plant with a biomass feed capacity of 200 kg per hour, owned by Unicamp. Elephant grass with an average particle diameter of 2 mm and 12% of moisture was used as raw material. The PPR-200 facility operated under different conditions. Air was used as fluidization agent. This study tries to increase the knowledge of the PPR-200 plant operation in fast pyrolysis regimen. Experimental tests were carried out considering two independent factors: fluidization air and stoichiometric air ratio and the height of the fixed bed. In the pyrolysis process, a charcoal with a high carbon content is obtained as well as the release of oxygen from the biomass. Experimental results showed that the favorable operating conditions for oxygen release from elephant grass and carbon concentration in the charcoal are a fixed fluidized bed of 207 mm height and 8% of supplied air to the stoichiometric air ratio. Under these optimized conditions, the fluidized bed temperature resulted to be 650 °C on average and the yield production of charcoal in relation to the biomass fed (dry and ash free, d.a.f.) was of 14 wt.%. The charcoal produced under such conditions presented 92.4% of elemental carbon, and 2.85% of elemental oxygen. - Highlights: •Pyrolysis of elephant grass was studied in a fluidized bed reactor. •The product yields were evaluated. •The composition of the solid products obtained was analyzed. •The influence of three variables was studied statistically

  19. Forest soil disturbance intervals inferred from soil charcoal radiocarbon dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soil disturbance intervals are usually too long to measure using plot-based studies, and thus they are poorly understood. The mean soil disturbance interval (MSDI) in an old-growth forest on the west coast of Vancouver Island was estimated from radiocarbon dates of charcoal from organic and mineral soil horizons. Two assumptions are required to estimate the MSDI: charcoal from forest fires is deposited within the organic horizon and eventually mixed into deeper mineral horizons by soil disturbances, and the probability of soil disturbance is spatially homogeneous and affected only by the time since the last fire or the last soil disturbance. The MSDI is then estimated by the rate at which the proportion of undisturbed sample sites (determined by the proportion of sites with charcoal from the most recent fire in the organic horizon) decreases with increasing time since the last fire. Soil charcoal evidence of time since fire was determined at 83 sites using 141 radiocarbon dates. The estimated MSDI was greater on slopes (ca. 2010 years) than on terraces (ca. 920 years). The long periods between soil disturbances, especially on slopes, are consistent with other evidence from the study area that suggests infrequent tree uprooting is the predominant mode of soil disturbance. (author)

  20. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nassiri

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of known percentages of four compounds of benzene, toluene, O-xylene and P-xlene. The adsorption of various parts of sampler tubes was done by a chemical method using CS2 and the final analysis was done by gas chromatography. The results obtained show that the amount of the above named compounds adsorbed by glass wool and foam in comparison to the activated charcoal isn’t significant (respectively P<0.001 & P,0.05. Also the experiments don’s show any significant differences between the total amount of adsorbed chemicals by charcoal in the back-up layer and the sample layer of the foamed tube and the amount adsorbed in the foamless tube, when treated with various compounds (P,0.001. Considering the equal adsorption of both types of tubes and the advantage of foamed tubes in controlling the time duration and the flow rate of sampling, the foamed type was recommended for production and use.

  1. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  2. 105 K east ion exchange and cartridge filter restart instrumentation acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance Test Report following the completion of ATP-012 for the 105KE CP-A and CP-A Computer and PLC Panels. The test was conducted from 11/13/95 to 12/11/95. Three test discrepancies were generated during the ATP and all were dispositioned and closed. All sections were completed except Section 5.9 which was deleted per ECN 190556

  3. Evaluation of the filter paper IP-10 tests in school children after exposure to tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuuminen, Tamara; Salo, Eeva; Kotilainen, Hannele;

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of active tuberculosis (TB) is low in Finland, but outbreaks do occur. Following exposure national guidelines recommend either tuberculosis skin test or interferon-γ-release assay-testing of asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to compare QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test...... (QFT) and interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP-10) release assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection following exposure to TB in a primary school....

  4. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  5. Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Banat, F; Al-Asheh, S.; Al-Ahmad, R.; Bni-Khalid, F.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of olive pomace after solvent extraction and charcoal produced from the solid waste of olive oil press industry was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch tests showed that up to 80% of dye was removed when the dye concentration was 10 mg/ml and the sorbent concentration was 45 mg/ml. An increase in the olive pomace concentration resulted in greater dye removal from aqueous solution, and an increase in MB dye concentration a...

  6. Optical high-resolution analysis of rotational movement: testing circular spatial filter velocimetry (CSFV) with rotating biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, M.; Schmidt, R.; Kostbade, R.; Damaschke, N.; Gimsa, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circular spatial filtering velocimetry (CSFV) was tested during the microscopic registration of the individual rotations of baker’s yeast cells. Their frequency-dependent rotation (electrorotation; ER) was induced in rotating electric fields, which were generated in a glass chip chamber with four electrodes (600 μm tip-to-tip distance). The electrodes were driven with sinusoidal quadrature signals of 5 or 8 V PP with frequencies up to 3 MHz. The observed cell rotation was of the order of 1–100 s per revolution. At each measuring frequency, the independent rotations of up to 20 cells were simultaneously recorded with a high-speed camera. CSFV was software-implemented using circular spatial filters with harmonic gratings. ER was proportional to the phase shift between the values of the spatial filtering signal of consecutive frames. ER spectra obtained by CSFV from the rotation velocities at different ER-field frequencies agreed well with manual measurements and theoretical spectra. Oscillations in the rotation velocity of a single cell in the elliptically polarized field near an electrode, which were resolved by CSFV, could not be visually discerned. ER step responses after field-on were recorded at 2500 frames per second. Analysis proved the high temporal resolution of CSFV and revealed a largely linear torque-friction relation during the acceleration phase of ER. Future applications of CSFV will allow for the simple and cheap automated high-resolution analysis of rotational movements where mechanical detection has too low a resolution or is not possible, e.g. in polluted environments or for gas and fluid vortices, microscopic objects, etc.

  7. Test results with a high performance-electromagnetic filter and their general importance for filtration of corrosion products in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high capacity electromagnetic filter is distinguishable from the well-known electromagnetic filter mainly because part of the sphere filling is replaced by a matrix of wire meshes stacked on top of each other and of different or uniform wire strength. Tests in the feedwater tank of a nuclear power station (Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power station) and in the condensate-/feedwater system of a fossil fuel-fired peak load power station (Staudinger power station, Unit No. III) prove that the new filter exhibits an improved capacity and good backwash performance, in addition to increased collection efficiency, even with widely ranging oxide compounds. (orig.)

  8. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future

  9. ETV TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS GLASFLOSS INDUSTRIES EXCEL FILTER, MODEL SBG24242898

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Excel Filter, Model SBG24242898 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Glasfloss Industries, Inc. The pressure drop across the filter was 82 Pa clean and 348 Pa...

  10. Fingerprint testing of contaminated ventilation extract filter systems at Sizewell B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddings, P.; Patel, S. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Sizewell B is Nuclear Electric`s latest power station, and the Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) design on which it is based represents a ``first`` for the UK. One of the integral components of the plant is the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, which performs a contamination control and gaseous waste management function for the site. During the commissioning of Sizewell B Power Station the extract systems of the HVAC plant underwent a procedure known as ``fingerprinting``. This entailed the characterisation of the facilities provided to test the filtration plant during its lifetime. The assessment of their adequacy was then used to identify necessary modifications and/or to propose the manner in which future in situ performance testing would be carried out. The paper outlines the basic principles and procedure that was used to ``fingerprint`` test systems during the commissioning of Sizewell B. A specific example is presented to demonstrate the process. (UK).

  11. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1153...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist... Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum... the chamber will not be less than 50 nor more than 60 milligrams of flint (99+ percent free...

  13. A novel application of modified bamboo charcoal to treat oil-containing wastewater and its modified mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cui; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Shucong; Feng, Yi; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Three conventional coalescence filters including walnut shells (WS), polystyrene resin particles (PR), and quartz sand (QS) were compared with bamboo charcoal (BC) to treat oily wastewater in a coalescence system process. The results showed the order of oil removal efficiency was QS>BC>WS>PR. To improve the oil removal efficiency of BC further, six types of modified BC were prepared. The results showed that the modified BC using silane coupling agent (SCA) significantly increased oil removal efficiency, but the other types (including the use of NaOH, HNO3, H2O2, FeCl3 and ultrasound) of modified BC exhibited nearly the same level of efficiency as that of pure BC. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle for modified BC were measured to reveal the modified mechanism. It was found that the higher oil removal efficiency of the SCA-modified BC occurred due to the changed crystal structure of the BC and the increase in its surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in higher oil removal efficiency. Therefore, modified bamboo charcoal is an attractive filter candidate for oil removal in a coalescence system process. PMID:25521135

  14. Design of Apparatus for Testing of Catalytic Filters for Flue Gas Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, Boleslav

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 26-27 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : flue gas * cleaning sytem * testing Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. In-place testing summary (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic evaluation of an air-cleaning system is necessary in order to establish a record of its current operating condition. These evaluations along with Health Physics air sampling determine whether air-cleaning integrity is being maintained. The in-place test is conducted in most instances without disrupting plant operations, and only if the systems failed the test would it become necessary to shut down. Testing is conducted on single and multi-stage filter systems and other filtration devices using optical particle counters. The testing procedure requires that the filter system be challenged with a test aerosol having a heterodisperse size distribution in the submicrometer diameter range, 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer. This type of testing is not to be confused with tests performed by the Quality Assurance Testing Stations, whose purpose is directed at filter efficiency. In-place testing of adsorber systems is required for several reasons: (1) chemical poisoning of the adsorbers by organic vapors; (2) settling of the charcoal in the bed due to vibration; and (3) installation defects. There are two methods of in-place testing of adsorber systems. The first method uses a fluorocarbon (Freon 11 gas), the second method uses a radioactive gas (Iodine or Methyl Iodide). At Los Alamos, we use the Freon 11 method. This report presents the results of the 1989 tests, including the methods and procedures used in the testing and calibration of the particle counters and aerosol diluter systems

  16. Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, George

    1999-04-01

    Charcoal analysis of three archaeological sites in southern Syria in the vicinity of the Jebel al Arab (formerly Jebel Druze) indicates that during the Early Bronze Age an association consisting predominately of Pistacia, deciduous oak and almond was exploited. During the Middle Bronze Age these taxa diminish and are partially replaced by more steppic species or introduced wood such as olive. During the Roman period evergreen oak appeared in the region and gradually replaced the deciduous oak which is now restricted to a small area. The gradual replacement of deciduous oaks by evergreen oaks has been observed in other areas of the Mediterranean basin during the Holocene. Conifer charcoal such as pine and cedar is present on the sites, but it is not clear whether these were local or imported from farther away, for example, the Lebanese highlands. During the Middle Bronze Age olive wood was also used as combustible but here also its exact origin is not known.

  17. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-05-11

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection.

  18. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  19. Low-order model of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant for use in Kalman filter-based optimal estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-order, nonlinear model of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant, for use in Kalman filter estimators, is developed, described, and evaluated. This model consists of 31 differential equations and represents all major subsystems of both the primary and secondary sides of the LOFT plant. Comparisons between model calculations and available LOFT power range testing transients demonstrate the accuracy of the low-order model. The nonlinear model is numerically linearized for future implementation in Kalman filter and optimal control algorithms. The linearized model is shown to be an adequate representation of the nonlinear plant dynamics

  20. Draft test report: A performance test on a spray dryer, fabric filter, and wet-scrubber system. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.

