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Sample records for charakter udajov ich

  1. Patient survey (ICH CAHPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In-Center Hemodialysis Facilites Patient evaluations from the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (ICH-CAHPS) Survey. The...

  2. J. Randvere Ruth ja Otto Weiningeri Geschlecht und Charakter / Mirjam Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Mirjam, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Naise kirjeldus J. Randvere "Ruthis" ja Otto Weiningeri "Geschlecht und Charakter'is". Andmed autori kohta lk. 202. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: J. Randvere "Ruth" 19.-20. sajandi vahetuse kultuuris / koost. Mirjam Hinrikus. Tallinn : Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, 2006, lk. 145-169

  3. J. Randvere Ruth ja Otto Weiningeri Geschlecht und Charakter / Mirjam Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Mirjam, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Naise kirjeldus J. Randvere "Ruthis" ja Otto Weiningeri "Geschlecht und Charakter'is". Andmed autori kohta lk. 202. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: J. Randvere "Ruth" 19.-20. sajandi vahetuse kultuuris / koost. Mirjam Hinrikus. Tallinn : Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, 2006, lk. 145-169

  4. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State averages for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their experiences with...

  5. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their...

  6. Ich spreche Deutsch: A User's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassar, Sheila

    1969-01-01

    The textbook under discussion, "Ich spreche Deutsch" by Heinz Griesbach and Dora Schulz (London-Harlow: Longmans-Hueber, 1966), is intended to be a one-year introduction to German, particularly for less academic pupils and students. (FWB)

  7. Ich spreche Deutsch: A User's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassar, Sheila

    1969-01-01

    The textbook under discussion, "Ich spreche Deutsch" by Heinz Griesbach and Dora Schulz (London-Harlow: Longmans-Hueber, 1966), is intended to be a one-year introduction to German, particularly for less academic pupils and students. (FWB)

  8. Surgical options in ICH including decompressive craniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Vindlacheruvu, Raghu R; Mendelow, A David

    2007-10-15

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15 to 20% of strokes. The condition carries a higher morbidity and mortality than occlusive stroke. Despite considerable research effort, no therapeutic modality either medical or surgical has emerged with clear evidence of benefit other than in rare aneurysmal cases. Intracerebral haemorrhages can be divided into those that arise from pre-existing macroscopic vascular lesions - so called "ictohaemorrhagic lesions", and those that do not; the latter being the commoner. Most of the research that has been done on the benefits of surgery has been in this latter group. Trial data available to date precludes a major benefit from surgical evacuation in a large proportion of cases however there are hypotheses of benefit still under investigation, specifically superficial lobar ICH treated by open surgical evacuation, deeper ICH treated with minimally invasive surgical techniques, and decompressive craniectomy. When an ICH arises from an ictohaemorrhagic lesion, therapy has two goals: to treat the effects of the acute haemorrhage and to prevent a recurrence. Three modalities are available for treating lesions to prevent recurrence: stereotactic radiosurgery, endovascular embolisation, and open surgical resection. As with ICH without an underlying lesion there is no evidence to support surgical removal of the haemorrhage in most cases. An important exception is ICHs arising from intracranial aneurysms where there is good evidence to support evacuation of the haematoma as well as repair of the aneurysm.

