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Sample records for charantia bitter melon

  1. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

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    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  2. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy

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    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not ‘idle bystanders’ but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is ‘bitter melon’ (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter

  3. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia.

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    Heping Cao

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4 that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i. PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3VO(4, Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO32. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+-independent enzyme in plants.

  4. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

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    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  5. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

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    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  6. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

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    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  7. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) and the Effects of Diabetes Disease

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    ALTINTERİM, BAŞAR

    2015-01-01

    Kudret narı (Momordica charantia) diyabetli hastaların kan glukoz seviyelerinin düşürülmesi için kullanılmış öncelikli bir alternatif tedavidir. Hayvan ve insanlarda yapılan çalışmalar kudret narında hipoglisemik maddelerin var olduğunu göstermiştir

  8. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

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    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  9. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

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    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  10. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

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    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  11. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

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    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  12. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

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    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  13. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

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    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  14. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

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    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  15. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

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    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  16. Response of gut microbiota and inflammatory status to bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) in high fat diet induced obese rats.

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    Bai, Juan; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Ying

    2016-12-24

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota. Obese SD rats (Sprague-Dawley rats, rattus norregicus) were randomly divided into four groups: (a) normal control diet (NCD) and distilled water, (b) HFD and distilled water, (c) HFD and 300mg BMP/kg body weight (bw), (d) HFD and 10mg pioglitazone (PGT)/kg bw. We observed remarkable decreases in the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, serum lipid levels, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in the BMP and PGT groups after 8 weeks. BMP could significantly improve the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local endotoxin levels compared to the HFD group (pmicrobiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative determination of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) by HPLC-MS/MS.

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    Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as bitter melon, is widely cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a common food staple; its fruits, leaves, seeds, stems, and roots also have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In the United States, dietary supplements labeled as containing bitter melon can be purchased over-the-counter and from Internet suppliers. Currently, no quantitative analytical method is available for monitoring the content of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides, the major constituents of bitter melon, in such supplements. We investigated the use of HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS for the quantitative determination of such compounds in dietary supplements containing bitter melon. Values for each compound obtained from external calibration were compared with those obtained from the method of standard additions to address matrix effects associated with ESI. In addition, the cucurbitane-type triterpene and triterpene glycoside contents of two dietary supplements determined by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions were compared with those measured by an HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection, which was recently developed for quantification of such compounds in dried fruits of M. charantia. The contents of five cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in 10 dietary supplements were measured using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions. The total contents of the five compounds ranged from 17 to 3464 microg/serving.

  18. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

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    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  19. Establishment of in Vitro Regeneration System of Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Manye(杨满业); Zhao Maojun; Zeng Yu; Lan Liqong; Chen Fang

    2004-01-01

    Explants of bitter melon can produce three types of callus: green, yellow green and fragile yellow callus. During the period of inducing callus, the explants are not sensitive to the kinds and proportions of phytohormone. The rate of callus inductivity is about 90.0%. However, in the process of callus differentiating adventitious bud, the kind, proportion and quantity of phytohormone and the type of callus made different result. The adventitious buds were induced successfully on MS medium+6-BA (N6-benzyladenine) 4.0 mg l-1+KT(kinetin) 2.0 mg l-1) by yellow green callus. The frequency was about 66.7 %. Yellow callus did not differentiated adventitious bud. The frequency of green callus differentiation was very low (<15.0 %) even under the most suitable conditions. The MS + ZT (zeatin) 5.0 mgl-1 +KT 0.5 mgl-1 medium was suitable for the proliferation of bud and three weeks later, the coefficient of proliferation was about 5-6. The 1/2 MS + ZT 0.02 mgl-1 or 1/2 MS media were suitable for in vitro rooting of shoot, the shoot on them could produce 6-7 new roots in three weeks. After plantation test, the survival rate of tube plantlets was about 70% and their characteristics were the same as those from seed by field test.

  20. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

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    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  1. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Indian Bitter Gourd (Momordica Charantia L.) Allows for the Development of Crop Improvement Strategies

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    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. minima and var. maxima) or bitter melon is one of the most economically important cucurbit species worldwide. Although India is the center of origin of bitter melon, and cultivars and landraces of this species are widely cultivated in Asia, a rigorous asses...

  2. Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) Reduces Obesity-Associated Macrophage and Mast Cell Infiltration as well as Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Adipose Tissues

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    Zhang, Lei; Na Xu, Yan Lin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jian; Qu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic disease that correlates closely with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity-induced chronic adipose tissue inflammation is now considered as a critical contributor to the above complications. Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) is a traditional Chinese food and well known for its function of reducing body weight gain and insulin resistance. However, it is unclear whether BM could alleviate adipose tissue inflammation caused by obesity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) with or without BM for 12 weeks. BM-contained diets ameliorated HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Histological and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated BM not only reduced macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Flow cytometry show that BM could modify the M1/M2 phenotype ratio of macrophages in EAT. Further study showed that BM lowered mast cell recruitments in EAT, and depressed pro-inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in EAT and BAT as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in EAT. Finally, ELISA analysis showed BM-contained diets also normalized serum levels of the cytokines. In summary, in concert with ameliorated insulin resistance and fat deposition, BM reduced adipose tissue inflammation in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. PMID:24358329

  3. A comparative analysis of genetic diversity in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) genotypes using RAPD and ISSR markers

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    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) or bitter melon is a cucurbit of major economic importance where it is widely cultivated (India, China, Africa, and South America). The morphology (i.e., growth habit, maturity, and fruit shape, size, colour and surface texture) of Indian M. charantia germplasm...

  4. Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study.

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    Saad, Dalia Yossri; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Baiomy, Ahmed A; Yassin, Magdy Hassan; El-Sawy, Hanan Basiouni

    2017-06-17

    Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela. The treatments continued for 10 weeks. Karela was given for hypercholesterolemic rats after 6 weeks of cholesterol administration. Serum, liver and epididymal adipose tissues were taken for biochemical, histopathological and genetic assessments. Hypercholesterolemia induced a decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were ameliorated by karela administration. Hypercholesterolemia up regulated antioxidants mRNA expression and altered the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes. In parallel, hypercholesterolemic groups showed significant changes in the expression of PPAR-alpha and gamma, lipolysis, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). Acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), fatty acids synthase (FAS), sterol responsible element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) at hepatic and adipose tissue levels. Interestingly, Karela ameliorated all altered genes confirming its hypocholesterolemic effect. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that hypercholesterolemia induced hepatic tissue changes compared with control. These changes include cholesterol clefts, necrosis, karyolysis and sever congestion of portal blood vessel. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity showed positive expression in

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits

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    Kanwal Zahra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Liver function tests, including total plasma proteins, albumin, bilirubin and glucose were analyzed to find out the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica charantia. Method: The study was divided into two categories. In first category, the livers of rabbits were intoxicated with acetaminophen, and then Momordica fruit extract was given to observe its hepatocurative effects. Results: The results indicated significant changes in concentrations of the parameters in acetaminophen-challenged rabbits. In the second category, treatment was started by giving Momordica fruit extract dose orally for 10 days and 15 days to two groups of rabbits, respectively. Then, livers of rabbits were damaged with acetaminophen and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica were observed. Conclusion: The results showed that the animals treated with Momordica fruit extract experienced less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating that Momordica has hepatoprotective properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 7-12

  7. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l. seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

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    Shipp Matthew J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological transfer of conjugated fatty acid production to existing oilseed crops. It is expected that these studies will also provide basic information regarding the metabolism of other high-value novel fatty acids. Results Deep sequencing using 454 technology with non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries prepared from bitter melon seeds at 18 DAP resulted in the identification of transcripts for the vast majority of known genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis. The non-normalized library provided a transcriptome profile of the early stage in seed development that highlighted the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding seed storage proteins as well as for a number of genes for lipid metabolism-associated polypeptides, including Δ12 oleic acid desaturases and fatty acid conjugases, class 3 lipases, acyl-carrier protein, and acyl-CoA binding protein. Normalization of cDNA by use of a duplex-specific nuclease method not only increased the overall discovery of genes from developing bitter melon seeds, but also resulted in the identification of 345 contigs with homology to 189 known lipid genes in Arabidopsis. These included candidate genes for eleostearic acid metabolism such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2, and a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1-related enzyme. Transcripts were also identified for a novel FAD2 gene encoding a functional Δ12 oleic acid desaturase with potential implications for eleostearic acid biosynthesis. Conclusions 454 deep sequencing, particularly with normalized cDNA populations, was an effective method for mining of genes associated with eleostearic acid metabolism in

  8. Effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) on the gut microbiota in high fat diet and low dose streptozocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying

    2016-09-01

    The effects on gut microbiota of type 2 diabetic rats fed a bitter melon formulation (BLSP, a lyophilized superfine powder) were investigated. BLSP treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels (p microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled by PCR amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (V3-V9 region). BLSP significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in diabetic rats, while the relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroides and Ruminococcus were significantly lowered in BLSP-treated rats compared to diabetic rats. Additionally, BLSP significantly suppressed the activation of MAPK (JNK and p38). The results indicate that BLSP can significantly modify the proportions of particular gut microbiota in diabetic rats without disturbing the normal population diversity. By suppressing the activation of MAPK signaling pathway, a BLSP containing diet may ameliorate type 2 diabetes.

  9. Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit juice on blood prolactin level and histological change of mammary gland in lactating mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ampa Luangpirom; Watchara Kourchampa; Pichet Somsapt

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has nowadays been promoted. Meanwhile, lactation insufficiency is a significant problem. Thus, herbs for promoting milk are interesting. In Thai local wisdom, Momordica charantia Linn is claimed as a galactagogue. Experiments were performed in lactating mice with 6 litters each and metoclopramide (2 mg/100 g BW), a hyperprolactinemia inducing drug, was used as a reference drug. The drug and M. charantia fruit juice (400 and 600 mg/100 g BW) were orally administered d...

  10. BITTER MELON: A BITTER BODY WITH A SWEET SOUL

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    Trivedi Rashmi V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon commonly called as karela in India, consist of number of constituents which contribute to nutritional value of the plant. It has long been used in India, Japan, china, Philippines, America and many other countries as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus, constipation, as an Abortifacient, an antihelimintic. Rich in iron, beta carotene, potassium, and contains vitamins C and B 1 to 3, phosphorus and good dietary fiber. It is believed to be good for the liver and found to contain insulin like components which are helpful in treating diabetes.Many of its chemical constituents have been explored for its benefits in treating conditions like malaria, viral and bacterial infections, pains, stomach disorders etc.. MAP 30 is protein isolated from bitter melon which has shown anti HIV and anti cancer activities. Constituents of bitter melon can be utilized for preparing many herbal formulations which can cure with no adverse effects. Thus we can say that bitter melon although bitter in taste but is filled with number of qualities in it for curing ailments in human being. In this article we have discussed some of the therapeutic applications of bitter melon in brief.

  11. Effects of the leaf decoction of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) on Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore (MMPTP) and fertility in normal male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewusi, A F; Oyeyemi, M O; Olayemi, F O; Emikpe, B; Ehigie, L O; Adisa, R A; Olorunsogo, O O

    2010-12-01

    Momordica charantia (M. charantia), a medicinal plant of the family, Cucurbitaceae, is used in treating an array of ailments including diabetes, heamorrhoids, fevers and various cancers. Programmed cell death may be modulated by an intrinsic pathway involving the release of cytochrome C when the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPTP) pore is opened. Opening of MMPT pore was assayed using the method of Lapidus and Sokolove. The results obtained revealed that there was a dose-dependent and significant increase in the opening of the MMPT pore in rats orally administered the decoction with maximum induction (11-fold increase) at 55mg/100g body weight (bw), although the extent of opening of the pore was reduced at 65mg/100g bw (9-fold increase). An assessment of the blood parameters of animals orally exposed to the decoction showed significant decrease (pfertility in individuals who rely on oral administration of the decoction in treating various ailments.

  12. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug. PMID:28503051

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Junjie Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and melon (Cucumis melo genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published. Here, we identified a total of 188,091 and 167,160 SSR motifs in the genomes of the bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘OHB3-1,’ respectively. Subsequently, the SSR content, motif lengths, and classified motif types were characterized for the bitter gourd genomes and compared among all the cucurbit genomes. Lastly, a large set of 138,727 unique in silico SSR primer pairs were designed for bitter gourd. Among these, 71 primers were selected, all of which successfully amplified SSRs from the two bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘K44’. To further examine the utilization of unique SSR primers, 21 SSR markers were used to genotype a collection of 211 bitter gourd lines from all over the world. A model-based clustering method and phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear separation among the geographic groups. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study have considerable potential value in advancing bitter gourd research.

  14. Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer

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    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Padhye, Subhash B.; Anant, Shrikant

    2017-01-01

    Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants and their products that are useful for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is one of such plants known for its biological activities used in traditional system of medicines. This plant is cultivated in all over the world, including tropical areas of Asia, Amazon, east Africa, and the Caribbean and used as a vegetable as well as folk medicine. All parts of the plant, including the fruit, are commonly consumed and cooked with different vegetables, stir-fried, stuffed or used in small quantities in soups or beans to give a slightly bitter flavor and taste. The plant is reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. The plant extract inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and inhibiting cancer stem cells. The plant is rich in bioactive chemical constituents like cucurbitane type triterpenoids, triterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, fatty acids, and proteins. Some of the isolated compounds (Kuguacin J, Karaviloside XI, Kuguaglycoside C, Momordicoside Q–U, Charantin, α-eleostearic acid) and proteins (α-Momorcharin, RNase MC2, MAP30) possess potent biological activity. In the present review, we are summarizing the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Momordica charantia along with a short account of important chemical constituents, providing a basis for establishing detail biological activities of the plant and developing novel drug molecules based on the active chemical constituents. PMID:26968675

  15. Effects of processing methods on the proximate composition and momordicosides K and L content of bitter melon vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donya, Alice; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson; Chen, Pengyin; Jalaluddin, Mohammed

    2007-07-11

    Bitter melon (Mormodica charantia L.) has been associated with health benefits such as hypoglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-HIV activities. The vegetable, however, has an unpleasant bitter taste. The purpose of this research was to establish the effect of various processing methods on the moisture, lipid, and protein content of the Sri Lanka variety of bitter melon and to determine the effect of the processing methods on momordicosides K and L contents. The processing methods used were frying, blanching, sun drying, oven drying, freeze drying, and bitter masking with five different commercial bitter masking agents. Moisture, lipid, and protein analyses were done using standard AACC methods. Drying decreased moisture content from 92% to 9.5-10.2%. Frying lowered moisture content to 0.8% while increasing lipid content from 3.6 to 67%. Protein content remained unaffected by treatments. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method was used to identify momordicosides K and L in methanolic extracts of fresh and processed samples. Only extracted ion chromatographs for blanched bitter melon and bitter melon with MY 68 agent showed the absence of momordicosides K and L.

  16. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

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    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  17. Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Taniai, Naoki; Miyagi, Norimichi; Fukushima, Mai; Suzuki, Shouta; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Sakamoto, Moriaki; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Active compounds in bitter melon might treat diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It seems like your mum was right. A study led by YE Yang with the CAS Institute of Meteria Medica in Shanghai, China and David Ernest James at the University of New South Wales in Sydney has shown that eating bitter melons really is good for you.

  19. AFLP Analysis Provides Strategies for Improvement of Momordica Charantia L. (Bitter Gourd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoecious bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. minima and maxima Williams & Ng), a cucurbit of major economic importance, is widely cultivated in India, China, Africa, and South America. Although the morphology (i.e., growth habit and fruit shape, size, color and surface texture) of Indian bi...

  20. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): A potential mechanism in anti-carcinogenesis of colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seher A Khan

    2007-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), has received widespread attention in the scientific community due to its beneficial effects, including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti inflammatory effects in laboratory studies[1]. However, a well-defined mechanism by which this important plant food exerts its beneficial effects has not been elucidated. We present some of the latest findings on the plant's effects against colon cancer.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  2. Allelopathic Stress Produced by Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.

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    N.B. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with in vitro effects of allelochemicals present in leaf and fruit leachate of Momordica charantia in vitro on plant growth and metabolism of Lycopersicon esculentum. Momordica was selected as a donor plant and tomato as recipient. Seeds of tomato were shown in pots and after germination different concentrations viz. 25, 50, 75 and 100% of leaf and fruit leachates were applied as treatment. Twenty days old seedlings were harvested for biophysical and biochemical analyses. The root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of the seedlings decreased in dose dependent manner. The reduction in pigment and protein contents and nitrate reductase activity was concentration dependent. Membrane leakage increased as the concentration of leachates increased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POX activities significantly enhanced under allelopathic stress. Inhibition of various metabolic activities under allelopathic stress resulted in decreased plant growth and development. The fruit leachate of Momordica was more inhibitory than leaf leachate.

  3. First report of phytophthora fruit rot on bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) caused by phytophthora capsici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffa sponge (smooth gourd) and bitter gourds (bitter melon) are specialty cucurbit vegetables cultivated in the United States (US) on a small scale for select markets. Luffa gourds are also grown for the sponge obtained from dried fruit for personal hygiene and skin care. These two cucurbits prod...

  4. Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing

  5. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  6. Potential for Improved Glycemic Control with Dietary Momordica charantia in Patients with Insulin Resistance and Pre-Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Choi, Yuk Ming; Davies, Stephen W.; Mehra, Sanjay; Anderson, Ethan J.; Katunga, Lalage A.

    2014-01-01

    Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) is a widely used traditional remedy for hyperglycemia. While the medicinal properties of this plant have been studied extensively using in vitro and animal models, the clinical efficacy and safety in humans is largely unknown. This review discusses the benefits and limitations of bitter melon supplementation in the context of epidemic levels of insulin resistance and pre-diabetes throughout the world. PMID:24566057

  7. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Roach, Paul D

    2015-09-09

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R² > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4%) and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4%) and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.

  8. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

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    Sing Pei Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD and gum Arabic (GA. The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87. The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1 and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4% and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4% and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.

  9. Methanolic Extracts of Bitter Melon Inhibit Colon Cancer Stem Cells by Affecting Energy Homeostasis and Autophagy

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    Deep Kwatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW and skin (BMSk extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  10. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

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    Tzung-Hsun Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1 and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2 by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  11. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Paul D. Roach

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R 2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ...

  12. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Sing Pei Tan; Tuyen Chan Kha; Sophie Parks; Costas Stathopoulos; Paul D. Roach

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2...

  13. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  14. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI Shigella dysenteriae SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the gastrointestinal diseases are dysentery, which is characterized by loose, watery stools with mucus and blood of more than 3 times per day. Dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae bacteria, the disease can be treated with an antibacterial nutritious plants, one of which is bitter melon. Plant part used is fruit. Bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L contains flavonoids which efficacious as antibacterials. This study aims to determine the effect of extract concentrations against the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae. Antibacterial activity was tested using the disc diffusion method with extract concentrations of 10%, 25% and 50%. Clear zone formed around the paper discs showed inhibition zone. Results showed the ethanol extract of bitter melon extract at concentration 10%, 25% and 50% showed their antibacterial activity against bacteria Shigella dysenteriae with average diameter of inhibition zone 8.3 mm, 9.3 mm and 11.7 mm. Increased concentration of bitter melon fruit extract could increased inhibition zone.

  15. Bitter Melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds can start menstrual bleeding and have caused abortion in animals. Not enough is known about the ... other herbs or supplements that have the same effect might cause blood sugar levels to drop too ...

  16. Technical Study on Bitter Melon Juice Milk Beverage%苦瓜汁乳饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鹏

    2015-01-01

    以苦瓜和牛乳为原料,对苦瓜的脱苦、护色条件及苦瓜汁乳饮料的制备工艺进行研究。结果表明,10%盐溶液浸泡25min脱苦效果最佳,浓度为400mg/kg的异抗坏血酸钠的护色效果最好。最佳配方为,苦瓜汁与牛乳体积比1∶2,白砂糖添加量9.5%,柠檬酸添加量0.75%,复合稳定剂(羧甲基纤维素钠、黄原胶、琼脂以1∶1∶1的比例复合)添加量0.15%。在最佳工艺配方条件下,可制得具有丰富营养、独特风味的苦瓜汁乳饮料。%Using bitter melon and milk as raw materials, the research analyizes debitterizing, color-protectection and preparation technology of bitter melon juice milk beverage. Results show that the best debitterizing effect is to use 10%salt solution to soak for 25mins and the best color-protection effect is to use 400mg/kg ascorbic acid sodium. The optimal recipe shows as follows: the volume ratio of bitter melon juice and milk is 1∶2, 9.5% sugar , 0.75% citric acid, 0.15% compound stabilizer (the ratio of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and agar is 1∶1∶1) . Based on the optimal technical recipe, we can produce bitter melon juice milk beverage with rich nutrition and special flavor.

  17. Antiglycation and Antioxidant Properties of Momordica charantia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohi, Ali; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Ahmed, Nessar

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In many developing countries, diabetes treatment is unaffordable, and plants such as bitter gourd (or bitter melon; Momordica charantia) are used as traditional remedies because they exhibit hypoglycaemic properties. This study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. Lysozyme was mixed with methylglyoxal and 0–15 mg/ml of M. charantia extracts in a pH 7.4 buffer and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. Crosslinked AGEs were assessed using gel electrophoresis, and the carboxymethyllysine (CML) content was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using assays to assess DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity and reducing power of the extracts. The phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid content of the extracts were also determined. All extracts inhibited the formation of crosslinked AGEs and CML in a dose-dependent manner, with MCF being the most potent. The antioxidant activity of MCF was higher than that of MCP, but MCP showed the highest metal-chelating activity. MCF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, whereas MCP had the highest flavonol content. M. charantia has hypoglycaemic effects, but this study shows that M. charantia extracts are also capable of preventing AGE formation in vitro. This activity may be due to the antioxidant properties, particularly the total phenolic content of the extracts. Thus, the use of M. charantia deserves more attention, as it may not only reduce hyperglycaemia but also protect against the build-up of tissue AGEs and reduce oxidative stress in patients with diabetes. PMID:27513747

  18. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MAP30 GENE FROM MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L.

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    P Supraja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural products especially from plants have been used for the treatment of various diseases. Momordica charantia or bitter melon, grows in the tropical area is popularly consumed as vegetables and has high medicinal values .It is one of the most promising alternative medicines used as anti-HIV, anti-ulcer, antiinflammatory, antileukemic, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor. Proteins like momordin, alpha- and betamomorcharin and cucurbitacin B of Momordica charantia were also tested for possible anticancerous effects .Chemical analogs of these proteins have been developed, patented, and named MAP30.The MAP30gene was amplified from Momordica charantia leaves by Polymerase Chain Reaction .The resultant product was amplified

  19. Bitter melon extracts enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents through the modulation of multiple drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, Deep; Venugopal, Anand; Standing, David; Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Dhar, Animesh; Mitra, Ashim; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that extracts of bitter melon (BME) can be used as a preventive/therapeutic agent in colon cancers. Here, we determined BME effects on anticancer activity and bioavailability of doxorubicin (DOX) in colon cancer cells. BME enhanced the effect of DOX on cell proliferation and sensitized the cells toward DOX upon pretreatment. Furthermore, there was both increased drug uptake and reduced drug efflux. We also observed a reduction in the expression of multidrug resistance conferring proteins (MDRCP) P-glycoprotein, MRP-2, and BCRP. Further BME suppressed DOX efflux in MDCK cells overexpressing the three efflux proteins individually, suggesting that BME is a potent inhibitor of MDR function. Next, we determined the effect of BME on PXR, a xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor and a transcription factor that controls the expression of the three MDR genes. BME suppressed PXR promoter activity thereby suppressing its expression. Finally, we determined the effect of AMPK pathway on drug efflux because we have previously demonstrated that BME affects the pathway. However, inhibiting AMPK did not affect drug resistance, suggesting that BME may use different pathways for the anticancer and MDR modulating activities. Together, these results suggest that BME can enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of conventional chemotherapy.

  20. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  1. Mapping of the Gynoecy in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Using RAD-Seq Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hideo; Miyagi, Norimichi; Taniai, Naoki; Fukushima, Mai; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Urasaki, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing) analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding. PMID:24498029

  2. Mapping of the gynoecy in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia using RAD-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Matsumura

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding.

  3. ANALISIS SGPT-SGOT EKSTRAK ETANOL DAGING BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L.) PADA TIKUS JANTAN PUTIH GALUR WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Ari Nugrahani; Vivi Sofia

    2011-01-01

    The traditional medicine in Indonesia which is the cultural heritage and has become an integral part of the life of the nation Indonesia, want to be employed in the formal health care system. As the circulation of drugs in general terms, traditional medicine should fulfill the requirements of quality, safe, and efficacious. This study aims to analyze the levels of SGPT, SGOT of suspension of the ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L.) by orally. The study...

  4. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity ...

  5. Metabolomics Reveals that Momordica charantia Attenuates Metabolic Changes in Experimental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jianbing; Xu, Yong-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Momordica charantia L., also known as bitter melon, has been shown to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. However, metabolic changes regulated by M. charantia in obesity are not clearly understood. In this study, serums obtained from obese and M. charantia-treated mice were analyzed by using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed by Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results from this study indicated that body weight fat and insulin levels of obese mice are dramatically suppressed by 8 weeks of dietary supplementation of M. charantia. Metabolomic data revealed that overproductions of energy and nutrient metabolism in obese mice were restored by M. charantia treatment. The antiinflammatory and inhibition of insulin resistance effect of M. charantia in obesity was illustrated with the restoration of free fatty acids and eicosanoids. The findings achieved in this study further strengthen the therapeutic value of using M. charantia to treat obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  7. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Parmar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae, has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p. injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Different groups of animals were treated by 25% and 50% bitter gourd fruit juice (BFJ for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks treatment biochemical parameters from blood serum were analyzed. The significant differences of glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, in 50%BFJ treated group compare to diabetic group were found. So, from present study it is concluded that Bitter gourd fruit juice has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rat.

  8. Potential of immobilized bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidases in the decolorization and removal of textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Suhail; Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-07-01

    Immobilized peroxidases from Momordica charantia were highly effective in decolorizing reactive textile dyes compared to its soluble counterpart. Dye solutions, 50-200 mg/l, were treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidases (specific activity of 99.0 EU per mg protein). The decolorization of dyes with soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum in the range of pH 3.0-4.0. The effect of different temperatures on the dye decolorization was monitored and it was observed that all the dyes were maximally decolorized at 40 degrees C. In order to examine the operational stability of the immobilized preparation, the enzyme was repeatedly exploited for the decolorization of the dyes from fresh batch of dye solutions. Even after 10 cycles in each case the immobilized preparation retained nearly 50% of the initial enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme exhibited more than 90% of the original activity while the soluble enzyme lost 33% of the initial activity when stored for 40 d at room temperature. Mixtures of three, four and eight dyes were prepared and treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with immobilized enzyme. Dyeing effluent collected from local dyers was treated with both types of enzyme preparations. Immobilized enzyme was capable of removing remarkably high concentration of color from the effluent. TOC content of soluble and immobilized enzyme treated individual dyes, mixture of dyes and dyeing effluent was determined and it was observed that higher TOC was removed after treatment with immobilized enzyme.

  9. 苦瓜霜抗炎作用的研究%Study on the Anti-inflammatory Action of Bitter Melon Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春莹; 王志刚; 连红

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究苦瓜霜的抗炎作用。方法:观察二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀度;测定角叉菜胶致大鼠足踝关节周长;测定大鼠棉球肉芽肿重量;观察组胺致大鼠毛细血管通透性。结果:苦瓜霜明显抑制二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀;明显抑制角叉菜胶致大鼠足肿胀;明显抑制大鼠棉球肉芽肿增生;明显抑制组胺致大鼠毛细血管通透性。结论:苦瓜霜具有明显的抗炎作用。%Objective:To study the anti-inflammatory action of bitter melon cream. Methods:To observe the swelling degree of mice ear induced by dimethyl-benzene,determine the circumference of rat ankle joint induced by carrageenin,determine the weight of rat cotton ball granuloma,observe the rat capillary permeability induced by histamine. Results:Bitter melon cream could evidently restraint swelling degree of mice ear induced by dimethylbenzene,could evidently suppress rat ankle joint induced by carrageenin,could evidently inhibit rat cotton ball granuloma,could evidently restraint rat capillary permeability induced by his-tamine. Conclusion:Bitter melon cream has obvious anti-inflammatory action.

  10. Inhibition of Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Cucurbitanes from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Quoc; Lee, Do-Hyung; Oh, Joonseok; Kim, Chung Sub; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Myung, Chang-Seon; Na, MinKyun

    2017-07-28

    The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M.  charantia, utilizing diverse chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the 2D structure of 1 was confirmed utilizing the long-range HSQMBC NMR pulse, capable of measuring heteronuclear long-range correlations ((4-6)JCH). The cucurbitanes were also assessed for their inhibitory activity against PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation. This current study may constitute a basis for developing those chemotypes into sensible pharmacophores alleviating cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Comparison of dietary agents' garlic and bitter melon on in vitro glycation and advanced glycation end products formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gini Garima

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: M. charantia L seems to aggravate sugar mediated glycation of the protein and need further studies to pinpoint specific bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities whereas aged garlic seems to have strong ant glycation properties. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 257-262

  12. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance.

  13. Study on Processing Technology and Formula of Ultramicrosome Bitter Melon Powder Nutrition Bread%苦瓜超微粉营养面包的制作工艺及配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学俊; 井瑞洁; 于辉

    2011-01-01

    探讨了以苦瓜超微粉为原料生产面包的制作工艺。通过正交试验确定了苦瓜超微粉营养面包的最佳配方:300目苦瓜粉添加量3%、食盐0.9%、白砂糖20%、面包改良剂0.4%。并且分析了苦瓜粉对面包品质的影响。研制的面包不仅风味口感俱佳,且营养价值较高。%The processing technology of making ultramicrosome bitter melon powder nutrition bread was studied.The optimal formula which was determined by orthogonal experiment showed that: ultramicrosome bitter melon powder 3%,salt 0.9%,sugar 20%,bread improver 0.4%.And the effect of ultramicrosome bitter melon on the quality of the bread was analyzed.The bread not only had a good flavor and taste,but also high nutritive value.

  14. Uji Efektivitas Antihiperglikemia Kombinasi Jus Pare (Momordica charantia L dan Jus Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L pada Tikus Wistar Jantan dengan Metode Toleransi Glukosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes melitus (DM is a metabolic disorder condition characterized by hyperglycemia. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L are plant that have actvity antihiperglicemic actvity that contain triterpenoid, flavonoid, alkaloid, and saponin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination antihiperglicemic bitter melon juice and tomato juice on male Wistar rats that was induced sucrose. Animals were divided into 6 groups. Blood glucose levels was measured at 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th minutes with enzymatic method using a glucometer. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney with a 95% confidence level. The research showed a blood glucose level of negative group differ significantly from the other group (P>0.05 and did not differ significantly with group 6 (P>0.05. Group 5 (bitter melon juice 17.4 g/KgBW and tomato juice 16.8 g/KgBW has a significant difference (P<0.05 with other groups and more effectively lowering blood glucose levels from minute 90th to minute 120th. Group 5 has the lowering effect of blood glucose levels than single juice.

  15. Altered white adipose tissue protein profile in C57BL/6J mice displaying delipidative, inflammatory, and browning characteristics after bitter melon seed oil treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsien Hsieh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO, which is rich in cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 conjugated linolenic acid, is more potent than soybean oil in attenuating body fat deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive insight into how white adipose tissue (WAT is affected by BMSO administration and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the anti-adiposity effect of BMSO. METHODS AND RESULTS: A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in the WAT of mice fed diets with or without BMSO for 11 wks. The WAT was also analyzed histologically for morphological changes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (pH 4-7 revealed 32 spots showing a statistically significant difference (P2-fold change. Combined with histological evidence of macrophage infiltration and brown adipocyte recruitment, the proteomic and immunoblotting data showed that the WAT in mice subjected to long-term high dose BMSO administration was characterized by reduced caveolae formation, increased ROS insult, tissue remodeling/repair, mitochondria uncoupling, and stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton, this last change being putatively related to an increased inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: The anti-adiposity effect of BMSO is associated with WAT delipidation, inflammation, and browning. Some novel proteins participating in these processes were identified. In addition, the BMSO-mediated WAT browning may account for the increased inflammation without causing adverse metabolic effects.

  16. Changes in the radical-scavenging activity of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) during freezing and frozen storage with or without blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myojin, C; Enami, N; Nagata, A; Yamaguchi, T; Takamura, H; Matoba, T

    2008-09-01

    The effects of blanching, freezing, and frozen storage on the retention of radical-scavenging activity (RSA), total phenolics, and ascorbic acid in bitter gourd were investigated. Blanching of sliced bitter gourd resulted in considerable losses of RSA and total phenolics, and most extensively, of ascorbic acid. In the subsequent frozen storage at -18 degrees C, RSA and total phenolic content of unblanched and blanched bitter gourd underwent little change for 90 d then gradually declined, but at -40 degrees C, they practically remained unchanged throughout the entire storage period. On the contrary, ascorbic acid content of both unblanched and blanched bitter gourd decreased abruptly at the early stage in frozen storage. The results show that blanching of bitter gourd improves the retention of RSA and total phenolics during subsequent frozen storage but markedly aggravated loss of ascorbic acid. Finally, it is to be noted that RSA, total phenolics, and ascorbic acid originally contained in the raw bitter gourd were overall best retained by quick freezing followed by frozen storage at -40 degrees C without preceding blanching.

  17. Diversity among a wide Asian collection of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) landraces and their genetic relationships with commercial hybrid cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the first genetic characterization of bitter gourd based on polymorphisms at 50 simple sequence repeat loci in 114 accessions that included landraces, breeding lines and commercial cultivars widely grown in Asia. Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis revealed a high level of genetic var...