    1989-10-01

    The EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) is currently developing regulations to control emissions of products of incomplete combustion, particulate matter, and toxic metals from hazardous-waste incinerators. Emissions data to support these regulations was collected and testing was conducted on a toxic-substances control waste incinerator between 4/25-27/89. EPA's objectives were to collect particulate and metals removal efficiency and emissions data for the combined spray dryer and baghouse system and the total air pollution control system; characterize the fate of waste-feed metals through the incineration and air pollution control systems; and evaluate the potential use of a surrogate metal 'soup' as a means of assessing control efficiencies and establishing allowable waste-feed concentrations for toxic metals.

  1. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... not be reproduced for the smallest dose of activated charcoal. An activated charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1 is therefore still recommendable....

  2. In-place testing of multiple stage filter systems without disruption of plant operations in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has a number of multiple-stage air-cleaning systems. These systems operate on a continuous basis and economic considerations require that shutting down of the ventilation systems due to in-place testing be kept to a minimum. Earlier methods of testing multiple-stage filter systems required scheduled shut down of the filter system. Methods such as injecting the test aerosol between the stages have proven costly because of the need to install temporary injection ducts and completely close off the ventilation from the process area. Also, additional personnel were needed to install and move injection and bypass ducts from one system to another. After considering these costly methods, current methods of testing were improved to prevent interruption of plant operations. The modified procedure uses a laser particle size spectrometer that has the capability of counting single particles downstream of two filter stages where decontamination factors of the first stage and overall system effectiveness is established. This procedure is similar to that of Nuclear Standard NEF 3-4IT, ''In-Place Testing of HEPA filter systems by the Single-Particle, Particle-Size Spectrometer Method.'' Decontamination factors of 109 are measured downstream of two stages. Particle size analyses of the challenge and the aerosol penetrating the first and second stages have been established. A cost estimation comparing two test methods show considerable savings in operational costs

  3. Editorial: Using charcoal to fix the price of carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Gray

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using charcoal as a model is probably as close as we can come at present to developing a realistic cost for offsetting CO2 emissions. Of course, carbon taxation needs an equitable basis for calculation and, unlike the current offset costs that are based largely on what the voluntary market can sustain, fixed emission charges per weight may well be the incentive required to achieve elusive GHG reduction targets.

  4. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva; Reinaldo Bertola Cantarutti; Gelton Geraldo Fernandes Guimarães; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These ...

  5. Testing of a Composite Wavelet Filter to Enhance Automated Target Recognition in SONAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Automated Target Recognition (ATR) systems aim to automate target detection, recognition, and tracking. The current project applies a JPL ATR system to low resolution SONAR and camera videos taken from Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs). These SONAR images are inherently noisy and difficult to interpret, and pictures taken underwater are unreliable due to murkiness and inconsistent lighting. The ATR system breaks target recognition into three stages: 1) Videos of both SONAR and camera footage are broken into frames and preprocessed to enhance images and detect Regions of Interest (ROIs). 2) Features are extracted from these ROIs in preparation for classification. 3) ROIs are classified as true or false positives using a standard Neural Network based on the extracted features. Several preprocessing, feature extraction, and training methods are tested and discussed in this report.

  6. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  7. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... acceptance by the patients without loss of efficacy. In addition, paracetamol adsorption studies were carried out in vitro to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture. METHODS: In vivo: A randomized crossover study on 15 adult volunteers, using...... paracetamol 50 mg/kg as a simulated overdose. Each study day volunteers were given a standard meal 1 h before paracetamol, then 50 g activated charcoal 1 h later in either of two preparations: standard water slurry or mixed with 400 mL yogurt. Paracetamol serum concentrations were measured using HPLC...

  8. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  9. Integração espacial no mercado mineiro de carvão vegetal Spatial price integration the market of wood charcoal in Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Albino Fontes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo examinou a integração espacial via preços entre quatro mercados regionais de carvão vegetal em Minas Gerais. Após a realização do Teste de Raiz Unitária e do Teste de Causalidade de Granger e estimação de um modelo VAR, concluiu-se que os mercados são integrados espacialmente, ou seja, um choque de oferta ou demanda em um desses mercados afeta os preços do carvão vegetal nos demais mercados. Embora se tenha analisado o preço do carvão vegetal em apenas quatro regiões do Estado, os resultados deste estudo apontaram que o mercado mineiro de carvão vegetal vem funcionando eficientemente.This study examined the spatial price integration among four regional markets of wood charcoal in Minas Gerais, Brasil. After performing Unit Root Tests, Granger Causality Tests and estimating a VAR, it was concluded that the markets are integrated, in other words, a supply or a demand shock in one of those markets affects the prices of the wood charcoal in other markets. Although the price of the wood charcoal has been analyzed in only four areas of the state, this study suggests that the wood charcoal market in Minas Gerais is working efficiently.

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  11. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected. The

  12. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mediterranean Region proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in air filters. IAEA-CU--2008-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA helps the Member States laboratories to maintain their readiness and improving the quality of the analytical results by producing reference materials, by development of standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as a tool for external quality control of analytical results. The Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria, has the programmatic responsibility to support global radionuclide measurement systems. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the Chemistry Unit organises interlaboratory studies and proficiency tests. The activity concentration of radionuclides in the air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to pollutants. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. Within the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RER/8/009 'Air Pollution Monitoring in the Mediterranean Region', several Member States expressed their interest in establishing close cooperation among Mediterranean countries in the field of harmonization of air pollution monitoring systems and creation of a common database, since they share geographical position and mutual interest in the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean region. Such cooperation will also promote and enhance the exchange of experience/information. This report summarizes the results of the IAEA-CU-2008-02 Mediterranean Region proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in air filters

  14. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  15. Evaluation of the bubble point test of a 0.22-μm membrane filter used for the sterilizing filtration of PET radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a bubble point test kit and investigated the bubble point test of a 0.22-μm membrane filter used for the sterilizing filtration of [18F]FDG, [11C]MET and [11C]PIB. The bubble point test of the Millex-GS vented filter was often difficult due to air leakage from the vented portion of this filter. Therefore, to close the vented portion of this filter simply and reliably, we investigated the use of various materials. The bubble point test of the Millex-GS vented filter was performed by closing the vented portion of this filter with various materials, such as vinyl tape, plastic paraffin film (parafilm), urethane elastomer adhesive mat and polyethylene foam cushion tape. Gradually, the plunger inside a syringe filled with air was pushed down to increase the pressure on the pressure gauge and the bubble point test kit. Simultaneously, the pressure when a continuous stream of air bubbles that appeared out of the 0.22-μm membrane filter was measured as the product-wetted bubble point value. Then, the plunger inside a syringe filled with 10 mL of water was pushed down to wash the 0.22-μm membrane filter. As in the case in the above-mentioned method of measuring the product-wetted bubble point, the water-wetted bubble point value was measured. The use of the polyethylene foam cushion tape and a double clip could easily and reliably prevent air leakage from the vented portion of the Millex-GS vented filter. In the bubble point test of [18F]FDG, [11C]MET and [11C]PIB, the product-wetted bubble point values were 382.7 ± 6.9 kPa, 385.4 ± 6.2 kPa and 351.6 ± 7.6 kPa, respectively. The bubble point ratio was used to determine the minimum product-wetted bubble point value. All results of the product-wetted bubble point test were beyond the minimum product-wetted bubble point value (334.4 kPa ([18F]FDG), 334.4 kPa ([11C]MET) and 310.3 kPa ([11C]PIB)). Then, the water-wetted bubble point values were 396.5 ± 8.3 kPa, 395.8 ± 8.3 kPa and 390.3 ± 7.6 k

  16. Soil total and charcoal carbon from mountain shrublands to subalpine forests in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, C.; Sanford, R.

    2012-04-01

    Temperate conifer forests and mountain shrublands in the Rocky Mountain Front Range, Colorado are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term, persistent soil charcoal carbon pools result from the combined effects of repeated wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. However, only a few studies have measured these pools in the dominant vegetation types of this region at a watershed scale. We quantified charcoal C in the upper 10 cm mineral soil with a thermochemical digest method which retains only the most recalcitrant C forms for mid-slope positions with east facing aspects and discovered that charcoal C pools do not follow a linear pattern of increasing amounts with elevation gain. A significant statistical effect of vegetation type on soil charcoal C pools along this ecological gradient suggests fire-derived charcoal C forms and accumulates via unique conditions such as fire regime. There is a bimodal pattern of initial charcoal C gain with elevation between mountain shrublands and the lower montane forest types prior to a mid-elevation decline in upper montane lodgepole pine forests before increasing again in the subalpine forests. Charcoal C amounts did not cause a significant increase or decrease in total SOC pools in these vegetation types in contrast with findings for other temperate ecosystems. Both the range of total soil charcoal C and ratios of charcoal C to total SOC are comparable to but lower than other regional estimates. This study yielded one of the largest collections of soil samples analyzed for charcoal C in the United States. Future modeling and field-based efforts are called for after revealing a landscape-pattern of SOC and charcoal C pools across these vegetation types.

  17. Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ballof, Sylvain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience It is now attested that a large part of the Amazonian rain forest has been cultivated during Pre-Colombian times, using charcoal as an amendment. The incorporation of charcoal to the soil is a starting point for the formation of fertile Amazonian Dark Earths, still selected by Indian people for shifting cultivation. We showed that finely separated charcoal was commonly incorporated in the topsoil by Pontoscolex corethrurus, a tropical earthworm which thrives after bu...

  18. Design, deployment and functional tests of the on-line Event Filter for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Negri, A; Dos Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Conde-Muíño, P; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dosil, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Gheteo, V; González, S; Grothe, M; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Di Mattia, A; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Nikitin, N V; Nisatip, A; Padillaf, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Soluk, R A; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Venda-Pinto, B; Vercesi, V; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    The Event Filter selection stage is a fundamental component of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition architecture. Its primary function is the reduction of data flow and rate to values acceptable by the mass storage operations and by the subsequent off-line data reconstruction and analysis steps. The computing instrument of the EF is generally organized as a set of independent sub-farms, each connected to one output of the Event Builder switch fabric. Each sub-farm comprises a number of processors analyzing several complete events in parallel. This paper describes the design of the ATLAS EF system, its deployment in the 2004 ATLAS combined test beam together with some examples of integrating selection and monitoring algorithms. Since the processing algorithms are not specially designed for EF but are inherited as much as possible from the off-line ones, special emphasis is reserved to system reliability and data security, in particular for the case of failures in the processing algorithms. Another key design...

  19. Property Analyses of Coconut Charcoal Modified Polyester Fiber%椰炭改性涤纶纤维性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧娟; 曹秋玲; 申鼎

    2012-01-01

    Spinnability of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber was discussed, Appearance, composition, strength and elongation, hygroscopi city and elastic index of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber were tested. The result shows that the cross section of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber is four leaf shape and longitudinal groove. The infrared spectrum peak shape and peak position of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber are consistent with common polyester fiber and bamboo charcoal modified polyester fiber. Initial modulus, breaking tenacity of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber in dry state and wet state are lower than that of common polyester fiber. Breaking elongation rate of coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber is same with common polyester fiber, the moisture regain and mass specific resistance are higher than that of common polyester fiber. It is considered that coconut charcoal modified polyester fiber should be pre-treated,certain processing technology measures should be adopted to ensure spinning successfully.%探讨椰炭改性涤纶纤维的可纺性.对椰炭改性涤纶纤维的外貌、组成、强伸性能、吸湿性能、弹性指标等进行了测试.结果表明:椰炭改性涤纶纤维横截面近似为四叶形,纵向有明显的沟槽;红外光谱与普通涤纶纤维、竹炭改性涤纶纤维的红外光谱峰形、峰位一致;干态、湿态断裂强度和初始模量均低于普通涤纶纤维;断裂伸长率与普通涤纶纤维相当;回潮率和质量比电阻高于普通涤纶纤维.认为:应对椰炭改性涤纶纤维进行适当预处理并采取一定工艺技术措施才能保证其顺利生产.