  9. Enabling ICH Q10 Implementation--Part 1. Striving for Excellence by Embracing ICH Q8 and ICH Q9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Nuala; O'Donnell, Kevin; Greene, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of articles that will focus on understanding the implementation essentials necessary to deliver operational excellence through a International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Q10-based pharmaceutical quality system (PQS). The authors examine why, despite the fact that the ICH Q10 guideline has been with us since 2008, the transformation of the traditional Quality Management Systems QMS in use within the pharmaceutical industry is a work in progress for only a few forward-thinking organisations. Unfortunately, this transformation remains a mere aspiration for the majority of organisations. We explore the apparent lack of progress by the pharmaceutical sector in adopting six sigma and related quality management techniques to ensure the availability of high-quality medicines worldwide. The authors propose that the desired progress can be delivered through two key shifts in our current practices; by embodying the principles of operational excellence in every aspect of our business and by learning how to unlock the scientific and tacit knowledge within our organisations. It has been ten years since The Wall Street Journal revealed the pharmaceutical industry's "little secret" comparing the perceived level of manufacturing expertise in the industry as lagging far behind those of potato-chip and laundry-soap makers. Would you consider the quality and manufacturing strategies in place today in your organisation to be more efficient and scientifically based than those of 2003? If so, what evidence exists for you to draw any conclusion regarding enhanced performance? Do your current practices drive innovation and facilitate continual improvement and if so, how? Ultimately, can you confidently affirm that patient-related risks associated with the product(s) manufactured by your organisation have been reduced due to the quality assurance program now applied

  10. Idiopathic Chondrolysis of the Hip ( ICH: Report of three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Dechosilpa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Chondrolysis of the Hip (ICH is a rare condition, occurring mostly in black female adolescence. It is characterized by the rapidly progressive destruction of articular cartilage in the hip joint resulting in premature degeneration and subsequent joint arthrosis. We report three cases of ICH: a 13-year old boy presented with left knee pain, an 11-year old girl with right hip pain and a 12-year old girl with right thigh pain. All of them had the same characteristic radiographic findings. The initial treatment was started conservatively. Surgical treatment was performed in one patient in order to confirm diagnosis and correct deformity.

  11. Wie ich mich mit dem äthiopischen Regime anlegte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Als Forscher und Kritiker der äthiopischen Politik habe ich viel über das Verhältnis gelernt, in dem Wahrheit und Macht, aber auch Moral und persönliche Interessen zueinander stehen. In den Niederungen der Realpolitik wird mit harten Bandagen um die Deutungshoheit gekämpft wird. Auch Wissenschafter...

  12. Parasitism by Ich enhanced susceptibility of tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    In aquaculture systems, fish are commonly infected by two or more pathogens. Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) are two common pathogens of cultured fish and result in heavy economic losses for aquaculture. There is no published information available ...

  13. I-Ching, Chinese Thinking Mode And Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2013-01-01

      I-Ching regards human-being as an integral part of nature and stresses the relative complimentary of the two opposing principles of nature, Yin and Yang. Therefore, under the influence of I-Ching, the Chinese thinking mode is different from the west-erners’. The Chinese thinking pattern is holistic, dynamic and abstract, but lacking logic and inference. The Chinese tend to express their ideas succinctly in a few simple remarks. Consequently Chinese is a concise and comprehensive language full of hint and ambiguity.

  14. Engineering design and fabrication of ICH antenna on KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y.D.; Hong, B.G.; Hwang, C.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    Engineering design of 6MW ICH(Ion Cyclotron Heating) system for the plasma heating and current drive in KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak is carried out and a proto-type antenna is domestically fabricated. The proto-type antenna is installed on RF test chamber, and its mutual coupling and vacuum impedance will be measured. Furthermore, high voltage and current behavior under no-plasma load conditions will be studied using 100 kW of 30 MHz RF power. A vacuum feedthrough is designed and fabricated using two ceramic cylinder, which has power rating of 1.5 MW and pulse length of 300 sec. Its RF characteristics will be tested using 100 kW RF transmitter. 19 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  15. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell mediated brain injury after ICH in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrogen inhalation was neuroprotective in several brain injury models. Its mechanisms are believed to be related to anti-oxidative stress. We investigated the potential neurovascular protective effect of hydrogen inhalation especially effect on mast cell activation in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING Animal research laboratory SUBJECTS 171, 8 weeks old male CD-1 mice were used. INTERVENTIONS Collagenase-induced ICH model in 8 weeks old, male, CD-1 mice was used. Hydrogen was administrated via spontaneous inhalation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neurological deficits were investigated at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. Mast cell activation was evaluated by Western blot and immuno-staining. The effects of hydrogen inhalation on mast cell activation were confirmed in an autologous blood injection model ICH. MEASURMENT AND MAIN RESULTS At 24 and 72 hours post-ICH, animals showed BBB disruption, brain edema, neurological deficits, accompanied with phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, indicating mast cell activation. Hydrogen treatment diminished phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, decreased accumulation and degranulation of mast cells, attenuated BBB disruption and improved neurobehavioral function. CONCLUSION Activation of mast cells following ICH contributed to increase of BBB permeability and brain edema. Hydrogen inhalation preserved BBB disruption by prevention of mast cell activation after ICH. PMID:23388512