  18. 苦瓜提取物抑制蛋白质的非酶糖基化%Inhibitive Effects of Bitter Melon Extract on the Protein Non-enzymatic Glycation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍红; 刘少彬; 赵云涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective; Using in vitro and in vivo models, the role of bitter melon extract on protein non-enzymatic glycation were investigated. Method; In vitro model, different doses of the extract (0. 01 , 0. 1 , 1. 0 g · L-1) or aminogunidine (4 mmol · L-l) were added, non-enzymatic glycation end products were measured at different time points by fluorescent measurer. In vivo model, diabetes mice were fed with different doses of extract (10, 30 g · kg-1) . The effects of bitter melon extract on blood glucose, advanced glycation end products ( AGEs) levels, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) content in heart, liver and kidney tissue were assayed. Result; In vitro system, protein glycation products formation was positively correlated with the incubation time, bitter melon extract inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products dose-dependently (P < 0. 01) . Animal experiments showed that bitter melon extract inhibited blood sugar of diabetic mice (P < 0. 05 , P <0. 01). AGE levels and MDA content of heart, liver and kidney tissue were lowed significantly in group which fed with extract (P <0. 05, P <0. 01). Also, SOD activity was enhanced in group which fed with extract (P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). Conclusion; Bitter melon extract have inhibitive effects on the formation of advanced glycation end products in vitro and in vivo.%目的:研究苦瓜提取物对蛋白质非酶糖基化终末产物( AGE)生成的抑制作用.方法:体外蛋白质非酶糖基化反应系统中分别加入不同质量浓度的苦瓜提取物(0.01,0.1,1.0 g·L-1)或氮基胍(4 mmol·L-1),在不同时间分别测定蛋白质非酶糖化终末产物的生成量.制备糖尿病小鼠模型,以苦瓜提取物10,30 g·kg-1两个剂量连续ig 14 d,测定苦瓜提取物对糖尿病小鼠血糖以及心、肝、肾组织中AGE含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.结果:在体外系统中,蛋白糖化产物的生成与孵育时间

  19. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  20. ANALISIS SGPT-SGOT EKSTRAK ETANOL DAGING BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L. PADA TIKUS JANTAN PUTIH GALUR WISTAR

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    Dwi Ari Nugrahani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicine in Indonesia which is the cultural heritage and has become an integral part of the life of the nation Indonesia, want to be employed in the formal health care system. As the circulation of drugs in general terms, traditional medicine should fulfill the requirements of quality, safe, and efficacious. This study aims to analyze the levels of SGPT, SGOT of suspension of the ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L. by orally. The study was conducted using a white male Wistar rats amounted to 36 animals, divided into 6 groups. Each group consisted of 6 male white rats. Group I (control were given 0.5% CMC solution of 2.5 ml/200 g BW. Group II was given a suspension dosage doses of bitter melon fruit extract ethanol 0.5 g/kg, then consecutive group III with the test preparation doses of 1 g/kg, the test preparation group IV were given a dose of 2 g/kg, group V was given dosage test dose of 4 g/kg, and group VI were given the highest dose of the test preparation 8 g/kg. The results of acute toxicity tests on white male Wistar rats showed that administration of ethanol extract of peroral dosage suspension pare (Momordica charantia L. single dose on white male Wistar rats from the dose of 0.5 g/kg until a dose of 8 g/kg did not significantly influence the value of SGPT, SGOT.

  1. 响应面法优化苦瓜籽蛋白质提取工艺%Optimization of protein extraction from defatted bitter melon seed using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治强; 成兰英

    2013-01-01

    The optimum extracting conditions of protein from bitter melon seeds by the salt solvent method were studied .The effects of concentration of NaCI,pH and extraction time on the yield of protein were studied based on the extraction rate.According to the single factor experiments, the optimum extract process for bitter melon seed protein was determined through Box-Benhnken central composite design and response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimized extract process for bitter gourd seed protein was that the material/liquid ratio was 1:6 and the temperature was at 4℃,the concentration of NaCI was 1.3mol/L and pH8.8,at a extract time of 3. 6h,the extraction rate of bitter gourd seed protein was 23.80% ,3,24 times higher than that before the optimization. In addition, a quadratic equation model for protein extraction was set up and it played an important role in predicting the extraction of protein.Furthermore,the protein content of bitter melon seeds was 32.13% determined by Kjeldahl method.%以苦瓜籽为原料,采用紫外光谱和响应面法研究盐溶法提取苦瓜籽蛋白质的最佳工艺.以苦瓜籽蛋白质的提取率为指标,考察NaCl浓度、pH、提取时间对苦瓜籽蛋白质提取率的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,通过Box-Benhnken中心组合设计和响应面分析法,确定苦瓜籽蛋白质的最佳提取工艺.结果表明:在料液比为1:6,提取温度为4℃下,NaCl浓度1.3mol/L,pH8.8,提取时间3.6h,苦瓜籽蛋白质的提取率为23.80%,较优化前提高了3.24倍,同时建立了盐提蛋白质的二次多项数学模型,对苦瓜籽蛋白质的提取具有很好的预测作用.此外,通过凯氏定氮法确定苦瓜籽中蛋白质含量为32.13%.

  2. THE EFFECTIVENES OF ETANOL EXTRACT, PARTITION N-HEKSANA, AND CROMATHOGRAPHY FRACTION OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. TO LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

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    Ni Luh Putu Kusuma Clara Dewinda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the ethanol extract, partition n-hexane, and chromatography fractions Momordica charantia L. in lowering blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic male rats.  This study used 25 male rats were divided into five treatment groups P0 (negative control, P1 (positive control, P2 (ethanol extract, P3 (partition n-hexane, and P4 (chromatographic fraction the variable observed glucose levels blood for 21 days. Blood glucose levels were analyzed on days -1, 0, 4, 11, 18. The bill, which is used in the form of a completely randomized design (CRD. The data obtained and analyzed by using Split in Time. The results showed of giving chromatographic fractions bitter melon 50 mg / kg body weight can reduce blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic rats better than the ethanol extract 200 mg / kg body weight and partition n-hexane 50 mg / kg body weight.

  3. Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Yassin, Zaitun; Hamid, Tengku-Aizan

    2012-08-15

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice). Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause

  4. Identification of evolutionarily conserved Momordica charantia microRNAs using computational approach and its utility in phylogeny analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Saravanan, Subramanian; Karikalan, Kulandaivelu; Bharanidharan, Rajaraman; Lalitha, Perumal; Ilango, S; HairulIslam, Villianur Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, bitter melon) is a monoecious Cucurbitaceae with anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-diabetic potential. Molecular studies on this economically valuable plant are very essential to understand its phylogeny and evolution. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved, small, non-coding RNA with ability to regulate gene expression by bind the 3' UTR region of target mRNA and are evolved at different rates in different plant species. In this study we have utilized homology based computational approach and identified 27 mature miRNAs for the first time from this bio-medically important plant. The phylogenetic tree developed from binary data derived from the data on presence/absence of the identified miRNAs were noticed to be uncertain and biased. Most of the identified miRNAs were highly conserved among the plant species and sequence based phylogeny analysis of miRNAs resolved the above difficulties in phylogeny approach using miRNA. Predicted gene targets of the identified miRNAs revealed their importance in regulation of plant developmental process. Reported miRNAs held sequence conservation in mature miRNAs and the detailed phylogeny analysis of pre-miRNA sequences revealed genus specific segregation of clusters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of the antitumor and immunomodulatory characteristics of an extract of Momordica charantia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnick, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    An extract from the fruit of the bitter melon (BME), Momordica charantia is able to act as a biological response modifier in the murine system. Injection of 8 ..mu..g of BME protein, intraperitoneally induces an infiltration of lymphocytes into the peritoneal cavity. These peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) are cytotoxic to a wide range of tumor targets, including the NK sensitive tumor cell line, YAC-1. Injections of BME given twice a week augments tumor cytotoxic PEC, for 4 weeks. Fractionation of BME induced PEC revealed that the non-specific, tumor cytotoxic population of PEC were non-adherent mononuclear cells. Fractionation of PEC using unit gravity sedimentation revealed that the cytotoxic population is either a neutrophil or a large granular lymphocyte (LGL) as observed in the /sup 51/Cr-release assay. The antitumor activity of the BME which confers a tumor-dormant state on L1210 tumor-bearing mice was found to correlate with an increase in tumor cytotoxic cells in the PEC of BME injected mice. Tumor-bearing mice which received treatment with saline did not exhibit any tumor cytotoxic activity. Oral administration of the BME augmented splenic NK cytotoxicity. BME is highly antigenic. The formation of antibodies against the BME is detectable by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay after three weeks of ip injections (two/week). The mechanism of NK activation is still unknown. Results indicated that a BME does not induce the production of interleukin-2 or interferon.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Momordica charantia in edema paw and in cortisol seric modulation; Potencial antiinflamatorio da Momordica charantia no edema de pata e na modulacao do cortisol serico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnata, Simey S.L.P. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: sfmagnata@terra.com.br; Correia, Marilia B.L.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson C.; Souza, Grace M.L.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Terra, Daniele A.; Amorim, Lucia F. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2005-07-01

    The first sources that the humanity disposed to disease's treatment was plants and herbs. The Momordica charantia, Melao de Sao Caetano (bitter melon), occur in South and Central America and in East, it has been used as an anti-diabetic agent, anti-tumor, anti-helmintic and anti-ulcerogenic. The objective of this study is to research the Momordica charantia's activity on inflammatory process and the change on cortisol hormone seric concentration. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity were used mice (n=5) in test groups (30,60,100,250 mg/kg of extract) and control (negative and positive) groups (AAS 250 mg/kg and NaCl 0,9%); the inflammatory agent (carrageenan 1% p/v, 0,1 mL) was injected into right hind paw planter surface, 30 min after, the groups received each dose IP of extract, AAS and solution saline respectively; 4 hour after the mice was sacrificed and the difference between right and left hind foot mass was measured. There was a significant reduction (p<0,05)in carrageenan-induced edema paw at test from control group, the best result was obtained at 60 mg/kg dose which inhibits edema formation by 50%. To determinate the cortisol concentrations male Wistar rats, were divided in three groups: control, test A (2 hours of treatment) and test B (4 hours of treatment). The control group received 0,25 mL of saline solution (NaCl) 0,9% and the test groups 0,25 mL of Momordica charantia's aqueous extract, obtained by decoction of green leaves, (31,16 mg/kg animal); all by via IP. After the treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the serum obtained for realization of dosages. The cortisol was determined through radioimmunoassay. The results showed a reduction on a average by 83,9% from control group. The Momordica charantia's extract showed a high anti-inflammatory effect and was capable of reducing the seric cortisol on normal rats. (author)

  7. Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Bitter Melon Seed Oil-Corrected Lipid Disorders and Conversion of α-Eleostearic Acid into Rumenic Acid in C57BL/6J Mice

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    Ya-Yuan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD and PPARα knockout (KO mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB or not (30% soybean oil, HS for 5 weeks. The HB diet significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride concentrations and increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity in WD, but not in KO mice. However, regardless of genotype, body fat percentage was lowered along with upregulated protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as signaling pathway of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the white adipose tissue of HB-treated groups compared to HS cohorts. In WD-HB and KO-HB groups, white adipose tissue had autophagy, apoptosis, inflammation, and browning characteristics. Without PPARα, in vivo reduction of α-ESA into rumenic acid was slightly but significantly lowered, along with remarkable reduction of hepatic retinol saturase (RetSat expression. We concluded that BMSO-mediated anti-steatosis depended on PPARα, whereas the anti-adiposity effect was PPARα-independent. In addition, PPARα-dependent enzymes may participate in α-ESA conversion, but only have a minor role.

  8. Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Potential of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) in the Wing Spot Test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Zaira Rosa; Zanetti, Thalita Alves; Sennes-Lopes, Tiago Felipe; da Silva, Ana Francisca Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia, popularly known as bitter melon, is a plant widely used in ethnobotanical medicine. It has antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antiviral, and antimalarial activities, among others. The goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic activity of the aqueous extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruit of this plant by means of the Drosophila melanogaster wing spot test. Third-stage larvae that obtained standard (ST) cross and high bioactivation (HB) cross were treated with aqueous extracts of the aerial parts (IQA) and fruit (IQF) of M. charantia, following two protocols (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity). The aqueous extracts are not genotoxic in lower concentrations. The frequencies of mutant spots observed in the descendants of the ST and HB crosses treated with doxorubicin (DXR) alone were 8.65 and 9.25, respectively, whereas in those cotreated with IQA and DXR, the frequencies ranged from 15.90 to 29 in the ST cross and from 15.05 to 24.78 in the HB cross. In cotreatment with IQF, the frequencies ranged from 30.10 to 30.65 in the ST cross and from 13.60 to 14.50 in the HB cross, whereas the frequencies obtained with DXR were 32.50 in the ST cross and 26.00 in the HB cross. In conclusion, the IQA has a synergistic effect, enhancing the genotoxicity of DXR in the ST cross and the HB cross, whereas the IQF has antigenotoxic effects in the HB cross.

  9. In Vitro Anti-diabetic Activities and Chemical Analysis of Polypeptide-k and Oil Isolated from Seeds of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd

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    Zuraini Ahmad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid and fatty acid composition of polypeptide k and oil isolated from the seeds of Momordica charantia was analysed. The analysis revealed polypeptide k contained 9 out of 11 essential amino acids, among a total of 18 types of amino acids. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and glycine were the most abundant (17.08%, 9.71%, 9.50% and 8.90% of total amino acids, respectively. Fatty acid analysis showed unusually high amounts of C18-0 (stearic acid, 62.31% of total fatty acid. C18-1 (oleic acid and C18-2 (linoleic acid were the other major fatty acid detected (12.53% and 10.40%, respectively. The oil was devoid of the short fatty acids (C4-0 to C8-0. Polypeptide k and oil were also subjected to in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. Both polypeptide k and seed oil showed potent inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme (79.18% and 53.55% inhibition, respectively. α-Amylase was inhibited by 35.58% and 38.02%, respectively. Collectively, the in vitro assay strongly suggests that both polypeptide k and seed oil from Momordica charantia are potent potential hypoglycemic agents.

  10. Isolation and characterization of potential food preservative peptide from Momordica charantia L.

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    Uzma Jabeen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents (AMAs also known as preservatives are being used to keep food safe and unspoiled from microorganism. These preservatives, derived from plant sources or synthesized chemically are mostly non-proteinaceous AMAs. Less attention has been given to proteinaceous AMAs which may be used as preservative in food. Thus, there is a need to explore proteinaceous AMAs having antimicrobial activity with potentials to be used as an alternative to the presently used preservatives which are mostly synthetic. Therefore, the present study was carried out systematically to isolate and characterize peptides having antibacterial activity from different parts of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.. Crude aqueous extracts of seeds, pulp and skin were prepared in phosphate buffer saline (PBS and antibacterial activity was checked on Luria Bertani (LB broth agar plates against a number of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since antimicrobial activity was observed only in seeds therefore, seed extract was used for peptide(s precipitation with 75% ammonium sulfate solution and purification by gel filtration chromatography (GFC using Sephadex G-100. Antimicrobial activity was also checked in dissolved ammonium sulfate precipitate and GFC peak fractions (1–4. Further, homogeneity and molecular mass of GFC pooled fractions along with crude extract and dissolved ammonium sulfate precipitate were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE. One peptide with molecular mass ∼10 kDa with antimicrobial activity was obtained from peak 3. The purified peptide was stable at 4–50 °C, active between 5–7 pH and inactivated by trypsin and proteinase K. Based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values of purified peptide S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive strain. The use of this strain with minced meat showed significant viable count

  11. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors.

  12. Kuguacin J, a triterpeniod from Momordica charantia leaf, modulates the progression of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, PC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Suzuki, Shugo; Ogawa, Kumiko; Pompimon, Wilart; Takahashi, Satoru; Asamoto, Makoto; Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the in vitro effects of Kuguacin J (KuJ), a purified component of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) leaf extract (BMLE), on the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the in vivo effect of dietary BMLE on prostate carcinogenesis using a PC3-xenograph model. KuJ exerted a strong growth-inhibitory effect on PC3 cells. Growth inhibition was mainly through G1-arrest: KuJ markedly decreased the levels of cyclins (D1 and E), cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk2 and Cdk4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Interestingly, KuJ also dramatically decreased the levels of survivin expressed by PC3 cells. In addition, KuJ exerted anti-invasive effects on PC3 cells, significantly inhibiting migration and invasion: KuJ inhibited secretion of the active forms of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA by PC3 cells. In addition, KuJ treatment significantly decreased the expression of membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) by PC3 cells. In vivo, 1% and 5% BMLE in the diet resulted in 63% and 57% inhibition of PC3 xenograft growth without adverse effect on host body weight. Our results suggest that KuJ is a promising new candidate chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mediterranean, Oriental. Momordica balsamina Balsam apple, hawthorn Peach. Momordica charantia Balsam pear, bitter melon Peach. Momordica cochinchinensis Balsam apple, gac Peach. Momordica spp Gourds Melon, Peach..., Momordica, and Trichosanthis spp.) Gourd, angled luffa (Luffa acutangula) Gourd, balsam apple (Momordica...

  14. Momordica charantia and type 2 diabetes: from in vitro to human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Sandra D; Ludwig, Christine; Yang, Ray-yu; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a growing health problem worldwide that is particularly severe in India and China. In these areas, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a popular vegetable which is traditionally known to have health beneficial effects not only, but mainly, on diabetes. Bitter gourd could be a cheap possibility to help the poor in these and other countries to control their blood glucose levels. This review describes anti-diabetic effects of bitter gourd reported in the literature and discusses what still needs to be clarified for developing an evidence-based and safe use of the bitter gourd for diabetes. Analyses of bioactive compounds have shown that bitter gourd is rich in nutrients and phytochemicals of which some have anti-diabetic effects. Juices, powders, extracts, and isolated compounds have been tested in vitro and in vivo. Bitter gourd increases insulin secretion of the pancreas, decreases intestinal glucose uptake, and increases uptake and utilization of glucose in peripheral tissues. Although human studies with type 2 diabetics are weak in their design and/or results, some of the studies do indicate anti-diabetic effects in patients and safety for bitter gourd treatment in humans. In the future, well designed studies with rodents will help to understand what kind of bitter gourd variety, dosage, preparation, and duration of administration is optimal. Such results will help to design human studies which are necessary to prove the effectiveness of bitter gourd in patients.

  15. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber gene

  16. Study of Synergy Effect of Different Bitter Melon Extracts on Activities of Antioxidant and Inhibition of Amylase through Factorial Design%苦瓜提取物抗氧化及抑制淀粉酶协同作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱韵; 何庆峰; 林妙玲; 刘玥; 赵俊旭; 张湘汮

    2015-01-01

    通过析因设计研究不同溶剂苦瓜提取物的协同作用, 为苦瓜功能保健食品的开发提供参考. 以邻二氮菲-Fe2+氧化法抗氧化试验及α-淀粉酶的抑制试验研究苦瓜醇提物和水提物的剂量-反应关系,并进行3×3析因设计,通过析因分析研究苦瓜醇提物与水提物的协同作用. 结果表明苦瓜的醇提物和水提物在抗氧化及α-淀粉酶抑制作用方面存在协同作用.协同抗氧化效果最好组合是水提物0.2 mg/mL,醇提物0.15 mg/mL;协同抑制α-淀粉酶效果最好的组合是水提物40 mg/mL,醇提物30 mg/mL.%The aim of this experiment was to study the synergies of different solvents extracts derived from bitter melon by factorial design and to provide reference for the development of functional foods bitter gourd. Antioxidant andα-amylase inhibition capacity of the bitter alcohol extract and aqueous extract were detected by phenanthroline-Fe2+oxidation assay and α-amylase inhibition experiments in this study. Hypoglycemic effect was explored by statistical analysis of factorial design .The results showed that alcohol extract and aqueous extract had synergies effects on antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activity.Best combination of synergistic antioxidant effect was 0.2 mg/mL aqueous extract, 0.15 mg/mL alcohol extract. The best combination on α-amylase inhibition was 40 mg/mL aqueous extract, 30 mg/mL alcohol extract.

  17. MUSK MELON IS EAT-MUST MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Franklin, America’s greatest citizen, a printer by trade, scientist and philosopher by fame said, “Women & Melons are difficult to understand”. Musk melon (Cucumis melo is a beautiful, juicy, tasty fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes 825 species in 118-119 genera. This family contains all the edible gourds, such as cucumbers, watermelons, Musk melons, squash, and pumpkins. Musk melon is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world for its nutritional and medicinal value. The fruit is commonly known as Kharbooja in Hindi and Musk melon or Cantaloupe in English. The phytoconstituents from various parts of the plant include β-carotenes, apocaretenoids, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, terpenoids, chromone derivatives, carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids, glycolipids, volatile components and various minerals. Cucumis melo has been shown to possess useful medicinal properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-platelet, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, hepato-protective, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anthelmintic and anti-fertility activity. Thus, it is evident that Musk melon fruit possess a wide range of useful medicinal properties, which can be exploited clinically. The present review article covers comprehensively up-to-date information on the chemical constituents and medicinal profile of Musk melon.

  18. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani Soundararajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia (bitter gourd has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.

  19. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  20. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M. Suffian M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336

  1. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  2. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  3. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  4. Bitterness in almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-03-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for beta-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized beta-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the beta-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the beta-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons.

  5. Optimal Bitter Coil Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Kobelev, V

    2016-01-01

    Bitter coil is an electromagnet used for the generation of exceptionally strong magnetic fields. The upper bound of magnet flux density is restricted by several factors. One principal restriction is the high stresses due to Lorentz forces in the coil. The Lorentz forces generate the distributed body force, which acts as the pressure of magnetic field. The common radial thickness profile of the Bitter coil is constant. In this paper the possibility of optimization by means of non-constant radial thickness profile of the Bitter coil is studied. The close form expression for optimal thickness profile is obtained. Both designs are compared and the considerable improvement of magnetic flux density is demonstrated. Moreover, the optimal design improves the shape of cooling channels. Namely, the highest cross-section of cooling channel is at the most thermally loaded inner surface of the coil.

  6. Emerging Trends On Drug Delivery Strategy of Momordica Charantia against Diabetes and its Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Das, Srijit; Zaidun, Nurul Hannim

    2017-05-25

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus has increased drastically over the past few decades. This oxidant-antioxidant imbalance resulting in complication of diabetes mellitus includes macro- and microvascular complications. Resistance to conventional treatment and patient compliance has paved the way to the usage of effective natural products and supplements. Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is widely consumed in many parts of Malaysia as a vegetable. Momordica charantia (MC) is mainly used in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present review discusses the literature concerning the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of MC focusing on the complication of diabetes mellitus along with its mode of delivery. We found that among the whole part of MC, its fruit has been widely studied. The evidence based analysis of the beneficiary effects of MC on the different organs involved in diabetes complication is also highlighted. This review elucidated an essential understanding of different dosage forms of MC supplement in both clinical and experimental studies and appraised the great potential of the protein based MC extract against diabetes mellitus. The review paper is believed to assist the researchers and medical personnel in treating diabetic associated complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  8. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  9. Bitter (CW6)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available originating from the sea tend to build up the sand bar at the mouth of the Bitter, whilst the river would tend to breach it at times of flow, particularly in the winter months. Sea water probably only overtops the sandbar during exceptionally high tides...

  10. Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Satoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technique used in plant breeding and to functionally characterize genes of interest. The earliest reports of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the melon (Cucumis melo) were from the early 1990s (Fang and Grumet, Plant Cell Rep, 9: 160-164, 1990; Dong et al., Nat Biotechnol 9: 858-863, 1991; Valles and Lasa, Plant Cell Rep 13: 145-148, 1994). These early studies described three problems that decreased the efficiency of transformation: tetraploidy, chimeras, and escape. Using a liquid culture system for somatic embryogenesis, Akasaka-Kenedy et al. (Plant Sci 166: 763-769, 2004) overcame these problems and established an efficient transformation system; the protocol introduced in this chapter is based on this method.

  11. A new cucurbitane triterpenoid from Momordica charantia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponin, 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside (1),named momordicoside P was isolated from the fresh fruits ofMomordica charantia. The structure of the saponin was elucidated by spectral methods, including 2D-NMR spectra.(C) 2007 Yu Ying Zhao. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. BitterX: a tool for understanding bitter taste in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenkang; Shen, Qiancheng; Su, Xubo; Ji, Mingfei; Liu, Xinyi; Chen, Yingyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhuang, Hanyi; Zhang, Jian

    2016-04-04

    BitterX is an open-access tool aimed at providing a platform for identifying human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, for small molecules. It predicts TAS2Rs from the molecular structures of arbitrary chemicals by integrating two individual functionalities: bitterant verification and TAS2R recognition. Using BitterX, several novel bitterants and their receptors were predicted and experimentally validated in the study. Therefore, BitterX may be an effective method for deciphering bitter taste coding and could be a useful tool for both basic bitter research in academia and new bitterant discoveries in the industry.

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  14. Melonic phase transition in group field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P; Smerlak, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.

  15. De Novo Assembly of Bitter Gourd Transcriptomes: Gene Expression and Sequence Variations in Gynoecious and Monoecious Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anjali; Singh, V K; Bharadwaj, D R; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, Ashutosh; Rai, A K; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Parameswaran, Sriram; Singh, Major; Naik, P S

    2015-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a nutritious vegetable crop of Asian origin, used as a medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Molecular breeding in bitter gourd is in its infancy, due to limited molecular resources, particularly on functional markers for traits such as gynoecy. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of bitter gourd using Illumina next-generation sequencer, from root, flower buds, stem and leaf samples of gynoecious line (Gy323) and a monoecious line (DRAR1). A total of 65,540 transcripts for Gy323 and 61,490 for DRAR1 were obtained. Comparisons revealed SNP and SSR variations between these lines and, identification of gene classes. Based on available transcripts we identified 80 WRKY transcription factors, several reported in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; 56 ARF genes which play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression and development. The data presented will be useful in both functions studies and breeding programs in bitter gourd.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... from Peru. Cantaloupe, netted melon, vegetable melon, and winter melon (Cucumis melo L. subsp....

  17. Customized Cooking Methods Enhance Antioxidant, Antiglycemic, and Insulin-Like Properties of Momordica charantia and Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasvathy Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study compares antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC, vitamin C content, and antiglycemic properties of Momordica charantia (small bitter gourd and Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaves before and after subjecting to boiling and microwave heating for different durations. Both cooking methods enhanced the antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in the vegetables studied when cooked for five minutes and these properties declined when the cooking time was prolonged to 20 minutes. Cooking also retained or slightly improved the α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition activity of the vegetables; however, it reduced the ability of the vegetable extracts to inhibit α-amylase enzyme activity. The antioxidant activities were positively correlated with the TPC and vitamin C content in the vegetable extracts tested. The present study also evaluated the insulin-like properties (stimulation of adipogenesis of selected vegetable extracts (five minutes microwaved. 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with small bitter gourd extract significantly stimulated lipogenesis (in the absence of insulin compared to drumstick leaves. Thus, the finding of this study negates the belief that cooking will reduce the nutritional value of the vegetables and also suggested that appropriate cooking method and duration for different vegetables could be selected to improve or preserve their nutritional value.

  18. Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor Ⅱ inhibits growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manasi Alok Telang; Prashant Pyati; Mohini Sainani; Vidya Shrikant Gupta; Ashok Prabhakar Giri

    2009-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) seeds contain several squash-type serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs),which inhibit the digestive proteinases of the polyphagous insect pest Helicoverpa armigera.In the present work isolation of a DNA sequence encoding the mature peptide of a trypsin inhibitor McTI-Ⅱ,its cloning and expression as a recombinant protein using Pichia pastoris have been reported.Recombinant McTI-Ⅱinhibited bovine trypsin at 1:1 molar ratio,as expected,but did not inhibit chymotrypsin or elastase.McTI-Ⅱalso strongly inhibited trypsin-like proteinases (81% inhibition) as well as the total proteolytic activity of digestive proteinases (70% inhibition) from the midgut of H.armigera larvae.The insect larvae fed with McTI-Ⅱ-incorporated artificial diet suffered over 70% reduction in the average larval weight after 12 days of feeding.Moreover,ingestion of McTI-Ⅱresulted in 23% mortality in the larval population.The strong antimetabolic activity of McTI-Ⅱtoward H.armigera indicates its probable use in developing insect tolerance in susceptible plants.

  19. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudá-Kučerová, Jana; Kotolová, Hana; Koupý, David

    2015-09-01

    Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive.

  20. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Momordica charantia L Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, S; Hussain, F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and pancreatic beta cell regeneration activities of Momordica charantia L fruits (MC). Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were treated with methanolic and ethanolic MC extract. Effects of plant extracts and the drug glibenclamide on serum glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic beta cell were determined after two weeks of treatment. Serum glucose and lipid profiles were assayed by kit methods. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was performed to study pancreatic beta cell regeneration. Momordica charantia extracts produced significant hypoglycaemic effects (p Momordica charantia supplementations were unable to normalize glucose and lipid profiles. Glibenclamide, a standard drug, not only lowered hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia but also restored the normal levels. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells by MC extracts was minimal, with fractional improvement produced by glibenclamide. The most significant finding of the present study was a 28% reduction in hyperglycaemia by MC ethanol extracts. To determine reliable antidiabetic potentials of MC, identification of the relevant antidiabetic components and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25429471

  1. Cucurbitane Triterpenoid from Momordica charantia Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Breast Cancer Cells, in Part, through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ru Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the antitumor activity of the crude extract of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. has been reported, its bioactive constituents and the underlying mechanism remain undefined. Here, we report that 3β,7β-dihydroxy-25-methoxycucurbita-5,23-diene-19-al (DMC, a cucurbitane-type triterpene isolated from wild bitter gourd, induced apoptotic death in breast cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ activation. Luciferase reporter assays indicated the ability of DMC to activate PPARγ, and pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ protected cells from DMC's antiproliferative effect. Western blot analysis indicated that DMC suppressed the expression of many PPARγ-targeted signaling effectors, including cyclin D1, CDK6, Bcl-2, XIAP, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-κB, and estrogen receptor α, and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, as manifested by the induction of GADD153 and GRP78 expression. Moreover, DMC inhibited mTOR-p70S6K signaling through Akt downregulation and AMPK activation. The ability of DMC to activate AMPK in liver kinase (LK B1-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells suggests that this activation was independent of LKB1-regulated cellular metabolic status. However, DMC induced a cytoprotective autophagy presumably through mTOR inhibition, which could be overcome by the cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Together, the ability of DMC to modulate multiple PPARγ-targeted signaling pathways provides a mechanistic basis to account for the antitumor activity of wild bitter gourd.

  2. récolte du melon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... against the fungal species responsible for storage rot in melon fruit. The results obtained point to ...... Calcium for extending the shelf life of fresh whole and minimally processed fruits and vegetables: a review. Trend Food Sci.

  3. Momordica charantia: a popular health-promoting vegetable with multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Li, Zhiliang; Yang, Guliang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shiming

    2017-05-24

    Products derived from edible medicinal plants have been used for centuries to prevent, treat, and even cure multiple diseases. Momordica charantia L., widely cultivated around the world, is a typical one bred for vegetables and medicinal usage. All parts of M. charantia possess important medicinal properties, including antidiabetic, anticancer, hypotensive, anti-obesity, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anthelmintic, neuro-protective, as well as hepato-protective properties both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes the active components and medicinal properties of M. charantia, especially the activities and mechanisms of its anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties. The anti-diabetic properties involve inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase and glucose transport, protecting islet β-cells, enhancing insulin secretion, increasing hepatic glucose disposal, decreasing gluconeogenesis, and even ameliorating insulin resistance. Moreover, the expressions of PPARs could also be activated and up-regulated. Meanwhile, its anticancer properties are mostly due to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and expression of serum factors associated with immunity. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of M. charantia and its benefits for development as a functional food.

  4. Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia: multiple mechanisms behind the effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja

    2012-02-01

    Momordica charantia fruits are used as a vegetable in many countries. From time immemorial, it has also been used for management of diabetes in the Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine. Information regarding the standardization of this vegetable for its usage as an antidiabetic drug is scanty. There are many reports on its effects on glucose and lipid levels in diabetic animals and some in clinical trials. Reports regarding its mechanism of action are limited. So in the present review all the information is considered to produce some concrete findings on the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Studies have shown that M. charantia repairs damaged β-cells, increases insulin levels, and also enhance the sensitivity of insulin. It inhibits the absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and also suppresses the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine. It stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones and adiponectin and enhances the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Effects of M. charantia like transport of glucose in the cells, transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, modulation of insulin secretion, and elevation of levels of uncoupling proteins in adipose and skeletal muscles are similar to those of AMPK and thyroxine. Therefore it is proposed that effects of M. charantia on carbohydrate and fat metabolism are through thyroxine and AMPK.

  5. A mini-review of chemical and biological properties of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Lihua; Xie, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Recently, isolation and characterization of bioactive polysaccharides from natural resources have attracted increasing interest. Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), belongs to the Curcubitaceae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and has been used as herbal medicine and a vegetable for thousands of years. M. charantia polysaccharides, as major active ingredients of M. charantia, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their various biological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, radioprotection, and hepatoprotection. The present review provides the most complete summary of the research progress on the polysaccharides isolated from M. charantia, including the extraction, separation, physical-chemical properties, structural characteristics, and bioactivities during the last ten years. This review also provides a foundation for the further development and application in the field of M. charantia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Differential expression of bitter taste receptors in non-cancerous breast epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Chakraborty, Raja; Bhullar, Rajinder Pal; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-04-04

    The human bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are chemosensory receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. T2Rs are present on the surface of oral and many extra-oral cells. In humans 25 T2Rs are present, and these are activated by hundreds of chemical molecules of diverse structure. Previous studies have shown that many bitter compounds including chloroquine, quinidine, bitter melon extract and cucurbitacins B and E inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the existence of T2Rs in cancer cell is not yet elucidated. In this report using quantitative (q)-PCR and flow cytometry, we characterized the expression of T2R1, T2R4, T2R10, T2R38 and T2R49 in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, poorly metastatic cell line MCF-7, and non-cancerous mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Among the 5 T2Rs analyzed by qPCR and flow cytometry, T2R4 is expressed at 40-70% in mammary epithelial cells in comparison to commonly used breast cancer marker proteins, estrogen receptor and E-cadherin. Interestingly, the expression of T2R4 was downregulated in breast cancer cells. An increase in intracellular calcium mobilization was observed after the application of bitter agonists, quinine, dextromethorphan, and phenylthiocarbamide that are specific for some of the 5 T2Rs. This suggests that the endogenous T2Rs expressed in these cells are functional. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that T2Rs are differentially expressed in mammary epithelial cells, with some T2Rs downregulated in breast cancer cells.

  8. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer.

  9. Molecular mechanism of bitter melon juice efficacy against pancreatic cancer. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is an aggressive disease;median life of PanC patients post-diagnosis is been tested in several clinical trials for its anti-diabetic effects and has plenty of human safety data. We, therefore, anticipate that the positive outcomes from the proposed studies will provide compelling rationale for initiating clinical trials to establish BMJ activity against human pancreatic cancer. |

  10. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Benjak, Andrej; Sanseverino, Walter; Bourgeois, Michael; Mir, Gisela; González, Víctor M; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Câmara, Francisco; Cozzuto, Luca; Lowy, Ernesto; Alioto, Tyler; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Blanca, Jose; Cañizares, Joaquín; Ziarsolo, Pello; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Droege, Marcus; Du, Lei; Alvarez-Tejado, Miguel; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Melé, Marta; Yang, Luming; Weng, Yiqun; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Aranda, Miguel A; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén; Gabaldón, Toni; Roma, Guglielmo; Guigó, Roderic; Casacuberta, Josep M; Arús, Pere; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2012-07-17

    We report the genome sequence of melon, an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double-haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3% of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogenetic trees, allowing mapping of the orthology and paralogy relationships of sequenced plant genomes. We observed the absence of recent whole-genome duplications in the melon lineage since the ancient eudicot triplication, and our data suggest that transposon amplification may in part explain the increased size of the melon genome compared with the close relative cucumber. A low number of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat disease resistance genes were annotated, suggesting the existence of specific defense mechanisms in this species. The DHL92 genome was compared with that of its parental lines allowing the quantification of sequence variability in the species. The use of the genome sequence in future investigations will facilitate the understanding of evolution of cucurbits and the improvement of breeding strategies.