  20. Separation studies of molybdate and tellurate ions on charcoal impregnated with tin(IV) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New charcoal impregnated with tin(IV) chloride adsorbent was prepared. Comparative studies for the adsorption behaviour of Mo(VI) and Te(VI) tracers in HCl and/or HNO3 solutions on activated and impregnated charcoal were carried out using batch technique. The distribution data of Mo(VI) and Te(VI) were discussed and a mechanism for the adsorption of Mo(VI) on impregnated charcoal was suggested. Chromatographic separation of 99Mo(VI) and *Te(VI) from each other with high radiochemical purity was experimentally proved using columns of impregnated charcoal. (orig.)

  1. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  2. Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Black Sea Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Science Education

    1999-02-01

    Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar as binder. Briquette properties improved with an increase in briquetting pressures and percentages of binder materials. The best charcoal briquettes were obtained at 800 MPa pressure at 400 K. (author)

  3. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  4. Kalman Filter Neuron Training

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Haruhiko; KOYAMA, Shuhei; HONAMI, Nobuo; Kuwabara, Takao

    1991-01-01

    An attempt of implementing Kalman filter algorithm in the procedure for training the neural network was made and evaluated. The Kalman filter neuron training program (KNT) was coded. The performance of Kalman filter in KNT was compared to commonly used neuron training algorithm. The study revealed that KNT requires much less calculation time to accomplish neuron training than commonly used other algorithms do. KNT also gave much smaller final error than any other algorithms tested in this study.

  5. Monitoring radioactive xenon gas in room air using activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for monitoring room air for radioactive xenon gas is described. It uses activated charcoal vials, a vacuum source and a well-type scintillation counter. The method may be adapted for detection and identification of any radioactive gas excluding those with ultra-short half-lives. Sampling room air during xenon-133 (133Xe) ventilation lung studies was performed using this technique. The results show that low concentrations of 133Xe in room air can be reliably detected and that staff exposure to 133Xe at this institution was within ICRP recommendations

  6. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These compounds were obtained by oxidation of Eucalyptus grandis charcoal, produced at charring temperatures of 350 and 450 ºC, with 4.5 mol L-1 HNO3. The charcoal was oxidized by solubilization in acidic or alkaline medium, similar to the procedure of soil organic matter fractionation (CHox350 and CHox450. CHox was characterized by C, H, O, N contents and their respective atomic relations, by the ratio E4 (absorbance 465 nm by E6 (absorbance 665 nm, and by active acidity and total acidity (CEC. The inhibitory effect of CHox on the urease activity of Canavalia ensiformis was assessed in vitro. The NH3 volatilization from urea was evaluated with and without coating of oxidized charcoal (U-CHox350 or U-CHox450 in a closed system with continuous air flow. The pH of both CHox was near 2.0, but the total acidity of CHox350 was higher, 72 % of which was attributed to carboxylic groups. The variation in the ionization constants of CHox350 was also greater. The low E4/E6 ratios characterize the high stability of the compounds in CHox. CHox did not inhibit the urease activity in vitro, although the maximum volatilization peak from U-CHox450 and U-CHox350 occurred 24 h after that observed for uncoated urea. The lowest volatilization rate was observed for U-CHox350 as well as a 43 % lower total amount of NH3 volatilized than from uncoated urea.

  7. Indoor 222Rn measurements using an activated charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available activated charcoal detector for measuring 222Rn activity concentrations in air was calibrated with known amounts of 222Rn and examined in terms of air luminescence counts and interferences from 220Rn and 219Rn. The results for conditions normally encountered indoor indicate that the detector is simple and reliable. The method has been applied to assay indoor 222Rn activity concentrations in 387 homes in Tokyo and the adjacent four prefectures, which ranged from 0.7 to 140 Bq/m3 and averaged 22.7 Bq/m3

  8. Radon determination by activated charcoal adsorption and liquid scintillation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive diffusion method for the determination of radon concentration has been optimised and calibrated. The device consists of a scintillation vial containing activated charcoal, a diffusion barrier and a desiccant agent. The response to diverse atmospheric humidity and variable exposure intervals was studied. The result is a detector, which is independent of atmospheric humidity for at least (up to) 7 days of exposure. The method was compared with electret detectors (US EPA) with very satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, low cost, low detection limit, the total automatization of the measurement and its total independence of humidity to measure in a wide range of radon concentrations. (author)

  9. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation. PMID:26347927

  10. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  11. Development of serum-free media for the cultivation and recovery of Acholeplasma laidlawii used for challenge testing sterilizing-grade filters in biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Shawn; Nguyen, Nhung; Lentine, Kerry Roche

    2008-01-01

    A serum-free cultivation broth and recovery agar for use in 0.1 micron-rated filter characterization and validation studies for biopharmaceutical applications were developed using Acholeplasma laidlawii as the test microorganism. Selection criteria were (A) a single-stage, serum-free broth medium to support high-titer cell growth and yield a cellular morphology suitable for bacterial challenge testing within 24 h and (B) a serum-free agar growth medium that can recover cells using conventional enumeration techniques. Different formulation components at various concentrations were screened for their effects on growth, cell size, and recovery on membrane filters. An optimized broth, Glucose Hydrolysate Broth, containing glucose, polypeptone, bovine serum albumin, 2-Amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris base), oleic acid, and palmitic acid produced small 370 X 406 nanometer monodisperse cells at titers in excess of 1 x 10(9) colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu mL(-1)) within 20-24 h of incubation. Glucose Mycoplasma Agar, containing glucose, mycoplasma broth base, bovine serum albumin, Tris base, oleic acid, and palmitic acid, produced colonies approximately 1 mm in size and facilitated recovery on 0.2-microm polyvinylidene fluoride membrane filters. A comparison of recovery of A. laidlawii on Glucose Mycoplasma Agar pour-plate versus membrane filters resulted in an 89 +/- 4% recovery. Linearity across the target recovery range was 0.9992 (r2). Presence/absence tests of filtrate from each 0.2-microm assay membrane resulted in absence of growth as compared to controls, thus demonstrating the suitability of using 0.2-microm membrane filters for recovery of A. laidlawii. PMID:19634344

  12. Internet Filtering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    We collected data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet usage through networks in China. Tests conducted from May through November 2002 indicated at least four distinct and independently operable Internet filtering methods - Web server IP address, DNS server IP address, keyword, and DNS redirection with a quantifiable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002.

  13. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  14. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI3, were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  15. Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Hani Ataiq

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT Testing the Feasibility of Using PERM to Apply Scattering-Angle Filtering in the Image-Domain for FWI Applications Hani Ataiq Alzahrani Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is a non-linear optimization problem aimed to estimating subsurface parameters by minimizing the mis t between modeled and recorded seismic data using gradient descent methods, which are the only practical choice because of the size of the problem. Due to the high non-linearity of the problem, gradient methods will converge to a local minimum if the starting model is not close to the true one. The accuracy of the long-wavelength components of the initial model controls the level of non-linearity of the inversion. In order for FWI to converge to the global minimum, we have to obtain the long wavelength components of the model before inverting for the short wavelengths. Ultra-low temporal frequencies are sensitive to the smooth (long wavelength) part of the model, and can be utilized by waveform inversion to resolve that part. Un- fortunately, frequencies in this range are normally missing in eld data due to data- acquisition limitations. The lack of low frequencies can be compensated for by uti- lizing wide-aperture data, as they include arrivals that are especially sensitive to the long wavelength components of the model. The higher the scattering angle of a 5 recorded event, the higher the model wavelength it can resolve. Based on this prop- erty, a scattering-angle ltering algorithm is proposed to start the inversion process with events corresponding to the highest scattering angle available in the data, and then include lower scattering angles progressively. The large scattering angles will resolve the smooth part of the model and reduce the non-linearity of the problem, then the lower ones will enhance the resolution of the model. Recorded data is rst migrated using Pre-stack Exploding Re ector Migration (PERM), then the resulting pre-stack image is transformed into angle gathers to which

  16. Detection of small leakages by a combination of dedicated Kalman filters and an extended version of the binary sequential probability ratio test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two decades, Kalman filter-based process monitoring techniques have been rediscovered and widely applied in different areas of control and signal validation. When the physical model of the underlying system is known, the Kalman filter is sensitive enough to indicate small, unexpected changes either in the plant or in the measurement models. Although the innovation process that is generated by Kalman filters contains all the necessary statistical information for detecting certain malfunctions, performance degradation, or off-normal operation conditions, skillful hypothesis testing methods are needed for proper interpretation of the innovation's behavior. The classical binary sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), developed by Wald, is an optimal tool to judge between two concurring hypotheses. For more than two alternatives, the multiple-hypothesis testing method, the so-called M-ary SPRT, is recommended. In many cases, the situation cannot be represented as simply as a binary problem, however, and the M-ary scheme would be an overcomplication. For an illustration, consider leakage detection when the exact amount of the loss is not of interest. In such a case, the problem can be treated by a properly chosen binary test, and Wald's classical SPRT framework can be applied. Thus, any binary SPRT and computer code can be used without any modification

  17. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  18. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbo

  19. Impact of Credit Access on Charcoal Productivity: Implication for Sustainable Development, Oyo- State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagunju, F. I.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of credit on charcoal productivity was assessed in Oyo state of southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select 140 respondents. Data used in this study were gathered from traditional charcoal producers that have access and no access to credit with the aid of interview schedule; the analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, Logit and multiple regression models. It was revealed that about 20% of the charcoal producers used loans from co-operative societies while 55% sourced their funds from personal savings. The model has a sigma square (σ2 value of 42.741 P<0.01which is an indication of a good fit and a normal distribution of the error term. About 50% of the charcoal farmers had limited access to formal funds due to insufficient collateral securities and this had negative effect on their business hence they recorded low level of farm income. The coefficient of these variables, years of experience in charcoal production, level of education, sources of credit, sources of log and their quantities were positively significant at 5% level. The multiple regression analysis revealed that frequency of extension visit, household size, amount and source of credit had a significant direct relationship with charcoal productivity. The study therefore concludes that credit acquisition by the charcoal producers had a significant impact on the charcoal productivity which brings about a sustainable development in the study area.

  20. Environmental Crisis or Sustainable Development Opportunity? Transforming the Charcoal Sector in Tanzania : A Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The policy note builds on experience from both Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries with similar socioeconomic and environmental contexts. This policy note puts forward and discusses a range of policy measures along the entire charcoal value chain in Tanzania. The development of this policy note benefited from a variety of recent studies on charcoal utilization and trade conduc...