  16. Role of PDGF-D and PDGFR-β in neuroinflammation in experimental ICH mice model☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Manaenko, Anatol; Xu, Feng; Miao, Liyan; Wang, Gaiqing; Hu, Xuezhen; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Hu, Qin; Hartman, Richard E.; Pearce, William J.; Obenaus, Andre; Zhang, John H.; Chen, Gang; Tang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiological processes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Post-ICH macrophages infiltrate the brain and release pro-inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α), amplifying microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) is expressed on macrophages and it's activation induces the recruitment of macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is an agonist with a significantly higher affinity to the PDGFR-β compared to another isoform of the receptor. In this study, we investigated the role of PDGF-D in the pro-inflammatory response after ICH in mice. Methods A blood injection model of ICH was used in eight-week old male CD1 mice (weight 30 g). Some mice received an injection of plasmin or PDGF-D. Gleevec, a PDGFR inhibitor, was administered at 1, 3 or 6 h post-ICH. Plasmin was administered with or without PDGF-D siRNAs mixture or scramble siRNA. A plasmin-antagonist, ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA), was co-administrated with the blood. The effects of ICH and treatment on the brain injury and post-ICH inflammation were investigated. Results ICH resulted in the overexpression of PDGF-D, associated with the infiltration of macrophages. PDGFR-inhibition decreased ICH-induced brain injury, attenuating macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, reducing microglial activation and TNF-α production. Administration of recombinant PDGF-D induced TNF-α production, and PDGFR-inhibition attenuated it. A plasmin-antagonist suppressed PDGFR-β activation and microglial activation. Plasmin increased PDGF-D expression, and PDGF-D inhibition reduced neutrophil infiltration. Conclusion ICH-induced PDGF-D accumulation contributed to post-ICH inflammation via PDGFR activation and enhanced macrophage infiltration. The inhibition of PDGFR had an anti-inflammatory effect. Plasmin is a possible upstream effector of PDGF-D. The targeting of PDGF-D may provide a novel way to

  17. CHARAKTERYSTYKA HELIOSTATÓW I ICH ZASTOSOWANIE W HELIOELEKTROWNIACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł WAJSS

    Full Text Available Rozwój energetyki słonecznej związany jest z powstawaniem coraz to nowych konstrukcji maksymalizującej wykorzystanie promieniowania słonecznego. Jednym z kierunków jest wysokotemperaturowa konwersja promieniowania na ciepło. Wtedy, z termodynamicznego punktu widzenia otwierają się nam możliwości np. na generację energii elektrycznej. Konwersja wysokotemperaturowa wymaga jednak koncentracji promieniowania słonecznego. Sposobów koncentracji jest wiele, jednak w artykule skupiono się na koncentracji w układzie pole heliostatów- wieża słoneczna. System taki ma szereg zalet w porównaniu do pojedynczych układów koncentrujących, m.in. możliwe jest budowanie pojedynczej elektrowni. Zasadniczym elementem jest tutaj heliostat. Artykuł definiuje pojęcie heliostatu, przedstawia zasadę jego działania oraz przeznaczenie w helioelektrowniach typu wieżowego. Dokonany został podział urządzeń na podgrupy w zależności od technologii w nich zastosowanych. Zaprezentowane zostały poszczególne elementy budowy heliostatów oraz czynniki, które pośrednio lub bezpośrednio wpływają na ich typ, wielkość oraz cenę. Przedstawiono problematykę rentowności przed jaką stoi dziś rynek helioelektrowni oraz stopień istotności jaki stanowi pole heliostatów dla budżetu całej inwestycji. Wymieniono szczegółowe parametry jakie winny spełniać tego typu urządzenia, z wyodrębnieniem trzech grup: wymagania operacyjne, optyczne oraz wytrzymałościowe. Zaprezentowano szczegółowo trzy przykładowe, znacząco różniące co do zasady działania oraz skali, rozwiązania i sparametryzowano je w formie tabelarycznej.