  11. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  12. Study of Melon Permittivities for Quality Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Permittivities (dielectric constants and dielectric loss factors) were determined at frequencies between 10 MHz and 20 GHz for mature cantaloupe, honeydew melons, and watermelons grown during three consecutive years and studied in relation to the sweetness of the edible tissue as determine...

  13. Differential bitterness in capsaicin, piperine, and ethanol associates with polymorphisms in multiple bitter taste receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2016-03-15

    To date, the majority of research exploring associations with genetic variability in bitter taste receptors has understandably focused on compounds and foods that are predominantly or solely perceived as bitter. However, other chemosensory stimuli are also known to elicit bitterness as a secondary sensation. Here we investigated whether TAS2R variation explains individual differences in bitterness elicited by chemesthetic stimuli, including capsaicin, piperine and ethanol. We confirmed that capsaicin, piperine and ethanol elicit bitterness in addition to burning/stinging sensations. Variability in perceived bitterness of capsaicin and ethanol were significantly associated with TAS2R38 and TAS2R3/4/5 diplotypes. For TAS2R38, PAV homozygotes perceived greater bitterness from capsaicin and ethanol presented on circumvallate papillae, compared to heterozygotes and AVI homozygotes. For TAS2R3/4/5, CCCAGT homozygotes rated the greatest bitterness, compared to heterozygotes and TTGGAG homozygotes, for both ethanol and capsaicin when presented on circumvallate papillae. Additional work is needed to determine how these and other chemesthetic stimuli differ in bitterness perception across concentrations and presentation methods. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to determine which TAS2R receptors are activated in vitro by chemesthetic compounds.

  14. Bitter mouth”: intercultural communicative competence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mayara Floss; Igor Oliveira Claber Siqueira; Tarso Pereira Teixeira; Arthur Ferronato Dall'Agnol

    2014-01-01

    ...) in the municipality of Rio Grande/RS – Brazil, regarding the complaint of "bitter mouth" and to discuss the intercultural communicative competence necessary for the health team in their approach to these users. Methods...

  15. Modifying bitterness in functional food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Nicole J; Pickering, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can be significantly reduced. A number of approaches are used by the industry to improve the taste properties and thus the acceptance of conventional foods that elicit excessive bitterness. This article reviews the most commonly employed techniques, including the use of bitter-modifying additives, which may prove useful for successfully introducing new functional ingredients into this rapidly growing sector.

  16. Bitter mouth”: intercultural communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Floss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the understanding of the users of Castelo Branco II Family Health Centre (FHC in the municipality of Rio Grande/RS – Brazil, regarding the complaint of "bitter mouth" and to discuss the intercultural communicative competence necessary for the health team in their approach to these users. Methods: This was a descriptive exploratory qualitative study. The research participants were community health workers and patients seen in Castelo Branco II FHC. Results: The explanation for the complaint "bitter mouth" belongs to the language of both lay persons and physicians. Popular treatments for this complaint involve: spontaneous healing, use of herbal teas, medicines, and nutritional care. The majority of respondents had never mentioned to their physician or other health staff about “bitter mouth”, and one of the participants said that "bitter mouth" was a "taboo" and referred to the constraint that still exists around this subject. Conclusions: The population has its own cultural understanding of the complaint "bitter mouth". However, more studies of popular illnesses with in-depth approach to them are needed. This study represents only an initial approach, but an essential one to understanding the term "bitter mouth" and cultural communicative competence necessary for health professionals.

  17. Age-related differences in bitter taste and efficacy of bitter blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is the primary culprit for rejection of pediatric liquid medications. We probed the underlying biology of bitter sensing and the efficacy of two known bitter blockers in children and adults.A racially diverse group of 154 children (3-10 years old and their mothers (N = 118 evaluated the effectiveness of two bitter blockers, sodium gluconate (NaG and monosodium glutamate (MSG, for five food-grade bitter compounds (quinine, denatonium benzoate, caffeine, propylthiouracil (PROP, urea using a forced-choice method of paired comparisons. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01407939.The blockers reduced bitterness in 7 of 10 bitter-blocker combinations for adults but only 3 of 10 for children, suggesting that efficacy depends on age and is also specific to each bitter-blocker combination. Only the bitterness of urea was reduced by both blockers in both age groups, whereas the bitterness of PROP was not reduced by either blocker in either age group regardless of TAS2R38 genotype. Children liked the salty taste of the blocker NaG more than did adults, but both groups liked the savory taste of MSG equally.Bitter blocking was less effective in children, and the efficacy of blocking was both age and compound specific. This knowledge will pave the way for evidence-based strategies to help develop better-tasting medicines and highlights the conclusion that adult panelists and genotyping alone may not always be appropriate in evaluating the taste of a drug geared for children.

  18. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons. Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of

  19. Two new cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Qing Cao; Yu Zhang; Jiong Mo Cui; Yu Qing Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, (23E)-5 β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23,25-triene-3β-ol (1) and (19R, 23E)-5β,19-epoxy-19-ethoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3 β,25-diol (2), together with three known compounds, have been isolated from the fruit of Momordica charantia L. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. Their cytotoxic activity was tested on 5 cancer cell lines, MCF-7, HepG2, Dul45, Colon205 and HL-60 by MTT assay. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 showed weak cytotoxicity.

  20. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  1. Anti-tumor activity and immunological modification of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Momordica charantia by covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengen Li; Yiwen Chen; Zhongyu Liu; Fubing Shen; Xiaoxiao Bian; Yanfa Meng

    2009-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of enzymes that depurinate rRNA and inhibit protein biosynthesis. Here we report the purification, apoptosis-inducing activity, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification of RIP from the bitter melon seeds. The protein has a homogenous N-terminal sequence of N-Asp-Val-Ser-Phe-Arg. Moreover, the RIP displayed strong apoptosis-inducing activity and suppressed cancer cell growth. This might be attributed to the acti-vation of caspases-3. To make it available for in vivo application, the immunogenicity of RIP was reduced by chemical modification with 20 kDa (mPEG)2-Lys-NHS. The inhibition activity of both PEGylated and non-PEGylated RIP against cancer cells was much stronger than against normal cells, and the antigenicity of PEGylated RIP was reduced significantly. Our results suggested that the PEGylated RIP might be potentially developed as anti-cancer drug.

  2. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  3. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  4. Novel inhibitor cystine knot peptides from Momordica charantia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun He

    Full Text Available Two new peptides, MCh-1 and MCh-2, along with three known trypsin inhibitors (MCTI-I, MCTI-II and MCTI-III, were isolated from the seeds of the tropical vine Momordica charantia. The sequences of the peptides were determined using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Using a strategy involving partial reduction and stepwise alkylation of the peptides, followed by enzymatic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, the disulfide connectivity of MCh-1 was elucidated to be CysI-CysIV, CysII-CysV and CysIII-CysVI. The three-dimensional structures of MCh-1 and MCh-2 were determined using NMR spectroscopy and found to contain the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK motif. The sequences of the novel peptides differ significantly from peptides previously isolated from this plant. Therefore, this study expands the known peptide diversity in M. charantia and the range of sequences that can be accommodated by the ICK motif. Furthermore, we show that a stable two-disulfide intermediate is involved in the oxidative folding of MCh-1. This disulfide intermediate is structurally homologous to the proposed ancestral fold of ICK peptides, and provides a possible pathway for the evolution of this structural motif, which is highly prevalent in nature.

  5. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  6. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia fruits using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Ahamad; Saima Amin; Showkat R. Mir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin. Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop and optimize an efficient protocol for the extraction of charantin from M. charantia fruits. Materials and Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions. RSM was based on a three-leve...

  7. New Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in Melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many physiological races of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen (CPM) Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) Braun & Shishkoff have been reported on melon (Cucumis melo L.). Melon accession PI 313970 is the only reported source of host plant resistance to race S, which first appeared in Imperial Valley, CA...

  8. Postharvest firmness behaviour of near-isogenic lines of melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Dos-Santos, N.; Jowkar, M.M.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.; Monforte, A.J.; Fernández-Trujillo, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In two consecutive seasons the firmness of 13¿15 near-isogenic lines (NILs) of melons (Cucumis melo L.) was followed during storage at 21 °C. Firmness was measured using non-destructive compression of whole melon fruit to a predefined compression distance of 2 mm. The same individuals (about 6 per n

  9. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment ... Fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) was generally higher in .... two equal splits at 3 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) coinciding .... Effects of cropping ratios of maize and Egusi-melon on yield and yield components of maize.

  10. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  11. Efficient production of transgenic melon via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirganoglu, I; Hwang, S Y; Shaw, J F; Fang, T J

    2014-04-25

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is an important fruit for human consumption. However, this plant species is one of the most recalcitrant to genetic transformation. The lack of an efficient in vitro system limits the development of a reproducible genetic transformation protocol for Oriental melon. In this study, an efficient transgenic production method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using cotyledon explants of Oriental melon was developed. Cotyledon explants were pre-cultivated for two days in the dark, and the optimal conditions for transformation of melon were determined to be a bacteria concentration of OD600 0.6, inoculation for 30 min, and two days of co-cultivation. Transgenic melon plants were produced from kanamycin-resistant shoots. A total of 11 independent transgenic plants were regenerated with a transformation efficiency of 0.8% of the inoculated explants. The transgenic plants were phenotypically normal and fully fertile, which might be a consequence of the co-cultivation time.

  12. Collection and marketing of Bitter Cola ( Garcinia kola ) in Nkwerre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection and marketing of Bitter Cola ( Garcinia kola ) in Nkwerre Local ... Net profit of N200,157.00k (about 930K euros) was recorded from sales of bitter cola by ... in order to boost bitter cola production, increase income and reduce poverty.

  13. A new concept in Bitter disk design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, B.J.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Bird, M.D. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A new concept in cooling hole design in Bitter disks that allows for much higher power densities and results in considerably lower hoop stresses has been developed and successfully tested at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in Tallahassee, FL. The new cooling hole shape allows for extreme power densities (up to 12 W.mm{sup 3}) at a moderate heat flux of only 5 W/mm{sup 2}. The new concept also reduces the hoop stress by about 30--50% by making a Bitter disk compliant in the radial direction through staggering small width and closely spaced elongated cooling holes. Finally, the design is optimized for equal temperature.

  14. Enhancing non-melonic triangulations: A tensor model mixing melonic and planar maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzom, Valentin; Rivasseau, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary tensor models of rank $D\\geq 3$ are dominated at large $N$ by tree-like graphs, known as melonic triangulations. We here show that non-melonic contributions can be enhanced consistently, leading to different types of large $N$ limits. We first study the most generic quartic model at $D=4$, with maximally enhanced non-melonic interactions. The existence of the $1/N$ expansion is proved and we further characterize the dominant triangulations. This combinatorial analysis is then used to define a non-quartic, non-melonic class of models for which the large $N$ free energy and the relevant expectations can be calculated explicitly. They are matched with random matrix models which contain multi-trace invariants in their potentials: they possess a branched polymer phase and a 2D quantum gravity phase, and a transition between them whose entropy exponent is positive. Finally, a non-perturbative analysis of the generic quartic model is performed, which proves analyticity in the coupling constants in cardioid ...

  15. Enhancing non-melonic triangulations: A tensor model mixing melonic and planar maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bonzom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary tensor models of rank D≥3 are dominated at large N by tree-like graphs, known as melonic triangulations. We here show that non-melonic contributions can be enhanced consistently, leading to different types of large N limits. We first study the most generic quartic model at D=4, with maximally enhanced non-melonic interactions. The existence of the 1/N expansion is proved and we further characterize the dominant triangulations. This combinatorial analysis is then used to define a non-quartic, non-melonic class of models for which the large N free energy and the relevant expectations can be calculated explicitly. They are matched with random matrix models which contain multi-trace invariants in their potentials: they possess a branched polymer phase and a 2D quantum gravity phase, and a transition between them whose entropy exponent is positive. Finally, a non-perturbative analysis of the generic quartic model is performed, which proves analyticity in the coupling constants in cardioid domains.

  16. Morphogenesis of pericarp in two varieties of Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Uchchey and Korala, two common Indian varieties of Momordica charantia L. have the same length and diameter in initial stages. But with age the rate of lengthwise growth becomes higher in Karola, which differs from Uchchey by its larger size and much elongated shape. The major cause of their difference in size and shape is the higher cell number of Karola in its axial direction from the earliest stages of development, and their rapid transverse division during maturation. Differentiation of xylem bundles of the pericarp starts at the middle and apical parts of the ovary. The courses of differentiation of xylem in the middle, apical and basal bundles are bidirectional, basipetal and acropetal, respectively.

  17. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  18. Melon: A carbon-nitride analog to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Joel; Li, Yancen; Schmidt, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Although graphene remains the premier 2-D material, many others have been shown to exist. A close analog to graphene would be a two-dimensional sheet composed of carbon and nitrogen, known as melon. Bulk melon, also known as graphitic carbon-nitride, has been successfully synthesized and shown to be an organic semiconductor with a band-gap around 2.7 eV. We report on the successful synthesis of single layer and few layer melon. The physical and electrical characteristics of this close cousin to graphene will be presented along with the synthesis method.

  19. Bitter substances from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine exert biased activation of human bitter taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Maik; Gu, Ming; Fan, Shengjie; Huang, Cheng; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2017-08-21

    The number and variety of bitter compounds originating from plants are vast. Whereas some bitter chemicals are toxic and should not be ingested, other compounds exhibit health beneficial effects, which is manifest in the cross-cultural believe that the bitterness of medicine is correlated with the desired medicinal activity. The bitter taste receptors in the oral cavity serve as sensors for bitter compounds and, as they are expressed in numerous extraoral tissues throughout the body, may also be responsible for some physiological effects exerted by bitter compounds. Chinese herbal medicine uses bitter herbs since ancient times for the treatment of various diseases; however, the routes by which these herbs modify physiology are frequently not well understood. We therefore screened 26 bitter substances extracted from medical herbs for the activation of the 25 human bitter taste receptors. We identified six receptors activated by in total 17 different bitter compounds. Interestingly, we observed a bias in bitter taste receptor activation with 10 newly identified agonists for the broadly tuned receptor TAS2R46, seven agonists activating the TAS2R14 and two compounds activating narrowly tuned receptors, suggesting that these receptors play dominant roles in the evaluation and perhaps physiological activities of Chinese herbal medicines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  1. Diversity among melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India and their genetic relationship with U.S.A. melon cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the first broad genetic characterization of farmer-developed land races of melon (Cucumis melo L.) from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India, an area overlooked in previous genetic diversity analyses of Indian melon germplasm. Eighty-eight landraces from three melon groups in two subspec...

  2. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  3. Melon yield prediction using small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiebiao; Wang, Zhongdao; Yang, Qi; Chen, YangQuan

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to the development of camera technologies, small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS), it is possible to collect aerial images of field with more flexible visit, higher resolution and much lower cost. Furthermore, the performance of objection detection based on deeply trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has been improved significantly. In this study, we applied these technologies in the melon production, where high-resolution aerial images were used to count melons in the field and predict the yield. CNN-based object detection framework-Faster R-CNN is applied in the melon classification. Our results showed that sUAS plus CNNs were able to detect melons accurately in the late harvest season.

  4. 'Egusi' Melon Accessions Using Agro- Morphological and Molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    'Egusi' melon is an important vegetable crop in the tropics and subtropics .... length, number of days to first fruiting, number of fruits per plants, fruit circumference, ..... morphological classification because molecular markers have the ability to ...

  5. Magnetically Damped Furnace Bitter Magnet Coil 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    A magnet has been built by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory for NASA on a cost reimbursement contract. The magnet is intended to demonstrate the technology and feasibility of building a magnet for space based crystal growth. A Bitter magnet (named after Francis Bitter, its inventor) was built consisting of four split coils electrically in series and hydraulically in parallel. The coils are housed in a steel vessel to reduce the fringe field and provide some on-axis field enhancement. The steel was nickel plated and Teflon coated to minimize interaction with the water cooling system. The magnet provides 0.14 T in a 184 mm bore with 3 kW of power.

  6. In Vitro Organogenesis of Lycianthes bigeminata Bitter

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy, S.; S Paulsamy; P. Senthilkumar; Sivashanmugam, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lycianthes bigeminata Bitter (Solanaceae) is an important medicinal herb distributed in the sholas of Nilgiris and chiefly used for curing ulcer. It is reported that the species is present in the sholas with poor population size in comparison to other constituent species. Owing to the demand and subsequent exploitation, it is predicted that it may occupy still poor association in the sholas of Nilgiris in course of time. Hence in vitro regeneration through employing tissue culture technique i...

  7. Development of Water Melon (Citrullus vulgaris L. Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJOULDE Roger DARMAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at developing an alcoholic drink from water melon fruit in order to reabsorb the water melon surpluses and to reduce the pressure made on cereals (sorghum and corn for the manufacture of artisanal alcoholic drinks. Antioxidant effect of polyphenols, was studied, total polyphenols, ethanol, methanol and total acids content of red water melon wines were determined and compared to a product used in human therapeutic; an extract of the Ginkgo-biloba, one local sorghum beer, palm wine and few industrial wines. Results indicate that water melon based alcoholic drinks present an ethyl alcohol content varying from 8±1% to 13±1%, a total acidity from 1.2±0.1g/l to 1.7±0.0g/l. The newly produce water melon based wines present high content of polyphenols, and strong antioxidant capacity compare to the Ginkgo-biloba, sorghum beer and the tree other samples wines. A reasonable consumption of 240 ml/day of water melon wines represents a polyphenol contribution of 403 mg/day and an anti capacity oxidizing respectively of 4.25 or 2.4 mmol/day versus 0.18 mmol/day for the Ginkgo-biloba extract.

  8. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  9. Catalytic synthesis and antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Tong; Hu, Yan; Li, Kexin; Yan, Liushui

    2014-03-01

    Sulfated derivatives of polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCPS) with different degree of sulfation (DS) were synthesized by chlorosulfonic acid method with ionic liquids as solvent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in MCPS compared with the C-2 position. Compared with the native polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCP), MCPS exhibited more excellent antioxidant activities in vitro, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance antioxidant activities of MCP. Furthermore, high DS and moderate molecular weight could improve the antioxidant activities of polysaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  11. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chung-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920, 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451, 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021, 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047, 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1, respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021. The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation (p = 0.047 but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG supplementation.

  12. Wound-healing property of Momordica charantia L. fruit powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vure; Jain, Vikas; Girish, Dugapati; Dorle, Avinash Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. fruit powder, in the form of an ointment (10% w/w dried powder in simple ointment base), was evaluated for wound-healing potential in an excision, incision and dead space wound model in rats. The rats were divided into three groups of control, treatment and reference in all three wound models, each group consisting of six rats. Wound-contraction ability in excision wound mode was measured at different time intervals on days 4, 8, 10, 12 and 14 , and the study was continued until the wound had completely healed. Tensile strength was measured in 10-day-old incision and granuloma wound. Histological studies were performed on 10-day-old sections of regenerated tissue. Powder ointment showed a statistically significant response (P < 0.01), in terms of wound-contracting ability, wound closure time, period of epithelization, tensile strength of the wound and regeneration of tissues at wound site when compared with the control group, and these results were comparable to those of a reference drug povidone iodine ointment.

  13. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS) melon population was generat...

  14. Caffeine Bitterness is Related to Daily Caffeine Intake and Bitter Receptor mRNA Abundance in Human Taste Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, Sarah V; Spielman, Andrew I; Mennella, Julie A; Mansfield, Corrine J; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Douglas, Jennifer E; Reed, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the abundance of bitter receptor mRNA expression from human taste papillae is related to an individual's perceptual ratings of bitter intensity and habitual intake of bitter drinks. Ratings of the bitterness of caffeine and quinine and three other bitter stimuli (urea, propylthiouracil, and denatonium benzoate) were compared with relative taste papilla mRNA abundance of bitter receptors that respond to the corresponding bitter stimuli in cell-based assays ( TAS2R4, TAS2R10, TAS2R38, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46). We calculated caffeine and quinine intake from a food frequency questionnaire. The bitterness of caffeine was related to the abundance of the combined mRNA expression of these known receptors, r = 0.47, p = .05, and self-reported daily caffeine intake, t(18) = 2.78, p = .012. The results of linear modeling indicated that 47% of the variance among subjects in the rating of caffeine bitterness was accounted for by these two factors (habitual caffeine intake and taste receptor mRNA abundance). We observed no such relationships for quinine but consumption of its primary dietary form (tonic water) was uncommon. Overall, diet and TAS2R gene expression in taste papillae are related to individual differences in caffeine perception.

  15. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon TGR 1551

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. Host plant resistance of melon to CYSDV is a high priority for sustainable melon production in affected production areas. High-level resistance to CYSDV exhibited by TG...

  16. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysiane Oliveira Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG and differential thermal analysis (DTA, pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying Kinetics of Momordica Charantia Slices and Its Color Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the drying characteristics of fresh Momordica Charantia slices at different drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80°C and different thicknesses (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 cm. Three mathematical models including Page, Henderson and Pabis and Wang and Singh equations were compared and discussed. The results showed that the Page model provided the best correlation capacity with the decision coefficient R2 of 0.998. The color change of Momordica Charantia slices during hot air drying at different temperatures were also studied by the measuring of color parameters such as the values of Hunter L* (whiteness/darkness, a* (redness/greenness and b* (yellowness/blueness. The total color change (ΔE of the samples was observed to increase as drying temperature increased. The results show that the color ofMomordica Charantia slices changed sharply when temperature was higher than about 70°C. The study could provide theoretical bases of the equipment design and process optimization for hot air drying of Momordica Charantia

  18. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; Santos, Ravely Lucena; Júnior, Fernando José de Lima Ramos; da Silva, Karla Monik Alves; de Souza, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity. PMID:27579215

  19. Antimicrobial Potential of Momordica charantia L. against Multiresistant Standard Species and Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Filho, José Hardman Sátiro de; Lima, Rennaly de Freitas; Medeiros, Ana Claudia Dantas de; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potential in vitro of Momordica charantia L. against the microorganisms of clinical interest (standard strains and multiresistant isolates) in order to aggregate scientific information in relation to its use as a therapeutic product. M. charantia L. plant material was acquired in municipality of Malta, Paraiba, Brazil. The extract was obtained through maceration, filtration and then concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator, resulting in a dough, and was then dried in an oven for 72 hours at 40°C. Antimicrobial action of ethanolic extract of seed M. charantia L. was evaluated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against standard strains of bacteria, isolates multiresistant bacteria and Candida species, by microdilution in broth method. All organisms were sensitive to the extract, being considered strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC/MFC < 0.125 mg/ml). The M. charantia L. showed strong antimicrobial potential, with bactericidal and fungicidal profile, there is the prospect to constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the control of infections, particularly in multiresistant strains. The use of medicinal plants in treatment of infectious processes have an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.

  20. Application of LIBS in Detection of Antihyperglycemic Trace Elements in Momordica charantia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rai, N.K.; Rai, P.K.; Pandhija, S.; Watal, G.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study exploits the information based on concentration of trace elements and minerals in understanding the role/mechanism of action of freeze-dried fruit powder suspended in distilled water of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) in diabetes treatment. Laser-induced break down

  1. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  2. Determination of changes in tastes of İpsala and Kırkağaç melons against Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir BARIŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891 (Diptera: Tephritidae] is the most important pest of the melons (Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbitales. The larvae cause to damage by feeding in seed cavity. Also, the tissues damaged by larvae turn brown and occurring scent spread in melon. This study aims to determine change in the taste of melon tissues damaged by larvae for the first time in Turkey. For this purpose, Kırkağaç and İpsala variety melons widely utilized in the province Ankara were selected in this study. Fruit taste (points, water-soluble dry matter, titratable acidity (TA and pH measurements were included in analysis of melon. Statistical differences were determined in Kırkağaç melon with melon fly with respect to control in terms of all of the features discussed in the fruit analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed compared to the control in the other measurements excluding the only titratable acidity in İpsala melon with melon fly.

  3. Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, B A S; Bautista, N D; Tanquilut, N C; Anunciado, R V; Leung, A B; Sanchez, G C; Magtoto, R L; Castronuevo, P; Tsukamura, H; Maeda, K-I

    2006-04-21

    Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata are the commonly used herbs by the diabetic patients in Pampanga, Philippines. While the anti-diabetic potential of Momordica charantia is well established in streptozocin- or alloxan-induced diabetic animals, the anti-diabetic potential of Andrographis paniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not known. Neither the effects of these herbs on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats are elucidated. Thus, in these experiments, Momordica charantia fruit juice or Andrographis paniculata decoction was orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Rats that were treated with Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata had higher body weight (BW) compared with diabetic positive control (P Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata-treated diabetic rats (5 days; P Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata could restore impaired estrous cycle in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  4. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben...

  5. The potential anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Soliman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently available antiepileptic drugs have debilitating adverse effects. Natural products and plants already used in traditional medicine can be a good place to start in the search for safer and more effective options. Aims: To investigate the anticonvulsant potential of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia extracts in maximal electroshock (MES, as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ- and strychnine nitrate (STN- induced seizure models in rats. Methods: For each model, eight groups of 21-day-old male Albino rats were used. The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg; 3rd – 5th treated with A. nobilis (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; and 6th – 8th administered M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. After 30 min, rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, via ear electrodes for 2 s (in MES test or sc injection of PTZ (85 mg/kg or STN (2.5 mg/kg. Results: A. nobilis and M. charantia extracts (200 and 300 mg/kg demonstrated dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect against MES-induced seizures. In the PTZ induced convulsion, A. nobilis and M. charantia (200 and 300 mg/kg significantly slowed the commencement of convulsions and minimized the duration of seizures. A. nobilis (300 mg/kg showed 60% protection in rats against STN induced seizures. In contrast, A. nobilis (100 and 200 mg/kg and M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg showed no significant protection against STN-induced seizures in rats. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that both extracts exhibited marked anticonvulsant activities.

  6. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  7. Evaluation of Maturity and Flavor of Melons Using an Electronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-wei; HE Hong-ju; GENG Li-hua; ZHANG Wan-qing

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an electronic nose was used to evaluate the different cultivars and mature stages of melons, so as to establish a scientific method to accurately distinguish the maturity and varieties of melons.Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis ( LDA ) showed that immature melons could be well distinguished from mature melons using electronic nose.When PCA method was used to analyze, electronic nose could completely classify and identify the maturity of melons.Meanwhile, the electronic nose could distinguish different varieties of melons with high discrimination value.The flavor of samples under cut or no cut conditions would slightly change, leading to the variation of discrimination value among different varieties.The samples with similar flavor under no cut condition could be analyzed through cutting mode.The research built a rapid and accurate method to judge the maturity of melons instead of man sense.

  8. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  9. Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Pecore, S D; Warwick, Z S

    1995-01-01

    Sixteen trained tasters provided sweetness and bitterness intensity ratings for 19 compounds including: acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, fructose, glucose, glycine, lactitol, maltitol, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neosugar (fructo-oligosaccharide), palatinit (isomalt), rebaudioside-A, sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, stevioside, sucralose, sucrose, and thaumatin. With increasing concentration, high-potency sweeteners including acesulfame-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sodium saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside tended to become more bitter. Low-potency sweeteners including fructose, sucrose, and lactitol tended to become less bitter with increasing concentration.

  10. Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptors: Keys for Survival in Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2017-01-05

    Research on bitter taste receptors has made enormous progress during recent years. Although in the early period after the discovery of this highly interesting receptor family special emphasis was placed on the deorphanization of mainly human bitter taste receptors, the research focus has shifted to sophisticated structure-function analyses, the discovery of small-molecule interactors, and the pharmacological profiling of nonhuman bitter taste receptors. These findings allowed novel perspectives on, for example, evolutionary and ecological questions that have arisen and that are discussed.

  11. In Vitro Organogenesis of Lycianthes bigeminata Bitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, S; Paulsamy, S; Senthilkumar, P; Sivashanmugam, M

    2007-04-01

    Lycianthes bigeminata Bitter (Solanaceae) is an important medicinal herb distributed in the sholas of Nilgiris and chiefly used for curing ulcer. It is reported that the species is present in the sholas with poor population size in comparison to other constituent species. Owing to the demand and subsequent exploitation, it is predicted that it may occupy still poor association in the sholas of Nilgiris in course of time. Hence in vitro regeneration through employing tissue culture technique is needed. The preliminary attempt in the present study reports that the MS medium supplemented with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Naphthalene Amino Acid (NAA) at 0.5 mg/l each, induced effective callus formation. However further studies on hardening is suggested to know the survivability of this species.

  12. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Sánchez P., Raquel; Dicenta, Federico; Grané, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  13. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Arrázola; Raquel Sánchez P; Federico Dicenta; Nuria Grané

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  14. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  15. New sources of resistance to CYSDV in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a whitefly-transmitted closterovirus that reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit yield and quality in greenhouse and open-field production systems in the Middle East, the Mediterranean Basin, the Americas, and Asia. Resistance to CYSDV has been repor...

  16. FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR MELON BASED ON NUTRITIONAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aridiano Lima de Deus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of the most demanding cucurbits regarding fertilization, requiring knowledge of soils, crop nutritional requirements, time of application, and nutrient use efficiency for proper fertilization. Developing support systems for decision-making for fertilization that considers these variables in nutrient requirement and supply is necessary. The objective of this study was parameterization of a fertilizer recommendation system for melon (Ferticalc-melon based on nutritional balance. To estimate fertilizer recommendation, the system considers the requirement subsystem (REQ, which includes the demand for nutrients by the plant, and the supply subsystem (SUP, which corresponds to the supply of nutrients through the soil and irrigation water. After determining the REQtotal and SUPtotal, the system calculates the nutrient balances for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, recommending fertilizer application if the balance is negative (SUP < REQ, but not if the balance is positive or zero (SUP ≥ REQ. Simulations were made for different melon types (Yellow, Cantaloupe, Galia and Piel-de-sapo, with expected yield of 45 t ha-1. The system estimated that Galia type was the least demanding in P, while Piel-de-sapo was the most demanding. Cantaloupe was the least demanding for N and Ca, while the Yellow type required less K, Mg, and S. As compared to other fertilizer recommendation methods adopted in Brazil, the Ferticalc system was more dynamic and flexible. Although the system has shown satisfactory results, it needs to be evaluated under field conditions to improve its recommendations.

  17. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Ja

  18. First attempts of linking modelling, Postharvest behaviour and Melon Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Santos, Don N.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of climacteric is associated with the end of melon fruit shelf-life. The aim of this research was to develop practical and applicable models of fruit ripening changes (hardness, moisture loss) also able to discriminate between climacteric and non-climacteric behaviour. The decrease in firm

  19. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines. Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR codes of 471 melon varieties (lines were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  20. Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramadhar; Balaji, S; Uma, T S; Sehgal, P K

    2009-12-10

    Momordica charantia fruit is a widely used traditional medicinal herb as, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor. The present study is undertaken to investigate the possible mode of action of fruit extracts derived from Momordica charantia (MC) and study its pharmacological effects for controlling diabetic mellitus. Effects of aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit on glucose uptake and up-regulation of glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), were investigated to show its efficacy as a hypoglycaemic agent. Dose dependent glucose uptake assay was performed on L6 myotubes using 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H] glucose. Up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the mRNA expression level of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K have been studied. The association of Momordica charantia with the aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit at 6 microg/ml has shown significant up-regulatory effect, respectively, by 3.6-, 2.8- and 3.8-fold on the battery of targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K involved in glucose transport. The up-regulation of glucose uptake was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone which was approximately 2-fold over the control. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the cyclohexamide on Momordica charantia fruit extract mediated glucose uptake suggested the requirement of new protein synthesis for the enhanced glucose uptake. This study demonstrated the significance of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K up-regulation by Momordica charantia in augmenting the glucose uptake and homeostasis.

  1. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  2. Antimigratory Effects of the Methanol Extract from Momordica charantia on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma CL1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsue-Yin Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia has been found to exhibit anticancer activity, in addition to its well-known therapeutic functions. We have demonstrated that the leaf extract of Momordica charantia (MCME induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. In this study, a different susceptibility to MCME was found in human lung adenocarcinoma CL1 cells with different metastatic ability, leading to the significant difference of cell viability and invasiveness between MCME-treated CL1-0 and CL1-5 cells. MCME was found to upregulate the expression of Wnt-2 and affect the migratory and invasive ability of CL1 cells through suppressed MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities. We proposed that MCME mediates inhibition against migration of CL1 cells by reducing the expression and activation of Src and FAK to decrease the expression of downstream Akt, β-catenin, and MMPs.

  3. Gustatory system and masking the taste of bitter herbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kale, Vinita; Tapre, Chetan; Ittadwar, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry...

  4. Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Bitter Lake NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  5. Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge Water Infrastructure Assessment Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a visit to Bitter Creek NWR on October 15th-18th, 2012, to locate and GPS water structures, springs, and other water sources. This report also...

  6. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-06-25

    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and β-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution.

  7. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  8. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Gareth; Dong Dong; Zhang Shuyi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R), which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better unders...

  9. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN-γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections. PMID:28812026

  10. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Diversification and genetic differentiation of cultivated melon inferred from sequence polymorphism in the chloroplast genome

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Akashi, Yukari; FUKUNAGA, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Aierken, Yasheng; Nishida, Hidetaka; Long, Chun Lin; Yoshino, Hiromichi; Sato, Yo-Ichiro; KATO, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Molecular analysis encouraged discovery of genetic diversity and relationships of cultivated melon (Cucumis melo L.). We sequenced nine inter- and intra-genic regions of the chloroplast genome, about 5500 bp, using 60 melon accessions and six reference accessions of wild species of Cucumis to show intra-specific variation of the chloroplast genome. Sequence polymorphisms were detected among melon accessions and other Cucumis species, indicating intra-specific diversification of the chloroplas...