  1. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. PMID:25048757

  2. Commercial charcoal production in the Ibarapa district of southwestern Nigeria: forestry dividends and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

    2010-01-01

    Logging activities have long provided both wood fuel and charcoal for household and commercial use in rural and urban communities in developing countries. However, logging problems range from deforestation to threatened household air quality from burning wood and charcoal. This exploratory case study triangulated 15 in-depth interviews among charcoal bulk buyers and the workers, observations of workers at two èédú (charcoal) commercial depots in Igbo-Ora and of workers in the forest, and review of studies in academic database. Three categories of people are working in the business ranging from the producers in the forests (alaake) to the bulk buyers (olowo) in the middle and the wholesalers (ajagunta) in the city. A small team of 4-8 people can produce three pickup truck loads of charcoal in 2 weeks, and a large team between 7-8 loads. The olowo and the alaake have associations, membership cards, and meet to discuss business progress and regulate members' economic behavior. Close to 35,000 bags of charcoal of 450 pickup trucks may make the journey weekly from Ibarapa. Overall, the charcoal business is informal, and the local people also frown at cutting any useful indigenous trees ascertaining that an individual's actions may affect the whole community. The role of community health educators is important in the dissemination of effects of deforestation through charcoal production. PMID:22192943

  3. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  4. AREVA's filtered containment venting system (FCVS). Basic design, performance and verification test of FCVS for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the great earthquake and a tsunami as consequence March 11, 2011, a severe accident happened at nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi. The severe accident lead to core damage and containment failure and finally to large release of radioactive substances to the environment. As part of the severe accident management and to reinforce the mitigation concepts against a containment failure, the Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) will be introduced at Japanese nuclear power plants, to have a possibility to depressurize safely and reliable the containment via a filtered process. This paper describes AREVA FCVS technology and its application for Japanese BWRs and also the background of the qualification and the licensing approach. (author)

  5. AREVA's Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). Basic design, performance and verification test of FCVS for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the great earthquake and a tsunami as consequence March 11, 2011, a severe accident happened at nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi. The severe accident lead to core damage and containment failure and finally to large release of radioactive substances to the environment. As part of the severe accident management and to reinforce the mitigation concepts against a containment failure, the Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) will be introduced at Japanese nuclear power plants, to have a possibility to depressurize safely and reliable the containment via a filtered process. This paper describes AREVA FCVS technology and its application for Japanese BWRs and also the background of the qualification and the licensing approach. (author)

  6. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago de Paula Protásio; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Seyedmohammad Mirmehdi; Marcela Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal ...

  7. Accuracy improvement in leak detection of charcoal adsorbers by halide pulse integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Due to the phaseout of the supply of R-11, which is used as a charcoal adsorber leak-testing agent, several new substitutes have been suggested and tested. Pulse testing using agents with higher boiling points produced longer response times (due to prolonged evaporation and dispersion times). This longer evaporation time alters the pulse shape and lowers the peak concentration. Since the dispersion and evaporation time under different ambient condition are unpredictable, the peak concentration becomes unpredictable as well. One way to eliminate this unpredictability is to determine the area under the curve (of concentration versus time) after test-agent injection rather than the peak concentration (height). This value should be independent of the injection time and evaporation rate as long as the volume of the test agent injected remains constant. Thus, tests were performed with a constant volume injection of test agent but with different injection times and evaporation rates. The area under the curve of concentration versus time was then compared with the peak concentration for each injection. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Design, construction, and testing of a 20000C furnace and fission product collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induction furnace, capable of operation at 20000C in steam, was developed to conduct product release tests. The test specimen and steam atmosphere are contained in a stabilized ZrO2 furnace tube, which is heated by a concentric susceptor of either tungsten or graphite. A two-color optical pyrometer and high-temperature thermocouples are used for temperature measurement. The furnace has operated reliably for periods up to 30 min at test temperatures of 1400 to 20000C with steam flowing at approx. 1 L/min. The apparatus for collecting the released fission products includes a TGT, an aerosol deposition sampler, a series of glass fiber filters, and heated charcoal. A steam condenser and cooled charcoal, for inert gas adsorption, are located further downstream. The principal analytical techniques used for fission product identification and measurement are: (1) gamma spectroscopy, for all radionuclides on all test components; (2) spark-source mass spectrometry, for all elements, primarily deposits on the thermal gradient tube and filters; and (3) neutron activation, for iodine on selected test components. 16 references, 26 figures, 7 tables

  9. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  10. Fire tests to evaluate the potential fire threat and its effects on HEPA filter integrity in cell ventilation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 7920

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a result of a DOE (Tiger Team) Technical Safety Appraisal (November 1990) of the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), ORNL Building 7920, a number of fire protection concerns were identified. The primary concern was the perceived loss of ventilation system containment due to the thermal destruction and/or breaching of the prefilters and/or high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA `s) and the resultant radioactive release to the external environment. The following report describes the results of an extensive fire test program performed by the Fire Research Discipline (FRD) of the Special Projects Division of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and funded by ORNL to address these concerns. Full scale mock-ups of a REDC hot cell tank pit, adjacent cubicle pit, and associated ventilation system were constructed at LLNL and 13 fire experiments were conducted to specifically answer the questions raised by the Tiger Team. Our primary test plan was to characterize the burning of a catastrophic solvent spill (kerosene) of 40 liters and its effect on the containment ventilation system prefilters and HEPA filters. In conjunction with ORNL and Lockwood Greene we developed a test matrix that assessed the fire performance of the prefilters and HEPA filters; evaluated the fire response of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) epoxy ventilation duct work; the response and effectiveness of the fire protection system, the effect of fire in a cubicle on the vessel off-gas (VOG) elbow, and other fire safety questions.

  11. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  12. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of...

  13. Relationship between Production Method and Adsorption Property of Charcoal; Mokutan no seizo hoho to kyuchaku tokusei no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Ikuo.; Iwasaki, Satoshi. [Osaka Municiipal Technical Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Iwata, Yoshimi.; Kominami, Hiroshi.; Kera, Yoshiya. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Charcoals were prepared from Japanese cypress (C. obtusa) and Japanese Oak (Q. mongolica) by three carbonization methods, (a) in a nitrogen stream, (b) in an air stream, (c) in a container with cover. The relationship between the carbonization methods and the adsorption properties and the following results were obtained. Regardless of the carbonization method or the kind of wood used, the surface of charcoals prepared at low temperature was acidic and that of charcoals prepared at high temperature basic. The surface of charcoals prepared by method (c) showed the highest acidity. When benzene, iodine and phenol were adsorbed for short periods onto charcoals prepared by methods (a) and (c), the charcoal prepared at 600 degree C had the largest mean pore size, and also showed the fastest adsorption rate and the highest adsorption capacity. Of the charcoals prepared by method (b), the charcoal prepared at 900 degree C had the highest absorption capacity. The charcoal prepared at 1000 degree C showed a decrease in adsorption capacity because of thermal shrinkage of the pores. For all methods, adsorption capacity for water vapor was lowest in the charcoal prepared at 600 degree C. However, the amount of water vapor desorbed when humidity decreased was highest in the charcoal prepared at 600 degree C. It was found that the 600 degree C charcoal is the best use in humidity-control. (author)

  14. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  15. CHARCOAL PRICE ANALYSIS IN FOUR REGIONS OF MINAS GERAIS STATE-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal, that is used as term-reducer of iron ore,for producing pig iron. This study analyzed the time series of charcoal prices in four regions of Minas Gerais State. For the analysisof the price series, the SARIMA model was used, for finding a model that better forecasts prices for the four studied areas. The mostappropriate models were chosen using graphical analyses of the standardized residues, autocorrelation functions and partialautocorrelations, stochastic tests and criteria of evaluation of the order of the model. It concluded that: the differences of charcoalprices occur, basically, due to the geographical location; the analyses of domain of the time and domain of the frequency showed thatthere is difference in the price series of the four studied areas; the areas of Sete Lagoas and Belo Horizonte, giving that they are closelylocated, possess similar prices and they generated similar model; the studied areas presented differentiated models and supplied goodadjustments for the observed series. The best models were SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Belo Horizonte; SARIMA (2,0,0x(2,1,212,for Divinópolis; SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Sete Lagoas and SARIMA (1,1,1x(1,1,112, for Vertentes. Such models presented in aparsimonious way, containing a small number of parameters. All models SARIMA (p,d,q (P,D,Qs, for the four studied areas,presented white noise and supplied adequate price forecast.

  16. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  17. 尖山铁矿进口美卓压滤机滤布的国产化试验%The Localization Tests on Filter Cloth of Metso Filter Press in Jianshan Iron Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯校泽; 李贵兵; 王建国

    2015-01-01

    With four sets of new Metso diaphragm filter press putting into production, the Polypropylene multifilament filter cloth imported with the equipment was found blocking seriously, which not only influenced the efficiency but increased the pro⁃duction cost. The domestic nylon monofilament filter cloths were selected from three factories and performance tests of 24 batches were conducted on four filter press. The test results showed that the effective cycle number of cloth was about 1150, filter cloth consumption was more than 30 pieces/million tons ore, moisture of filter cake was far below the requirement of 9.3%, the filtrate concentration of the first 300 cycles and the total was 0.41~0.97%and 0.49~0.73%, but it was failed to meet the effective circula⁃tion 1500 number and 26 pieces/million tons of concentrate. The further step should be to reduce the nylon wire diameter and fil⁃ter aperture, increase the number of holes and air permeability, as well as improve the surface treatment technology to solve the contradiction between the filtrate concentration and cycle number. At the same time, the concentration of filtrate with dubious da⁃ta was treated by the calculating methods of suspicious data rejection and the numerical integration for the mean value.%新增的四台metso隔膜压滤机投产后,发现随机进口的聚丙烯复丝滤布堵塞失效严重,不仅影响设备的效率,也增加了生产成本,为此选择三家国内滤布厂家在四台压滤机上进行了24个批次的滤布试验。结果表明:滤布有效循环数约1150,滤布单耗在30块/万吨精矿以上,滤饼水分远低于要求的9.3%,前300个循环和总体的滤液浓度分别为0.41%~0.97%和0.49%~0.73%,但滤布都未能满足1500的有效循环数和26块/万吨精矿单耗的要求。下一步拟减小尼龙丝径和滤布孔径,增大孔数和透气量,同时改善后续的表面处理工艺,可望解决滤液浓度和循环数量的矛

  18. Survey of HEPA filter experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter applications and experience at Department of Energy (DOE) sites was conducted to provide an overview of the reasons and magnitude of HEPA filter changeouts and failures. Results indicated that approximately 58% of the filters surveyed were changed out in the three year study period, and some 18% of all filters were changed out more than once. Most changeouts (63%) were due to the existence of a high pressure drop across the filter, indicative of filter plugging. Other reasons for changeout included leak-test failure (15%), preventive maintenance service life limit (13%), suspected damage (5%) and radiation buildup (4%). Filter failures occurred with approximately 12% of all installed filters. Of these failures, most (64%) occurred for unknown or unreported reasons. Handling or installation damage accounted for an additional 19% of reported failures. Media ruptures, filter-frame failures and seal failures each accounted for approximately 5 to 6% of the reported failures

  19. Carbon sequestration from waste via conversion to charcoal : equipment for a small scale operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.C. [Cenovus Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Struyk, A. [AST Technical Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gilbert, D. [GTEC Consulting, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is not very cost effective in oilsand operations. For that reason, this study examined the feasibility of using charcoal sequestration (CS) as an alternative carbon offset method to CCS. The economics of the charcoal approach depends on 2 factors, notably the cost of the feed biomass and the cost of processing. The first factor was addressed in this study by using municipal waste as feedstock which is available free of charge. Since the cost of processing depends on the apparatus and the scale of operation, a robust kiln was designed to convert waste at remote industrial camp sites to charcoal. In charcoal sequestration, carbon contained in a portion of naturally produced biomass is preserved in solid form by converting it to charcoal, thus preventing it from entering into atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The paper showed that the newly designed equipment can contribute to a reduction in waste disposal costs and that the study can serve as a demonstration and data collection project for waste-to-charcoal projects for carbon sequestration. These demo projects can also help evaluate various aspects of this novel method of sequestration, and enhance public awareness on the subject. In view of the growing per capita waste worldwide, use of municipal waste as feedstock for charcoal sequestration can be a significant measure of carbon offset at global scale. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  20. A Gaussian mixture ensemble transform filter

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the popular ensemble Kalman filter to an ensemble transform filter where the prior distribution can take the form of a Gaussian mixture or a Gaussian kernel density estimator. The design of the filter is based on a continuous formulation of the Bayesian filter analysis step. We call the new filter algorithm the ensemble Gaussian mixture filter (EGMF). The EGMF is implemented for three simple test problems (Brownian dynamics in one dimension, Langevin dynamics in two dimensions, ...