  18. Evidence that cyclophosphamide can to induce exchanges in the sister chromatids (ICH) through secondary injuries; Evidencia de que la ciclofosfamida puede inducir intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) a traves de lesiones secundarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Rodriguez R, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    By means of the use of destination protocol of ICH inductive injuries (DLI-ICH), it was studied if interchanges in the sister chromatids (ICH) induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), in the second post-treatment division (ICH-2) are produced by secondary injuries or by fresh injuries. For discard between these possibilities it was administered CP at different periods before of the first post-treatment division, taking as reference the administered time for high dose of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU ) which was approximately at the beginning of this division. The ICH frequencies that occur in the first, the second and the third synthesis stages (S) were determined. It was observed that when the administered CP was four hours before BrdU , the ICH frequencies of the second and the third S were reduced. The frequency of the first ICH increased lightly in relation to those of the normal protocol (0.5 h before BrdU ) and that the supplying of CP six hours before caused almost a total reduction of ICH of second and third S and an important increment of ICH of first S.This was interpreted as evidence that the ICH-2 are product of secondary injuries. (Author)

  19. Revision of the ICH guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products: SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul

    2016-09-01

    SWOT analysis was used to gain insights and perspectives into the revision of the ICH S5(R2) guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products. The current ICH guideline was rapidly adopted worldwide and has an excellent safety record for more than 20 years. The revised guideline should aim to further improve reproductive and developmental (DART) safety testing for new drugs. Alternative methods to animal experiments should be used whenever possible. Modern technology should be used to obtain high quality data from fewer animals. Additions to the guideline should include considerations on the following: limit dose setting, maternal toxicity, biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, testing strategies by indication, developmental immunotoxicity, and male-mediated developmental toxicity. Emerging issues, such as epigenetics and the microbiome, will most likely pose challenges to DART testing in the future. It is hoped that the new guideline will be adopted even outside the ICH regions.

  20. Pharmacovigilance-related topics at the level of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Priya; Tsintis, Panos

    2005-06-01

    Marketing authorisations for medicines need to be based on the universal criteria quality, safety and efficacy, whilst taking into account local public health needs. With view to using resources efficiently and avoiding delay in access to medicines, scientific standards for investigating quality, safety and efficacy should be universal too. A major step to achieve this was taken in 1990 when the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) was established between authorities and industry in the European Union (EU), Japan and the United States. Since then more than 50 ICH Guidelines have been published, out of which six are specific to pharmacovigilance. They refer to management and expedited reporting of individual adverse drug reaction (ADR) cases, including electronic formats, periodic reporting of worldwide data and planning of pharmacovigilance. Their development has to be seen in the context of initiatives taken in the three ICH Regions to strengthen pharmacovigilance. Most recently this involves making use of risk management concepts, reflecting new thinking of proactivity in pharmacovigilance. Moreover, consideration is given to regional and international cooperation beyond the ICH Regions.