  12. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  13. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Ethylene Climacteric of Melon Fruit by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; NIU Yi-ding; HAO Jin-feng; BADE Rengui; ZHANG Li-quan; HASI Agula

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Ethylene regulates the ripening process and affects the ripening rate. To screen genes that are differentially expressed at the burst of ethylene climacteric in melon fruit, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate forward and reverse libraries, for which we sequenced 439 and 445 clones, respectively. Our BLAST analysis showed that the genes from the 2 libraries were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, cell structure, transcription, translation, and defense. Six genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during the differential developmental stage of melon fruit. Our results provide new insight into the understanding of climacteric ripening of melon fruit.

  14. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  15. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001 with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics.

  16. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  17. Functional bitter taste receptors are expressed in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Vrontakis, Maria; Parkinson, Fiona; Chelikani, Prashen

    2011-03-04

    Humans are capable of sensing five basic tastes which are sweet, sour, salt, umami and bitter. Of these, bitter taste perception provides protection against ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Bitter taste is sensed by bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) that belong to the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily. Humans have 25 T2Rs that are expressed in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine cells and airway cells. Electrophysiological studies of the brain neurons show that the neurons are able to respond to different tastants. However, the presence of bitter taste receptors in brain cells has not been elucidated. In this report using RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry analysis we show that T2Rs are expressed in multiple regions of the rat brain. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of T2R4, T2R107 and T2R38 transcripts in the brain stem, cerebellum, cortex and nucleus accumbens. The bitter receptor T2R4 was selected for further analysis at the transcript level by quantitative real time PCR and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. To elucidate if the T2R4 expressed in these cells is functional, assays involving G-protein mediated calcium signaling were carried out. The functional assays showed an increase in intracellular calcium levels after the application of exogenous ligands for T2R4, denatonium benzoate and quinine to these cultured cells, suggesting that endogenous T2R4 expressed in these cells is functional. We discuss our results in terms of the physiological relevance of bitter receptor expression in the brain.

  18. The Roles of Alpha-Momorcharin and Jasmonic Acid in Modulating the Response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Meng, Yao; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia-cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA) and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) and (α-MMC+ibuprofen)-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway.

  19. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  20. Diallel analysis of yield and quality traits of melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Katherine de Araújo Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the general and specific combining ability of melon hybrids to identify thebest combinations. Six parents and their respective hybrids were evaluated in a complete randomized block design with threereplications. The following traits were assessed: total number of fruits, average fruit weight, yield, longitudinal diameter, transversaldiameter, flesh thickness, internal cavity size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids. The traits total fruit number, yield, flesh firmnessand soluble solids content are controlled by additive and non-additive effects, while average fruit weight, longitudinal diameter, fleshthickness, internal cavity size are controlled by additive effects. The most appropriate crosses for breeding of Cantaloupe, Honeydew, Piel del sapo, Meloa and Amarelo melon are, respectively: Gold Mine x Hy Mark, AF-646 x AF-1749, Meloa x Rochedo andAF-646 x Rochedo.

  1. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  3. Initial growth and tolerance of melon cultivars under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbia Bressia Gonçalves Araujo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is normally developed in semiarid regions, where water resources are limited. This scarcity of water is a strong stressor on the crops, and requires the supplementation of existing water supplies with poor quality water, especially saline water. This can impede the growth and production of plants; however, the use of tolerant genotypes may minimize this problem. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was developed at the Federal University of Campina Grande - UFCG, Pombal Campus, Paraiba State, Brazil, in order to study the emergence, initial growth, and tolerance of melon cultivars irrigated with waters of different salt content. We studied three melon cultivars (Gaúcho Redondo, Gaúcho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo irrigated with five levels of saline water (0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4; and 3.0 dS m-1, arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme, with the treatments distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The plants seeds were monitored for 30 days after sowing, and at 30 days the growth and salinity tolerance index was evaluated. Cultivar Halles Best Jumbo was the most tolerant to saline water during initial stage of growth, while the Gaucho Redondo was more sensitive to salinity. It was found that saline waters up to 1.8 dS m-1 were suitable for irrigation of melon plants round Gaucho and waters up to 2.4 dS m-1 could be used for irrigation of Gaucho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo crops during the initial growth phase.

  4. Powdery Mildew Control and Yield Response of Inodorus Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Camele

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud. in 2006 and 2007 at “Pantanello” Experimental Farm (40° 24’N; 16° 48’E; 10 m a.s.l.; Metaponto, southern Italy to evaluate the efficacy of a low environmental impact control strategy against powdery mildew of cucurbits. Winter melon was treated with a new anti-oidium formulation, called Stifénia, obtained from fenugreek seeds and stimulating the plant self-defence. The adopted experimental design included two control strategies (1. biological, using Stifénia and 2. conventional, using penconazole, myclobutanil and sulphur and an untreated control (treated with water alone applied to two cultivars of inodorus melon (cv ‘Amarillo’ and HF1 ‘Cocorito’, the latter a genotype resistant to powdery mildew. Stifénia applications were not effective against the disease; in fact, there were no differences in percentage of attacked plant surface between treated plots and untreated ones. The melon marketable yield was significantly higher with the conventional strategy respect to Stifénia and control. Repeated applications of Stifénia resulted in a significant decrease of marketable yield even in comparison with the untreated control. The cultivars significantly affected powdery mildew development, since the resistant one (‘Cocorito’ was attacked later and damaged always lower than the non-resistant genotype (‘Amarillo’. Laboratory analyses carried out on infected leaves always confirmed that Golovinomyces cichoracearum D.C. was responsible of the disease.

  5. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, J. William; Cheung, William; Xu, Yun; Mumm, Roland; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Deborde, Catherine; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Berger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Hall, Robert D.; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-01-01

    Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha’Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre’el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre’el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. 1H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3–10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC–MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality. PMID:24417788

  6. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo, excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective: We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design: The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results: MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions: The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations: MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin-Ciocalteu; GAE

  7. Response of cucurbit rootstocks for grafted melon (Cucumis melo) to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are an important re-emerging pest of melon (Cucumis melo), due largely to the loss of methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant. Melon is highly susceptible to southern RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, which causes severe root galling and reduced melon fruit yields. Cucurbit...

  8. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  9. The psychophysical relationship between bitter taste and burning sensation: evidence of qualitative similarity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Juyun; Green, Barry G

    2007-01-01

    Although it has long been studied as a pure sensory irritant, the ability of capsaicin to evoke, mask, and desensitize bitter taste suggests that burning sensations and bitter taste might be closely related perceptually...

  10. Probenecid inhibits the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 and suppresses bitter perception of salicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani A Greene

    Full Text Available Bitter taste stimuli are detected by a diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs expressed in gustatory cells. Each bitter taste receptor (TAS2R responds to an array of compounds, many of which are toxic and can be found in nature. For example, human TAS2R16 (hTAS2R16 responds to β-glucosides such as salicin, and hTAS2R38 responds to thiourea-containing molecules such as glucosinolates and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC. While many substances are known to activate TAS2Rs, only one inhibitor that specifically blocks bitter receptor activation has been described. Here, we describe a new inhibitor of bitter taste receptors, p-(dipropylsulfamoylbenzoic acid (probenecid, that acts on a subset of TAS2Rs and inhibits through a novel, allosteric mechanism of action. Probenecid is an FDA-approved inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1 transporter and is clinically used to treat gout in humans. Probenecid is also commonly used to enhance cellular signals in GPCR calcium mobilization assays. We show that probenecid specifically inhibits the cellular response mediated by the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R16 and provide molecular and pharmacological evidence for direct interaction with this GPCR using a non-competitive (allosteric mechanism. Through a comprehensive analysis of hTAS2R16 point mutants, we define amino acid residues involved in the probenecid interaction that result in decreased sensitivity to probenecid while maintaining normal responses to salicin. Probenecid inhibits hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43, but does not inhibit the bitter receptor hTAS2R31 or non-TAS2R GPCRs. Additionally, structurally unrelated MRP1 inhibitors, such as indomethacin, fail to inhibit hTAS2R16 function. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of probenecid in cellular experiments translates to inhibition of bitter taste perception of salicin in humans. This work identifies probenecid as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell

  11. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huaming; Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wanchao; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-01-01

    As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species) corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death) of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1) gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC) analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  12. Host plant resistance in melon (Cucumis melo L.) to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant resistance (HPR) to SPWF. Pot...

  13. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoit; Deborde, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non...

  14. Host plant resistance in melon to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato whitefly biotype B (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon (Cucumis melo L.) yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant r...

  15. Genetic Resistance in Melon PI 313970 to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a fresh vegetable and dessert fruit that may also be cooked or dried, processed for juice and flavoring, and the seeds of which are a source of high quality cooking oil and high protein seed meal. Melon production throughout many parts of the world is now threatened by Cuc...

  16. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernillon, S.; Biais, B.; Deborde, C.; Maucort, M.; Cabasson, C.; Gibon, Y.; Hansen, T.; Husted, S.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Mumm, R.; Jonker, H.; Ward, J.L.; Miller, S.J.; Baker, J.M.; Burger, J.; Tadmor, Y.; Beale, M.H.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Hall, R.D.; Moing, A.

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non-volatile metab

  17. A golden SNP in CmOr governs fruit flesh color of melon (cucumis melo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo) flesh color is genetically determined and can be white, light green or orange with B-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as t...

  18. Root-knot nematode resistance, yield, and fruit quality of specialty melons grafted onto cucumis metulifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in specialty melons (Cucumis melo) with distinctive fruit characteristics has grown in the United States in recent years. However, disease management remains a major challenge in specialty melon production. In this study, grafting experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of...

  19. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  20. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  1. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  2. 75 FR 6218 - New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 2, 2009 (74 FR 56656). The written comment period on the Draft... Bureau of Reclamation New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA... a Final RMP/EIS for the New Melones Lake Area. The Final RMP/EIS describes and presents...

  3. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  4. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L TERHADAP KELENJAR PROSTAT TIKUS PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wien Winarno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah pare (Momordica charantia L.. selain dikenal sebagai sayuran juga digunakan sebagai obat tradisional. Beberapa hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa perasan buah pare dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Sebagai kontrasepsi pria, buah pare terbukti menyebabkan abnormalitas struktur morfologi sperma dan menurunkan kadar testosteron darah. Ekstrak buah pare secara invitro menghambat pertumbuhan sel-sel kanker prostat. Buah pare mengandung momordisin, momordin, asam resinal dan sterol. Berdasarkan efeknya yaitu dapat menurunkan hormon testosteron, dan secara invitro menghambat sel-sel kanker prostat dan adanya kandungan sterol, maka dilakukan penelitian Pengaruh infus buah pare (M. charantia L. terhadap kelenjar prostat tikus putih. Penelitian menggunakan hewan coba tikus putih, galur Wistar dengan bobot badan 180-200 gram. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan "Rancangan Acak Lengkap". Bahan yang diteliti berupa infus buah pare dengan dosis pemberian 625 mg, 1250 mg, 2500 mg dan 5000 mg/kg bb. Sebagai pembanding digunakan akuades. Bahan diberikan secara oral, satu kali sehari selama 30 hari. Hari ke-31 hewan dibunuh, diambil kelenjar prostatnya untuk dibuat preparat histopatologi. Pengamatan meliputi berat dan ketebalan sel epitel kelenjar prostat. Hasilnya, pemberian infus buah pare pada semua dasis dibandingkan dengan akuades (kontrol berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap berat kelenjar prostat. Sementara infus buah pare dosis 2500 mg/kg bb. berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap tebal set epitel kelenjar prostat. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa infus buah pare dapat menurunkan berat kelenjar prostat normal dan menipiskan sel epitel dari kelenjar prostat.   Kata kunci : pare, Momordica charantia L., kelenjar prostat

  5. Design of a poly-Bitter magnet at the NHMFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, M.D.; Bole, S.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Gao, B.J.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The world`s first 33 Tesla resistive magnet is being designed and built at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL. Completion of the magnet is expected in the fourth quarter of 1995. It will produce a peak on-axis field greater than 33 Teslas in a 32 mm warm bore while consuming 20 megawatts of power. This magnet consists of two small concentric parallel coils (poly-Bitter) in series with two larger Bitter coils. Details of optimization calculations and the resulting magnet design and construction are presented.

  6. Efeito de Momordica charantia I. Em camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Mariko Ueno

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS citou a malãria como um dos principais problemas de saúde no Brasil e no terceiro mundo, onde 80% da população recorre à medicina tradicional (popular para sanar vários problemas de assistência médica primária. No que se refere à malária, seu tratamento e controle têm sido dificultados devido às cepas resistentes às drogas comumente utilizadas. Isso torna urgente a busca de novas drogas antimaláncas. Sabe-se que a população utiliza-se de diferentes plantas para o tratamento e cura de vários males, inclusive a malãria. Neste trabalho nos propusemos reavaliar o efeito de Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae sobre camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei. A planta foi testada sob a forma de extratos aquoso e etanólico, na dose de lOOOmg por kg cle peso coipóreo do camundongo, ministrado por via oral, por cinco dias consecutivos da infecção (2º ao 6º. O efeito foi avaliado em função da parasitemia e da sobrevida dos animais. Embora a população indique e utilize essa planta na malária humana, nos ensaios deste trabalho, nas condições do experimento, os extratos de M. charantia não apresentaram atividade satisfatória contra o P. berghei.According to the World Health Organization malaria is one of the major public health problems in Brazil and all over developing countries, where 80% of the population use traditional medicine to solve their primary medical problems. Both treatment and control of this parasitosis have become difficult, because of parasite strains that are resistant to conventional drugs, such as chloroquine. That makes the search for new antimalarial drugs not only important but urgent. We aimed therefore at evaluating the effects of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. We used aquose and ethanotic extracts in a dose of 1OOOmg/kg of body weight, orally, for five consecutive days (i.e. from day 2 to day 6

  7. UJI POTENSI ANTIPLASMODIUM EKSTRAK BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L. TERHADAP Plasmodium falcifarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria masih menjadi salah satu penyakit endemis dan masalah kesehatan utama di Indonesia. Buah pare (Momordica charantia L. secara tradisional sering digunakan sebagai obat. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji potensi antiplasmodium in vitro ekstrak buah pare terhadap Palsmodium falciparum sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai obat anti malaria. Buah pare diekstrak dengan metode maserasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Uji aktivitas antiplasmodium dilakukan secara pengamatan mikroskopik pada kultur strain P. falcifarum 3D7. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian, sampel ekstrak metanol buah pare memiliki aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan parasit P. falciparum 3D7. Kekuatan aktivitas antimalaria dengan nilai IC50 = 0,39 µg/mL.

  8. Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruit pulp of Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yun-Wen; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Shih, Wen-Ling; Cheng, Hsueh-Ling; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chang, Chi-I

    2012-12-01

    Three new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, 5beta,19-epoxy-23(R)-methoxycucurbita-6,24-dien-3beta-ol (1), 5beta,19-epoxy-23(S)-methoxycucurbita-6,24-dien-3beta-ol (2), and 3beta-hydroxy-23(R)-methoxycucurbita-6,24-dien-5beta,19-olide (3), were isolated from the fruit pulp of Momordica charantia. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and EI-MS studies. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the SK-Hep 1 cell line.

  9. One new 19-nor cucurbitane-type triterpenoid from the stems of Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-chao; Xu, Xin-juan; Yang, Jing; Wu, Xing-gang; Fu, Qing-yun

    2016-01-01

    One new 19-nor cucurbitane-type triterpenoid (3β,9β,25-trihydroxy-7β-methoxy-19-nor-cucurbita-5,23(E)-diene) (1), together with other six known cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (2-7), were isolated from the stems of Momordica charantia L. The chemical structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D NMR and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY and ROESY), MS experiments. Using MTT assay, compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against HL-60, A-549, and SK-BR-3 cell lines with the IC50 values at 27.3, 32.7 and 26.6 μM, respectively.

  10. Responses of melon fly to different host fruits and different colors%瓜实蝇对不同寄主果实和不同颜色的趋向性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞萍; 马锞; 罗诗

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, respond of male and female adults melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in immature and mature stages to different host fruits and different colors were conducted respectively by laboratory olfactometer. The results demonstrated that both immature and mature male and female adult flies were more attracted by bitter guard than the other fruits. Yellow was the best in terms of both immature and mature male and female adult flies when comparing the color preference of melon flies among red, yellow, blue, purple, green, black, white color.%研究瓜实蝇对不同寄主果实和不同颜色的趋向性,结果表明瓜实蝇性成熟和性未成熟的雌、雄虫对苦瓜的趋向性最强,其次是黄瓜,对南瓜、丝瓜、番茄的趋向性较弱。瓜实蝇对黄色的趋向性最强,其次是绿色,对黑色的趋向性最差。

  11. Genetics of flavonoid, carotenoid, and chlorophyll pigments in melon fruit rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Yaakov; Burger, Joseph; Yaakov, Ilan; Feder, Ari; Libhaber, Smadar E; Portnoy, Vitaly; Meir, Ayala; Tzuri, Galil; Sa'ar, Uzi; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Abeliovich, Hagai; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Katzir, Nurit

    2010-10-13

    External color has profound effects on acceptability of agricultural products by consumers. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are known to be the major pigments of melon (Cucumis melo L.) rinds. Flavonoids (especially chalcones and anthocyanins) are also prominent in other fruits but have not been reported to occur in melons fruit. We analyzed the pigments accumulating in rinds of different melon genotypes during fruit development. We found that melon rind color is based on different combinations of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids according to the cultivar tested and their ratios changed during fruit maturation. Moreover, in "canary yellow" type melons, naringenin chalcone, a yellow flavonoid pigment previously unknown to occur in melons, has been identified as the major fruit colorant in mature rinds. Naringenin chalcone is also prominent in other melon types, occurring together with carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) and chlorophyll. Both chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments segregate jointly in an F(2) population originating from a cross between a yellow canary line and a line with green rind. In contrast, the content of naringenin chalcone segregates as a monogenic trait independently to carotenoids and chlorophyll. Transcription patterns of key structural phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes were monitored in attempts to explain naringenin chalcone accumulation in melon rinds. The transcript levels of CHI were low in both parental lines, but C4H, C4L, and CHS transcripts were upregulated in "Noy Amid", the parental line that accumulates naringenin chalcone. Our results indicate that naringenin chalcone accumulates independently from carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments in melon rinds and gives an insight into the molecular mechanism for the accumulation of naringenin chalcone in melon rinds.

  12. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  13. Energy and material efficient non-circular bore Bitter magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmeteli, A

    2015-01-01

    There exist a number of experiments/applications where the second dimension of the bore of Bitter magnets is not fully utilized. Using an analytical solution for elliptical bore coils, we show that reducing one of the dimensions of the bore can lead to considerable decrease in consumed power and/or coil material.

  14. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  15. Bitter - eto Gorki. V perevode s avstriiskogo / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Max Bitter jun. pseudonüümi all esineva vene näitekirjaniku Igor Shpritsi komöödia "Põhhjas" (paroodia Maksim Gorki näidendist "Põhjas") Tallinna Linnateatris, lavastaja Peeter Tammearu, kunstnik Vadim Fomitshev, muusikaline kujundaja Riina Roose. Esietendus 20. dets.

  16. Bitter - eto Gorki. V perevode s avstriiskogo / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Max Bitter jun. pseudonüümi all esineva vene näitekirjaniku Igor Shpritsi komöödia "Põhhjas" (paroodia Maksim Gorki näidendist "Põhjas") Tallinna Linnateatris, lavastaja Peeter Tammearu, kunstnik Vadim Fomitshev, muusikaline kujundaja Riina Roose. Esietendus 20. dets.

  17. Efficient salt-aided aqueous extraction of bitter almond oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Lirong; Zhang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction that is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield. This study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box-Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L(-1) ; solvent-to-sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to that of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg(-1) , which was lower compared to that obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible. These results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  19. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) toxicity: a "bitter" diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Khalid Ismail; Borawake, Kapil Sharad

    2014-12-01

    Consumption of a glass of bottle gourd juice is thought to work as a health "tonic" and part of traditional healthy living practices in India. The juice may in certain circumstances turn bitter with increased levels of the cytotoxic compound called Cucurbitacins. If the bitter juice is consumed it causes a toxic reaction in the gut, leading to abdominal discomfort/pain, vomiting, hematemesis, and hypotension which may be rarely fatal, especially in persons with pre-existing illness. In the absence of clear cut history regarding the consumption of the bitter bottle gourd juice and the initiation of symptoms, the differential diagnosis for the above symptoms will include diseases causing gastrointestinal bleed with hypotension and/or shock. We report a case of bitter bottle gourd poisoning presenting with abdominal symptoms, hematemesis and shock and with an initial differential diagnosis of septicemia with septic shock and multi-organ involvement. We conduct a literature review and ponder the various differential diagnoses of this clinical scenario.

  20. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed Ingredient in the Diet of Finisher. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Thereafter 168 Marshall broiler strain (at their fourth week of age), were shared into four ...

  1. The roles of alpha-momorcharin and jasmonic acid in modulating the response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP with a molecular weight of 29kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia–cucumber mosaic virus (CMV interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSH in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid (SA and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor and (α-MMC+ibuprofen-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway.

  2. Antioxidant Potential of Momordica Charantia in Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Justin Thenmozhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of Momordica charantia fruit extract (MCE in ammonium chloride-induced (AC hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced in adult male Wistar rats (180–200 g by intraperitoneal injections of ammonium chloride (100 mg kg−1 body weight thrice a week. The effect of oral administration (thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks of MCE (300 mg kg−1 body weight on blood ammonia, plasma urea, serum liver marker enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers in normal and experimental animals was analyzed. Hyperammonemic rats showed a significant increase in the activities of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and liver markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were decreased in the liver and brain tissues. Treatment with MCE normalized the above-mentioned changes in hyperammonemic rats by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during AC-induced hyperammonemia, and offered protection against hyperammonemia. Our results indicate that MCE exerting the antioxidant potentials and maintaining the cellular integrity of the liver tissue could offer protection against AC-induced hyperammonemia. However, the exact underlying mechanism is yet to be investigated, and examination of the efficacy of the active constituents of the M. charantia on hyperammonemia is desirable.

  3. Polysaccharide with antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory and ACE inhibitory activities from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwee-Feng; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-04-01

    Functional polysaccharide was isolated from Momordica charantia, with a yield of 36% (w/w). M. charantia bioactive polysaccharide (MCBP) was an acidic and branched heteropolysaccharide with a molecular weight of 92 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis indicated that MCBP was a pectin-like polysaccharide with an esterification degree of 53% and it contains numerous monosaccharides, predominantly glucose, galactose, and galaturonic acid. The results also showed that MCBP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (31.9%), ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.95 mM), α-amylase inhibition (89.1%), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (94.1%). In the terms of functionality, MCBP showed a lower water-holding capacity but higher in oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity compared to citrus pectin. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that MCBP formed gels with a porous structure, and flow analysis showed that the gel solution exhibited pseudoplastic shear-thinning behavior. These findings indicated that MCBP is a promising functional macromolecular carbohydrate for the food and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiviral Protein of Momordica charantia L. Inhibits Different Subtypes of Influenza A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Pongthanapisith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new antiviral activity of the protein extracted from Momordica charantia was determined with different subtypes of influenza A. The protein was purified from the seed of M. charantia using an anion exchanger and a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC system. At the concentration of 1.401 mg/mL, the protein did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK but inhibited FFU influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus at 56.50%, 65.72%, and 100% inhibition by the protein treated before the virus (pretreated, the protein treated alongside with the virus (simultaneously treated, and the protein treated after the virus (posttreated during incubation, respectively. Using 5, 25, and 100 TCID50 of influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 H1N1, A/Fujian/411/01 H3N2 and A/Thailand/1(KAN-1/2004 H5N1, the IC50 was calculated to be 100, 150, and 200; 75, 175, and 300; and 40, 75, and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Our present finding indicated that the plant protein inhibited not only H1N1 and H3N2 but also H5N1 subtype. As a result of the broad spectrum of its antiviral activity, this edible plant can be developed as an effective therapeutic agent against various and even new emerging subtypes of influenza A.

  5. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-05-01

    To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. TWENTY ADULT, HEALTHY, FEMALE WISTAR RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda, E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fran_sininho@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co{sup 60} at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the Bitterness-Masking Effect of Powdered Roasted Soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Makita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size. Analysis of the PRS extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that denatonium benzoate was entrapped in the PRS extracts. Thus, PRS may be useful as a bitterness-masking agent in orally administered pharmaceuticals.

  8. Natural Occurring Weed’s Interference in Melon Quantity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Torabi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed's behaviors differ in a multiweed-crop competition system compare to a mono weed-crop competition system. The present investigation was carried out in Mashhad, Iran, to study the effect of weeds, which emerged naturally in a multi species community along side with melon, on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the crop during 2007. Thirty five plots were selected randomly in a girded filed. Weeds were allowed to compete freely with melon by the harvest time in 32 plots. The other 3 plots were weeded during crop development. Weed sampling was conducted prior to melon harvesting. Density, frequency and dry mater were recorded species-wise. Maximum melon plant growth and yield indices were also recorded. Stepwise multivariate regression equations were established to determine the competitive relation between population and dry matter of each weed species and melon characteristics. Results revealed that dry matter had more significant relation with characteristics under study compare to weed density. Weeds showed two adverse competitive responses. According to their effects on melon traits, weeds were divided in antagonistic and synergistic groups. Lesger burdock, redroot amaranth, and black nightshade were antagonistic while fat hen and common porcelains were synergetic. Nut grass had a null effect. Results also showed that yield was more affected by weeds than other melon yield components.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLLUSCICIDAL COMPONENT OF Moringa oleifera LEAF AND Momordica charantia FRUITS AND THEIR MODES OF ACTION IN SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The molluscicidal activity of the leaf powder of Moringa oleifera and lyophilized fruit powder of Momordica charantia against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. M. oleifera leaf powder (96 h LC50: 197.59 ppm was more toxic than M. charantia lyophilized fruit powder (96 h LC50: 318.29 ppm. The ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaf powder and Momordica charantia lyophilized fruit powder were more toxic than other organic solvent extracts. The 96 h LC50 of the column purified fraction of M. oleifera leaf powder was 22.52 ppm, while that of M. charantia lyophilized fruit powder was 6.21 ppm. Column, thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography analysis show that the active molluscicidal components in M. oleifera leaf powder and lyophilized fruit of M. charantia are benzylamine (96 h LC50: 2.3 ppm and momordicine (96 h LC50: 1.2 ppm, respectively. Benzylamine and momordicine significantly inhibited, in vivo and in vitro, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP activities in the nervous tissues of L. acuminata. Inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP activity in the nervous tissues of L. acuminata by benzylamine and momordicine may be responsible for the molluscicidal activity of M. oleifera and M. charantia fruits, respectively.

  10. Acoustic Testing for Melon Fruit Ripeness Evaluation during Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Khoshnam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive impulse response technique was tested on two melon varieties (‘Zard-Eyvanekey’ and ‘Sousky-Sabz’ in five different stages of ripening. Resonance frequency and sound pressure level (SPL from the impulse response were compared with mass, elastic modulus, soluble solids contents (TSS and sensory evaluation. Among acoustic and destructive parameters, resonance frequency is an indicator to distinguish of different maturity stage of the melon in both varieties. The sound pressure level (SPL was not a reliable parameter to evaluate melon ripeness. It was established that the impulse response technique is useful to decide fruit maturity stage and appropriate harvest time.

  11. Uncolored Random Tensors, Melon Diagrams, and the SYK Models

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanov, Igor R

    2016-01-01

    Certain models with rank-$3$ tensor degrees of freedom have been shown by Gurau and collaborators to possess a novel large $N$ limit, where $g^2 N^3$ is held fixed. In this limit the perturbative expansion in the quartic coupling constant, $g$, is dominated by a special class of "melon" diagrams. We study "uncolored" models of this type, which contain a single copy of real rank-$3$ tensor. Its three indexes are distinguishable; therefore, the models possess $O(N)^3$ symmetry with the tensor field transforming in the tri-fundamental representation. Such uncolored models also possess the large $N$ limit dominated by the melon diagrams. The quantum mechanics of a real anti-commuting tensor therefore has a similar large $N$ limit to the model recently introduced by Witten as an implementation of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model which does not require disorder. Gauging the $O(N)^3$ symmetry in our quantum mechanical model removes the non-singlet states; therefore, one can search for its well-defined gravity dual....

  12. Instrumental measurement of bitter taste in red wine using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Muller, Nina; Legin, Andrey; du Toit, Maret; Bauer, Florian F

    2010-08-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors was assessed as a rapid tool for the quantification of bitterness in red wines. A set of 39 single cultivar Pinotage wines comprising 13 samples with medium to high bitterness was obtained from the producers in West Cape, South Africa. Samples were analysed with respect to a set of routine wine parameters and major phenolic compounds using Fourier transform infrared-multiple internal reflection spectroscopy (WineScan) and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A trained sensory panel assessed the bitterness intensity of 15 wines, 13 of which had a bitter taste of medium to high intensity. Thirty-one wine samples including seven bitter-tasting ones were measured by the ET. Influence of the chemical composition of wine on the occurrence of the bitter taste was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. It was found that bitter-tasting wines had higher concentrations of phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, gallic and caffeic acids and quercetin) than non-bitter wines. Sensitivity of the sensors of the array to the phenolic compounds related to the bitterness was studied at different pH levels. Sensors displayed sensitivity to all studied compounds at pH 7, but only to quercetin at pH 3.5. Based on these findings, the pH of wine was adjusted to 7 prior to measurements. Calibration models for classification of wine samples according to the presence of the bitter taste and quantification of the bitterness intensity were calculated by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) regression. Statistical significance of the classification results was confirmed by the permutation test. Both ET and chemical analysis data could discriminate between bitter and control wines with the correct classification rates of 94% and 91%, respectively. Prediction of the bitterness intensity with good accuracy (root mean square error of 2 and mean relative error of 6% in validation) was

  13. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  14. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness.

  15. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chu, Po-Chen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-03-01

    The antitumor activity of 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (TCD), a triterpenoid isolated from wild bitter gourd, in breast cancer cells was investigated. TCD suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with IC50 values at 72 h of 19 and 23 μM, respectively, via a PPARγ-independent manner. TCD induced cell apoptosis accompanied with pleiotrophic biological modulations including down-regulation of Akt-NF-κB signaling, up-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p53, increased reactive oxygen species generation, inhibition of histone deacetylases protein expression, and cytoprotective autophagy. Together, these findings provided the translational value of TCD and wild bitter gourd as an antitumor agent for patients with breast cancer.

  16. Extraoral bitter taste receptors in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2017-02-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs or T2Rs) belong to the superfamily of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, which are the targets of >50% of drugs currently on the market. Canonically, T2Rs are located in taste buds of the tongue, where they initiate bitter taste perception. However, accumulating evidence indicates that T2Rs are widely expressed throughout the body and mediate diverse nontasting roles through various specialized mechanisms. It has also become apparent that T2Rs and their polymorphisms are associated with human disorders. In this review, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological roles that extraoral T2Rs play in processes as diverse as innate immunity and reproduction, and the major challenges in this emerging field. © 2017 Lu et al.

  17. EFEITO DO LEVAMISOL E DO EXTRATO ETANÓLICO DE FOLHAS DE Momordica Charantia SOBRE A DERMATOFITOSE EXPERIMENTAL EM COELHOS EFFECT OF THE LEVAMISOLE AND THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Momordica charantia LEAVES ON THE EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOPHYTOSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivardo Facó

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do levamisol e do extrato etanólico das folhas de Momordica charantia na dermatofitose experimental. Para tanto, coe¬lhos jovens, Nova Zelândia, machos, divididos em grupos, receberam, por via oral, durante quinze dias consecutivos Tween 20 (1%, controle; n=5, levamisol (25 mg/Kg/PV; n=4 ou extrato etanólico de M. charantia (EE, 10 mg/Kg/PV, n=6 a partir do 15º dia inoculação por Microsporum canis. Foram realizadas as contagens total e diferencial de leucócitos do sangue periférico, cultivo do raspado de pele e avaliação histopatológica das lesões. O levamisol e o EE reduziram os escores de avaliação histológica das lesões provocadas pelo M. canis e não induziram modificação dos leucócitos circulantes. O tratamento com levamisol provocou alterações na pele infectada em relação ao controle (p<0,01, mas não diferiu do tratamento com EE, o qual não diferiu do controle que recebeu o veículo. Os resultados demonstraram que o levamisol teve melhor desempenho no tratamento da dermatofitose, enfatizando seu potencial imu¬nomodulador, enquanto o EE de M. charantia apresentou um efeito bastante promissor, indicando uma alternativa de tratamento da dermatofitose provocada pelo M. canis. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cucurbitaceae, imunomodulação, levamisol, Microsporum canis, Momordica charantia. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of levamisole and ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia leaves on experimental dermatophytosis. Young rabbits, New Zealand, males, were divided in groups that received by via oral during 15 days Tween 20 (1%, control; n=5, levamisole (25 mg/kg/LP; n=4 or ethanolic extract of M. charantia leaves (EE, 10 mg/kg/LP; n=6, beginning at 15th day of Microsporum canis inoculation. Total and differential blood circulating leukocyte counts, cultive of skin and histopatological evaluation of the lesions were realized. Levamisole and EE reduced the

  18. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  19. Overexpression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon causes abnormal pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Luan, F

    2015-01-01

    Sexual diversity expressed by the Curcurbitaceae family is a primary example of developmental plasticity in plants. Most melon genotypes are andromonoecious, where an initial phase of male flowers is followed by a mixture of bisexual and male flowers. Over-expression of the CmACS-3 gene in melon plants showed an increased number of flower buds, and increased femaleness as demonstrated by a larger number bisexual buds. Transformation of CmACS-3 in melons showed earlier development of and an increased number of bisexual buds that matured to anthesis but also increased the rate of development of the bisexual buds to maturity. Field studies showed that CmACS-3-overexpressing melons had earlier mature bisexual flowers, earlier fruit set, and an increased number of fruits set on closely spaced nodes on the main stem.

  20. Combining UV-C treatment with biocontrol yeast to control postharvest decay of melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Zou, Yong; Luo, Jie; Liu, Yiqing

    2015-09-01

    Significant losses in harvested melon can be directly attributable to decay fungi. In the present study, the use of UV-C treatment combined with biocontrol yeast, Pichia cecembensis, was evaluated for their ability to control postharvest decay of melon fruits after they were artificially inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. Natural infection of fruit was also assessed. As a stand-alone treatment, UV-C or P. cecembensis significantly reduced Fusarium rot and Alternaria rot, and also the level of natural infection on melon fruit, relative to the untreated control. The combination of UV-C or P. cecembensis, however, provided a superior level of decay control on artificially inoculated and naturally infected fruit, compared to either treatment alone. None of the treatments impaired fruit quality. Integrating the use of UV-C treatment with biocontrol yeast has potential as an effective method to control postharvest decay of melon.