  1. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  2. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollen, Emily; Ryan, Casey M; Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Ribeiro, Natasha; Lisboa, Sá N

    2016-09-19

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502380

  3. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  4. Simultaneous removal of formaldehyde and benzene in indoor air with a combination of sorption- and decomposition-type air filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yoshika; Fukuda, Mitsuru; Takao, Yosuke; Ozano, Takahiro; Sakuramoto, Hikaru; Wang, Kuan Wei

    2011-12-01

    Urgent measures for indoor air pollution caused by volatile organic compounds are required in urban areas of China. Considering indoor air concentration levels and hazardous properties, formaldehyde and benzene should be given priority for pollution control in China. The authors proposed the use of air-cleaning devices, including stand-alone room air cleaners and in-duct devices. This study aimed to find the best combination of sorption and decomposition filters for the simultaneous removal of formaldehyde and benzene, employing four types of air filter units: an activated charcoal filter (ACF), an ACF impregnated with a trapping agent for acidic gases (ACID), a MnO2 filter (MDF) for oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde at room temperature and a photocatalyst filter (PHOTO) coupled with a parallel beam ultraviolet (UV) irradiation device. The performance of the combined systems under air flow rates of 35-165 m3 h(-1) was evaluated in a test chamber (2 m3) with a constant gas generation system. The experimental results and data analysis using a kinetic approach showed the combined system of ACF, PHOTO and MDF significantly reduced both concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene in air without any unpleasant odours caused by the UV-induced photocatalytic reaction. The system was then evaluated in a full-size laboratory (22 m3). This test proved the practical performance of the system even at full scale, and also suggested that the filters should be arranged in the order of PHOTO/ACF/MDF from upstream to downstream. The proposed system has the potential of being used for improving indoor air quality of houses and buildings in China. PMID:22439587

  5. HEPA filter jointer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-02-01

    A HEPA filter jointer system was created to remove nitrate contaminated wood from the wooden frames of HEPA filters that are stored at the Rocky Flats Plant. A commercial jointer was chosen to remove the nitrated wood. The chips from the wood removal process are in the right form for caustic washing. The jointer was automated for safety and ease of operation. The HEPA filters are prepared for jointing by countersinking the nails with a modified air hammer. The equipment, computer program, and tests are described in this report.

  6. Influence of the addition of activated charcoal on the absorption of volatile organic compounds in water; Influence de l'ajout de charbon actif sur l'absorption dans l'eau de composes organiques volatils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubray, A.; Thomas, D.; Vanderschuren, J. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Service de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, Mons (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    A new technique of abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been developed by combining two classical physico-chemical processes: the absorption and the adsorption. The capture of isopropanol and acetone with concentrations of 1 to 5 g/m{sup 3} of air has been performed using aqueous suspensions with up to 10% of weight of activated charcoal content, in a cable contactor operating semi-continuously with a recirculation of the suspension. A modeling of the mass transfer phenomena occurring during these tests has permitted to demonstrate the effect of charcoal concentration on the global process and on the gas-liquid transfer. (J.S.)

  7. Activated charcoal (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1970--1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains worldwide citations pertaining to the uses of activated charcoal in industry as well as in the laboratory, including its use in air pollution, chemical adsorption, radioactive waste adsorption, electrochemistry, industrial waste treatment, and the mining industry

  8. Assessment of forest biomass technology: Direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the efficient forest biomass technology in groups of direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification for application in developing countries. Other technologies, such as briquetting, biogas and alcohol distillation, are not covered. 7 refs, 7 tabs

  9. Thermal behaviour of some activated charcoals used in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation was carried out on the hazards from activated charcoals used in the nuclear industry in the case of a rise in temperature during operation; some results are presented. A technique combining the measurement of temperature and the analysis of some gases met in the gaseous effluents at the outlet of the trap made it possible to specify factors affecting the spontaneous ignition temperature and to detect certain toxic gases such as hydrogen cyanide in the case of TEDA-impregnated charcoals. However, the report shows that the utilization of activated charcoals should not be forbidden, but a thorough study of the hazards presented by the plant should first be carried out together with an experimental determination of the time evolution of charcoal properties

  10. Detection of sialidase (neuraminidase) activity in Actinomyces species by using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid in a filter paper spot test.

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla, B. J.; Braham, P

    1989-01-01

    A rapid method for the detection of acetylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18 (sialidase or neuraminidase), was developed by using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid as substrate in a filter paper spot test. The method was compared to conventional assays that use 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid and bovine submaxillary mucin and was found to be in excellent agreement. Organisms with greater than 10 U of enzyme activity (in nanomoles per minute per m...

  11. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, B.; Lehmann, J.; Zech, W.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical properties of charcoal as affected by different combustion procedures, and the eff...

  12. Entrepreneurial Skill Development: A Case Study Of The Design And Construction Of Charcoal Baking Oven

    OpenAIRE

    Asibeluo I.S; Okeri P.E; Onwurah C; Adiogba M

    2015-01-01

    This research, concerns the design and construction of a charcoal baking oven using locally available materials as a case study for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The baking oven in this work has a rectangular box like shape with a total baking area of 315000mm2 . The oven is used for baking, drying and warming of food e.g cakes, bread, fish, meat etc. It is constructed with mild steel and angle bars. It comprises baking tray, housing frame, charcoal heating t...

  13. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  14. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment.

  15. Charcoal production during the Norse and early medieval periods in Eyjafjallahreppur, Southern Iceland.

    OpenAIRE

    Church, M.J.; Dugmore, A.J.; Mairs, K. A.; Millard, A. R.; Cook, G. T.; Sveinbjarnardóttir, G.; Ascough, P. A.; Roucoux, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    Timber procurement and the use of woodlands are key issues in understanding the open landscapes of the Norse and Medieval periods in the North Atlantic islands. This paper outlines evidence for the timing and mechanisms of woodland use and deforestation in an area of southern Iceland, which is tracked through the mapping and analysis of charcoal production pits. Precise dating of the use of these charcoal production pits within a Bayesian framework is demonstrated through the combination of t...

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. Materials and methods A male patient was broug...

  17. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by she...

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  19. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-02-01

    Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP) have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment. PMID:27076716

  20. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  1. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  2. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself. PMID:27192198

  3. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from bamboo charcoal and the roles of minerals on their growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized from bamboo charcoals by chemical vapor deposition in the presence of ethanol vapor. Fresh bamboo culms were first heat treated at 1000–1500 °C to form charcoals. The elemental composition and structure of mineral phases in the bamboo charcoal treated at different temperatures were analyzed. The results showed that Mg2SiO4 and particularly calcium silicate were responsible for the nucleation and growth of MWCNTs at 1200–1400 °C. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer observations indicated that the tips of nanotubes synthesized at 1200–1400 °C consist mainly of calcium silicate. Such silicate tips acted as effective catalysts for nanotubes. The growth of MWCNTs followed the vapor–liquid–solid model including an initial decomposition of ethanol vapor into carbon, dissolution of carbon inside molten silicate and final nucleation of nanotubes. -- Graphical abstract: Calcium silicate spheres formed on the surface of the bamboo charcoal after thermal treatments. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by ethanol chemical vapor deposition. The growth of CNTs follows the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism. Uploading of CNTs could increase the specific surface area and the N2 adsorption capacity. Highlights: ► The evolution of minerals in bamboo charcoal under heat treatment is found. ► The roles of minerals in bamboo charcoal in the growth of CNTs are proposed. ► The upload of CNTs increases the specific surface area and the adsorption capacity.

  4. Chemical and Isotopic Thresholds in Charring: Implications for the Interpretation of Charcoal Mass and Isotopic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A; Hockaday, William C; Boutton, Thomas; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Kinney, Timothy J; Masiello, Caroline A

    2015-12-15

    Charcoal plays a significant role in the long-term carbon cycle, and its use as a soil amendment is promoted as a C sequestration strategy (biochar). One challenge in this research area is understanding the heterogeneity of charcoal properties. Although the maximum reaction temperature is often used as a gauge of pyrolysis conditions, pyrolysis duration also changes charcoal physicochemical qualities. Here, we introduce a formal definition of charring intensity (CI) to more accurately characterize pyrolysis, and we document variation in charcoal chemical properties with variation in CI. We find two types of responses to CI: either linear or threshold relationships. Mass yield decreases linearly with CI, while a threshold exists across which % C, % N, and δ(15)N exhibit large changes. This CI threshold co-occurs with an increase in charcoal aromaticity. C isotopes do not change from original biomass values, supporting the use of charcoal δ(13)C signatures to infer paleoecological conditions. Fractionation of N isotopes indicates that fire may be enriching soils in (15)N through pyrolytic N isotope fractionation. This influx of "black N" could have a significant impact on soil N isotopes, which we show theoretically using a simple mass-balance model. PMID:26523420

  5. Evaluation of usher wood and karkadeh stem for charcoal in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan)); Vergnet, L. (CTFT, 94 - Nogent s/Marne (France). Energie Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Two unusual biomass materials Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa (karkadeh) stem and Calotropis procera (usher) wood were investigated in the laboratory as potential raw materials for charcoal making in Sudan. The materials were characterised physically and chemically and despite the low density and high bark-to-wood ratio by volume, good yields and quality of charcoal were predicted. The carbonization trials with a laboratory retort at conditions close to those of field metal kiln gave very good charcoal yields (35% for karkadeh and 38% for usher) with high energy transformation (58% and 62%, respectively). The karkadeh charcoal, except for a somewhat high ash content, was good for domestic uses (79% fixed carbon and 30.3 MJ kg[sup -1] heat value). The usher charcoal was better with respect to fixed carbon (86.5%) and gross heat value (32.4 MJ kg[sup -1]). Both charcoals were of low density (140-160 kg m[sup -3]) and further assessment of their economic suitability should be carried out under field conditions. The carbonization by-products were also collected and characterized by means of gas chromatography. (author)

  6. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  7. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility

  8. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, B

    2000-10-26

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility.