  1. Prediction and prognostication of neurological deterioration in patients with acute ICH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian; Christensen, Anders Fogh; Havsteen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are at high risk of neurological deterioration (ND). We aimed at establishing predictors of early ND (END) as well as late ND (LND) and at exploring the impact of neurological stability during the first week on long-term prognosis. DESIGN: We...... conducted this study as a retrospective cohort study. ND was evaluated based on the consciousness and severity of neurological symptoms. ND during the first 24 h after admission was defined as early ND and from 24 h to 7 days as LND. Patients were followed up until February 2015. PARTICIPANTS: We included...... 300 patients with acute ICH (≤4.5 h from symptom onset) who were admitted to our institution from March 2009 to January 2015. SETTING: Section of Acute Neurology, Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg Hospital is a specialised referral centre receiving patients with acute stroke from the entire capital...

  2. Prospects for developmental immunotoxicity guidance and an update on ICH S8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Kenneth L

    2005-10-01

    Potential adverse effects of drug exposure on the developing immune system had been a relatively neglected area of toxicology until fairly recently. However, with the recent regulatory emphasis on evaluation of drugs for use in pediatric patients, juvenile animal studies have been considered in much more detail than in the past in order to enable clinical trials. Assessment of immunotoxicity potential in these juvenile animal studies has been a natural consequence of drug development for pediatric patients. Unfortunately, the efforts to evaluate developmental immunotoxicity studies have not kept pace with the writing of an immunotoxicology guidance for the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Human Pharmaceuticals (ICH). This document has recently reached Step 4 in the approval process: it is thus likely that juvenile animal studies for immunotoxicity would be recommended based on considerations enumerated in the ICH Safety Number 8 (S8) guidance. Sufficient flexibility exists in this document to cover the issue of developmental immunotoxicity. ICH S8 advocates a weight-of-evidence approach, which should be interpreted to indicate that immunotoxicity testing would be conducted based on identified cause(s) for concern rather than as a routine screening method. The presentation reflecting these issues, as presented to attendees of the Pharmaceutical Education Associates workshop on Innovative Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment in Pharmaceutical Development is summarized herein.

  3. La metropoli dell’agente ich=Spaik: Libidissi di Georg Klein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Paleari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available My paper focuses on Georg Klein’s Libidissi (1998 as an example of a new spy-story in contemporary German literature. Combining the analysis of the role of the German spy ich=Spaik, the main figure of Klein’s novel, with a mapping of the geographies of the city Libidissi, I will point out to what extent the author poses a challenge to the tradition of the spy-story and in what way he considers Ich=Spaik’s activities, intending them not only as an operation of espionage, but especially as a persistent questioning of a problematic identity, of a figure, who is continuously confronting the image of his native country, his original belonging with the Other. The representation of ich=Spaik’s ‘displaced’ identity and his approach to the landscape, the (invisible town Libidissi, will be debated on two specific aspects: the paradigms of Self vs Other and of center vs periphery.

  4. 中国GMP与欧盟GMP-ICH Q7的比较%Comparison of Chinese GMP and EU ICH Q7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪敏

    2008-01-01

    了解中国GMP与国际GMP之间的差异,为法规制定和药品生产企业提供参考.从立法、指南、检查几个方面对欧盟原料药GMP-ICH Q7进行了简要介绍,并与中国GMP展开深入的对比,主要包括GMP起点、人员、厂房和设施、物料管理、验证、文件、生产管理和质量管理.中国GMP在许多重要方面与国际先进水平存在明显差距.我们共同期待我国新版GMP规范的出台.