  1. How to predict the sugariness and hardness of melons: A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Li; Wang, Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the near-infrared (NIR) region (900-1700nm) was used for non-intrusive quality measurements (of sweetness and texture) in melons. First, HSI data from melon samples were acquired to extract the spectral signatures. The corresponding sample sweetness and hardness values were recorded using traditional intrusive methods. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural network (ANN) models were created to predict melon sweetness and hardness values from the hyperspectral data. Experimental results for the three types of melons show that PLSR produces the most accurate results. To reduce the high dimensionality of the hyperspectral data, the weighted regression coefficients of the resulting PLSR models were used to identify the most important wavelengths. On the basis of these wavelengths, each image pixel was used to visualize the sweetness and hardness in all the portions of each sample.

  2. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  3. Temporal Sequence of Cell Wall Disassembly in Rapidly Ripening Melon Fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jocelyn K. C. Rose; Kristen A. Hadfield; John M. Labavitch; Alan B. Bennett

    1998-01-01

    The Charentais variety of melon (Cucumis melo cv Reticulatus F1 Alpha) was observed to undergo very rapid ripening, with the transition from the preripe to overripe stage occurring within 24 to 48 h...

  4. Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutamas Saengsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumericin, an iridoid lactone, was isolated with relatively high yield from Momordica charantia vine using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and the separation box (Sepbox comprising dual combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. This compound showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values better than cloxacillin. Plumericin potently inhibited proliferation of two leukemic cancer cell lines: they were acute and chronic leukemic cancer cell lines, NB4 and K562, with the effective doses (ED50 of 4.35 ± 0.21 and 5.58 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the mechanism of growth inhibition in both cell lines was induced by apoptosis, together with G2/M arrest in K562 cells.

  5. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  6. The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Prickly Paddy Melon (Cucumis myriocarpus)

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Brodie; Carmel Ryan; Carmel Lancaster

    2012-01-01

    The growing list of herbicide-resistant biotypes and environmental concerns about chemical use has prompted interest in alternative methods of managing weeds. This study explored the effect of microwave energy on paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) plants, fruits, and seeds. Microwave treatment killed paddy melon plants and seeds. Stem rupture due to internal steam explosions often occurred after the first few seconds of microwave treatment when a small aperture antenna was used to apply the mi...

  7. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  8. [Nondestructive measurement of sugar content of Hami melon based on diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben-Xue; Xiao, Wen-Dong; Qi, Xiang-Xiang; He, Qing-Hai; Li, Feng-Xia

    2012-11-01

    The research on nondestructive test for detecting the sugar content of Hami melon by the technology of hyperspectral imaging was put forward. The research used the hyperspectral imaging system to get the diffuse reflective spectrum information (400 - 1 000 nm) of anilox class Hami melon sugar content, chose effective whole wavelength (500 - 820 nm)to do the modeling regression analysis the sugar content of Hami melon. The research compared the correction method of MSC and SNV, and also compared the influence of accuracy of modeling in terms of the spectrum pretreatment methods of original spectrum, first order differential, second order differential; Using the methods of PLS, SMLR and PCR, the comparative analysis of sugar content detection model effect with skin Hami melon and peel Hami melon was conducted. The results showed that after the original spectrum being processed by MSC and first order differential spectrum, modeling effect could be very good using the method of PLS and SMLR. Synthesizing correction set correlation coefficient and forecast modeling effect, it's feasible to detect the sugar content of skin Hami melon by the PLS method, with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.861 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.627, and a prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.706 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.873. The best effect to detecti the sugar content of peel Hami melon was obtained by the SMLR method with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.928 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.458, with a Prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.818 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.727. The results of this study indicate that the technology of hyperspectral imaging can be used to predict the sugar content of Hami melon.

  9. Correlation functions of just renormalizable tensorial group field theory: The melonic approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Samary, Dine Ousmane; Vignes-Tourneret, Fabien; Wulkenhaar, Raimar

    2014-01-01

    The $D$-colored version of tensor models has been shown to admit a large $N$-limit expansion. The leading contributions result from so-called melonic graphs which are dual to the $D$-sphere. This is a note about the Schwinger-Dyson equations of the tensorial $\\varphi^{4}_{5}$-model (with propagator $1/{\\bf p}^{2}$) and their melonic approximation. We derive the master equations for two- and four-point correlation functions and discuss their solution.

  10. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed Whales from the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed... Whales from the North Pacific Kristi West College of Natural and Computational Science Hawaii Pacific University 45-045 Kamehameha Hwy...contents of stranded animals are rarely available. Very little information on food habits of most species of beaked whales or of melon-headed whales

  11. Introgression between cultivars and wild populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  12. Efeito de Momordica charantia I. Em camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Mariko Ueno

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS citou a malãria como um dos principais problemas de saúde no Brasil e no terceiro mundo, onde 80% da população recorre à medicina tradicional (popular para sanar vários problemas de assistência médica primária. No que se refere à malária, seu tratamento e controle têm sido dificultados devido às cepas resistentes às drogas comumente utilizadas. Isso torna urgente a busca de novas drogas antimaláncas. Sabe-se que a população utiliza-se de diferentes plantas para o tratamento e cura de vários males, inclusive a malãria. Neste trabalho nos propusemos reavaliar o efeito de Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae sobre camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei. A planta foi testada sob a forma de extratos aquoso e etanólico, na dose de lOOOmg por kg cle peso coipóreo do camundongo, ministrado por via oral, por cinco dias consecutivos da infecção (2º ao 6º. O efeito foi avaliado em função da parasitemia e da sobrevida dos animais. Embora a população indique e utilize essa planta na malária humana, nos ensaios deste trabalho, nas condições do experimento, os extratos de M. charantia não apresentaram atividade satisfatória contra o P. berghei.

  13. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA Markers Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene in Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker linked to powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm-I in melon PI 371795 was reported. However, the RAPD marker has problem in scoring. To detect powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm-I in melon accurately, the RAPD marker was cloned and sequenced to design sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers. SCAPMAR5 marker derived from pUBC411 primer yielded a single DNA band at 1061 bp. Segregation of SCAPMAR5 marker in bulk of F2 plants demonstrated that the marker was co-segregated with RAPD marker from which the SCAR marker was originated. Moreover, results of SCAR analysis in diverse melons showed SCAPMAR5 primers obtained a single 1061 bp linked to Pm-I in resistant melon PI 371795 and PMAR5. On the other hand, SCAPMAR5 failed to detect Pm-I in susceptible melons. Results of this study revealed that SCAR analysis not only confirmed melons that had been clearly scored for resistance to Pm-I evaluated by RAPD markers, but also clarified the ambiguous resistance results obtained by the RAPD markers.   Key words: Cucumis melo L., Pm-I, RAPD, SCAPMAR5

  14. Molecular characters of melon (Cucumismelo L. "Tacapa") in response to karst critical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Yuanita; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Aristya, Ganies Riza

    2017-06-01

    Yogyakarta district has 158.600 ha critical land and spread off in three Agro Ecosystem zones. Two of them are karsts critical land. Critical lands which contain calcium carbonate in high concentration and water dehydration in upper surface give abiotic stress in wide range of plant. Melon cultivar TACAPA has superior characteristic derived from parental crossing, ♀ Action 434 and ♂ PI 371795 and potential to be developed in karsts critical land. Abscicic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone expressed by plant in abiotic stress condition. CmBG1 is a gene which regulate ABA hormone in melon. The purposes of this research were examining the molecular character of melon cultivar TACAPA in response to karsts critical land in order to study molecular characterization of CmBG1 gene. Analysis was done qualitatively by using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Electrophoresis, while quantitative analysis was conducted by observing absorbance score in spectrophotometer. CmBG1 gene expression is examined by using Real time PCR (qPCR). Molecular characters obtained are CmBG1 detected in size ±1258 bp, CmBG1 gene concentrations in melon which planted in control media are lower than melon in critical lands media. These results are similar with the real time quantitative analysis method. It also be revealed that melon TACAPA is more potential plant compared to another cultivar that can be developed in karst critical land area.

  15. A NORMATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIAN GROWN MAHA-TITA (KING OF BITTERS) - ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Sunday; Obodozie, Obiageri; Inyang, Uford; Abubakar, Mujitaba; Garba, Magaji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to characterize the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata - an intensely bitter herb grown in Nigeria from seeds obtained in India. The ultimate aim is to develop a suitable dosage form from the herb for use in Nigeria. The bitterness value; various physicochemical characteristics; tests for key phytochemicals; and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were carried out on the air-dried herb as prescribed in relevant standard texts. The mean bitterness value for both men an...

  16. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  17. Anti-helminthic activity of Momordica charantia L. against Fasciola hepatica eggs after twelve days of incubation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cíntia A J; Oliveira, Laura L S; Coaglio, Aytube L; Santos, Fernanda S O; Cezar, Rodolfo S M; Mendes, Tiago; Oliveira, Fernando L P; Conzensa, Gustavo; Lima, Walter S

    2016-09-15

    Fasciolosis, a parasitic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica underreported is expanding both in human and animal population, throughout the world. The constant use of synthetic drugs to treat this condition has led to the natural selection of resistant strains of the parasite. Hence, there is a growing focus on the potential anti-helminthic properties of medicinal plants and phytopharmaceuticals. The current study assessed the potential anti-fasciolicide action of Momordica charantia leaf extracts and fractions on the eggs of F. hepatica parasites. The lyophilized crude extract (CE) of M. charantia leaves and its sub-fractions, obtained from liquid-liquid partitioning with organic solvents, were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), suspended in 1% DMSO and used in in vitro tests. Quadruplicates of 50F. hepatica eggs were incubated at 23°C with M. charantia leaf CE in different concentrations. After 12days no larvae were formed in eggs incubated with CE concentrations above 12.5mg/mL. Eggs incubated with CE sub-fractions at concentrations of 1000, 100, 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01μg/mL affected embryonic development, with n-butanol presenting the strongest inhibition of miracidia formation. In contrast, on the 12th day, 90% of the miracidia hatched in the control experiments using 0.03% DMSO whereas embryogenesis was completely abolished with any concentration of albendazole sulphoxide ABZ(SO). Chemical analysis of the CE and sub-fractions revealed a prominent presence of flavonoids. HPLC-MS confirmed Quercetin to be one of the main flavonoids present in the CE and the n-butanol subfraction. This is the first study to analyse the potential anti-fasciolicide action of M. charantia leaf CE and subfractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Patrizia; Schaefer, Hanno; Telford, Ian R H; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-08-10

    Among the fundamental questions regarding cultivated plants is their geographic origin and region of domestication. The genus Cucumis, which includes cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (Cucumis melo), has numerous wild African species, and it has therefore been assumed that melon originated in Africa. For cucumber, this seemed less likely because wild cucumbers exist in India and a closely related species lives in the Eastern Himalayas. Using DNA sequences from plastid and nuclear markers for some 100 Cucumis accessions from Africa, Australia, and Asia, we show here that melon and cucumber are of Asian origin and have numerous previously overlooked species-level relatives in Australia and around the Indian Ocean. The wild progenitor of C. melo occurs in India, and our data confirm that the Southeast Asian Cucumis hystrix is the closest relative of cucumber. Most surprisingly, the closest relative of melon is Cucumis picrocarpus from Australia. C. melo diverged from this Australian sister species approximately 3 Ma, and both diverged from the remaining Asian/Australian species approximately 10 Ma. The Asian/Australian Cucumis clade comprises at least 25 species, nine of them new to science, and diverged from its African relatives in the Miocene, approximately 12 Ma. Range reconstruction under maximum likelihood suggests Asia as the ancestral area for the most recent common ancestor of melon and cucumber, fitting with both having progenitor populations in the Himalayan region and high genetic diversity of C. melo landraces in India and China. Future investigations of wild species related to melon and cucumber should concentrate on Asia and Australia.

  19. Effect of mulching on melon (cv. Campero) crop coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    and development parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. Since the crop is mostly bare soil during initial growth, the Kc ini is mainly determined by the wetting frequency through irrigation and precipitation, the fraction of soil wetted by irrigation, and the ETo rate....... The Kc mid values determined with equations are average adjustments for the mid-season period for the melon crop in Policoro, taking in consideration relevant weather data for wind speed and relative humidity as averages for these period. High Kc values were related to irrigation events. Kc end values...... that improvments in genetics and crossbreeding techniques, crop management, climatic conditions changes (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and irrigation technique have a significant impact on the crop development and crop coefficient value....

  20. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  1. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose......, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...... in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet....

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) may be imported into the United States from the Republic...

  3. 苦瓜凝胶糖果的研制%The Development of Momordica Charantia Gel Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向东; 刘迎宾; 李斌; 王锡彬

    2015-01-01

    Momordica charantia was processed as principal raw material to develope gel candy in the experiments.Through the L9(34) orthogonal test, the contents of momordica charantia juice, fructose-glucose syrup and colloid in candy product were determinated. The results showed that the optimal formula was 40 %momordica charantia juice,40%fructose-glucose syrup,13%Maltodextrin and 3.5%colloid and the optimal drying process was at 70 ℃ temperature for 6 h-8 h,by which the best taste, flavor and presentation of gel candy products could be provided.%以苦瓜为主要原料研制凝胶糖果,对苦瓜汁、果葡糖浆、凝胶剂的用量及最佳烘干条件等主要因素进行了研究,通过L9(34)正交试验确定了苦瓜凝胶糖果的配方。结果表明:苦瓜凝胶糖果的最佳配方为苦瓜汁40%、果葡糖浆40%、麦芽糊精13%、凝胶剂3.5%,最佳烘干条件为70℃下烘烤6 h~8 h,所得产品能达到最佳的口感、风味与外观。

  4. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  5. Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

    2013-01-30

    The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study.

  6. Receptor Polymorphism and Genomic Structure Interact to Shape Bitter Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Behrens, Maik; Engel, Anika; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Hübner, Sandra; Lossow, Kristina; Wooding, Stephen P; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon. Therefore, to investigate more complex associations, we examined taste responses to six structurally diverse compounds (absinthin, amarogentin, cascarillin, grosheimin, quassin, and quinine) in a sample of the Caucasian population. By sequencing all bitter receptor loci, inferring long-range haplotypes, mapping their effects on phenotype variation, and characterizing functionally causal allelic variants, we deciphered at the molecular level how a subjects' genotype for the whole-family of TAS2R genes shapes variation in bitter taste perception. Within each haplotype block implicated in phenotypic variation, we provided evidence for at least one locus harboring functional polymorphic alleles, e.g. one locus for sensitivity to amarogentin, one of the most bitter natural compounds known, and two loci for sensitivity to grosheimin, one of the bitter compounds of artichoke. Our analyses revealed also, besides simple associations, complex associations of bitterness sensitivity across TAS2R loci. Indeed, even if several putative loci harbored both high- and low-sensitivity alleles, phenotypic variation depended on linkage between these alleles. When sensitive alleles for bitter compounds were maintained in the same linkage phase, genetically driven perceptual differences were obvious, e.g. for grosheimin. On the contrary, when sensitive alleles were in opposite phase, only weak genotype-phenotype associations were seen

  7. Potential Reasons for Prevalence of Fusarium Wilt in Oriental Melon in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the potential reasons for the current prevalence of the fusarium wilt in the oriental melon. Twenty-seven Fusarium isolates obtained from oriental melon greenhouses in 2010–2011 were identified morphologically and by analysis of elongation factor-1 alpha gene (EF-1α) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences as 6 Fusarium species (8 isolates of F. oxysporum, 8 F. commune, 5 F. proliferatum, 3 F. equiseti, 2 F. delphinoides, and 1 F. andiyazi), which were classified as same into 6 EF-1α sequence-based phylogenetic clades. Pathogenicity of the Fusarium isolates on the oriental melon was highest in F. proliferatum, next in F. oxysporum and F. andiyazi, and lowest in the other Fusarium species tested, suggesting F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum were major pathogens of the oriental melon, inducing stem rots and vascular wilts, respectively. Oriental melon and watermelon were more susceptible to F. oxysporum than shintosa and cucumber; and cucumber was most, oriental melon and watermelon, medially, and shintosa was least susceptible to F. proliferatum, whose virulence varied among and within their phylogenetic subclades. Severe root-knot galls were formed on all the crops infected with Meloidogyne incognita; however, little indication of vascular wilts or stem and/or root rots was shown by the nematode infection. These results suggest the current fungal disease in the oriental melon may be rarely due to virulence changes of the fusarium wilt pathogen and the direct cause of the severe root-knot nematode infection, but may be potentially from other Fusarium pathogen infection that produces seemingly wilting caused by severe stem rotting. PMID:28592944

  8. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits.

  9. Response of cassava, maize and egusi melon in a three crop intercropping system at Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ojore Ijoyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted from April to December, during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, at the Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria to evaluate the yield response of cassava, maize and egusi melon in a three crop intercropping system and to assess the advantage of the intercropping system. Sole cassava, sole maize, sole egusi melon and the intercrop of cassava, maize and egusi melon constituted the treatments. The four treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results obtained showed that in a cassava, maize and egusi melon mixture, intercropping did not significantly (P≤0.05 affect maize yield, however, intercrop yield of cassava was significantly (P≤0.05 depressed by 23.2 % and 31.0 % respectively, in 2010 and 2011, compared to that obtained from monocropped cassava. In addition, intercrop yield of egusi melon was significantly (P≤0.05 depressed by 34.8 % and 31.6 % respectively, in 2010 and 2011, compared to that produced from monocropped egusi melon. Total intercrop yield was greater than the component crop yields. Intercropping cassava, maize and egusi melon gave land equivalent ratio (LER values of 2.51 and 2.47 respectively, in years 2010 and 2011, indicating that higher productivity per unit area was achieved by growing the three crops together than by growing them separately. With these LER values, 60.2 % and 59.5 % of lands were saved respectively, in 2010 and 2011, which could be used for other agricultural purposes.

  10. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  11. Detailed Analysis of a Bitter-Type Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Miura, Shigeto; Hoshi, Akira; Nakajima, Kikuo; Takano, Hirohisa

    1983-06-01

    A high-power water-cooled magnet with a Bitter-type coil has been designed, constructed and tested. The current density, the temperature rise and the electromagnetic stress have been calculated with the finite element method. The results of calculation are consistent with the experimental test. The local electromagnetic stress exceeds the yield stress of usual conductors if the coil is used for hybrid magnet which produces fields of more than 20 T with a back-up field of a superconducting coil.

  12. Effect of an early bitter taste experience on subsequent feather-pecking behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander, A.; Beck, P.S.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that laying hens learn not to peck at bitter-tasting feathers from conspecifics. In the present experiment, feathers of newly hatched chicks were made distasteful by spraying them with a bitter-tasting substance (quinine). It was hypothesized that chicks could detect quinine an

  13. Interactions and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...

  14. Renal and Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats Fed Jamaican Bitter Yam (Dioscorea polygonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Grant, Kevin; Asemota, Helen; Simon, Oswald; Omoruyi, Felix

    2015-06-01

    We reported that Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has antilipemic potential in rats; however there is limited data on the toxicological profile of the yam. We therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam consumption for 6 or 12 weeks on renal and hepatic function in rats fed a high (4%) cholesterol diet. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups (n = 4); three of which were used for each investigation (6 or 12 weeks). One group was administered 4% cholesterol diet, while the yam group had the cholesterol diet supplemented with 5% bitter yam. The control group was fed standard rat chow. Liver and kidney function tests were performed on serum, liver and kidney. Histological studies were conducted on liver samples. Acute toxicity tests were performed in rats and mice administered a single high dose of bitter yam (10 g/kg). Activities of liver and kidney AST and ALT differed (p ≤ .02) between control rats and those fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 12 weeks. Albumin to globulin ratio was reduced (p = .03) in rats fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 6 weeks as compared to the control group. Serum urea concentration was higher (p yam as compared to normal chow for 6 weeks. The cholesterol diet caused extensive fat deposition in liver cells; however this was inhibited by co-administration of bitter yam. Long-term administration of Jamaican bitter yam may induce slight changes in renal and hepatic functions.

  15. The suppression of enhanced bitterness intensity of macrolide dry syrup mixed with an acidic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Takemoto, Eri; Tokuyama, Emi; Tsuji, Eriko; Mukai, Junji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a medicine which strongly enhanced the bitterness of clarithromycin dry syrup (CAMD) when administered concomitantly and to develop a method to suppress this enhanced bitterness. The bitterness enhancement was evaluated not only by gustatory sensation tests but also using pH and taste sensor measurements of the mixed sample. A remarkable bitterness enhancement was found when CAMD was mixed with the acidic powder L-carbocysteine. The acidic pH (pH 3.40) of the suspension made from these two preparations, seemed to be due to enhanced release of clarithromycin caused by the dissolution of the alkaline polymer film-coating. Several methods for preventing this bitterness enhancement were investigated. Neither increasing the volume of water taken with the mixture, nor changing the ratio of CAMD:L-carbocysteine in the mixture, were effective in reducing the bitterness intensity of the CAMD/L-carbocysteine mixture. The best way to achieve taste masking was to first administer CAMD mixed with chocolate jelly, which has a neutral pH, followed by the L-carbocysteine suspension. Similar results were obtained for the bitterness suppression of azithromycin fine granules with L-carbocysteine. The chocolate jelly will be useful for taste masking of bitter macrolide drug formulations, when they need to be administered together with acidic drug formulations.

  16. Sequencing of 6.7 Mb of the melon genome using a BAC pooling strategy

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    Garcia-Mas Jordi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has a high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (454 Mb, which make it suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps, BAC genomic libraries, a BAC-based physical map and EST collections. Sequence information would be invaluable to complete the picture of the melon genomic landscape, furthering our understanding of this species' evolution from its relatives and providing an important genetic tool. However, to this day there is little sequence data available, only a few melon genes and genomic regions are deposited in public databases. The development of massively parallel sequencing methods allows envisaging new strategies to obtain long fragments of genomic sequence at higher speed and lower cost than previous Sanger-based methods. Results In order to gain insight into the structure of a significant portion of the melon genome we set out to perform massive sequencing of pools of BAC clones. For this, a set of 57 BAC clones from a double haploid line was sequenced in two pools with the 454 system using both shotgun and paired-end approaches. The final assembly consists of an estimated 95% of the actual size of the melon BAC clones, with most likely complete sequences for 50 of the BACs, and a total sequence coverage of 39x. The accuracy of the assembly was assessed by comparing the previously available Sanger sequence of one of the BACs against its 454 sequence, and the polymorphisms found involved only 1.7 differences every 10,000 bp that were localized in 15 homopolymeric regions and two dinucleotide tandem repeats. Overall, the study provides approximately 6.7 Mb or 1.5% of the melon genome. The analysis of this new data has

  17. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

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    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  18. Application of isothermal titration calorimeter for screening bitterness-suppressing molecules of quinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Zhu, Youwei; Zhao, Na; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Bitterness-suppressing molecules have drawn ever-increasing attention these years for some unique advantages like low molecular weight, tastelessness and no interference on drug bioavailability. L-Arg was reported to suppress the bitterness of quinine, and we happened to find that the suppressing effects could be demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC). In this study, we investigated the possibility of using ITC to screen bitterness-suppressing molecules for quinine. Among the amino acids we screened, L-Lys bond quinine with high affinity. The results of ITC correlated well with the results of human sensory experiments. L-Arg and L-Lys could suppress the bitterness of quinine while other amino acids could not. Therefore, ITC has the potential to screen bitterness-suppressing molecules.

  19. Functional characterization of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide in colobine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Laurentia Henrieta Permita Sari; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Tsutsui, Kei; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nila, Sarah; Suryobroto, Bambang; Imai, Hiroo

    2017-01-01

    Bitterness perception in mammals is mostly directed at natural toxins that induce innate avoidance behaviours. Bitter taste is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor TAS2R, which is located in taste cell membranes. One of the best-studied bitter taste receptors is TAS2R38, which recognizes phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Here we investigate the sensitivities of TAS2R38 receptors to PTC in four species of leaf-eating monkeys (subfamily Colobinae). Compared with macaque monkeys (subfamily Cercopithecinae), colobines have lower sensitivities to PTC in behavioural and in vitro functional analyses. We identified four non-synonymous mutations in colobine TAS2R38 that are responsible for the decreased sensitivity of the TAS2R38 receptor to PTC observed in colobines compared with macaques. These results suggest that tolerance to bitterness in colobines evolved from an ancestor that was sensitive to bitterness as an adaptation to eating leaves. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. [Effect of processing on metabolism of amygdalin from bitter almond in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Minfeng; Fu, Zhiling; Wang, Qilin; Wang, Shixiang; Xiao, Chaoni; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of processing on metabolism of the main component of bitter almond-amygdalin in rat. The blood was collected at different times after amygdalin given by injection and oral, bitter almond and its processed production given by oral respectively, and then detected by both HPLC and HPLC-MS(n) methods after extraction pretreatment. After injection, amygdalin was absorbed in prototype to blood rapidly, while the other three kinds of medicine given by oral were all not detected the prototype of amygdalin, but two metabolites were detected which were isomers of prunasin confirmed by mass spectrometry. The metabolic pathway of prunasin in processed bitter almond group was markedly different from the bitter almond group. Processing has a significant effect on bitter almond metabolic processes in rats.

  1. Evaluation of bitterness in white wine applying descriptive analysis, time-intensity analysis, and temporal dominance of sensations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowsky, Martina; Fischer, Ulrich

    2012-06-30

    Bitterness in wine, especially in white wine, is a complex and sensitive topic as it is a persistent sensation with negative connotation by consumers. However, the molecular base for bitter taste in white wines is still widely unknown yet. At the same time studies dealing with bitterness have to cope with the temporal dynamics of bitter perception. The most common method to describe bitter taste is the static measurement amongst other attributes during a descriptive analysis. A less frequently applied method, the time-intensity analysis, evaluates the temporal gustatory changes focusing on bitterness alone. The most recently developed multidimensional approach of the temporal dominance of sensations method reveals the temporal dominance of bitter taste in relation to other attributes. In order to compare the results comprised with these different sensory methodologies, 13 commercial white wines were evaluated by the same panel. To facilitate a statistical comparison, parameters were extracted from bitterness curves obtained from time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations analysis and were compared to bitter intensity as well as bitter persistency based on descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance differentiated significantly the wines regarding all measured bitterness parameters obtained from the three sensory techniques. Comparing the information of all sensory parameters by multiple factor analysis and correlation, each technique provided additional valuable information regarding the complex bitter perception in white wine.

  2. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  3. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble. PMID:27834185

  4. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome-induced cardiovascular trouble.

  5. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD, have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective: We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results: The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L. Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions: Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble.

  6. Pengaruh ekstrak melon terhadap kadar HbCO pada tikus Wistar jantan yang dipapar asap rokok

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    Yuyun Erlina Susanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is something that is usual for most Indonesian society, especially adult males. According to Riskesdas, smoking behavior of the population trends to increase. A previous study suggested that exposure to cigarette smoke produce CO bond to hemoglobin. Melon (Cucumis melo contains antioxidants that prevent tissue damage. Objective: Analyze differences in levels HbCO Wistar male rats in treated and untreated extracts of melon. Method: The research was a laboratory experiment with the post test control group design and complete random design. The subjects were 25 male Wistar rats aged 3 months. Subjects were divided into 5 groups and each group received treatment for 28 days. Data of level HbCO was collected and analyzed by Anova One Way test at 95% confidence level. Results: The results showed a difference between the average levels of HbCO male Wistar rats (p value=0,000 treated and untreated extracts of melon. Conclusion: Melon extracts effect on decreasing the levels of HbCO due to exposure to cigarette smoke. There were differences in levels of male Wistar rats HbCO on treated and untreated extracts of melon and be given at a dose of 250 IU/day.

  7. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Downy Mildew Resistance-Related cDNA Sequences in Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Melon downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis leads to significant losses in melon yields worldwide.Reverse-transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using cDNAs as templates from melonHuangdanzi induced with fungus Pseudoperonospora cubensis, and degenerate primers designed based on the conserved amino acid sequences of known plant disease-resistance genes. A polymorphic cDNA fragment which we named mp-19was cloned and sequenced. The Open Reading Frame (ORF) of this product comprised of 510 base pairs which encodes DNA or RNA-binding protein with 170 amino acids. The putative amino acid sequence of mp-19 appeared highly homologous with those of NBS-type resistant-genes isolated from other plants. Southern blot indicated that the melon genome contained more than 3 copies of mp-19. The obvious expression differences detected by semi-quantitative RTPCR could be observed between resistant-line Huangdanzi and susceptible-line Jiashi after Pseudoperonospora cubensis infection, which implied that mp-19 gene may be related to the resistance of downy mildew in melon.

  8. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

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    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  9. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  10. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

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    Gaia Vegezzi

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138, selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108 are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  11. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  12. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus) Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan; Birmingham, William; Rivera, William; Romero-Talamas, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    BETA is a 1T water cooled Bitter-type magnetic system that has been designed and constructed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County to serve as a prototype of a scaled 10T version. Currently the system is undergoing magnetic, thermal and mechanical testing to ensure safe operating conditions and to prove analytical design optimizations. These magnets will function as experimental tools for future dusty plasma based and collaborative experiments. An overview of design methods used for building a custom made Bitter magnet with user defined experimental constraints is reviewed. The three main design methods consist of minimizing the following: ohmic power, peak conductor temperatures, and stresses induced by Lorentz forces. We will also discuss the design of BETA which includes: the magnet core, pressure vessel, cooling system, power storage bank, high powered switching system, diagnostics with safety cutoff feedback, and data acquisition (DAQ)/magnet control Matlab code. Furthermore, we present experimental data from diagnostics for validation of our analytical preliminary design methodologies and finite element analysis calculations. BETA will contribute to the knowledge necessary to finalize the 10 T magnet design.

  13. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB1=68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (pmycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs.

  14. Pyrolysis kinetics of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) seed husk

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the thermochemical fuel characteristics and kinetic decomposition of melon seed husks (MSH) under inert (pyrolysis) conditions. The calorific value, elemental composition, proximate analyses and thermal kinetics of MSH was examined. The kinetic parameters; activation energy E and frequency factor A for MSH decomposition under pyrolysis conditions were determined using the Kissinger and isoconversional Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods. The values of E for MSH ranged from 146.81 to 296 kJ/mol at degrees of conversion {\\alpha} = 0.15 to 0.60 for FWO. The decomposition of MSH process was fastest at {\\alpha} = 0.15 and slowest at {\\alpha} = 0.60 with average E and A values of 192.96 kJ/mol and 2.86 x 1026 min-1, respectively at correlation values of 0.9847. The kinetic values of MSH using the Kissinger method are E = 161.26 kJ/mol and frequency factor, A = 2.08 x 1010 min-1 with the correlation value, R2 = 0.9958. The results indicate that MSH possesses important characteristics ...

  15. Identification of Local Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek Based on Chromosomal Characters

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    BUDI SETIADI DARYONO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartek is one of local melon varieties mainly cultivated in Pemalang, Central Java. Bartek has three variations of fruits; Long-Green, Ellips-Green, and Yellow. Chromosome characterization of the Bartek was investigated to determine the genetic variation. The main purpose of this research was to determine the genetic characters of Bartek including chromosome number, mitosis, cell cycle, and karyotype. Squash method was used for chromosome preparation. The results showed that all of Bartek observed in this study have similar diploid (2n chromosome number = 24. According to the total number of chromosome, Bartek is closer to melon than cucumber. The mitotic analysis exhibited that the Bartek has similar karyotype formula, 2n = 2x = 24m. Based on the R value of the three kinds of Bartek (R < 0.27, it indicated that three kinds of Bartek were considered to be originated from similar species and one of melon varieties (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek.

  16. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-06-05

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago.

  17. Inhibitive Mechanisms of Two Silicon Compounds on Powdery Mildew of Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yu-rong; LIU Lei; ZHAO Hua; CHEN De-rong; BI Yang

    2005-01-01

    Seedlings of Yujinxiang melon were used to investigate the effect and inhibitive mechanism of sodium silicate and nanosized silicon oxide on powdery mildew. The results showed that the severity of powdery mildew on melon seedlings was lowered significantly by treatment with either of the two silicon compounds, although the effect of sodium silicate was more powerful than silicon oxide. Application of sodium silicate to the seedlings caused significant increases in the activity of peroxidase (POD) and of 3-1,3-glucosidase (GLU), both enzymes are known to be associated with the disease defence systems of plants. SEM-EDX analysis of sodium silicate-treated leaves of the melon seedlings showed an elevated level of silicon deposit at stomata and epidermis. Treatment with nanosized silicon oxide also resulted in a similar increase in silicon deposit, but the treatment did not cause a significant increase in POD activity.

  18. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  19. Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of momordica charantia L. against foodborne pathogens

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    Kalpna Rakholiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial effect of 24 different hydroalcoholic extracts (100, 75, 50 and 25% methanol and water obtained from four parts (leaf+stem (aerial, peel, pulp and seed of Momordica charantia L. were investigated against five Gram-positive, six Gram-negative and four fungal strains. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using hexane, different hydroalcoholic solvent (100, 75, 50 and 25% methanol and water. The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay. The extracts, which showed >15 mm zone of inhibition, were further screened to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration using a broth dilution method performed in 96-well microtitre plate. The extractive yield was highest in aqueous extracts of all the four parts closely followed by 25% methanol. Micrococcus flavus was the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas testosteroni was the most susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by 100% methanol. The Gram-negative Pseudomonas spp. was more susceptible towards all the extracts than the Gram-positive bacteria or fungal strains investigated. One hundred percent and 50% methanol extracts of seed showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, that is <39 and 625 μg/ml, respectively, against Pseudomonas pictorum. Therefore, these extracts would be of interest in the control of Pseudomonas spp. in food industry as well as used for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Antifeedant Activity and Active Ingredients Against Plutella xylostella from Momordica charantia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts from the leaves of Momordica charantia, we obtained two most active compounds against the feeding of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella larvae. The antifeedant activity of momordicine Ⅰ and momordicine Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella were tested using leaf discs of cabbage in the laboratory. The results showed that momordicin Ⅰ and momordiein Ⅱ had significant antifeedant activity on the larvae of P. Xylostella, and momordicin Ⅱ was more active than momordicin Ⅰ. The concentrations for 50% antifeedant effects (AFC50) of momordicin Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of P. Xylostella were 76.69 and 116.24 μg mL-1, whereas that of momordicin Ⅰ was 144.08 and 168.42 μg mL-1, respectively. In addition, momordicin Ⅰ and momordicin Ⅱ had significant inhibitive effect on the rate of weight gain and survival of P. Xylostella larvae.

  1. Protective Effect of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract on Hyperglycaemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis

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    Razif Abas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6 into control group (Ctrl, control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC, diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl, diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC, and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met. Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione contents (GSH, and catalase (CAT was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  2. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model.