  9. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis-Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and K s and V m values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m(-3) h(-1), respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems. PMID:25313280

  10. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  11. Pemanfaatan Asap Buangan Tungku Arang Menjadi Asam Cuka Kayu dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan Pengusaha Arang Rakyat (the Utilization of Disposal Smoke of Charcoal Kiln as Wood Vinegar and its Contribution to Income of Charcoal Industrialist)

    OpenAIRE

     Usman, Syammaun;  Purwoko, Agus

    2010-01-01

    Untill now, smoke from charcoal industry has been disposed and become a source of air polution. The reserch was aimed to implement the processing tecnology of dosposal gas of charcoal kiln to become wood vinegar by simple dry destilation technique, to find out the economical feasibility and to examine the contribution level of wood vinegar production to charcoal industrialist. A basic technique applied was a dry destilation technique. The research showed that the processing technology o...

  12. Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  14. Investigation of molybdenum content reduction in uranium Leach Liquor by using activated Charcoal in Bandar Abbas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the possibilities of molybdenum content reduction in uranium leach liquor was investigated by adsorption techniques. Several activated charcoals were used as adsorbents. Under the optimized condition, 83.59% of molybdenum was adsorbed with Norit PK 0.25-1activated charcoal. Since the low uranium adsorption is the aim of this work, by performing the optimization conditions, the uranium adsorption with activated charcoal was determined to be 2.74%.

  15. A new and simple method for separation of 131I from tellurium oxide using an activated charcoal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for separation of 131I from irradiated TeO2 is described. Initially Te was separated from the 131I by precipitation technique. 131I solution containing traces of Te was adsorbed on an activated charcoal. After sufficient washings with HCl and water, 131I was desorbed from charcoal with NaOH. The recovery of Te was 99%. Retention of 131I on charcoal was 100% and elution efficiency was 75-80%. (author)

  16. Decontamination of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mound Facility, during many years of plutonium-238 experience, has recovered over 150 kg of plutonium-238. Much of this material was recovered from HEPA filters or from solid wastes such as sludge and slag. The objective of this task was to modify and improve the existing nitric acid leaching process used at Mound so that filters from the nuclear fuel cycle could be decontaminated effectively. Various leaching agents were tested to determine their capability for dissolving PuO2, UO2, U3O8, AmO2, NpO2, CmO2, and ThO2 in mixtures of the following: HNO3-HF; HNO3-HF-H2SO4; and HNO3-(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for two leaching systems. In some tests simulated contaminated HEPA filter material was used, while in others actual spent glovebox filters were used. The maximum decontamination factor of 833 was achieved in the recovery of plutonium-238 from actual filters. The dissolution was accomplished by using a six-stage process with 4N HNO3-0.23M (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 as the leaching agent. Thorium oxide was also effectively dissolved from filter media using a mixture of nitric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate. Sodium carbonate and Na2CO3-KNO3 fusion tests were performed using simulated PuO2-contaminated filter media at various temperatures. Approximately 70 wt% of the PuO2 was soluble in a mixture composed of 70 wt% Na2CO3-30 wt% KNO3 (heated for 1 h at 9500C). 23 figs., 14 tables

  17. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  18. Charcoal-induced granuloma that mimicked a nodal metastasis on ultrasonography and FDG-PET/CT after neck dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Won Jin; Choi, Nami; Roh, Hong Gee; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu; Chung, Hyun Woo; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Jung Hyun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Charcoal can be used for preoperative localization of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Charcoal remains stable without causing foreign body reactions during as hort period. However, foreign body reactions may develop if charcoal is left in situ for more than 6 months. We reported a case of charcoal granuloma mimicking local recurrence on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography and ultrasonography in a 47-year-old woman who had cervical lymph node dissection due to metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

  19. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuels and ethanol contributed 5.4%; electricity, 1.6%; and coal, 1.0%. Most of the energy (84.8%) was consumed in the household sector. The “Malawi Charcoal Project”, which is the main charcoal project...

  20. Miniaturized superconducting microwave filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present methods for the miniaturization of superconducting filters. We consider two designs of seventh-order bandpass Chebyshev filters based on lumped elements and a novel quasi-lumped element resonator. In both designs the area of the filters, with a central frequency of 2-5 GHz, is less than 1.2 mm2. Such small filters can be readily integrated on a single board for multi-channel microwave control of superconducting qubits. The filters have been experimentally tested and the results are compared with simulations. The miniaturization resulted in parasitic coupling between resonators and within each resonator that affected primarily the stopband and increased the bandwidth. The severity of the error depends on the design in particular, and was less sensitive when a groundplane was used under the inductances of the resonators. The best performance was reached for the quasi-lumped filter with central frequency of 4.45 GHz, quality factor of 40 and 50 dB stopband

  1. Experimental determination of the efficiency of filtering equipment for radioactive waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results showed that filtering with an alluvial filter may be used as an independent method of decontamination. It was proved that the mixture of asbestos and kieselgur is most suitable for basic alluvial filtering, especially in a ratio of 500 g asbestos and 1600 g Dicalite 4200 kieselgur. In using this layer which is additionally covered by 800 g of activated charcoal the values of the efficiency indices reached the values Esub(α) and Esub(β) 90 to 100% which means that the maximal possible degree of decontamination was achieved. (J.B.)

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS: TRI-DIM FILTER CORP. PREDATOR II MODEL 8VADTP123C23

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Predator II, Model 8VADTP123C23CC000 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Tri-Dim Filter Corporation. The pressure drop across the filter was 138 Pa clean and...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  5. Wood and charcoal quality from planted forest in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of young Eucalyptus spp. trees, and to verify the influence of age and clone on the energy performance of these fuels. It was sampled the clones 1277 and 0321 of Eucalyptus spp. in two ages (46 and 58 months. The characteristics determined in the wood were: chemical molecular and elementary, basic density, carbon stocks and lignin by volume, the energy density and heating values (higher and lower. The charcoal was produced in an electric furnace (muffle with the final temperature of 450 °C. It was conducted the mass balance and carbonization energy, beyond the immediate evaluation of the chemical composition, apparent density and calorific value of charcoal. The clone 1277, at the age 58 months, is the most suitable for the charcoal production for steel industry and direct combustion of wood, because it showed better results for basic density, energy density, carbon stocks and lignin per unit volume and the lignin content of the wood. The clonal effect and age did not influence the content of fixed carbon and volatile materials, the calorific values, the gravimetric yield in charcoal and energy losses of carbonization.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  7. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  8. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on the Modified Mechanism of Aluminum-Impregnated Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride contamination in drinking water is a prominent and widespread problem in many parts of the world. Excessive ingestion of fluoride through water can lead to the high risk of fluorosis in human body. Bone charcoal, with the principal active component of hydroxyapatite, is a frequently used adsorbent for fluoride removal. Many laboratory experiments suggest that the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal is an effective adsorbent in defluoridation. However, the mechanisms underlying this modification process are still not well understood, which in turn greatly impedes the further studies on other different modified adsorbents. To address this issue, we used the infrared spectroscopy to examine the bone charcoal and the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal, respectively. The comparative results show that the −OH peak of infrared spectroscopy has been intensified after modification. This significant change helped speculate the modified mechanism of the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal. In addition, it is found that the hydroxide ion dissociates from hydroxyapatite in the modification process. Such finding implies that the tetrahydroxoaluminate can be combined with the hydroxyapatite and the aluminum ion can be impregnated onto the bone char surface.

  10. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  11. The evolution of the epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan: a spatial and temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of carbon monoxide poisoning suicide by burning barbecue charcoal has occurred in East Asia in the last decade. We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the epidemic to assess its impact on the epidemiology of suicide in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Age-standardised rates of suicide and undetermined death by charcoal burning were mapped across townships (median population aged 15 y or over = 27,000 in Taiwan for the periods 1999-2001, 2002-2004, and 2005-2007. Smoothed standardised mortality ratios of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicide and undetermined death across townships were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Trends in overall and method-specific rates were compared between urban and rural areas for the period 1991-2007. The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic. The rural excess in overall suicide rates prior to 1998 diminished as rates of charcoal-burning suicide increased to a greater extent in urban than rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The charcoal-burning epidemic has altered the geography of suicide in Taiwan. The observed pattern and its changes in the past decade suggest that widespread media coverage of this suicide method and easy access to barbecue charcoal may have contributed to the epidemic. Prevention strategies targeted at these factors, such as introducing and enforcing guidelines on media reporting and restricting access to charcoal, may help tackle the increase of charcoal-burning suicides. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity. PMID:25850742

  13. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author)

  14. Development and optimization of the activated charcoal suspension composition based on a mixture design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronowicz Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new drug product containing activated charcoal was designed and developed. The excipient levels in the pharmaceutical formulation were optimized using a mixture design approach. The adsorption power of the activated charcoal suspension was selected as the critical quality attribute influencing the efficacy of medical treatment. Significant prognostic models (p < 0.05 were obtained to describe in detail the interrelations between excipient levels and the adsorption power of the formulation. Liquid flavour had a critical impact on the adsorption power of the suspension. Formulations containing the largest amount of liquid flavour showed the lowest adsorption power. Sorbitol was not adsorbed onto activated charcoal so strongly as liquid flavour. A slight increase in the content of carboxymethylcellulose sodium led to a marked decrease in adsorption power. The obtained mathematical models and response surface allowed selection of the optimal composition of excipients in a final drug product

  15. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  16. Review of the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of a critical review of the published literature on the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal. This review, which was supported by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, showed that (a) individual charcoals have a wide range of adsoprtion coefficients and therefore the performance of a given bed is heavily dependent on the quality of the charcoal it contains; (b) because of the detrimental effects of mass transfer on noble gas adsorption, consideration should be given to including this factor in developing technical specifications for adsorption beds; and (c) additional research is needed on the determination of the inter-relationship of moisture and temperature and their effects on adsorption bed performance

  17. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  18. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  19. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  20. Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter

  1. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KAHVECİ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the standard effective treatment method. Herein we report a 23-year-old woman with high dose carbamazepine overdose treated with high efficiency hemodialysis and charcoal hemoperfusion. We also discuss a comparison of the methods used for carbamazepine intoxication.

  2. Vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age by using microscopic structure of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structure of charcoals was determined in two sites of Bronze Age, Chifeng area by using the scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that these charcoals are all timbers of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). It has powerful climatic indicative significance. Based on the assemblage of pollen composition, their eco-climatic index and character of community, the vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age was obtained. The reconstruction showed that the zonal vegetation was Mongolian oak forest and Chinese pine forest in the loess hills in the Chifeng area, which suggested that the climatic condition was warmer and wetter at that time than present time.

  3. Mediterranean fire histories since the Last Glacial Maximum from lake sedimentary micro- charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C.; Turner, R.