  5. Shielding optimisation of the ITER ICH&CD antenna for shutdown dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.turner@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lamalle, Philippe; Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Meunier, Lionel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Polunovskiy, Eduard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sartori, Roberta [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronics analysis on the ITER ICH&CD system conducted to reduce shutdown dose rate. • Several designs for shielding the port plug gaps were modelled. • Shielding significantly reduced interspace dose rate but still exceed project requirements. • Design optimisation of the ICH port is continuing. • Significant contributions from other ports require an integrated modelling approach. - Abstract: The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ICH&CD) system will reside in ITER equatorial port plugs 13 and 15. Shutdown dose rates (SDDR) within the port interspace are required to be less than 100 μSv/h at 10{sup 6} s cooling. A significant contribution to the SDDR results from neutrons streaming down gaps around the port frame, and the mitigation of this streaming is the main subject of these analyses. An updated MCNP model of the antenna was created and integrated into an ITER reference model. Shielding plates were defined in the port gaps, and scoping studies conducted to assess their effectiveness in several configurations, based on which a front dog-leg arrangement was selected for high resolution 3-D activation analysis using MCR2S. It was concluded that the selected configuration reduced the SDDR from ∼500 μSv/h to 220 μSv/h but were still in excess of dose rate requirements. Approximately 30% of this was due to cross-talk from neighbouring ports. In addition, increased dose rates were observed in the port interspace along the lines of sight of the removable vacuum transmission lines. Design optimisation is continuing, however an integrated approach is needed with regard to ITER port plug design and the shielding of surrounding systems.

  6. CIOMS and ICH initiatives in pharmacovigilance and risk management: overview and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsintis, Panos; La Mache, Edith

    2004-01-01

    In this article we review the current initiatives by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) on pharmacovigilance planning that are due for general release during 2004. These initiatives could form the basis for applying concepts of risk management to medicines throughout their life cycle, from preclinical and clinical development to marketed use. The CIOMS VI Working Group (with 28 senior scientists worldwide from drug regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies) is currently developing scientific guidance that relates to clinical trials for medicines during development. It recommends a developmental pharmacovigilance concept - a 'living' concept that would start early in drug development supporting the science and ethics of research leading up to licensing (marketing authorisation) and continuing to post-authorisation (postmarketing) pharmacovigilance. This approach is seen as complementary to current ICH initiatives called 'Pharmacovigilance Planning'. ICH will introduce two concepts in pharmacovigilance management of medicinal products: the 'Pharmacovigilance Specification' and the 'Pharmacovigilance Plan'. The 'Pharmacovigilance Specification' will summarise important knowns and unknowns about the medicine. It will include safety risks identified at the licensing stage, potential risks and any key missing information. These elements will be essential to the formulation of pharmacovigilance plans. Dialogue and common understanding between regulators and the pharmaceutical industry will be a key factor for developing pharmacovigilance plans during the life cycle of medicines. Appropriate interaction with health professionals and patients should also be planned for the future as regulatory systems become more transparent. Where no significant issues are apparent at the licensing (marketing authorisation) stage, routine pharmacovigilance practices will be followed

  7. The ICH S5(R2) guideline for the testing of medicinal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L David

    2013-01-01

    Relying on previous regulatory guidelines from multiple countries, the ICH S5(R2) guideline outlines the preclinical safety studies needed for registration of new medicinal products in the member countries (European Union, Japan, and the United States). The primary purpose of the guideline is to provide a testing strategy to detect and reveal toxicity to the reproductive system including development of the embryo. There are basically three study designs outlined by the guidance, assessment of fertility in adults, pre- and postnatal development of exposed offspring, and morphological evaluation following exposure during major organogenesis. This chapter discusses the major points addressed in the guidance for each study type, and points to additional references that discuss the practical details for conducting such studies.

  8. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    for the ICH S4B guideline regarding the duration of non-rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is explained and lessons learned are discussed. Since the guideline was issued in 1997 changes occurred in e.g. the language of the European legislation, and the requirements for non-clinical studies to support...