  3. Protective effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2014-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6) into control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC), and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met). Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione contents (GSH), and catalase (CAT) was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  4. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Shan, Bin; Liao, Cai-Hu; Xie, Jian-Hua; Wen, Ping-Wei; Shi, Jia-Yi

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (MCP) was isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia L., and the hypoglycemic effects of MCP were investigated in both normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MCP was orally administered once a day after 3 days of alloxan-induction at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight for 28 day. Results showed that fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was significantly decreased, whereas the glucose tolerance was marked improvement in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice compared to the diabetic control group. The dosage of 300mg/kg body weight exhibited the best effects. In addition, MCP did not exhibit any toxic symptoms in the limited toxicity evaluation in mice. The results suggest that MCP possess significantly dose-dependent anti-diabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hence, MCP can be incorporated as a supplement in health-care food, drugs and/or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Momordica charantia polysaccharides mitigate the progression of STZ induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Jan, Basit L; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Mohsin, Kazi; Jenoobi, Fahad Al; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease. Several complex dynamics converge together to accelerate the advancement of DN. The present investigation was postulated to explore the mechanism of reno-protective nature of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides (MCP) by evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic as well as markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant proficiency in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of MCP showed a significant normalization in the levels of kidney function test in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea protein and creatinine increased by 316.58%, 195.14% and 800.97% respectively, in STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with normal rats. MCP treatment also illustrated a significant improvement in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels, with a significant decline in MDA in diabetic kidneys. Immunoblots of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Nrf2 of MCP treated diabetic rats showed a significant up-regulation of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein. Histological and ultra-structural observations also reveal that MCP efficiently protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage. These findings illustrate that the reno-protective nature of MCP mitigates the progression of STZ induced DN in rats by suppression of oxidative stress and amelioration of the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

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    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  7. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C29H60) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon

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    Monforte Antonio J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few genomic tools available in melon (Cucumis melo L., a member of the Cucurbitaceae, despite its importance as a crop. Among these tools, genetic maps have been constructed mainly using marker types such as simple sequence repeats (SSR, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP in different mapping populations. There is a growing need for saturating the genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, more amenable for high throughput analysis, especially if these markers are located in gene coding regions, to provide functional markers. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from melon are available in public databases, and resequencing ESTs or validating SNPs detected in silico are excellent ways to discover SNPs. Results EST-based SNPs were discovered after resequencing ESTs between the parental lines of the PI 161375 (SC × 'Piel de sapo' (PS genetic map or using in silico SNP information from EST databases. In total 200 EST-based SNPs were mapped in the melon genetic map using a bin-mapping strategy, increasing the map density to 2.35 cM/marker. A subset of 45 SNPs was used to study variation in a panel of 48 melon accessions covering a wide range of the genetic diversity of the species. SNP analysis correctly reflected the genetic relationships compared with other marker systems, being able to distinguish all the accessions and cultivars. Conclusion This is the first example of a genetic map in a cucurbit species that includes a major set of SNP markers discovered using ESTs. The PI 161375 × 'Piel de sapo' melon genetic map has around 700 markers, of which more than 500 are gene-based markers (SNP, RFLP and SSR. This genetic map will be a central tool for the construction of the melon physical map, the step prior to sequencing the complete genome. Using the set of SNP markers, it was possible to define the genetic relationships within a collection of forty

  9. 新疆哈密瓜追溯系统%Hami Melon Traceability System of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莎吾力

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the existing hami melon tracing system is briefly elaborated of Xinjiang, taking hami melon as the research object, discusses it from the trace scheme, trace implementation, advantages and defects of tracing system.%本文就新疆哈密瓜现有追溯系统进行了简单阐述,以哈密瓜为研究对象,从追溯方案、追溯实施、追溯系统优点与缺陷等角度进行探讨.

  10. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

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    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  11. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  12. The molecular basis of individual differences in phenylthiocarbamide and propylthiouracil bitterness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Bernd; Breslin, Paul A S; Kuhn, Christina; Reed, Danielle R; Tharp, Christopher D; Slack, Jay P; Kim, Un-Kyung; Drayna, Dennis; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2005-02-22

    Individual differences in perception are ubiquitous within the chemical senses: taste, smell, and chemical somesthesis . A hypothesis of this fact states that polymorphisms in human sensory receptor genes could alter perception by coding for functionally distinct receptor types . We have previously reported evidence that sequence variants in a presumptive bitter receptor gene (hTAS2R38) correlate with differences in bitterness recognition of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) . Here, we map individual psychogenomic pathways for bitter taste by testing people with a variety of psychophysical tasks and linking their individual perceptions of the compounds PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP) to the in vitro responses of their TAS2R38 receptor variants. Functional expression studies demonstrate that five different haplotypes from the hTAS2R38 gene code for operatively distinct receptors. The responses of the three haplotypes we also tested in vivo correlate strongly with individuals' psychophysical bitter sensitivities to a family of compounds. These data provide a direct molecular link between heritable variability in bitter taste perception to functional variations of a single G protein coupled receptor that responds to compounds such as PTC and PROP that contain the N-C=S moiety. The molecular mechanisms of perceived bitterness variability have therapeutic implications, such as helping patients to consume beneficial bitter-tasting compounds-for example, pharmaceuticals and selected phytochemicals.

  13. Momordica charantia L. Cultivation Technology of Yinchuan Area%银川地区苦瓜栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素萍

    2012-01-01

    从品种选择、播种育苗、整地施肥、合理密植、水肥管理、整枝拉蔓、病虫害防治等方面介绍了银川地区苦瓜栽培技术。%The paper summarized the cultivation technology of Momordica charantia L, in aspects of variety selection, sowing and seedling raising, soil preparation and fertilization, rational close planting, irrigation and fertilizer management, pruning and vine-pulling and pest control.

  14. Pectic polysaccharide from the green fruits of Momordica charantia (Karela): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bibhash C; Mondal, Soumitra; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Khatua, Somanjana; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2015-01-12

    A water soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the aqueous extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia contains D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:4. It showed splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations. Moreover, it exhibited potent antioxidant activities. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and 1D and 2D NMR studies, the structure of the repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [Formula: see text]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hop (Humulus lupulus)-derived bitter acids as multipotent bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleemput, Marjan; Cattoor, Ko; De Bosscher, Karolien; Haegeman, Guy; De Keukeleire, Denis; Heyerick, Arne

    2009-06-01

    Hop acids, a family of bitter compounds derived from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus), have been reported to exert a wide range of effects, both in vitro and in vivo. They exhibit potential anticancer activity by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, by inducing apoptosis, and by increasing the expression of cytochrome P450 detoxification enzymes. Furthermore, hop bitter acids are effective against inflammatory and metabolic disorders, which makes them challenging candidates for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hop bitter acids, including both phytochemical aspects, as well as the biological and pharmacological properties of these compounds.

  16. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Mohan Maruga Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f. (Nymphaeaceae is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  17. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S H

    2010-07-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  18. Environ: E00794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00794 Bitter gourd Bitter melon Medicinal herb Momordicine, Stigmasterol [CPD:C054...rbitaceae Bitter gourd fruit Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) E00794 Bitter gourd ...

  19. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia (karela fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aftab Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (karela (M. charantia fruits on blood glucose level, pancreatic weight changes and histopathology of pancreatic changes in the streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty-six albino rats were used in the experiment; diabetes mellitus was induced in 30 adult albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg STZ. Six non diabetic rats remained as control (T1 . The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into five equal groups: diabetic control (T2 without any treatment, groups T3, T4, T5 and T6 were treated with aqueous extract of karela fruits daily at a doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg up to 90 d, respectively. At Day 90, all rats were sacrificed, the pancreases of the rats were excised and processed. Results: The results of this study indicate that aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits was able to reduce blood glucose level significantly compared with the diabetic control group (P<0.01. Histopathologically, STZ resulted severe necrotic changes in pancreatic islets. Tissues sections of pancreas in the treated groups showed regeneration of β cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Conclusions: The present study suggests that oral feeding of M. charantia fruit juice has a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect and may have a role in the regeneration of the β cells in STZ diabetic rats.

  20. Topical application of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia L. promotes healing of excisional and incisional wounds in rat buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Mert; Bolat, Ismail Eser; Süntar, İpek; Kutluay Köklü, Harika; Uğar Çankal, Dilek A; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2015-12-01

    In Turkish folk medicine Momordica charantia L. is used for wound healing. The aim of the present study is to investigate this folkloric knowledge and confirm the plant's potential effect on buccal mucosa wound in the rat. Wound healing activity of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia L. was investigated in linear incision and circular excision wound models created in the buccal mucosa of the rat. The tissues were histopathologically evaluated, moreover, hydroxyproline contents of the tissues were determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was also assessed by using Whittle method with some modifications. Olive oil macerate of M. charantia showed significant wound healing activity both in incision (45.1%) and excision (89.8%) wound models and demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity with the inhibition value of 31.3% at the dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data revealed that M. charantia showed significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Characterization of Turkish Snake Melon (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo flexuosus Group) Accessions Revealed by SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Ilknur; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Simsek, Ozhan; Sari, Nebahat

    2016-08-01

    Snake melon is an important cucurbit crop especially in the Southeastern and the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is consumed as fresh or pickled. The production is mainly done with the local landraces in the country. Turkey is one of the secondary diversification centers of melon and possesses valuable genetic resources which have different morphological characteristics in case of snake melon. Genetic diversity of snake melon genotypes collected from different regions of Turkey and reference genotypes obtained from World Melon Gene Bank in Avignon-France was examined using 13 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 69 alleles were detected, with an average of 5.31 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content of SSR markers ranged from 0.19 to 0.57 (average 0.38). Based on cluster analysis, two major groups were defined. The first major group included only one accession (61), while the rest of all accessions grouped in the second major group and separated into different sub-clusters. Based on SSR markers, cluster analysis indicated that considerably high genetic variability exists among the examined accessions; however, Turkish snake melon accessions were grouped together with the reference snake melon accessions.

  2. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R, which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better understand the evolutionary pattern of these genes, we identified 16 T2R gene repertoires based on the high coverage genome sequences of vertebrates and studied the evolutionary changes in the number of T2R genes during birth-and-death evolution using the reconciled-tree method. We found that the number of T2R genes and the fraction of pseudogenes vary extensively among species. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, we showed that T2R gene families in teleost fishes are more diverse than those in tetrapods. In addition to the independent gene expansions in teleost fishes, frogs and mammals, lineage-specific gene duplications were also detected in lizards. Furthermore, extensive gains and losses of T2R genes were detected in each lineage during their evolution, resulting in widely differing T2R gene repertoires. Conclusion These results further support the hypotheses that T2R gene repertoires are closely related to the dietary habits of different species and that birth-and-death evolution is associated with adaptations to dietary changes.

  3. Agronomic evaluation of green biodegradable mulch on melon

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    Ferruccio Filippi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A two-year research was carried out in 2004-2005 in order to evaluate the effects of biodegradable green mulch on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. yield and quality. The loss of quality due to the presence of spot caused by the residues of biodegradable plastics was also investigated. The research was conducted over two years, in open field, at S. Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy, (lat. 43.67498, long. 10.34737, from the beginning of May to the end of July of each year. The films tested in the first year experiment were two biodegradable ones with different colours (black and green compared with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE film, while in 2005 three biodegradable films, (two green and one black were compared with a traditional LDPE film. The two green biodegradable films had different properties related to the biodegradation rate, faster in film Cv205, because of a different degree of Mater Bi polymer inside the film. In each year a randomized block design with four replications was followed. Green biodegradable films allowed obtaining a higher yield than LDPE films maybe because of the higher soil temperatures reached, and excellent fruit quality, especially for the soluble solids content and the ripening process. At the same time, the presence of residues on the fruit skin was rather low because of the degradation of films occurred at the ripening time. In the first year, the percentage of spotted fruits was low for every kind of film, while in the second one the green film showed a higher presence of residues on skin compared with the black one. The biodegradable materials covered the soil for the whole crop cycle with a good mulching effect, and the successive degradation allowed to avoid the removal and disposal of plastic film, with a certain economic advantage.

  4. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  5. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  6. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  7. A New Bitter Gourd F1 Hybrid-‘Ruyu No. 45’%苦瓜新品种如玉45号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴水金; 张玉灿; 赖正锋; 张少平; 李跃森; 李祖亮; 张伟光

    2013-01-01

    The bitter gourd F1 hybrid‘Ruyu No. 45’is a medium maturing bred by crossing BAL-22-31 as female parent and Shankugua-45 as male parent.The plant grows vigorously.The first female flower sets on around the 17th node.Both of its main and side vines can bear fruit.The com-mercial product is about 6 cm in length,and 3 cm in diameter.The single fruit weight is about 40 g and the matured fruit is about 200 g.Its fruit shape is pointed in two ends with olive shape and melon rind is dark green in color with pointed longitudinal lump.Its succulent is crispy with bitter heavier.But the aftertaste is sweet.The content of total saponin is high.It is highly resistant to Fusarium wilt and pow-dery mildew.It can yield about 63.0 t·hm-2.Its harvesting time can last 6 months or so.It is suitable for cultivation in the south of Fuzhou,Longyan,Zhangzhou,Quanzhou and Xiamen.%如玉45号是以BAL-22-31为母本,以山苦瓜-45为父本配制而成的中熟苦瓜一代杂种。生长势较强,第1雌花节位第17节左右,主侧蔓均可结瓜;商品瓜长6 cm左右,横径3 cm左右,单瓜质量40 g左右,老熟瓜可达200 g;果实两头较尖,橄榄形,瓜皮深绿色,纵棱尖瘤,肉质脆嫩,苦味较重,回味甘甜,总皂甙含量较高,适合煲汤和深加工;田间鉴定对枯萎病和白粉病的抗性较强,一般产量4200 kg·(667 m2)-1左右,采收期可达6个月,适宜福州以南龙岩、漳州、泉州、厦门等地栽培。

  8. Comparative Study on DNA Extraction Methods of Momordica charantia L.%苦瓜DNA提取方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彦军; 刘洋

    2012-01-01

    采用CTAB法、SDS法、SDS-CTAB法、试剂盒法4种方法提取苦瓜(Momordica charantiaL.)叶片基因组DNA,并使用分光光度法和琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测提取所得DNA的纯度和浓度.结果表明,SDS-CTAB法和试剂盒法提取的基因组DNA纯度高于CTAB法和SDS法,其中SDS-CTAB法提取的DNA浓度和产率高于其他方法.%CTAB method, SDS method, SDS-CTAB method and kit method were applied to extract total DNA from Momordica charantia L. The purity and concentration of DNA obtained was detected by spectrophotometry and agarose gel elec-trophoresis. The results indicated that the purity of DNA extracted by SDS-CTAB method and kit method was higher than CTAB method and SDS method. The concentration and yield of DNA extracted by SDS-CTAB method was higher than other methods.

  9. An in vitro study on the risk of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci

    2013-10-26

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a tropical plant that is extensively used in folk medicine. However, the knowledge about side effects of this plant is relatively little according to knowledge about its therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to MC by an experiment which was designed in vitro. In the present study, the expression of CD63 and CD203c on peripheral blood basophils against different dilutions of MC extracts was measured using flow cytometry and compared with one another. In addition to this, intra-assay CV's of testing extracts were calculated for precision on reproducibility of test results. It was observed that the fruit extract of MC at 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions significantly increased active basophils compared to same extract at 1/10000 dilution. In conclusion, Momordica charantia may elicit a non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity reaction in especially susceptible individuals.

  10. Conjugated fatty acid synthesis: residues 111 and 115 influence product partitioning of Momordica charantia conjugase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-05-11

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ(9,11,13), lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ(9,12,15)). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis)) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13trans)). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation.

  11. Momordica charantia ointment accelerates diabetic wound healing and enhances transforming growth factor-β expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussan, F; Teoh, S Lin; Muhamad, N; Mazlan, M; Latiff, A A

    2014-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in wound healing. Delayed wound healing is a consequence of diabetes, leading to high morbidity and poor quality of life. Momordica charantia (MC) fruit possesses anti-diabetic and wound healing properties. This study aimed to explore the changes in TGF-β expression in diabetic wounds treated with topical MC fruit extract. Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal control group and five diabetic groups of ten rats each. Intravenous streptozotocin (50mg/kg) was given to induce diabetes in the diabetic groups. Full thickness excision wounds were created on the thoracodorsal region of the animals, and these wounds were then treated with vehicle, MC powder, MC ointment and povidone ointment or ointment base for ten days. Wound healing was determined by the rate of wound closure, total protein content and TGF-β expression in the wounds, and histological observation. Diabetic groups showed delayed wound closure rates compared to the control group. The wound closure rate in the MC ointment group was significantly faster than that of the untreated diabetic group (p<0.05). The MC ointment group also showed intense TGF-β expression and a high level of total protein content. MC ointment has a promising potential for use as an alternative topical medication for diabetic wounds. This work has shown that it accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats, and it is suggested here that this occurs by enhancing TGF-β expression. Further work is recommended to explore this effect.

  12. Expression of Momordica charantia MAP30 and its antitumor effect on bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlin, Hao; Zhi-Guo, Zhang; Cong-Hui, Han; Yan, Zhao; Qing, Liang; Bo, Jiang; Hou-Guang, He; Jun-Jie, Zhang; Pei-Ying, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Momordica charantia (MC) is an edible medicinal plant that is known for its diversified biological functions. Momordica Antiviral Protein 30kD (MAP30) is a type I single chain ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from the mature fruit and seeds of MC. Since MAP30 content in MC is limited, the study aim was to generate the recombinant MAP30 protein using prokaryotic expression system and determine its apoptotic/growth inhibitory effects on bladder cancer 5637 cells. MAP30 gene was amplified by PCR from MC genomic DNA and identified by sequencing. The target gene was inserted into pET-28a (+) vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Positive clones were selected by PCR. Recombinant protein was efficiently expressed under induction with 1.0 mM Isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) at 30° C for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using MTT assay by treating 5637 bladder cancer cells with 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL, and 400 µg/mL concentrations of MAP30 for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptosis of MAP30-treatedcells in time course experiments. Full-length MAP30 gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 strain and MAP30 recombinant protein inhibited the growth of bladder cancer 5637 cells at 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL concentrations by inducing apoptosis of target cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It was, therefore, concluded that the MAP30 recombinant protein displayed potent antitumor activity in vitro.

  13. Spanish melons (Cucumis melo L.) of the Madrid provenance: A unique germplasm reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces of the Madrid provenance, Spain, have received national distinction for their high fruit quality and sensorial attributes. More specifically, a unique array of Group Inodorus landraces have been continuously cultivated and conserved by farmers in the municipality o...

  14. Eco-Friendly (Water Melon Peels: Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. D. Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using water melon peels as alternatives to wood-based particleboard composites. The water melon peels composite boards were produced by compressive moulding using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE as a binder. The RLDPE was varies from 30 to 70wt% with interval of 10wt%. The microstructure, water absorption(WA, thickness swelling index(TS, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding strength(IB, impact strength and wear properties of the boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 11.45N/mm2, MOE of 1678N/mm2, IB of 0.58N/mm2, wear rate of 0.31g were obtained from particleboard produced at 60wt%RLDPE. The uniform distribution of the water melon particles and the RLDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR and IB meet the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose like panelling, ceiling, partitioning. Hence, water melon particles can be used as a substitute to wood-based particleboard for general purpose applications also besides being environmental friendly of using watermelon and RLDPE in production of particleboard, this alternative to wood-based particleboard is very cost-effective.

  15. Genetic diversity among melon accessions (Cucumis melo) from Turkey based on SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Y A; Simsek, O; Solmaz, I; Sari, N; Mendi, Y Y

    2012-12-19

    Melon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop in Turkey, where it is grown in many regions; the most widely planted lines are local winter types belonging to the var. inodorous. We examined 81 melon genotypes collected from different provinces of Turkey, compared with 15 reference melon genotypes obtained from INRA/France, to determine genetic diversity among Turkish melons. Twenty polymorphic primers were used to generate the SSR markers. PCR amplification was performed and electrophoresis was conducted. SSR data were used to generate a binary matrix. For cluster analysis, UPGMA was employed to construct a clustering dendrogram based on the genetic distance matrix. The cophenetic correlation was compared with the similarity matrix using the Mantel matrix correspondence test to evaluate the representativeness of the dendrogram. A total of 123 alleles were amplified using the 20 SSR primer sets. The number of alleles detected by a single primer set ranged from 2 to 12, with an average of 6.15. The similarity ranged from 0.22 to 1.00 in the dendrogram developed from microsatellite analysis. Based on this molecular data, we concluded that genetic diversity among these Turkish accessions is relatively high.

  16. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  17. Genome sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungus causing wilt disease on melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt disease on melon (Cucumis melo). The project is part of a large comparative study designed to explore the genetic composition and evolutionary origin of this group of horizontally ...

  18. [Effects of grafting on physiological characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-min; Zhang, Xin-ying; Fu, Qiu-shi; He, Zhong-qun; Wang, Huai-song

    2014-12-01

    The effects of grafting on physiological characters of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress were investigated with Pumpkin Jingxinzhen No. 3 as stock and oriental melon IVF09 as scion. The results showed that the physiological characters of melon seedlings were inhibited significantly under copper stress. Compared with self-rooted seedlings, the biomass, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, glucose and fructose, the photosynthetic parameters, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the leaves of the grafted seedlings were increased significantly. The uptake of nutrients was improved with the contents of K, P, Na increased and the content of Cu decreased. When the concentration of Cu2+ stress was 800 micromol L(-1), the contents of Cu in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings were decreased by 31.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Endogenous hormone balance of seedlings was improved by grafting. In the grafted seedlings, the content of IAA and peroxidase activity were higher, whereas the contents of ABA, maleicdialdehyde, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower than that in the control. It was concluded that the copper stress on the physiological characters of melon seedlings was relieved by grafting which improved the resistance of the grafted seedlings.

  19. Rootstock assessment for root-knot nematode management in grafted honeydew melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are one of the most damaging soilborne pathogens of honeydew melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus). Currently their management is dependent on soil fumigation. Vegetable grafting with resistant rootstocks may be an effective approach for RKN management in the sustainable produ...

  20. Cucurbit powdery mildew of melon incited by Podosphaera xanthii: global and western U.S. perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is a major problem of melon (Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide, that is mostly caused by two fungi: Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC) V.P. Heluta (formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum). The two species may co-infect in some areas of northern Europe...

  1. An efficient regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H J; Gao, P; Wang, X Z; Luan, F S

    2014-01-08

    An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, using cotyledon node zone-stem connection region of melon, has been developed. The new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology, independent of organ culture, used the entire germinated seed as explants. The transformation system was maximized to maintain the integrity of melon itself, thus avoiding the limitations of traditional tissue culture methods. The transformation was carried out under a non-sterile environment. The incorporation of a selectable marker (neomycin phosphotransferase II) into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The transformation frequency based on the PCR was 13%. Transgenic melon plants were usually detected by PCR in less than 1 month after Agrobacterium inoculation, and seeds could be harvested in 3 months. The growth characteristics and morphology of the transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild-type plants. This method would be beneficial for facilitating the characteristics of gene functions and for boosting the manipulation of melon transformation for commercial purposes.

  2. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Cocquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  3. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  4. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in irrigati

  5. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  6. SNP genotyping in melons: genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteras, Cristina; Formisano, Gelsomina; Roig, Cristina; Díaz, Aurora; Blanca, José; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gómez-Guillamón, María Luisa; López-Sesé, Ana Isabel; Lázaro, Almudena; Monforte, Antonio J; Picó, Belén

    2013-05-01

    Novel sequencing technologies were recently used to generate sequences from multiple melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes, enabling the in silico identification of large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) collections. In order to optimize the use of these markers, SNP validation and large-scale genotyping are necessary. In this paper, we present the first validated design for a genotyping array with 768 SNPs that are evenly distributed throughout the melon genome. This customized Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype a collection of 74 accessions, representing most of the botanical groups of the species. Of the assayed loci, 91 % were successfully genotyped. The array provided a large number of polymorphic SNPs within and across accessions. This set of SNPs detected high levels of variation in accessions from this crop's center of origin as well as from several other areas of melon diversification. Allele distribution throughout the genome revealed regions that distinguished between the two main groups of cultivated accessions (inodorus and cantalupensis). Population structure analysis showed a subdivision into five subpopulations, reflecting the history of the crop. A considerably low level of LD was detected, which decayed rapidly within a few kilobases. Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in melon. Since many of the genotyped accessions are currently being used as the parents of breeding populations in various programs, this set of mapped markers could be used for future mapping and breeding efforts.

  7. Aktivitas Biologis Rimpang Kencur terhadap Lalat Buah Melon II. Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Metanol Rimpang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhi Martono

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Kumchura (Kaempferia galangal L. rhizome has been known to posses bioactivity to melon fly in its crude form. Extract preparation from the same plant part was tested against melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet’s eggs and larvae to investigate its toxicity and activity. Toxicity test was done by diluting the rhizome’s methanolic extract and incorporating the solution to larval diet. Based on the toxicity test, sublethal concentrations were then tested to determine the extract activity to egg and larval survivals, larval stage duration, puparial weight and length, extracts’ repellency to larvae and extracts’ hormonal activity to larvae. The result showed that kumchura extract toxicity was only considered “slightly toxic”, but sublethal concentration as low as 0.3125% (to eggs and 2.5% (to larvae significantly affected the fly’s survival, while the same concentration to egg and 0.625% concentration to larvae significantly prolonged larval stage durations. Extracts’ repellency to larvae was siginificant in sublethal concentration as low as 0.3125%, but kumchura extract has no significant effect on puparial weight and length, and did not contain any hormonal activities toward melon fly. Key words: kumchura extract, melon fly, bioactivity

  8. Resistance of melon powdery mildew isolates to kresoxim-methyl in Guangxi and determination of its sensitivity to three fungicides%广西瓜类白粉病菌对醚菌酯的抗药性及其对3种药剂的敏感性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林珊宇; 朱桂宁; 颜梅新; 贤小勇

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The resistance level, distribution and development of melon powdery mildew isolates to kresoxim-methyl in Guangxi were identified and effective alternative fungicides were screened to provide references for prevention and controlling of melon powdery mildew. [Method]From 2007 to 2012, bitter gourd, wax gourd, muskmelon, cucumber and bottle gourd disease samples were collected from Nanning, Guiping, and Beihai, etc. Their isolates’ resistance to kresoxim-methyl were detected by leaf disk tests. Sensitivity of high-resistant isolates to carbendazim, trifloxystrobin and propineb were also analyzed. [Result]The results showed that 83 melon powdery mildew population produced resistance to kresoxim-methyl in varying degrees. Resistant isolates were mainly distributed in bitter gourd powdery mildew and their resistant fre-quency was the highest (63.89%), while bottle gourd isolates had the lowest resistant frequency (6.67%). The resistant level of bitter gourd powdery mildew against to kresoxim-methyl increased gradually from 2007 to 2012 in Nanning City, resulting in development of high-resistance population. Fungicide screening assay results indicated that powdery mildew isolates with highly resistant to kresoxim-methyl, were highly drug-fast to carbendazim and cross-resistant to trifloxystrobin, but was sensi-tive to propineb. [Conclusion]In Guangxi, melon powdery mildew isolates were highly resistant to kresoxim-methyl and al-ternate use of propineb in the production process could be recommended.%【目的】了解广西瓜类白粉病菌对醚菌酯的抗性水平、抗性菌株的分布和发展趋势,并筛选瓜类白粉病防治药剂,为瓜类白粉病的抗性预防及防治提供参考。【方法】2007~2012年从广西南宁、桂平、北海等地采集苦瓜、冬瓜、甜瓜、黄瓜和葫芦瓜白粉病菌样品,采用叶碟保湿培养法检测供试菌株对醚菌酯的抗药性,并选取高抗菌株测定其对多菌灵、肟菌

  9. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed.

  10. Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) seeds. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life.

  11. Salt Creek : A wilderness study area on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  12. Receptor Polymorphism and Genomic Structure Interact to Shape Bitter Taste Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Roudnitzky

    Full Text Available The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon. Therefore, to investigate more complex associations, we examined taste responses to six structurally diverse compounds (absinthin, amarogentin, cascarillin, grosheimin, quassin, and quinine in a sample of the Caucasian population. By sequencing all bitter receptor loci, inferring long-range haplotypes, mapping their effects on phenotype variation, and characterizing functionally causal allelic variants, we deciphered at the molecular level how a subjects' genotype for the whole-family of TAS2R genes shapes variation in bitter taste perception. Within each haplotype block implicated in phenotypic variation, we provided evidence for at least one locus harboring functional polymorphic alleles, e.g. one locus for sensitivity to amarogentin, one of the most bitter natural compounds known, and two loci for sensitivity to grosheimin, one of the bitter compounds of artichoke. Our analyses revealed also, besides simple associations, complex associations of bitterness sensitivity across TAS2R loci. Indeed, even if several putative loci harbored both high- and low-sensitivity alleles, phenotypic variation depended on linkage between these alleles. When sensitive alleles for bitter compounds were maintained in the same linkage phase, genetically driven perceptual differences were obvious, e.g. for grosheimin. On the contrary, when sensitive alleles were in opposite phase, only weak genotype

  13. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition.

  14. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Caffeine induces gastric acid secretion via bitter taste signaling in gastric parietal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Ley, Jakob Peter; Lieder, Barbara; Behrens, Maik; Stöger, Verena; Reiner, Angelika; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Köck, Elke; Marchiori, Alessandro; Hans, Joachim; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard; Sanger, Gareth John; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine, generally known as a stimulant of gastric acid secretion (GAS), is a bitter-tasting compound that activates several taste type 2 bitter receptors (TAS2Rs). TAS2Rs are expressed in the mouth and in several extraoral sites, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, in which their functional role still needs to be clarified. We hypothesized that caffeine evokes effects on GAS by activation of oral and gastric TAS2Rs and demonstrate that caffeine, when administered encapsulated, stimulates GAS, whereas oral administration of a caffeine solution delays GAS in healthy human subjects. Correlation analysis of data obtained from ingestion of the caffeine solution revealed an association between the magnitude of the GAS response and the perceived bitterness, suggesting a functional role of oral TAS2Rs in GAS. Expression of TAS2Rs, including cognate TAS2Rs for caffeine, was shown in human gastric epithelial cells of the corpus/fundus and in HGT-1 cells, a model for the study of GAS. In HGT-1 cells, various bitter compounds as well as caffeine stimulated proton secretion, whereby the caffeine-evoked effect was (i) shown to depend on one of its cognate receptor, TAS2R43, and adenylyl cyclase; and (ii) reduced by homoeriodictyol (HED), a known inhibitor of caffeine’s bitter taste. This inhibitory effect of HED on caffeine-induced GAS was verified in healthy human subjects. These findings (i) demonstrate that bitter taste receptors in the stomach and the oral cavity are involved in the regulation of GAS and (ii) suggest that bitter tastants and bitter-masking compounds could be potentially useful therapeutics to regulate gastric pH. PMID:28696284

  16. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E

    2015-07-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP-phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5.

  17. Effects of Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) and diosgenin on blood and fecal cholesterol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Thomas, Peta-Gaye; Asemota, Helen; Omoruyi, Felix; Simon, Oswald

    2014-11-01

    A sapogenin-rich preparation from Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic rats and mice. Also, diosgenin supplementation has been reported to have antilipemic effects in several animal species. We investigated potential mechanisms of the lipid-lowering actions of bitter yam and also whether the actions were mediated by diosgenin. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (4% cholesterol) alone or with 5% bitter yam or 1% diosgenin supplementation for 6 weeks. The control group was fed normal rat chow. The serum lipid profile, fecal cholesterol concentration, and serum lipase activity were assessed at the end of the period. The induction of hypercholesterolemia was inhibited by coadministration of 5% bitter yam or 1% diosgenin in the diet. Serum lipid profiles were similar in rats fed bitter yam or diosgenin. The fecal cholesterol concentration was significantly (P yam. Administration of bitter yam or diosgenin supplement significantly increased (P yam may be therapeutically beneficial in the management of hypercholesterolemia.

  18. MULTISENSOR SYSTEM APPLICATION FOR PREPARATIONS BITTERNESS EVALUATION IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Yaroshenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of preparations based on medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment and prevention of a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this research was evaluation of the capabilities of a multisensor system for instrumental assessment of the samples bitterness. 33 samples of medicinal plants were evaluated by tasters according to bitterness intensity from 0 to 6. Methodology of the analysis was developed and repeated measurements of the samples were performed by multisensor system. Tasters’ assessments were used as reference data while multisensor system calibrating. A regression model built according to these data displayed good correlation of the system response with bitterness perceived by people. The parameters of the regression model give the possibility for concluding that the multisensor system is capable to predict the bitterness of the medicinal plants preparations with average precision equal to ±1 of the reference bitterness scale. Relative error of bitterness determination is 14%, which is a good result for such type of measurements (typical error of the taster’s assessment is, as a rule, in the range of 15-30 %.

  19. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  20. Transformation of the CmACS-7 gene into melon (Cucumis melo L.) using the pollen-tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H J; Luan, F S

    2016-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to develop a transformation system that may be useful for introducing agronomically and biotechnologically relevant traits into melon. The production of transplanted melon with maternal inheritance of the transgene could solve problems related to outcrossing between genetically modified crops and conventional crops or their wild relatives. By analyzing the main influencing factors systematically, the pollination time was ascertained and the pollen-tube pathway genetic transformation system was optimized. A screening system for resistant seeds from the T1 generation was established. The transformed seedlings were grown under standard field conditions and selected using a polymerase chain reaction-based analysis. The resistant plants were detected at a rate of 5%. These results indicate that enhanced production hastens the initiation of bisexual flowers, development of mature bisexual flowers, and fruit set in melon. We have established a melon transformation system based on the pollen-tube method.

  1. Combined use of genetic and genomics resources to understand virus resistance and fruit quality traits in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason M; Pujol, Marta; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    The availability of the genome sequence of many crop species during the past few years has opened a new era in plant biology, allowing for the performance of massive genomic studies in plant species other than the classical models Arabidopsis and rice. One of these crop species is melon (Cucumis melo), a cucurbit of high economic value that has become an interesting model for the study of biological processes such as fruit ripening, sex determination and phloem transport. The recent availability of the melon genome sequence, together with a number of genetic and genomic resources, provides powerful tools that can be used to assist in the main melon breeding targets, namely disease resistance and fruit quality. In this review, we will describe recent data obtained combining the use of a melon near isogenic line (NIL) population and genomic resources to gain insight into agronomically important traits as fruit ripening, resistance to Cucumber Mosaic virus (CMV) and the accumulation of sugars in fruits.