    2006-12-01

    Microscopic charcoal analysis has been used to reconstruct past fire activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales in Europe, the Americas and Australasia. By contrast, and despite the importance of fire in its modern landscape ecology, few systematic attempts have been made in the circum-Mediterranean region to reconstruct long-term fire histories using micro-charcoals or other methods of analysis. This study has used non-destructive methods of charcoal extraction based on sieving plus heavy-liquid separation (Turner et al in press In: Charcoal from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. BAR International Series, Archaeopress, Oxford) along with contiguous core sampling of sedimentary core sequences from a number of East Mediterranean lakes that span the last glacial-interglacial climatic transition. At Eski Acýgöl, central Turkey (Roberts et al. Holocene, 2001, 11, 719-734), then a deepwater crater lake, overall micro-charcoal concentrations in sediments are low and were dominated by influx from regional-landscape rather than local- scale fire events. This record therefore provides a good proxy for overall fire frequency/intensity across the central Anatolia plateau, whose (hypothetical) modern "natural" vegetation is predominantly open oak-grass- Artemisia parkland. Shallow water sites such as Akgöl typically record much higher overall micro-charcoal abundance as a result of local-scale burning of the marsh surface at times of lowered water table, and thus received episodic local charcoal influx superimposed on background regional airborne sources. These results indicate that site type / catchment area and sampling / analytic methodology can critically influence reconstructed fire histories. We have correlated our charcoal records with existing multi-proxy data from the same cores (stable isotopes and pollen). This shows that climatic variations and biomass availability were the main factors controlling the timing of regional fire

  4. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In conclusion

  5. Research on Bamboo Charcoal Bonded Grinding Wheel and Its Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Minjie; Zhan, Fangyong; Jin, Mingsheng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of grinding wheel and its manufacturing production process are introduced. The new BCB (Bamboo Charcoal Bond) grinding wheel was made of bamboo charcoal, phenolic resin and abrasive powder with higher press and temperature. To investigate its mechanical features, such as Rockwell hardness, resistance to abrasion, and resistance to pressure, some experiments on three BCB samples with different Resin weight ratios 20%, 25%, 30%, were carried out. The results showed that the BCB sample with proper moulding process and Resin weight ratio had better performance.

  6. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold in activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method is described for the determination of gold in activated charcoal by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Compensation for matrix effects is achieved by means of platinum that is added for use as an internal standard. Calibration is achieved by use of a series of synthetic standards that are made by the spiking of barren charcoal with gold and platinum. The limit of determination is about 8 p.p.m. of gold, and the relative standard deviation is 1,2 per cent at a concentration level of 2300 p.p.m

  7. Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

    2006-12-01

    Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000

  8. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires

  9. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records show fire activity for the last 4ka yrs and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers – El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human

  10. Effect of Metal Oxide on Electrical Resistivity of Conductive Wood Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the effect of metal oxide on electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal,wood powder of Masson pine was mixed with ferric oxide (Fe_2O_3) and nickel oxide (NiO), respectively,and then the mixed powders were carbonized at high temperature in a laboratory-scale tube furnace in a nitrogen atmosphere. DCY-3 resistivity tester was used to measure electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal. When carbonization temperature was 1200 ℃, the electrical resistivity of controlsamples, Fe_2O_3 (...

  11. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    2N. Qamar; R. Azmat; Naz, R.; Malik, B.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye) from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8), shaking time (5min. - 1hour), adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm) and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml) were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal ...

  12. Has the woodfuel crisis returned? Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By lumping together charcoal and firewood consumption to determine the threats to forests from widespread use of woodfuel energy in sub-Sahara African, studies have greatly underestimated the individual impact of charcoal. Where high consumption levels are coupled with poor forest management and negligible regulation of the charcoal trade, the threat of an impending crisis caused by charcoal alone needs to be revisited. This study uses a survey of 244 households in six Tanzanian cities to determine whether current consumption levels, charcoal production techniques and forest management practices are sufficient to meet present and future charcoal demand. Projections to year 2100 were made to determine whether forests can continue to meet future demand under 24 scenarios that capture the numerous uncertainties that exist of converting charcoal consumption into forest needed. The findings suggest that the scenarios containing median consumption levels, low kiln efficiencies and low replenishment of harvested forests could deplete forests on public land by 2028. Best-case scenarios occurred when the opposite conditions existed. The study concludes that charcoal consumption is a real threat to the long-term persistence of forests in Tanzania and proposes policy interventions for alleviating forest loss

  13. Assessing the potential of biochar and charcoal to improve soil hydraulic properties in the humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Anjeni watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayabil, H.K.; Stoof, C.R.; Lehmann, J.C.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has shown promise for restoring soil hydraulic properties. However, biochar production could be expensive in the developing world, while charcoal iswidely available and cheap. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate whether some of the charcoal made in developing countries ca

  14. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  15. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  16. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  17. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  18. Insitu Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of filter media, sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane, are being investigated as in situ regenerable/cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Particle retention testing was conducted on the filters at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility to ensure HEPA efficiency, greater than 99.97 percent. During simulant testing, The filters were challenged using non-radioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. After plugging the filters they were cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters

  19. Insitu Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.J.

    2002-05-14

    Two types of filter media, sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane, are being investigated as in situ regenerable/cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Particle retention testing was conducted on the filters at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility to ensure HEPA efficiency, greater than 99.97 percent. During simulant testing, The filters were challenged using non-radioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. After plugging the filters they were cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters.

  20. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  1. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-02-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the

  2. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    OpenAIRE

    Josiah A. Adeyemo; Fred A.O. Otieno; George M. Ochieng; Olufisayo A. Olufayo; Onyeka I. Nkwonta

    2010-01-01

    Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was ...

  3. Core component integration tests for the back-end software sub-system in the ATLAS data acquisition and event filter prototype -1 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS data acquisition (DAQ) and Event Filter (EF) prototype -1 project was intended to produce a prototype system for evaluating candidate technologies and architectures for the final ATLAS DAQ system on the LHC accelerator at CERN. Within the prototype project, the back-end sub-system encompasses the software for configuring, controlling and monitoring the DAQ. The back-end sub-system includes core components and detector integration components. The core components provide the basic functionality and had priority in terms of time-scale for development in order to have a baseline sub-system that can be used for integration with the data-flow sub-system and event filter. The following components are considered to be the core of the back-end sub-system: - Configuration databases, describe a large number of parameters of the DAQ system architecture, hardware and software components, running modes and status; - Message reporting system (MRS), allows all software components to report messages to other components in the distributed environment; - Information service (IS) allows the information exchange for software components; - Process manager (PMG), performs basic job control of software components (start, stop, monitoring the status); - Run control (RC), controls the data taking activities by coordinating the operations of the DAQ sub-systems, back-end software and external systems. Performance and scalability tests have been made for individual components. The back-end subsystem integration tests bring together all the core components and several trigger/DAQ/detector integration components to simulate the control and configuration of data taking sessions. For back-end integration tests a test plan was provided. The tests have been done using a shell script that goes through different phases as follows: - starting the back-end server processes to initialize communication services and PMG; - launching configuration specific processes via DAQ supervisor as

  4. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robot’s position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed that indirect Kalman filter improves the accuracy and confidence of position estimation. Conclusion: In summary, we concluded that indirect Kalman filter has good potential to reduce error of measurement data.

  5. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system

  6. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-07-14

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system.

  7. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  8. Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from respiratory specimens by using selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, E; Snell, H; Black, B L; Storey, M.; Colby, W D

    1992-01-01

    Nocardiosis is difficult to diagnose clinically and by laboratory methods. A patient presented with disease compatible with pulmonary malignancy, but Nocardia asteroides was isolated on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. Investigation revealed that this medium may be a suitable selective primary isolation medium for Nocardia species from respiratory specimens.

  9. Selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for isolation of nocardiae from mixed cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, M. A.; Holmes, H T; Nolte, F S

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of Nocardia species from mixed cultures is facilitated by use of a selective medium. We show that buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium with polymyxin, anisomycin, and vancomycin can be used for the selective isolation of nocardiae from contaminated specimens.

  10. PURIFICATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM DURIAN PEEL’S WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Rinaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste of durian’s peel can be used to make liquid smoke and activated charcoal with pyrolysis method. To make liquid smoke for food preservative, liquid smoke must be proceeded with purification method such as distilation, purification with activated zeolit and activated charcoal. Liquid smoke characterization results from the durian’s peel from pyrolysis, distillation, purification with activated zeolite and activated charcoal purification with pH values ​​obtained successively 4.09; 3.24; 3.46; and 2.09. Acetic acid levels respectively 6.07; 7.59; 9.11; and 10.63 (mg/L. Based on the characteristics of the component compounds using GC-MS, results of pyrolysis liquid smoke was detected 17 compounds, liquid smoke distillation obtaining 12 compounds, liquid smoke purification with active zeolit obtaining 10 compounds and liquid smoke from activated charcoal purification obtaining 6 compounds with the majority component comprised of acetic acid compounds, phenols and carbonyls and do not contain carcinogenic compounds, so it can be used as a food preservative.

  11. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  12. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  13. Radiation synthesis and characteristics of charcoal filled PVA/PVP hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogels from a mixture of charcoal and poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) were made by single 'freezing and thawing' or two-step 'freezing and thawing' and gamma-ray irradiation. Physical properties such as gel content and adsorption of bacteria were examined

  14. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  15. Comparison of Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Charcoal Versus Gas and Solar Energy Treated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment using different sources of heat on the chemical composition and microbial quality of milk was studied. Raw cow, goat and sheep milk were heated with charcoal, gas and solar energy at 99ºC for 12 min, cooled to 20ºC and chemical (fat, protein, total solids, ash (titratable acidity, vitamin C composition as well as microbiological examination (total viable bacteria count were carried out. Results showed that fat, total solids and ash contents w ere high in cow milk heated with solar energy, while protein content was high when milk was heated with gas, and the titratable acidity was high in milk heated with charcoal and gas. The fat, total solids and ash contents of goat milk w ere high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein content and titratable acidity were high when milk was heated with solar energy. The fat contents of sheep milk was high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein and total solids content were high in milk heated with solar energy, and ash content and titratable acidity were high in milk heated with charcoal. Vitamin C content was high for all milks when heated with solar energy, while the total viable bacteria count was high in milks of all species when heated with charcoal. Solar energy was shown to be suitable for heating milk from chemical view point, while heat treatment of milk with gas was found to be better microbiologically.

  16. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...

  17. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment-charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlon, Jennifer R.; Kelly, Ryan; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vannière, Boris; Power, Mitchell J.; Bartlein, Patrick; Higuera, Philip; Blarquez, Olivier; Brewer, Simon; Brücher, Tim; Feurdean, Angelica; Gil Romera, Graciela; Iglesias, Virginia; Yoshi Maezumi, S.; Magi, Brian; Mustaphi, Colin J. Courtney; Zhihai, Tonishtan

    2016-06-01

    The location, timing, spatial extent, and frequency of wildfires are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, producing substantial impacts on ecosystems, people, and potentially climate. Paleofire records based on charcoal accumulation in sediments enable modern changes in biomass burning to be considered in their long-term context. Paleofire records also provide insights into the causes and impacts of past wildfires and emissions when analyzed in conjunction with other paleoenvironmental data and with fire models. Here we present new 1000-year and 22 000-year trends and gridded biomass burning reconstructions based on the Global Charcoal Database version 3 (GCDv3), which includes 736 charcoal records (57 more than in version 2). The new gridded reconstructions reveal the spatial patterns underlying the temporal trends in the data, allowing insights into likely controls on biomass burning at regional to global scales. In the most recent few decades, biomass burning has sharply increased in both hemispheres but especially in the north, where charcoal fluxes are now higher than at any other time during the past 22 000 years. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to data-model comparisons and identify areas for future research. Spatially gridded versions of the global data set from GCDv3 are provided to facilitate comparison with and validation of global fire simulations.

  18. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and th

  19. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlon, J. R.; Kelly, R.; Daniau, A.-L.; Vannière, B.; Power, M. J.; Bartlein, P.; Higuera, P.; Blarquez, O.; Brewer, S.; Brücher, T.; Feurdean, A.; Gil-Romera, G.; Iglesias, V.; Maezumi, S. Y.; Magi, B.; Mustaphi, C. J. C.; Zhihai, T.