  9. The ICH S8 immunotoxicity guidance. Immune function assessment and toxicological pathology: autonomous or synergistic methods to predict immunotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhaak, Steven

    2006-07-01

    The new ICH S8 guideline on Immunotoxicology Studies for Human Pharmaceuticals indicates that additional, functional testing of pharmaceuticals is not mandatory to screen for unintended immunotoxicity. The usefulness of conventional parameters like clinical pathology, organ weights and histopathology as measured in Standard Toxicity Studies (STS) to screen for potential unintended immunotoxicity was investigated in an ICH survey. Data of this survey appear to support the notion that properly evaluated STS endpoints would be sufficient for the detection of the majority of unintended immunosuppression by investigational pharmaceutical compounds. Thus the ICH S8 guideline was based on a cause for concern approach using a weight of evidence review of various factors like: findings from STS, pharmacological properties of the drug, intended patient population, structural similarities to known immunomodulators, drug disposition and/or clinical information. Overall the S8 guideline allows for more flexible approaches, and requires a weight of evidence review for which there is no given set of rules. For a proper use this asks for a sensible, realistic and above all a responsible approach both from Industry and Regulators. Some examples regarding the use of clinical pathology parameters like immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotyping have been included to illustrate this. In conclusion, to detect and evaluate potential immunotoxic effects of human pharmaceuticals the ICH S8 guideline allows for a more flexible, scientifically sound approach. For a proper evaluation of potential immunotoxic effects integration of data from standard toxicological parameters like clinical pathology, histopathology and functional assays are important.

  10. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  11. 新井白蛾的易学研究--兼谈江户时代的易占%Arai Hakuga’s Study on I-Ching and I-Ching Divination in the Edo Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖娟

    2016-01-01

    In the Edo period (1600-1868) of Japan, the study of I-Ching was developed into a kind of independent knowledge with the prosperity of Neo-Confucianism in that era. Along with intriguing the Japanese intellectuals to developing their philosophical thinking, I-Ching was also introduced into the social life of ordinary people as a book of divination, helping forming the social patterns of Edo Japan. This essay tries to introduce Arai Hakuga’s study, who was mainly an interpreter of I-Ching at that time, and who left many valuable I-Ching study works while was never treated seriously before. He placed emphasis on both theoretical and practical sides of I-Ching study, and especially tried hard to spread the divinatory methods in Japan. The author tries to discuss four main characters of his study: the “ancient I-Ching”, the emphasis on “image”, his divinatory methods and his open mind towards divination, hoping to reveal the divinatory side of I-Ching interpretations in Japan.%日本在进入江户时代以后,讨论《易》的知识较以前更为丰富,逐渐成为一门独立的学问,在触发知识分子思维精神的同时,也以易占的形式,介入民众的具体生活,塑造着近世日本社会形态的另外一面。本文所力图介绍的新井白蛾,有丰富的易学作品传世,也是易学理论与实践两方面皆重的人物,他强调了易在占卜上的实用性。本文以新井白蛾的“古易”、白蛾对“象”的重视、白蛾的易占方法及开放的易占态度四点展开论述,以求窥得日本江户时代易学在占卜活动中的另一个发展侧面。

  12. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  13. Influence of I-ching (Yijing, or The Book Of Changes) on Chinese medicine, philosophy and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    I-Ching or Yi-Jing ([see text] also known as The Book of Changes) is the earliest classic in China. It simply explained the formation of the universe and the relationship of man to the universe. Most, if not all, branches of various knowledge, including traditional Chinese medicine, can be traced back its origin to this Book in which Fu Shi ([see text] 2852 B.C.) theorized how the universe was formed, through his keen observation of environment and orbits of sun, moon and stars. He used symbols to represent his views. The essence of I-Ching is basically the expression and function of Yang symbolized as "--" (from ) and Yin symbolized "- -" (from -->physics of sub-atomic particles, there are some basic theories in common.