  2. Bitterness-masking Effects of Neotame on Five Bitter Chinese Herbal Ingredients%纽甜对5种苦味中药的掩味效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 施钧瀚; 康冰亚; 高晓洁; 李学林; 刘瑞新

    2014-01-01

    This study was ai med to observe the taste-masking effects of Neotame on bitter Chinese herbal ingredients. Five kinds of herbal ingredients, which include Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, Coptis chinensis Franch, Gentiana scabra Bunge, Andrographis paniculata, were selected to measure the bitterness degree of decoctions with berberine solution as the benchmark. The decreasing of bitterness degree was used as index. Healthy volunteers were recruited to taste and compare the changes of bitterness of decoctions with the taste-masking effects of Neotame. Different concentrations of Neotame were selected in the determination of the influence on changes of bitterness. The results showed that when the concentration of Neotame was at 0.012 5‰-0.4‰, taste-masking effects of Neotame on selected herbal decoctions were in a concentration-dependent fashion. When the concentration of Neotame was 0.4‰, the reduced bitterness of S. baicalensis Georgi and Cortex P. chinensis decoctions were 1.22 and 1.77, by 70.11% and 71.88%, respectively. Three highly-bitter herbal ingredients C. chinensis Franch, G. scabra Bunge and A . paniculata were also reduced in bitter taste by 49.12%, 50.87% and 38.39%, with the bitter reduced value (△I) of 1.78, 2.02 and 1.43, respectively. It was concluded that Neotame exerted taste masking potential on bitter herbal ingredients with different bitter degrees.%目的:考察纽甜对苦味中药的掩味效果。方法:以盐酸小檗碱水溶液和黄芩、黄柏、黄连、龙胆、穿心莲5种代表性苦味中药的水煎液为苦味药物研究载体,以苦度降低值为指标,运用经典人群口尝评价法比较纽甜的掩味效果,并选取不同的浓度,考察加入掩味剂后溶液的苦度变化。结果:纽甜在其浓度为0.0125‰-0.4‰的范围内,其掩味效果随着浓度的增加随之增强。加入0.4‰的纽甜后,属于苦类的黄芩和黄柏药液的苦度

  3. Catabolism of L-methionine in the formation of sulfur and other volatiles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Lev, Shery; Bar, Einat; Sikron, Noga; Portnoy, Vitaly; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Giovannonni, James J; Huang, Mingyun; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Fait, Aaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2013-05-01

    Sulfur-containing aroma volatiles are important contributors to the distinctive aroma of melon and other fruits. Melon cultivars and accessions differ in the content of sulfur-containing and other volatiles. L-methionine has been postulated to serve as a precursor of these volatiles. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with ¹³C- and ²H-labeled L-methionine revealed two distinct catabolic routes into volatiles. One route apparently involves the action of an L-methionine aminotransferase and preserves the main carbon skeleton of L-methionine. The second route apparently involves the action of an L-methionine-γ-lyase activity, releasing methanethiol, a backbone for formation of thiol-derived aroma volatiles. Exogenous L-methionine also generated non-sulfur volatiles by further metabolism of α-ketobutyrate, a product of L-methionine-γ-lyase activity. α-Ketobutyrate was further metabolized into L-isoleucine and other important melon volatiles, including non-sulfur branched and straight-chain esters. Cell-free extracts derived from ripe melon fruit exhibited L-methionine-γ-lyase enzymatic activity. A melon gene (CmMGL) ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli, was shown to encode a protein possessing L-methionine-γ-lyase enzymatic activity. Expression of CmMGL was relatively low in early stages of melon fruit development, but increased in the flesh of ripe fruits, depending on the cultivar tested. Moreover, the levels of expression of CmMGL in recombinant inbred lines co-segregated with the levels of sulfur-containing aroma volatiles enriched with +1 m/z unit and postulated to be produced via this route. Our results indicate that L-methionine is a precursor of both sulfur and non-sulfur aroma volatiles in melon fruit.

  4. 嫁接对薄皮甜瓜的影响概述%Effects of Grafting on Oriental Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新华; 曹春信; 袁名安

    2011-01-01

    综述了嫁接对薄皮甜瓜生理特性、产量及品质的影响,探讨了存在的问题,为薄皮甜瓜嫁接栽培提供了一定的理论依据和技术支持.%This article reviews the effects of grafting on physiological characteristics ,yield and quality of oriental melon. The current challenges of oriental melon grafting are also discussed.

  5. The sweetness and bitterness of childhood: Insights from basic research on taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we review findings from basic, experimental research on children that suggest that the liking of sweet and the dislike of bitter tastes reflect children's basic biology. Children are born preferring sweet tastes, which attract them to mother's milk and even act as an analgesic. They prefer higher levels of sweet than do adults, with preferences declining to adult levels during middle to late adolescence, which coincides with the cessation of physical growth. The level of sweetness most preferred by children has remained heightened relative to adults for nearly a decade, despite reductions in sugar, both consumed and in the food environment. In spite of these reductions, however, children's intake of sugar remains higher than that recommended by health organizations worldwide. In contrast to sweet taste, children dislike and reject bitter taste, which protects them from ingesting poisons. Although variation in bitter taste receptor genes such as TAS2R38 accounts for people's marked differences in perceptions of the same bitter-tasting compounds, basic research revealed that these genotype-phenotype relationships are modified with age, with children of the same genotype being more bitter sensitive than adults and the changeover occurring during mid-adolescence. This heightened bitter sensitivity is also evident in the taste of the foods (green vegetables) or medicines (liquid formulations of drugs) they dislike and reject. While bitter taste can be masked or blocked to varying degrees by sugars and salts, their efficacy in modulating bitterness is not only based on the type of bitter ligand but on the person's age. Children's heightened preference for sweet and dislike of bitter, though often detrimental in the modern food environment, reflects their basic biology. Increasing knowledge of individual variation in taste due to both age and genetics will shed light on potential strategies to promote healthier eating since chronic diseases derive in

  6. Contribution of different taste cells and signaling pathways to the discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Davis, Adrienne; Ramaswamy, Sudha

    2002-08-15

    Animals can discriminate among many different types of foods. This discrimination process involves multiple sensory systems, but the sense of taste is known to play a central role. We asked how the taste system contributes to the discrimination of different "bitter" taste stimuli in Manduca sexta caterpillars. This insect has approximately eight bilateral pairs of taste cells that respond selectively to bitter taste stimuli. Each bilateral pair of bitter-sensitive taste cells has a different molecular receptive range (MRR); some of these taste cells also contain two signaling pathways with distinctive MRRs and temporal patterns of spiking. To test for discrimination, we habituated the caterpillar's taste-mediated aversive response to one bitter taste stimulus (salicin) and then asked whether this habituation phenomenon generalized to four other bitter taste stimuli (caffeine, aristolochic acid, Grindelia extract, and Canna extract). We inferred that the two compounds were discriminable if the habituation phenomenon failed to generalize (e.g., from salicin to aristolochic acid). We found that M. sexta could discriminate between salicin and those bitter taste stimuli that activate (1) different populations of bitter-sensitive taste cells (Grindelia extract and Canna extract) or (2) different signaling pathways within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (aristolochic acid). M. sexta could not discriminate between salicin and a bitter taste stimulus that activates the same signaling pathway within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (caffeine). We propose that the heterogeneous population of bitter-sensitive taste cells and signaling pathways within this insect facilitates the discrimination of bitter taste stimuli.

  7. Kelayakan Tekno-Ekonomi Sistem Irigasi Curah, Tetes dan Kendi pada Budidaya Tanaman Melon (Cucmis Melo, L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the most suitable irrigation system consisted of sprinkler, drip and picther for melon crof cultivation in dry land having the same soil type, as well as to evaluate its financial feasibility at business scale.the study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was planting of melon cropof Sky Rocket variety using each of the irrigation systems. The second stage was to carry out analysis on the technical and financial feasibilities. The technical feasibility consisted of water supply analysis, evapotranspiration analysis, efficiency of land that could be utilized, whereas the financial feasibility consisted of NPV, Net B/C, BEP and sensitivy analysis. The result showed that the three irrigation systemswere technically feasible to be applied for melon crop cultivation. This was shomn by normal weekly growth of melon crop and good average production yield of the melon crop. The three irrigation systems (sprinkler, drip and pitcher were financially feasible as they had NPV and Net B/C values that were greater than the reference values. Results of sensitivity analysis to 10% of cost increase and 10% of selling price decrease showed that the three irrigation systems above were still feasible to be applied for melon crop cultivation as their NPV and B/C values were greater than the refrence values..

  8. Etude des caractéristiques botaniques, agronomiques et de la biologie florale du melon africain (Cucumis melo var. L. agrestis Naudin, Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin JP.; Gnamien GY.; Zoro Bi AI.; Kouonon LC.; Djè Y.

    2006-01-01

    Study of botanic, agronomic characters and fl oral biology of African melon (Cucumis melo L. var. agrestis Naudin, Cucurbitaceae). African melon, Cucumis melo var. agrestis, is a cultivated crop for which dried seeds are used in preparation of sauce pistachio, a valuable food in Côte dʼIvoire. Few studies are concerned with this crop as compared to melon species cultivated in temperate countries. Agronomic and morphological characteristics of C. melo var. agrestis are studied based on eight c...

  9. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Defatted Mackerel Protein with Low Bitter Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hu; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the 'Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50℃, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH,16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0(1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  10. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver-extract nanoparticles synthesized from Momordica charantia fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md Mamun Or; Akhter, Kazi Nahid; Chowdhury, Jakir Ahmed; Hossen, Foysal; Hussain, Md Saddam; Hossain, Md Tanvir

    2017-06-26

    Our present study was conducted to characterize the phytoconstituents present in the aqueous extract of Momordica charantia and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-extract nanoparticles (Ag-Extract-NPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reducing AgNO3; and NaBH4 served as reducing agent. After screening of phytochemicals; AgNPs and aqueous extract were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. These NPs were characterized by using Visual inspection, UV spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques. Antimicrobial activities were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aqueous extract of M. charantia fruits contain alkaloid, phenol, saponin etc. UV-Vis spectrum showed strong absorption peak around 408 nm. The presence of -CH, -NH, -COOH etc. stretching in FTIR spectrum of Ag-Extract-NPs endorsed that AgNPs were successfully capped by bio-compounds. SEM and TEM result revealed that synthesized NPs had particle size 78.5-220 nm. Ag-Extract-NPs showed 34.6 ± 0.8 mm zone of inhibition against E. coli compared to 25.6 ± 0.5 mm for ciprofloxacin. Maximum zone of inhibition for Ag-Extract-NPs were 24.8 ± 0.7 mm, 26.4 ± 0.4 mm, 7.4 ± 0.4 mm for S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. We found that Ag-Extract-NPs have much better antibacterial efficacy than AgNPs and M. charantia extract has individually. It is also noticed that gram negative bacteria (except S. typhi) are more susceptible to Ag-Extract-NPs than gram positive bacteria. Ag-Extract-NPs showed strong antibacterial activity. In order to make a reliable stand for mankind, further study is needed to consider determining the actual biochemical pathway by which AgNPs-extracts exert their antimicrobial effect.

  11. Evaluation of the Bitter-Masking Potential of Food Proteins for EGCG by a Cell-Based Human Bitter Taste Receptor Assay and Binding Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.; Roland, W.S.U.; Gruppen, H.; Gouka, R.J.; Hijden, H.T.W.M.; Dekker, P.; Smit, G.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been ascribed to several health benefits, but its bitter taste influences the liking of products with high concentrations of this compound. ß-Casein, in particular, and several gelatins are known as strong binders of EGCG, contrary to ß-lactoglobulin. The current

  12. Sensomics analysis of key bitter compounds in the hard resin of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and their contribution to the bitter profile of Pilsner-type beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Michael; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-04-08

    Recent brewing trials indicated the occurrence of valuable bitter compounds in the hard resin fraction of hop. Aiming at the discovery of these compounds, hop's ε-resin was separated by means of a sensory guided fractionation approach and the key taste molecules were identified by means of UV/vis, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR studies as well as synthetic experiments. Besides a series of literature known xanthohumol derivatives, multifidol glucosides, flavon-3-on glycosides, and p-coumaric acid esters, a total of 11 bitter tastants are reported for the first time, namely, 1",2"-dihydroxanthohumol F, 4'-hydroxytunicatachalcone, isoxantholupon, 1-methoxy-4-prenylphloroglucinol, dihydrocyclohumulohydrochinone, xanthohumols M, N, and P, and isoxanthohumols M, N, and P, respectively. Human sensory analysis revealed low bitter recognition threshold concentrations ranging from 5 (co-multifidol glucopyranoside) to 198 μmol/L (trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl ester) depending on their chemical structure. For the first time, LC-MS/MS quantitation of these taste compounds in Pilsner-type beer, followed by taste re-engineering experiments, revealed the additive contribution of iso-α-acids and the identified hard resin components to be truly necessary and sufficient for constructing the authentic bitter percept of beer. Finally, brewing trails using the ε-resin as the only hop source impressively demonstrated the possibility to produce beverages strongly enriched with prenylated hop flavonoids.

  13. Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis

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    T S Roopashree

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In view of increasing resistance to existing antimicrobial agents, herbal drugs are being looked as very importance source for discovery of new agents for treating various ailments related to bacterial infections. Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Momordica charantia are well known plants in Asia including India which posses wide range of pharmacological activities. These drugs have been used in India as  folk remedy in the form of decoctions and infusions to treat bacterial infections and also claimed to be an effective against variety of skin conditions like psoriasis, acne, wounds etc. The present investigation was carried out to study the unexplored area of these drugs towards their antibacterial activity with respect to their traditional use as antipsoriatic agents. The herbs were subjected to successive extraction using different solvents and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial evaluation against both gram positive and gram negative organisms by cup plate technique. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts were found to be more effective against all the bacteria. Staphyllococcus aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts among the tested organisms.   Industrial relevance: The selected herbs have been used traditionally for treating skin diseases like psoriasis, for which there is no complete cure till date. Though exact mechanism of these herbs for their effectiveness in psoriasis is not understood, according to American academy of dermatology antibacterial therapy could also be used for treating psoriasis. In view of this study of antibacterial activity was carried out. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts exhibited highest activity especially against S. aureus which has been one of the organisms which aggravate conditions like psoriasis. As the aqueous extracts have shown excellent activity, these extracts could be formulated individually or in combination as external or internal dosage forms

  14. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

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    Naik Suresh R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg in acetate buffer (pH 4.5. MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also

  15. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nafisa PC; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Panda, Vandana S; Naik, Suresh R

    2007-01-01

    Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg) orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed. Conclusion Our

  16. The genetic basis of fruit morphology in horticultural crops: lessons from tomato and melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Antonio J; Diaz, Aurora; Caño-Delgado, Ana; van der Knaap, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Fruits represent an important part of the human diet and show extensive variation in size and shape between and within cultivated species. The genetic basis of such variation has been studied most extensively in tomato, where currently six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involving these traits have been fine-mapped and the genes underlying the QTLs identified. The genes responsible for the cloned QTLs belong to families with a few to many members. FASCIATED is encoded by a member of the YABBY family, CNR/FW2.2 by a member of the Cell Number Regulator family, SlKLUH/FW3.2 by a cytochrome P450 of the 78A class (CYP78A), LOCULE NUMBER by a member of the WOX family including WUSCHEL, OVATE by a member of the Ovate Family Proteins (OFP), and SUN by a member of the IQ domain family. A high portion of the history and current diversity in fruit morphology among tomato cultivars can be explained by modifications at four of these cloned QTLs. In melon, a number of QTLs involved in fruit morphology have been mapped, but the molecular basis for these QTLs is unknown. In the present review, we examine the current knowledge on the molecular basis of fruit morphology in tomato and transfer that information in order to define candidate genes of melon fruit shape and size QTLs. We hypothesize that different members of the gene families identified in tomato may have a role in the regulation of fruit morphology in other species. We anchored the published melon QTL map on the genome sequence and identified the melon family members of the six cloned tomato QTLs in the genome. We investigated the co-localization of melon fruit morphology QTLs and the candidate genes. We found that QTLs for fruit weight co-localized frequently with members of the CNR/FW2.2 and KLUH/FW3.2 families, as well as co-localizations between OFP family members and fruit-shape QTLs, making this family the most suitable to explain fruit shape variation among melon accessions.

  17. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  18. Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, DiemThuy T; Bui, Linda T; Ambrose, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    Bitter orange has recently been substituted as an ingredient in many "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss. The primary active ingredient in bitter orange is synephrine. Previous reports have documented false-positive results from ephedrine with urine amphetamine assays. Because of the similarity in chemical structure of ephedrine and synephrine, it is hypothesized that ingestion of a bitter orange supplement may have the potential to cause false-positive results with urine amphetamine assays. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay after ingestion of bitter orange. Six healthy adult male volunteers were administered a single oral dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange, a 900-mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine. Urine specimens were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 hours post-administration. Additional urine specimens were collected from 1 subject at 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. All specimens were analyzed by the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity and pH also were measured. All urine specimens demonstrated a negative response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity ranged from 1.007 to 1.028, and pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; thus, reducing the possibility that the negative results were caused by diluted specimens or reduced excretion of synephrine into alkaline urine. This information will be of value when health care providers or those who interpret drug screens are asked to provide consultation regarding the interference of bitter orange supplements with the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. A single-dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange was not found to cause a false-positive response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay in 6 healthy adult male volunteers.

  19. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa [CESAM and Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Blinova, Yulia [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Seleznev, Boris [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A. [GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Legin, Andrey [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.

  20. Effect of a bitter bolus on oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Secaf, Marie; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea), and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m). There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  1. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

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    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  2. Smallest bitter taste receptor(T2Rs)gene repertoire in carnivores%Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ling HU; Peng SHI

    2013-01-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection,preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds.Accordingly,carnivores,who encounter these toxic substances less often,should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores.To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception,we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse),two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog).We also identified,for the first time,the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret,giant panda,polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes,including 12-16 intact genes,0-1 partial but putatively functional genes,and 3-8 pseudogenes.Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species,supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes,herbivores an intermediate number,and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire.To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity,we constructed a phylogenetic tree,which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree,suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals.Similarly,the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events.Collectively,these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size,diet and habit.

  3. Protection of Momordica charantia polysaccharide against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through JNK3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Li, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Su-Hua, Qi

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented that Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) has multiple biological effects such as immune enhancement, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. However, the potential protective effects of MCP on stroke damage and its relative mechanisms remain unclear. Our present study demonstrated that MCP could scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intra-cerebral hemorrhage damage, significantly attenuating the neuronal death induced by thrombin in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that MCP prevented the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3), c-Jun and caspase-3, which was caused by the intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury. Taken together, our study demonstrated that MCP had a neuroprotective effect in response to intra-cerebral hemorrhage and its mechanisms involved the inhibition of JNK3 signaling pathway.

  4. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  5. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Melon (Cucumis Melo L.) Seeds from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic composition of different extracts of honeydew melon seeds and their antioxidant activity was determined for the first time. Phenolic compounds were identified using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. Results showed the identification of five phenolic compounds in water extract namely gallic acid and its derivative, hydroxybenzoic acid and catechin derivatives and caffeic acid. There were nine phenolic compounds identified in methanol–water extract, which are caffeic acid, two vanillic acid derivatives, ellagitanins, quercetin-3-rutinoside, derivatives of syringic acid and ellagic acid. The amounts of gallic acid, caffeic acid and catechin were higher among all phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity were higher in water and methanol–water extract than their corresponding methanol extracts. In conclusion, melon seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants with significant biological functions and may serve as food ingredients and as fortifying material for maintaining shelf life. PMID:28231162

  6. The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Prickly Paddy Melon (Cucumis myriocarpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brodie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing list of herbicide-resistant biotypes and environmental concerns about chemical use has prompted interest in alternative methods of managing weeds. This study explored the effect of microwave energy on paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus plants, fruits, and seeds. Microwave treatment killed paddy melon plants and seeds. Stem rupture due to internal steam explosions often occurred after the first few seconds of microwave treatment when a small aperture antenna was used to apply the microwave energy. The half lethal microwave energy dose for plants was 145 J/cm2; however, a dose of at least 422 J/cm2 was needed to kill seeds. This study demonstrated that a strategic burst of intense microwave energy, focused onto the stem of the plant is as effective as applying microwave energy to the whole plant, but uses much less energy.

  7. [Allelopathic effects of phenolic compounds of melon root exudates on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Xiu; Gao, Zeng-Gui; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Sun, Shu-Qing; Wang, Ying

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the phenolic compounds of melon root exudates were identified by HPLC and seven phenolic compounds including gallic acid, phthalic acid, syringic acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were observed. The laboratory experiment showed that ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid of 0.1 and 0.25 mmol x L(-1) could significantly promote the germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis spore while salicylic acid inhibited the spore germination to some degree. Syringic acid and ferulic acid significantly promoted the mycelium growth at the late stage of incubation. The pot experiments demonstrated that cinnamic acid, benzoic acid and ferulic acid enhanced melon infection at concentrations of 0.5, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol x L(-1).

  8. Three-dimensional image of sugar content visualization in a melon by spectral information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Junichi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2000-05-01

    In order to visualize sugar content of a melon, the relationship between sugar content and absorption spectra was investigated using a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. The absorbance at 676 nm, which is close to the chlorophyll absorption band, had a high inverse correlation with sugar content. A high-resolution cooled CCD imaging camera with the band-pass filter of 676 nm was used to capture the spectral absorption image. The calibration method for converting the absorbance on the image into Brix sugar content was developed in accordance with NIR techniques. Applying this method to each pixel of the absorption image, a color distribution map of the sugar content was constructed. In addition, a special slicing device that can cut a melon in each 5 mm thickness was developed in order to create a 3D image of sugar content distribution.

  9. Screening of Turkish Melon Accessions for Resistance to ZYMV, WMV and CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKBIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Çukurova University Department of Horticulture more than 350 melon accessions were collected from different ecological parts of Turkey which is located on the secondary genetic diversification center of this crop, and their characterization studies are near completion. Furthermore, evaluation studies of these materials have started. In the present study 67 melon accessions, sampled from this germplasm, were tested for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. After resistance tests made by mechanical inoculation, four accessions (‘CU 100’, ‘CU 287’, ‘CU 305’ and ‘CU 328’ were found resistant to ZYMV and three accessions (‘CU 305’, ‘C 264’, and ‘C 276’ to WMV. No resistant genotype was found to CMV.

  10. The neuronal and molecular basis of quinine-dependent bitter taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter sensing can alert an animal that a specific type of food is potentially harmful for the organism and should not be consumed. However, not all bitter compounds are equally toxic and some bitter tastants may even have a positive valence in certain contexts, such as self-medication. Thus, taste systems in general have likely a higher capacity than just alerting the animal. In this study, we investigate bitter sensing and processing in Drosophila larvae, using quinine, a substance perceived by humans as bitter. We show that the four different behaviors choice, feeding, survival and associative olfactory learning are directly affected by quinine. On the cellular level we show that only 12 gustatory sensory receptor neurons expressing both GR66a and GR33a are required for quinine dependent choice and feeding behavior. Interestingly these neurons are not necessary for quinine dependent survival or associative learning. On the molecular level, only the GR33a receptor but not GR66a is required for quinine dependent choice behavior. Screening for single gustatory sensory receptor neurons that trigger quinine dependent choice behavior revealed that a single GR97a positive neuron located in the peripheral terminal sense organ is necessary and sufficient. Taken together, our study shows for the first time that the elementary chemosensory system of the Drosophila larva can serve as a simple model to understand the neuronal basis of taste information processing on the single cell level with respect to different behavioral outputs.

  11. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-07-28

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p-synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p-synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p-synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p-synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p-synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p-synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p-synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The repertoire of bitter taste receptor genes in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhong, Huaming; Wei, Qinguo; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Liu, Guangshuai; Sha, Weilai; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-07-01

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected. Differences in the pseudogenes were observed among nine canid species. For example, Tas2r4 was a pseudogene in the dog but might play a functional role in other canid species. The Tas2r42 and Tas2r10 genes were pseudogenes in the maned wolf and dhole, respectively, and the Tas2r5 and Tas2r34 genes were pseudogenes in the African hunting dog; however, these genes were intact genes in other canid species. The differences in Tas2r pseudogenes among canids might suggest that the loss of intact Tas2r genes in canid species is species-dependent. We further compared the 183 Tas2r genes identified in this study with Tas2r genes from ten additional carnivorous species to evaluate the potential influence of diet on the evolution of the Tas2r gene repertoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Tas2r genes from the 18 species intermingled across the tree, suggesting that Tas2r genes are conserved among carnivores. Within canids, we found that some Tas2r genes corresponded to the traditional taxonomic groupings, while some did not. PIC analysis showed that the number of Tas2r genes in carnivores exhibited no positive correlation with diet composition, which might be due to the limited number of carnivores included in our study.

  13. Alternative sanitizers to chlorine for use on fresh-cut "Galia" (Cucumis melo var. catalupensis) melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A C; Conesa, A; Aguayo, E; Artes, F

    2008-11-01

    Chlorine is commonly used to reduce microbial load in fresh-cut vegetables. However, the production of chlorinated organic compounds, such as trihalomethanes, which are potential carcinogens, has created the need to investigate the efficiency of nontraditional sanitizers and alternative techniques. The effects of 4 novel sanitizers were tested in fresh-cut "Galia" melon: chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) at 3 mg/L, peracetic acid (PAA) at 80 mg/L, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) at 50 mg/L, and nisin at 250 mg/L plus EDTA 100 mg/L (nisin + EDTA). A chlorine treatment (NaOCl at 150 mg/L) was used as a control. Pieces of melon were packed in polypropylene trays under passive modified atmosphere (3 to 4 kPa of O(2) and 10 to 11 kPa of CO(2)) and stored up to 10 d at 5 degrees C. Microbial growth, firmness, respiration rate, gas composition, sensory evaluation, color, total soluble solids (TSS), and tritable acidity (TA) were evaluated at days 0, 7, and 10. The novel sanitizers PAA, H(2)O(2), and nisin + EDTA, in the studied concentrations, reduced the microbial growth to a more efficient range than chlorine and ClO(2). In addition, those sanitizers delayed softness, did not affect the respiration rate, SST, or AT. The sensorial parameters were kept above the upper limit of marketability and they did not impart an "off flavor." These sanitizers maintained quality and shelf life of fresh-cut Galia melon for 10 d of storage at 5 degrees C. Nevertheless, other concentrations, in particular for ClO(2,) could be tested to study an extended shelf life in melon pieces.

  14. A 'golden' SNP in CmOr governs the fruit flesh color of melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuri, Galil; Zhou, Xiangjun; Chayut, Noam; Yuan, Hui; Portnoy, Vitaly; Meir, Ayala; Sa'ar, Uzi; Baumkoler, Fabian; Mazourek, Michael; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Arthur A; Li, Li; Burger, Joseph; Katzir, Nurit; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2015-04-01

    The flesh color of Cucumis melo (melon) is genetically determined, and can be white, light green or orange, with β-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as the previously described gf locus in melon. CmOr was found to co-segregate with fruit flesh color, and presented two haplotypes (alleles) in a broad germplasm collection, one being associated with orange flesh and the second being associated with either white or green flesh. Allelic variation of CmOr does not affect its transcription or protein level. The variation also does not affect its plastid subcellular localization. Among the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between CmOr alleles in orange versus green/white-flesh fruit, a single SNP causes a change of an evolutionarily highly conserved arginine to histidine in the CmOr protein. Functional analysis of CmOr haplotypes in an Arabidopsis callus system confirmed the ability of the CmOr orange haplotype to induce β-carotene accumulation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CmOr green/white haplotype to change the CmOR arginine to histidine triggered β-carotene accumulation. The identification of the 'golden' SNP in CmOr, which is responsible for the non-orange and orange melon fruit phenotypes, provides new tools for studying the Or mechanism of action, and suggests genome editing of the Or gene for nutritional biofortification of crops.

  15. [Effects of phosphorus fertilization on biomass accumulation and phosphorus use efficiency of trellis-cultivated melon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-lang; Wu, Hai-hua; Luo, Jia; Hao, Li-na; Qi, Xiao-chen; Zhao, Ku

    2016-02-01

    A field experiment applying six rates of P fertilizer (P2O5, 0, 150, 225, 300, 375 and 450 kg . hm-2, respectively) was conducted to investigate the effects of P fertilization on dry matter accumulation (DMA), P uptake and accumulation (PUA) and P use efficiency (PUE) of trellis-cultivated melon. Results showed that, P application increased DMA and PUA, for 150 and 225 kg P2O5 . hm-2 treatments, being 19.9% and 26.3%, 23.0% and 26.3% higher than that in no P fertilizer treatment at fruiting stage. With plant growth, DMA and PUA of different organs and the whole plant gradually increased. DMA and PUA were mainly distributed in the leaves during the early stage of the growth and in the fruit during the latter stage. P application decreased the recovery efficiency of applied P (REP), agronomic efficiency of applied P (AEP) and partial factor productivity of applied P (PFP). At 150 kg . hm-2 P application rate, the maximum REP, AEP and PFP were 11.1%, 152.9 kg . kg-1 and 476.3 kg . kg-1, respectively. Compared with no P fertilizer treatment, melon yields of 150 and 225 kg P2O5 . hm2 treatments increased by 47.3% and 39.7%, respectively. In summary, the vining stage and fruit expanding stage were the key periods for P application in trellis-cultivated melon system. Based on synthesized economic yield and P fertilizer efficiency, the recommendation of P fertilizer for trellis-cultivated melon is 150-225 kg P2O5 . hm-2 under the climatic condition of the experimental area.

  16. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  17. A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are few genomic tools available in melon (Cucumis melo L.), a member of the Cucurbitaceae, despite its importance as a crop. Among these tools, genetic maps have been constructed mainly using marker types such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) in different mapping populations. There is a growing need for saturating the genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphisms (...

  18. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Tapioka Dan Sorbitol Sebagai Zat Pemlastis Dalam Pembuatan Edible Coating Pada Penyimpanan Buah Melon.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Luthfi Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Coating a fruit with edible coating is used to delay the quality decrease because edible coating can be used as a barrier, for the diffusion of oxygen, carbondioxside and water vapor as well as vapor and flavor component. The aim of this research was to find the best tapioca concentration and sorbitol concentration as the plasticizer in the making of edible coating for melon storage. The research had been performed using factorial completely randomized design with two factors, i.e.: tapioca c...

  19. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  20. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) during fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ah-Young; Kim, Yong-Min; Koo, Namjin; Lee, Su Min; Nahm, Seokhyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background The oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of the most important cultivated cucurbits grown widely in Korea, Japan, and northern China. It is cultivated because its fruit has a sweet aromatic flavor and is rich in soluble sugars, organic acids, minerals, and vitamins. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of the developmental changes that determine size, color, and sugar contents of the fruit, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to analyze the genes expressed during fruit development. Results We identified a total of 47,666 of representative loci from 100,875 transcripts and functionally annotated 33,963 of the loci based on orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among those loci, we identified 5,173 differentially expressed genes, which were classified into 14 clusters base on the modulation of their expression patterns. The expression patterns suggested that the differentially expressed genes were related to fruit development and maturation through diverse metabolic pathways. Analyses based on gene set enrichment and the pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes suggested that the expression of genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism and carotenoid biosynthesis were regulated dynamically during fruit development and subsequent maturation. Conclusion Our results provide the gene expression patterns related to different stages of fruit development and maturation in the oriental melon. The expression patterns give clues about important regulatory mechanisms, especially those involving starch, sugar, and carotenoid biosynthesis, in the development of the oriental melon fruit. PMID:28070461

  2. Transposon Insertions, Structural Variations, and SNPs Contribute to the Evolution of the Melon Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanseverino, Walter; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Vives, Cristina; Pinosio, Sara; Burgos-Paz, William; Morgante, Michele; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián E; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Casacuberta, Josep Maria

    2015-10-01

    The availability of extensive databases of crop genome sequences should allow analysis of crop variability at an unprecedented scale, which should have an important impact in plant breeding. However, up to now the analysis of genetic variability at the whole-genome scale has been mainly restricted to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This is a strong limitation as structural variation (SV) and transposon insertion polymorphisms are frequent in plant species and have had an important mutational role in crop domestication and breeding. Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of melon genetic diversity, which includes a detailed analysis of SNPs, SV, and transposon insertion polymorphisms. The variability found among seven melon varieties representing the species diversity and including wild accessions and highly breed lines, is relatively high due in part to the marked divergence of some lineages. The diversity is distributed nonuniformly across the genome, being lower at the extremes of the chromosomes and higher in the pericentromeric regions, which is compatible with the effect of purifying selection and recombination forces over functional regions. Additionally, this variability is greatly reduced among elite varieties, probably due to selection during breeding. We have found some chromosomal regions showing a high differentiation of the elite varieties versus the rest, which could be considered as strongly selected candidate regions. Our data also suggest that transposons and SV may be at the origin of an important fraction of the variability in melon, which highlights the importance of analyzing all types of genetic variability to understand crop genome evolution.

  3. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality.

  4. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Silva, I; Eduardo, I; Blanca, J; Esteras, C; Picó, B; Nuez, F; Arús, P; Garcia-Mas, J; Monforte, Antonio José

    2008-12-01

    We report the development of 158 primer pairs flanking SSR motifs in genomic (gSSR) and EST (EST-SSR) melon sequences, all yielding polymorphic bands in melon germplasm, except one that was polymorphic only in Cucurbita species. A similar polymorphism level was found among EST-SSRs and gSSRs, between dimeric and trimeric EST-SSRs, and between EST-SSRs placed in the open reading frame or any of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions. Correlation between SSR length and polymorphism was only found for dinucleotide EST-SSRs located within the untranslated regions, but not for trinucleotide EST-SSRs. Transferability of EST-SSRs to Cucurbita species was assayed and 12.7% of the primer pairs amplified at least in one species, although only 5.4% were polymorphic. A set of 14 double haploid lines from the cross between the cultivar "Piel de Sapo" and the accession PI161375 were selected for the bin mapping approach in melon. One hundred and twenty-one SSR markers were newly mapped. The position of 46 SSR loci was also verified by genotyping the complete population. A final bin-map was constructed including 80 RFLPs, 212 SSRs, 3 SNPs and the Nsv locus, distributed in 122 bins with an average bin length of 10.2 cM and a maximum bin length of 33 cM. Map density was 4.2 cM/marker or 5.9 cM/SSR.