    2015-11-01

    The location, timing, spatial extent, and frequency of wildfires are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, producing substantial impacts on ecosystems, people, and potentially climate. Paleofire records based on charcoal accumulation in sediments enable modern changes in biomass burning to be considered in their long-term context. Paleofire records also provide insights into the causes and impacts of past wildfires and emissions when analyzed in conjunction with other paleoenvironmental data and with fire models. Here we present new 1000 year and 22 000 year trends and gridded biomass burning reconstructions based on the Global Charcoal Database version 3, which includes 736 charcoal records (57 more than in version 2). The new gridded reconstructions reveal the spatial patterns underlying the temporal trends in the data, allowing insights into likely controls on biomass burning at regional to global scales. In the most recent few decades, biomass burning has sharply increased in both hemispheres, but especially in the north, where charcoal fluxes are now higher than at any other time during the past 22 000 {years}. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to data-model comparisons, and identify areas for future research. Spatially gridded versions of the global dataset from GCDv3 are provided to facilitate comparison with and validation of global fire simulations.

  20. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Qamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  1. Comparative studies for the adsorption of remazol blue on rice husk, saw dust and charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice husk and saw dust are attempted as alternate adsorbents to charcoal for the removal of reactive dye, namely remazol brilliant blue from aqueous media. The adsorption of remazol brilliant blue has been studied onto rice husk, saw dust and charcoal at different shaking times, adsorbent dosage, temperatures and pH values and their results are compared. The adsorption data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and corresponding adsorption parameters for each were calculated. Pseudo first and second order kinetic models were used to calculate the amount adsorbed at equilibrium (qe). The calculated values of qe for pseudo-second order equation were found to be in good agreement with those of experimental values. The monolayer capacity (Vm) for rice husk (0.699 mg g/sup -1/) is greater than that for charcoal (0.074 mg g/sup -1/) and saw dust (0.114 mg g/sup -1/). It is concluded that rice husk is found better adsorbent for the removal of remazol brilliant blue as compared to charcoal and saw dust. (author)

  2. A charcoal record of Holocene woodland succession from sandstone rock shelters of North Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, J.; Svoboda, Jiří; Šída, P.; Prostředník, J.; Pokorný, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 366, 24 April (2015), s. 25-36. ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08169S Keywords : Charcoal * Rock shelters * Sandstone area * Vegetation history * Pollen analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  3. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  4. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-05-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a sustainable strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil chemico-physical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of C present in the hearths with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization. Approximately 80% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found today, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an improvement in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. Then, we focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Such study enabled the identification of peculiar morphological features of tracheids, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignine and cellulose. In order to assess the effect of soil-aging we compared the old-biochar with a modern one obtained from the same feedstock and with similar carbonization process. XRD and XRF analysis were performed on both old and modern biochar, in order to study the multiphase crystalline structure and chemical elements found. We observed mineralization and a fossilization of old biochar samples respect to the modern ones, with accumulation of several mineral oxides and a substantial presence of

  5. Modulations of eye movement patterns by spatial filtering during the learning and testing phases of an old/new face recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Chantal L; Collin, Charles A; Nelson, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effects of varying the spatial frequency (SF) content of face images on eye movements during the learning and testing phases of an old/new recognition task. At both learning and testing, participants were presented with face stimuli band-pass filtered to 11 different SF bands, as well as an unfiltered baseline condition. We found that eye movements varied significantly as a function of SF. Specifically, the frequency of transitions between facial features showed a band-pass pattern, with more transitions for middle-band faces (≈5-20 cycles/face) than for low-band (≈20 cpf) ones. These findings were similar for the learning and testing phases. The distributions of transitions across facial features were similar for the middle-band, high-band, and unfiltered faces, showing a concentration on the eyes and mouth; conversely, low-band faces elicited mostly transitions involving the nose and nasion. The eye movement patterns elicited by low, middle, and high bands are similar to those previous researchers have suggested reflect holistic, configural, and featural processing, respectively. More generally, our results are compatible with the hypotheses that eye movements are functional, and that the visual system makes flexible use of visuospatial information in face processing. Finally, our finding that only middle spatial frequencies yielded the same number and distribution of fixations as unfiltered faces adds more evidence to the idea that these frequencies are especially important for face recognition, and reveals a possible mediator for the superior performance that they elicit. PMID:25287618

  6. Decontamination of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Lewis, E.L.; Luthy, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Mound Facility, during many years of plutonium-238 experience, has recovered over 150 kg of plutonium-238. Much of this material was recovered from HEPA filters or from solid wastes such as sludge and slag. The objective of this task was to modify and improve the existing nitric acid leaching process used at Mound so that filters from the nuclear fuel cycle could be decontaminated effectively. Various leaching agents were tested to determine their capability for dissolving PuO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, AmO/sub 2/, NpO/sub 2/, CmO/sub 2/, and ThO/sub 2/ in mixtures of the following: HNO/sub 3/-HF; HNO/sub 3/-HF-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/; and HNO/sub 3/-(NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Ce(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for two leaching systems. In some tests simulated contaminated HEPA filter material was used, while in others actual spent glovebox filters were used. The maximum decontamination factor of 833 was achieved in the recovery of plutonium-238 from actual filters. The dissolution was accomplished by using a six-stage process with 4N HNO/sub 3/-0.23M (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Ce(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/ as the leaching agent. Thorium oxide was also effectively dissolved from filter media using a mixture of nitric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate. Sodium carbonate and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ fusion tests were performed using simulated PuO/sub 2/-contaminated filter media at various temperatures. Approximately 70 wt% of the PuO/sub 2/ was soluble in a mixture composed of 70 wt% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-30 wt% KNO/sub 3/ (heated for 1 h at 950/sup 0/C). 23 figs., 14 tables.

  7. Development of filtering devices for chemical aggressive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of filtering devices were tested to deposit chemical aggressive aerosols. Sodium fire aerosols were used as test aerosols. Glas fiber filters, wet scrubbers and sandbed filters were investigated. Commercially available fiber filters and scrubbers were used. Small sized multilayer sandbed filters were developed and optimized with respect to high deposition rate and load capacity and low pressure drop. The experimental results are explained by theoretical calculations. The results of the three different precipitators are compared. Multilayer sandbed filters are with respect to deposition rate and pressure drop similar to fiber filters. Nevertheless the load capacity of a sandbed filter is much higher. (orig./HP)

  8. Chemical and Isotopic Thresholds in Charring: Implications for the Interpretation of Charcoal Mass and Isotopic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Boutton, T. W.; Zygourakis, K.; Kinney, T.; Masiello, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Charcoal plays a significant role in the long-term carbon cycle and its use as a soil amendment is becoming a viable carbon sequestration strategy (biochar). One challenge in this research area has been comparing results between studies in part due to the diversity of lab and field production conditions. Although the highest treatment temperature (HTT) is often used to describe pyrolysis conditions, several studies have shown that length of time at the highest temperature can also cause changes to the physicochemical qualities of charcoal and ignoring this effect may introduce inter-comparison problems. Addressing this issue becomes especially important in the discussion of optimizing biochar for soil remediation and carbon sequestration, and in discussions of charcoal use in reconstructing past fire regimes, as increasing time at temperature may cause changes in charcoal properties similar to the changes caused by increasing HTT. Here we introduce a formal definition of charring intensity (CI) to more accurately characterize pyrolysis, and we document variation in this property with pyrolysis temperature and reaction duration. We found two types of responses to CI: either a linear or a threshold relationship. We show that a threshold exists where %C, %N and δ15N begin exhibiting large changes, and this CI threshold co-occurred with an increase in charcoal aromaticity. Mass yield decreased linearly with charring intensity and carbon isotopes did not change from original biomass values in our controlled laboratory experiments. Analysis of these data shows that pyrolysis parameters should be defined in the literature as a combination of temperature and duration conditions, and that biomass that has undergone pyrolysis may be influencing soil organic nitrogen. Additionally, the lack of alteration in carbon isotopes across our matrix supports the efficacy of using pyrolyzed material for archaeological reconstructions.

  9. Adaptive Filter in SAR Interferometry Derived DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Caijun; WANG Hua; WANG Jianglin; GE Linlin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of median filter, elevation dependent adaptive sigma median filter, and directionally dependent adaptive sigma median filter are tested on both InSAR Tandem DEM and simulated high-level noisy DEM. Through the comparison, the directionally dependent adaptive sigma median filter is proved to be the most effective one not only in the noise removing but also in the boundary preserve.

  10. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    OpenAIRE

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robots position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed...

  11. Advanced filters for nuclear facilities and filter conditioning for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the advantages of the cylinder shape selected for the filter elements for aerosol and iodine removal from the offgas of nuclear facilities, above all in view of remote and manual operation and transport, conditioning and disposal. In order to test the conditioning of polygonal HEPA filter elements, several filter elements not exposed to radioactivity were crushed remotely and embedded in concrete in a 400 l waste drum. The waste drum was subsequently saw cut in order to verify the quality of concrete embedding. The result of concrete embedding is satisfactory. The design is presented of a filter element capable of accommodating gas flows up to 500 m3/h for wet aerosol removal with a high removal efficiency. Also the design of a filter element for gas flows up to 800 m3/h to be used in iodine removal from offgases with low iodine contents is described. In order to be able to use the cylindrical filter elements developed for remote handling in manual operation too, e.g., for cleaning low level offgases, a manually operated filter housing was developed. It is suited for working pressures up to 10 bar and working temperatures up to 160 degree C. The filter elements are replaced by the usual bagging technique

  12. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg-1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  13. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  14. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  15. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  16. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  17. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  18. Off-gas filter system of the SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reventing-Exventing-System of the German Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Prototype SNR-300 is described. After an accident with major damage to the core the ventilation valves are quickly closed. At the same time the blower of the reventing system evacuates the reventing gap up to a pressure difference of 2 mbar between the containment and the outer atmosphere. This pressure difference prevents a leakage from the containment to the outside. The revented gas is recirculated into the outer-containment. Leaks from the atmosphere and possibly from the inner containment into the reventing gap increase the pressure in the outer-containment. Therefore depending on the pressure build-up which is determined by the course of the accident, it is necessary to exvent the containment after several days. The exvented gas is filtered by a filter combination consisting of pre-filters, charcoal-filters and HEPA-filters. Because accidental sodium fires produce high concentrations of sodium oxide-aerosols this filter system must resist chemical aggressive aerosols. (U.S.)

  19. A randomised controlled pilot study to compare filtration factor of a novel non-fit-tested high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering facemask with a fit-tested N95 mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, S S W; Gomersall, C D; Leung, P; Li, P T Y

    2010-09-01

    Use of a fit-tested N95 or FFP2 mask is recommended to protect against transmission of airborne pathogens. This poses considerable logistic problems when preparing for, or dealing with, an epidemic. Some of these problems might be overcome by use of a compact reusable high-efficiency particulate air filtering mask that can be cut to size. We carried out a randomised controlled cross-over study to compare the efficacy of such a mask (Totobobo, Dream Lab One Pte Ltd, Singapore) with fit-tested N95 masks (1860 or 1860s or 1862; 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) in 22 healthy volunteers. The median (interquartile range) reduction in airborne particle counts was significantly higher [193-fold (145-200)] for N95 masks than for Totobobo masks [135-fold (83-184)] (P or =100-fold between N95 (19/22) and Totobobo (16/22) masks. We conclude that use of the Totobobo mask without fit testing cannot be recommended, but its performance is sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation. PMID:20359769

  20. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).