  5. Melon RNA interference (RNAi) lines silenced for Cm-eIF4E show broad virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana M; Gosalvez, Blanca; Sempere, Raquel N; Burgos, Lorenzo; Aranda, Miguel A; Truniger, Verónica

    2012-09-01

    Efficient and sustainable control of plant viruses may be achieved using genetically resistant crop varieties, although resistance genes are not always available for each pathogen; in this regard, the identification of new genes that are able to confer broad-spectrum and durable resistance is highly desirable. Recently, the cloning and characterization of recessive resistance genes from different plant species has pointed towards eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIF) of the 4E family as factors required for the multiplication of many different viruses. Thus, we hypothesized that eIF4E may control the susceptibility of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to a broad range of viruses. To test this hypothesis, Cm-eIF4E knockdown melon plants were generated by the transformation of explants with a construct that was designed to induce the silencing of this gene, and the plants from T2 generations were genetically and phenotypically characterized. In transformed plants, Cm-eIF4E was specifically silenced, as identified by the decreased accumulation of Cm-eIF4E mRNA and the appearance of small interfering RNAs derived from the transgene, whereas the Cm-eIF(iso)4E mRNA levels remained unaffected. We challenged these transgenic melon plants with eight agronomically important melon-infecting viruses, and identified that they were resistant to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), indicating that Cm-eIF4E controls melon susceptibility to these four viruses. Therefore, Cm-eIF4E is an efficient target for the identification of new resistance alleles able to confer broad-spectrum virus resistance in melon.

  6. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.

  7. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  8. Comparisons of individual bitterness perception and vegetable liking and consumption among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Nicklaus, Sophie; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the consumption of bitter and strong tasting vegetables such as cabbages and root vegetables, it is required to identify potential mediators of sociodemographic–diet relationships. In this context a consumer field studywas conducted in Denmark which comprised a semi...... sites in April and June 2011. Data was subjected to multivariate data analysis in order to elucidate relationships between consumer bitter sensitivity, vegetable preference, liking and consumption of vegetables together with socio-demographiccharacteristics. The outcome of the present study indicated...... a positive relationship between high liking of vegetables in general and high vegetable consumption.Furthermore, it was seen that individuals with low sensitivity toquinine preferred the bitter carrot sample compared to the sweeter carrot sample although this fact could not be confirmed statistically...

  9. Gastrointestinal toxicity due to bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)--a report of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rajesh; Sud, Randhir; Khaliq, Abdul; Kumar, Mandhir; Jain, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Traditional medicine is widely practiced in tropical countries. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) fruit juice is advocated as a part of complementary and alternative medicine. If the bottle gourd juice becomes bitter it is considered toxic. We report 15 patients, who developed toxicity due to drinking bitter bottle gourd juice. Patients presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhea and hypotension within 15 min to 6-h after ingestion of bottle gourd juice. Endoscopy showed esophagitis, gastric erosions, ulcers and duodenitis. Hypotension was treated with crystalloids and inotropic support. All patients recovered in 1-4 days. Endoscopically the lesions healed in 2 weeks. Bitter bottle gourd can cause gastrointestinal toxicity with hematemesis and hypotension. Supportive management is the treatment and all patients recover within 1 week.

  10. Does mere exposure mediate sensitivity to bitter taste on consumer liking and acceptability of whole grain foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health benefits of whole grains (WG) are well known, yet consumption by Americans falls far short of recommended amounts. Roughly 75% of Americans are sensitive to bitter taste, and WG are known to contain bitter tasting phenolic compounds. It has been reported that individuals with the highest se...

  11. Berberine induces GLP-1 secretion through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunli; Hao, Gang; Zhang, Quanying; Hua, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wenjia; Zong, Shunlin; Huang, Ming; Wen, Xiaozhou

    2015-09-15

    Our previous studies revealed that berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion was a possible mechanism for berberine exerting good effects on hyperglycemia. This study was designed to ascertain whether berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1 was related with activation of bitter taste receptors expressed in gastrointestinal tract. Western blotting results showed that TAS2R38, a subtype of bitter taste receptor, was expressed on human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. GLP-1 secretion induced by berberine from NCI-H716 cells was inhibited by incubation with anti-TAS2R38 antibody. We further performed gene silencing using siRNA to knockdown TAS2R38 from NCI-H716 cells, which showed that siRNA knockdown of the TAS2R38 reduced berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion. We adopted inhibitors of PLC and TRPM5 known to be involved in bitter taste transduction to investigate the underlying pathways mediated in berberine-induced GLP-1 secretion. It was found that PLC inhibitor U73122 inhibited berberine-induced GLP-1 release in NCI-H716 cells, while TRPM5 blocker quinine failed to attenuate berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1. The present results demonstrated that berberine stimulated GLP-1 secretion via activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors in a PLC-dependent manner. Because berberine was found to be a ligand of bitter taste receptor, the results of present study may provide an explanation for some bitter taste substance obtain hypoglycemic effect.

  12. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  13. Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Shawn M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter acids (e.g. humulone are prenylated polyketides synthesized in lupulin glands of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus which are important contributors to the bitter flavour and stability of beer. Bitter acids are formed from acyl-CoA precursors derived from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA degradation and C5 prenyl diphosphates from the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomes of isolated lupulin glands, cones with glands removed and leaves from high α-acid hop cultivars, and analyzed these datasets for genes involved in bitter acid biosynthesis including the supply of major precursors. We also measured the levels of BCAAs, acyl-CoA intermediates, and bitter acids in glands, cones and leaves. Results Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic and reverse (catabolic reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial and

  14. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  15. Pungent and bitter, cytotoxic and antiviral terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Toyota, Masao; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Komala, Ismiarni; Ito, Takuya; Yagi, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Most liverworts elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent and bitter tasting compounds many of which show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergenic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, superoxide anion radical release, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production inhibitory, muscle relaxant, antiobesity, piscicidal and nematocidal activities. Several inedible mushrooms produce female spider pheromones, strong antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. The present paper is concerned with the extraction and isolation of terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi and their pungent and bitter taste, and cytotoxic and antiviral activity.

  16. Identification of functional bitter taste receptors and their antagonist in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Bapon; Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Yoshida, Yuta; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-01-22

    Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests. We tested three agonists of cT2R2 and three agonists of cT2R7. In a 10-min drinking study, the intakes of cT2R2 agonist solutions were not different from that of water. On the other hand, the intakes of cT2R7 agonist solutions were significantly lower compared to water. In addition, we constructed cT2R1-and cT2R7-expressing cells in order to search for an antagonist for these functional bitter taste receptors. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we found that 6-methoxyflavanone (6-meth) can inhibit the activities of both cT2R1 and cT2R7. Moreover, 6-meth also inhibited the reduction of the intake of bitter solutions containing cT2R1 or cT2R7 agonists in behavioral tests. Taken together, these results suggested that cT2R7 is a functional bitter taste receptor like cT2R1, but that cT2R2 is not, and that 6-meth is an antagonist for these two functional chicken bitter taste receptors. This is the first identification of an antagonist of chicken bitter receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of β-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Matthew K; Lester, Gene E; Riedl, Ken M; Kopec, Rachel E; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2011-05-11

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honeydew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honeydew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honeydew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honeydew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 0.094 g and 0.071 g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honeydew melons was determined to be 3.2 ± 0.3%, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honeydew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8'-, β-apo-10', β-apo-12'-, and β-apo-14'-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Daucus carota).

  18. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Genome amplification in the absence of recent duplication in an old widely cultivated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the genome sequence of melon (Cucumis melo L.), an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3 % of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogene...

  19. Comparative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes in identification of phylogenetic association among seven melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Amanullah, Sikandar; Luan, Feishi

    2016-12-01

    A variety of melons are cultivated worldwide, and their specific biological properties make them an attractive model for molecular studies. This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear genomes of seven melon accessions (Cucumis melo L.) to identify the phylogenetic relationships among melon cultivars with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and bioinformatical analyses. The data showed that there were a total of 658 mitochondrial SNPs (207-295 in each), while there were 0-60 chloroplast SNPs among these seven melon cultivars, compared to the reference genome. Bioinformatical analysis showed that the mitochondrial tree topology was unable to separate the melon features, whereas the maximum parsimony/neighbor joining (MP/NJ) tree of the chloroplast SNPs could define melon features such as seed length, width, thickness, 100-seed weight, and type. SNPs of the nuclear genome were better than the mitochondrial and chloroplast SNPs in the identification of melon features. The data demonstrated the usefulness of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear SNPs in identification of phylogenetic associations among these seven melon cultivars.

  20. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species.

  1. [Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances of melon seedlings under sub-low temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-hai; Jia, Shuang-shuang; Miao, Yong-mei; Lu, Xiao-min; Li, Hui-min

    2016-02-01

    The melon cultivar 'Yangjiaosu' was subjected to the treatment of 18 °C/12 °C (day/night) in an artificial climate chamber for 6 days, and the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes [nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ] , the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and NH4+-N as well as the osmotic adjustment substances of melon leaf were then determined. The results showed that, compared with the control, sub-low temperature treatment reduced the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and the NR activity, but increased the content of NH4(+)-N, thereby leading to the growth inhibition of melon. Exogenous MT treatment significantly improved the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes, especially the activities of GS and GOGAT, effectively reducing the content of NH4+-N. Moreover, MT treatment increased the contents of proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar, and alleviated the damage of sub-low temperature on the cell membrane by reducing the relative electrical conductivity and MDA content of melon leaves. In short, this work suggested that exogenous MT would enhance the sub-low temperature adaptability of melon by decreasing the leaf content of NH4-N, increasing the contents of osmotic adjustment substances and reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation levels.

  2. Biochemical and color changes of fresh-cut melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Galia treated with UV-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Kasim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of minimally processed commodities in the retail groceries of most developed countries has been rising continuously during the last decades. Cantaloupe melon is used more than any other fruit in fresh-cut processing. Ultraviolet (UV light has been extensively used to simulate biological stres in plants and for determining resistance mechanisms of plant tissues. In this study the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on some properties of fresh-cut cantalope melon was determined during storage. Freshly cut cantalope melons cubes treated with ultraviolet irradiation at the doses of 1, 2 or 3 min before storage, and then placed in a cold room at 5±1°C temperature and 85-90% RH. Hue angle values of control group is low compared to UV-C treated samples, whereas L values of is high. EL of UV treated samples higher than those of control group. Total soluble solids of fresh-cut melon samples in UC3 treatment increased during storage. The results indicate that UV-C treatments on fresh-cut cantaloupe melon cubes increased total soluble solids independently from water loss.

  3. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  4. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  5. Determination of Total Mercury in Fillets of Sport Fishes Collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  6. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  7. Intrinsic bitterness of flavonoids and isoflavonoids and masking of their taste activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been associated with beneficial health effects. Therefore, consumption of (iso)flavonoid-rich food products, and enrichment of foods with (iso)flavonoids is becoming increasingly popular. However, several (iso)flavonoids have been reported as bitter.

  8. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed.

  9. Sensory Threshold Studies of Picrocrocin, the Major Bitter Compound of Saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthou, Andreas; Pouliou, Evangelia; Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a wider project on the bitter taste of saffron and its preparations. A deeper knowledge on the taste perception of picrocrocin is necessary in order to develop products that satisfy consumer senses and provide them with adequate amounts of saffron major constituents, also appreciated for bioactivity. A systematic approach on the bitterness of picrocrocin, the major responsible compound, was conducted. A panel was trained specifically for the determination of taste detection and recognition thresholds of picrocrocin, which were found to be 5.34 and 7.26 mg/L, respectively, using the Ascending Forced Choice of Limits methodology. The threshold values were examined in water in absence and presence of other saffron constituents and ethanol and were found to decrease when served hot (61 ± 4 °C). Bitterness was enhanced in 40% (v/v) aqueous ethanol. In both aqueous and ethanol extracts, the presence of saffron volatiles improved bitterness perception. The usefulness of the study was tested in the case of commercial saffron based infusions. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. The genetics of bitterness and pungency detection and its impact on phytonutrient evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Beauchamp, Gary K; Breslin, Paul A S

    2009-07-01

    Perceptions of food vary as a function of an individual's genetic factors, such as the set of alleles coding for their taste, irritation, and olfaction receptor proteins. We established a direct link between individual differences in sensitivity to the glucosinolates, a family of bitter compounds in vegetables and roots, and genetic variations in the bitter taste receptor (hTAS2R38) for these compounds. These individual differences in the perception of nutrients likely evolved to influence ingestion. Bitterness and pungency are both believed to signal potentially harmful compounds in our foods, but consumption of many compounds eliciting these sensations is also linked to decreased risks of cancer and degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, implicating the medicinal values of these compounds as well. Since almost all medicines are toxic at high doses, the phytonutrients may be considered both toxins and medicines, depending on the individual's metabolic sensitivities. The conflicting harmful and healthful effects of bitter and pungent compounds might explain why human populations maintain heterozygosity in sensory receptor genes underlying these sensations.

  11. Intrinsic bitterness of flavonoids and isoflavonoids and masking of their taste activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been associated with beneficial health effects. Therefore, consumption of (iso)flavonoid-rich food products, and enrichment of foods with (iso)flavonoids is becoming increasingly popular. However, several (iso)flavonoids have been reported as bitter. Consequent

  12. Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Bongers, F.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key message This phenological analysis of bitter and sweet bush mango trees is part of their biosystematics. It supports the species distinction hypothesis postulated by Harris (Bull J Bot Nat Belg 65(1-2):143-196, 1996 ) and Lowe et al. (Mol Ecol 9:831-841, 2000 ). African Bush Mango trees are

  13. Computational studies of ligand-receptor interactions in bitter taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguet, Laurence; Zhang, Ziding; Grigorov, Martin G

    2006-01-01

    Phenylthiocarbamide tastes intensely bitter to some individuals, but others find it completely tasteless. Recently, it was suggested that phenylthiocarbamide elicits bitter taste by interacting with a human G protein-coupled receptor (hTAS2R38) encoded by the PTC gene. The phenylthiocarbamide nontaster trait was linked to three single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring in the PTC gene. Using the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin as template, we generated the 3D structure of hTAS2R38 bitter taste receptor. We were able to map on the receptor structure the amino acids affected by the genetic polymorphisms and to propose molecular functions for two of them that explained the emergence of the nontaster trait. We used molecular docking simulations to find that phenylthiocarbamide exhibited a higher affinity for the target receptor than the structurally similar molecule 6-n-propylthiouracil, in line with recent experimental studies. A 3D model was constructed for the hTAS2R16 bitter taste receptor as well, by applying the same protocol. We found that the recently published experimental ligand binding affinity data for this receptor correlated well with the binding scores obtained from our molecular docking calculations.

  14. Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Bongers, F.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key message This phenological analysis of bitter and sweet bush mango trees is part of their biosystematics. It supports the species distinction hypothesis postulated by Harris (Bull J Bot Nat Belg 65(1-2):143-196, 1996 ) and Lowe et al. (Mol Ecol 9:831-841, 2000 ). African Bush Mango trees are prio

  15. Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

    2012-09-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 μg cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 μg cyanide/g and 200 μg amygdalin/g. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  16. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    , and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...

  17. Expression, subcellular localization, and cis-regulatory structure of duplicated phytoene synthase genes in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Coku, Ardian; Inoue, Kentaro; Tian, Li

    2011-10-01

    Carotenoids perform many critical functions in plants, animals, and humans. It is therefore important to understand carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation in plants. Phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in carotenoid biosynthesis. While PSY is present as a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, duplicated PSY genes have been identified in many economically important monocot and dicot crops. CmPSY1 was previously identified from melon (Cucumis melo L.), but was not functionally characterized. We isolated a second PSY gene, CmPSY2, from melon in this work. CmPSY2 possesses a unique intron/exon structure that has not been observed in other plant PSYs. Both CmPSY1 and CmPSY2 are functional in vitro, but exhibit distinct expression patterns in different melon tissues and during fruit development, suggesting differential regulation of the duplicated melon PSY genes. In vitro chloroplast import assays verified the plastidic localization of CmPSY1 and CmPSY2 despite the lack of an obvious plastid target peptide in CmPSY2. Promoter motif analysis of the duplicated melon and tomato PSY genes and the Arabidopsis PSY revealed distinctive cis-regulatory structures of melon PSYs and identified gibberellin-responsive motifs in all PSYs except for SlPSY1, which has not been reported previously. Overall, these data provide new insights into the evolutionary history of plant PSY genes and the regulation of PSY expression by developmental and environmental signals that may involve different regulatory networks.

  18. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

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    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  20. PRESERVING VITAMIN C CONTENT IN MELONS DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE BY TREATMNET WITH IONIZED AIR AND SHRINK WRAPPING

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    D. S. Stepanenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and analyzes the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of vitamin C content in fruit of melons. We considered melons of average ripening period from Bereginya and Golden varieties during storage by treatment with ionized air and shrink wrapping. Studies conducted in 2011-2013 at the National Institute of Vine and Wine Magarach (Yalta and Taurian State Agrotechnological University (Melitopol. For the experiment we used a melon fruit of medium ripening, varieties Golden and Bereginya that grow in the steppe zone of southern Ukraine (farm PE Borisov of Yakymovka district, Zaporozhye region. Collection of fruits and their selection for laying deposited were performed in accordance with relevant standards. To determine the mass concentration of ascorbic acid we used iodometric method. Before laying melon fruit for storage of pre-cooled for 25 hours and then spent processing and packaging. In our experiment, we maintained the relative humidity (GDP about of 85% and air temperature of +3 Celcium degrees in the repository. The treatment was carried out using the fruits developed by own patented device for preparing food for storage. Analysis of the experimental data led to the following conclusions: The content of ascorbic acid during the storage of fruits melon was reduced. Storage of fruits, packed (in whole or in part in shrimp and processed by ionized air gave significantly better preservation of vitamin C in the fruit compared to fruit without processing by air and  unpackaged fruits and in control. Storage of fruits, fully packaged and processed by ionized air, gave the best results in the equalization of other research options. The fruits of melon of variety Golden somewhat better retained vitamin C by the end of the storage period, although its original content was lower than in fruit of varieties Bereginya. Keywords: storage of fruits, vitamin C, ionized air, shrink wrap.

  1. Root transcriptional responses of two melon genotypes with contrasting resistance to Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack et Uecker infection

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    Roig Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monosporascus cannonballus is the main causal agent of melon vine decline disease. Several studies have been carried out mainly focused on the study of the penetration of this pathogen into melon roots, the evaluation of symptoms severity on infected roots, and screening assays for breeding programs. However, a detailed molecular view on the early interaction between M. cannonballus and melon roots in either susceptible or resistant genotypes is lacking. In the present study, we used a melon oligo-based microarray to investigate the gene expression responses of two melon genotypes, Cucumis melo ‘Piel de sapo’ (‘PS’ and C. melo ‘Pat 81’, with contrasting resistance to the disease. This study was carried out at 1 and 3 days after infection (DPI by M. cannonballus. Results Our results indicate a dissimilar behavior of the susceptible vs. the resistant genotypes from 1 to 3 DPI. ‘PS’ responded with a more rapid infection response than ‘Pat 81’ at 1 DPI. At 3 DPI the total number of differentially expressed genes identified in ‘PS’ declined from 451 to 359, while the total number of differentially expressed transcripts in ‘Pat 81’ increased from 187 to 849. Several deregulated transcripts coded for components of Ca2+ and jasmonic acid (JA signalling pathways, as well as for other proteins related to defence mechanisms. Transcriptional differences in the activation of the JA-mediated response in ‘Pat 81’ compared to ‘PS’ suggested that JA response might be partially responsible for their observed differences in resistance. Conclusions As a result of this study we have identified for the first time a set of candidate genes involved in the root response to the infection of the pathogen causing melon vine decline. This information is useful for understanding the disease progression and resistance mechanisms few days after inoculation.

  2. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment.

  3. The cellular and molecular basis of bitter tastant-induced bronchodilation.

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    Cheng-Hai Zhang

    Full Text Available Bronchodilators are a standard medicine for treating airway obstructive diseases, and β2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been the most commonly used bronchodilators since their discovery. Strikingly, activation of G-protein-coupled bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs in airway smooth muscle (ASM causes a stronger bronchodilation in vitro and in vivo than β2 agonists, implying that new and better bronchodilators could be developed. A critical step towards realizing this potential is to understand the mechanisms underlying this bronchodilation, which remain ill-defined. An influential hypothesis argues that bitter tastants generate localized Ca(2+ signals, as revealed in cultured ASM cells, to activate large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels, which in turn hyperpolarize the membrane, leading to relaxation. Here we report that in mouse primary ASM cells bitter tastants neither evoke localized Ca(2+ events nor alter spontaneous local Ca(2+ transients. Interestingly, they increase global intracellular [Ca(2+]i, although to a much lower level than bronchoconstrictors. We show that these Ca(2+ changes in cells at rest are mediated via activation of the canonical bitter taste signaling cascade (i.e., TAS2R-gustducin-phospholipase Cβ [PLCβ]- inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor [IP3R], and are not sufficient to impact airway contractility. But activation of TAS2Rs fully reverses the increase in [Ca(2+]i induced by bronchoconstrictors, and this lowering of the [Ca(2+]i is necessary for bitter tastant-induced ASM cell relaxation. We further show that bitter tastants inhibit L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+ channels (VDCCs, resulting in reversal in [Ca(2+]i, and this inhibition can be prevented by pertussis toxin and G-protein βγ subunit inhibitors, but not by the blockers of PLCβ and IP3R. Together, we suggest that TAS2R stimulation activates two opposing Ca(2+ signaling pathways via Gβγ to increase [Ca(2+]i at rest while blocking activated L

  4. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

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    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  5. In vitro anti-cancer activity of ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia on cervical and breast cancer cell lines

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    C R Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the total phenol content (TPC of the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia (EEMC whole fruit and to study the cytotoxic activity of this extract against cell lines representing carcinomas of cervix and breast. Materials and Methods: Cervical and breast carcinoma cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 were procured from National Center for Cell Sciences, Pune, and cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1 mM L-glutamine. EEMC was prepared by graded ethanol fractionation method and the TPC determined using Folin–Ciocalteu assay. For cytotoxicity studies, 5000 cells/well in 100 μl DMEM-10% FBS medium were seeded in a 96 well plate; and treated with increasing concentration of EEMC. Efficacy of EEMC was determined by measuring the cell number using sulforhodamine B assay. Percentage inhibition was calculated using dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control. The IC (50 value was calculated from the plot of inhibition (% in dose- and time-dependent manner using GraphPad PRISM software. Results: The total phenolic content of EEMC decreased with increasing ethanol concentration from 50% to 100%. Cytotoxicity studies identified 50% ethanolic extract as the most active fraction. A time- and dose-dependent increase in the efficacy of 50% ethanolic extract for inhibiting cervical and breast carcinoma cell growth was noticed. The IC (50 dose was 12.31 μg/ml and 0.769 μg/ml for 50% EEMC at 48 h incubation for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. Conclusion: The presence of high total phenolic acid content in 50% ethanolic extract indicates that the anti-cancer activity of Momordica charantia could be due to the secondary metabolites. Based on the IC (50 value we conclude that the 50% EEMC is more potent against breast cancer cell lines. Further studies are required to know the exact cause for the increase in cell inhibition at 48 h incubation than in 72 h.

  6. Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia

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    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae is one of the largest families in vegetable kingdom consisting of largest number of edible type species. Momordica charantia is one such important vegetable that belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In order to evaluate the effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on M. charantia, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experiment was laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen rates consisting of: N1 = 75, N2 = 150 and N3 = 225 kg N ha−1 as main plot and three time application including: T1 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 before flowering, T2 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 after fruit to start, and T3 = 1/3 at 3 and 4 leaves, 1/3 before flowering, and 1/3 after fruit to start were used as sub plot. The results revealed that both rate and time of nitrogen application had a significant effect on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was recorded at the rate of N3 and time of nitrogen application in T3 treatment. In this study, by increasing nitrogen levels from 75 to 225 kg N ha−1, the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit increased. The time of nitrogen application and interaction between rate and time of nitrogen treatments had no significant effect on the amounts of these three elements. Nitrogen level had a significant effect on the amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc elements. The highest values of calcium and zinc were obtained at N2 and manganese at N3 nitrogen level. Time of nitrogen application treatment in this experiment had only significant effect on the amounts of calcium and zinc elements and had no significant effect on the other elements.

  7. Medicinal Chemistry of the Anti-Diabetic Effects of Momordica Charantia: Active Constituents and Modes of Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaipaul; Cumming, Emmanuel; Manoharan, Gunasekar; Kalasz, Huba; Adeghate, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the oldest known human disease currently affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is derived from two Greek words meaning siphon and sugar. In DM, patients have high blood level of glucose and this passes out with urine. This is because the endocrine pancreas does not produce either or not enough insulin or the insulin which is produced is not exerting its biochemical effect (or insulin resistance) effectively. Insulin is a major metabolic hormone which has numerous functions in the body and one main role is to stimulate glucose uptake into body’s cells where it is utilized to provide energy. The disease is classified into type 1 and type 2 DM. Type 1 DM develops when the insulin producing β cells have been destroyed and are unable to produce insulin. This is very common in children and is treated with insulin. Type 2 DM (T2DM) develops when the body is unable to produce an adequate amount of insulin or the insulin which is provided does not work efficiently. This is due to life style habits including unhealthy diet, obesity, lack of exercise and hereditary and environmental factors. Some symptoms of DM include excess urination, constant thirst, lethargy, weight loss, itching, decreased digestive enzyme secretion, slow wound healing and other related symptoms. If left untreated, DM can result in severe long-term complications such as kidney and heart failure, stroke, blindness, nerve damage, exocrine glands insufficiency and other forms of complications. T2DM can be treated and controlled by prescribed drugs, regular exercise, diet (including some plant-based food) and general change in life style habits. This review is concerned with the role of plant-based medicine to treat DM. One such plant is Momordica charantia which is grown in tropical countries worldwide and it has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years although its origin in unknown. This review examines the

  8. The pruning and fruit-preserving technique of Melon%甜瓜整枝与保果技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆武

    2012-01-01

    按照既有效又省工的要求,分别介绍了不同品种、不同栽培条件下甜瓜的整枝技术,以及以提高坐瓜率和保证商品瓜质量为目的的化学调控技术措施。%Based on requirements both in effective and labour saving,the pruning technology for different melon varieties and under different cultivation conditions,as well as the chemical adjusting and control measures for improving fruit setting rate and melon quality,were introduced respectively.

  9. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Sensomics mapping and identification of the key bitter metabolites in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelstede, Simone; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-04-23

    Application of a sensomics approach on the water-soluble extract of a matured Gouda cheese including gel permeation chromatography, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction, preparative RP-HPLC, and HILIC combined with analytical sensory tools enabled the comprehensive mapping of bitter-tasting metabolites. LC-MS-TOF and LC-MS/MS, independent synthesis, and sensory analysis revealed the identification of a total of 16 bitter peptides formed by proteolysis of caseins. Eleven previously unreported bitter peptides were aligned to beta-casein, among which 6 peptides were released from the sequence beta-CN(57-69) of the N terminus of beta-casein and 2 peptides originated from the C-terminal sequence beta-CN(198-206). The other peptides were liberated from miscellaneous regions of beta-casein, namely, beta-CN(22-28), beta-CN(74-86), beta-CN(74-77), and beta-CN(135-138), respectively. Six peptides were found to originate from alpha(s1)-casein and were shown to have the sequences alpha(s1)-CN(11-14), alpha(s1)-CN(56-60), alpha(s1)-CN(70/71-74), alpha(s1)-CN(110/111-114), and alpha(s1)-CN(135-136). Sensory evaluation of the purified, synthesized peptides revealed that 12 of these peptides showed pronounced bitter taste with recognition thresholds between 0.05 and 6.0 mmol/L. Among these peptides, the decapeptide YPFPGPIHNS exhibited a caffeine-like bitter taste quality at the lowest threshold concentration of 0.05 mmol/L.

  11. Structural basis for bitter taste receptor activation and its potential role in targeting diabetes

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    Ravinder Abrol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taste receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that, besides being present in the taste buds, have also been shown to be present in the gastrointestinal (GI system, respiratory system, and brain, though their function at these locations is not well understood. Objective: To understand the nutrient mediated release of gut peptides like GLP-1 from enteroendocrine L-cells of the GI system, we focused on a bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 (based on animal models to investigate the structural basis of its potential role in the release of gut peptides. Methods: The atomic-level structure of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 was predicted using GEnSeMBLE, a first-principle based GPCR structure prediction method. These structures were obtained for the dominant taster haplotype (PAV as well as for the nontaster haplotype (AVI of the receptor. The known ligands phenylthiocarbamide (PTC and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU were docked to these structures to provide a structural basis for the taster and nontaster haplotypes. Results: Docking of known ligands PTU and PTC to taster and nontaster haplotypes of the bitter taste receptor showed a backbone hydrogen bond to residue 262 in taster but not in nontaster haplotype, suggesting a potential mode of action of these molecules in the activation of the bitter taste receptor. Conclusion: These results, combined with the ability of PTC to release gut peptides from in vitro models of the enteroendocrine L-cells, suggest a potential structural basis for TAS2R38 activation that can lead to the release of those peptides. This release has a therapeutic benefit for type 2 diabetes and implies a role for bitter tasting (but safe natural compounds targeting TAS2R38 as potential drug candidates for curing type 2 diabetes.

  12. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  13. Proximate composition of seeds and seed oils from melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivated in Bulgaria

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    Zhana Petkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of three varieties of melon (Cucumis melo L. from Bulgaria were analyzed for their chemical composition and a detailed study of their lipids was carried out. Chemical composition values were as follows: fat content ranged from 41.6 to 44.5%, protein 34.4 to 39.8%, crude fiber 4.5 to 8.5%, carbohydrates 8.2 to 12.7%, soluble sugars 3.7 to 4.2%, and minerals 4.6 to 5.1%. The content of sterols, phospholipids, and tocopherols in the oils was 0.6, 0.7–1.7%, and 435–828 mg/kg, respectively. The major fatty acid in lipids was linoleic (51.1–58.5%, followed by oleic acid (24.8–25.6%. The trilinolein (31.3–32.2%, oleo dilinolein (31.0–34.0%, and palmitoyl dilinolein (14.9–22.3% have represented 80.0% from the total triglyceride composition of the melon seeds oil. β-Sitosterol predominated in both free and esterified sterols, being, respectively, 52.9–70.8 and 50.4–58.4%. Phosphatidylinositol (24.4–33.9%, phosphatidylcholine (23.0–33.1%, and phosphatidylethanolamine (8.4–17.1% were the main phospholipids. Palmitic acid (34.4–61.7% was the major fatty acid of the phospholipids, followed by oleic acid (8.9–27.2%. Linoleic acid (32.7–39.1% was the main component among the fatty acids of the sterol esters, followed by oleic acid (25.1–30.7%. In the tocopherol fraction of melon seed oils, the main component γ-tocopherol varied from 71.4 to 91.5%.

  14. Spectral indices for the detection of salinity effects in melon plants

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    Encarni I. Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and soil salinization affect large semiarid agricultural areas throughout the world. The maintenance of agricultural productivity implies better agricultural practices and a careful selection of resistant crops. A proper monitoring of the physiological status of plants can lead to better knowledge of plant nutritional requirements. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR radiometry provides a non-destructive and quantitative method to monitor vegetation status by quantifying chemical properties using spectroscopic techniques. In this study, the capability of VNIR spectral measurements to detect salinity effects on melon (Cucumis melo L. plants was tested. Melon plants were cultivated under multiple soil salinity conditions (electrical conductivity, (EC1:5: 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 dS m-1. Spectral data of leaves were transformed into vegetation indices indicative of the physiological status of the plants. The results showed differences for N (p < 0.05, K and Na content (p < 0.01 due to salinity suggesting different degrees of salt stress on the plants. Specific leaf area increased with salinity levels (p < 0.001. The capabilities of VNIR radiometry to assess the influence of soil salinity on melon physiology using a non-destructive method were demonstrated. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI750-705, and the ratio between water index (WI and normalized difference vegetation index (WI/NDVI750-705 showed significant relationships (p < 0.01 with the salinity. Therefore, this method could be used for in-situ early detection of salinity stress effects.

  15. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

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    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be

  16. Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-06-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 25 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect beta cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines.

  17. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in melon (Cucumis melo L.): bioinformatic analysis and expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development.

  18. Antibacterial and Photocatalytic Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesized Using Water Melon Juice as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Kumar, Danith; Kavitha, C.; Rajanaika, H.; Prasad, B. Daruka; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) have been prepared by a simple and low temperature solution combustion method using Zinc nitrate as a precursor and solid water melon juice as a novel fuel for the first time. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO NPs have been analyzed using various analytical techniques such as Powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. ZnO NPs show good photo catalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. It also shows significant antibacterial activities against three bacterial strains.

  19. What do spring migrants reveal about sex and host selection in the melon aphid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sophie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host plants exert considerable selective pressure on aphids because the plants constitute their feeding, mating and oviposition sites. Therefore, host specialisation in aphids evolves through selection of the behavioural and chemical mechanisms of host-plant location and recognition, and through metabolic adaptation to the phloem content of the host plant. How these adaptive traits evolve in an aphid species depends on the complexity of the annual life cycle of that species. The purpose of this field study was to determine how winged spring-migrant populations contribute to the evolution and maintenance of host specialisation in Aphis gossypii through host-plant choice and acceptance. We also assessed whether host-specialised genotypes corresponded exclusively to anholocyclic lineages regardless of the environmental conditions. Results The spring populations of cotton-melon aphids visiting newly planted melon crops exhibited an unexpectedly high level of genetic diversity that contrasted with the very low diversity characterising the host-specialised populations of this aphid species. This study illustrated in natura host-plant-selection pressure by showing the great differences in genetic diversity between the spring-migrant populations (alate aphids and the melon-infesting populations (the apterous offspring of the alate aphids. Moreover, an analysis of the genetic composition of these alate and apterous populations in four geographic regions suggested differences in life-history strategies, such as host choice and reproductive mode, and questioned the common assertion that A. gossypii is an anholocyclic species throughout its distribution area, including Europe. Conclusions Our results clearly demonstrate that the melon plant acts as a selective filter against the reproduction of non-specialised individuals. We showed that olfactory cues are unlikely to be decisive in natura for host recognition by spring-migrant aphid

  20. Fatty acids and mineral composition of melon (Cucumis melo L. Inodorus) seeds from West Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Kajima Mulengi; Naima Bouazzaoui; Wassila Drici; Wafaa Bouazzaoui; Wafaa Lemerini; Djamel Bendiabdellah; Zoheir Arrar

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. Inodorus) were analyzed for their mineral and lipid compositions. The seeds showed a 30.7%lipids content and ashes accounted for 4.08%. Freshly extracted oil showed acid and peroxide values respectively 4.01 mg KOH/g  and 2.25Meq (O2)/Kg. Iodine and saponification values were 104.52 g (I2)/100 g and 193.60 mg (KOH)/g respectively. Main fatty acids identified so far were linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids with respective contents 60.1%, 25.3%, 10.1% and...