  14. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evaluation with a novel magnetic induction sensor: a preliminary study using the Chinese head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyi; Liu, Peiguo; Zhou, Dongming; Zhang, Liang; Lei, Hengdong

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical magnetic induction measurement is a promising method for the detection of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), especially in China. Aiming at overcoming the problem of low sensitivity, a magnetic induction sensor is chosen to replace the conventional sensors. It uses a two-arm Archimedean spiral coil as the exciter and a circular coil as the receiver. In order to carry out high-fidelity simulations, the Chinese head model with real anatomical structure is introduced into this novel sensor for the first time. Simulations have been carried out upon early stage ICH measurements. By calculating the state sensitivity and time sensitivity of the perturbation phase of two types of sensors using the electromagnetic software, we conclude that the primary signal received can be largely reduced using the novel sensor, which could effectively increase the time and state sensitivity simultaneously.

  15. [Pediatric drug development: ICH harmonized tripartite guideline E11 within the United States of America, the European Union, and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, M; Bertram, D

    2014-10-01

    To address the lack of appropriate pediatric drugs available on the global market, in 2000 the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued the ICH E11 guideline regarding the Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products in the Pediatric Population. This guideline considerably changes the environment of drug development for children. It has been written specifically to harmonize, promote, and facilitate high-quality and ethical clinical research for children within the ICH regions, i.e., the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and Japan. This article details the various regulations applicable in each ICH region following the publication of the guideline. The framework of rewards, incentives, and obligations for pharmaceutical companies established for the development of pediatric drugs are compared. It appears that the USA and the EU have both developed specific regulations for pediatric drug development while Japan has not. However, in Japan, pharmaceutical companies (PCs) are encouraged to develop pediatric drugs voluntarily, and they may be granted additional months of market exclusivity or the postponement of the drug re-examination deadline. In both the USA and the EU, regulations aimed to increase the number of clinical studies conducted in children, in order to ensure that the necessary data are generated, determining the conditions in which a drug may be authorized to treat the pediatric population. PCs are encouraged to develop pediatric assessment, including pediatric clinical trials, which is described in a pediatric plan submitted to the relevant authorities. A system of rewards for PCs submitting an application for marketing authorization containing pediatric use information has been put in place to cover the additional investment for testing drugs in children. Subject to conditions, these rewards consist in a 6-month extension of the patent or

  16. Manuscritos freudianos inéditos: das ich und das es

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Cosentino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos aqui uma leitura crítica e comparada entre o rascunho e a forma final de O ego e o id, no momento em que nasce uma dissimetria entre o inconsciente reprimido e o material inconsciente que permanece não reconhecido. Partimos do capítulo "Os dois tipos de pulsão". O próprio Freud nos lembra que as questões aí levantadas retomam pensamentos iniciados em 1920. A partir da redefinição do Inconsciente e, mais tarde, com a reformulação da ideia de pulsão de morte, tais considerações permanecem mais perto da psicanálise que do texto Além.... Não obstante, o que denomina "nossa especulação" retorna nas conclusões do capítulo IV sobre o pressuposto da pulsão de morte. Com a irrupção do não-ligado, quais são os propósitos da pulsão de morte, em 1923, quando esta tem as mãos livres? Em 1924, constata que não-toda a pulsão está inscrita na representação. Intervém o silêncio da pulsão: essa fronteira, onde o id fala, o id goza e nada sabe.Freudian unpublished manuscripts: das Ich und das Es. This is a critical and comparative reading of the manuscripts of The Ego and the Id. We can read in this work a dissymmetry between the repressed unconscious and the material that remains unknown. We depart from chapter IV, "The two kinds of Drives". As Freud announces, the matters he displays resume thoughts from his writings of 1920. So, starting with the redefinition of Ucs and afterwards, with the reformulation of the idea of Todestrieb, they remain much closer to psychoanalysis than Beyond the pleasure principle. But what he calls, "our speculation" returns in the conclusions of chapter IV about the assumption of the Todestrieb. With the breaking through of the not bound: what are the purposes the Todestrieb serves, when, as he says in 1923, it has its hands free? In 1924 he confirms that not-all the drive is inscribed in the representation. The silence of the drive intervenes: this border, where id speaks, id enjoys

  17. Laktační poradenství v okrese Jindřichův Hradec

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The title of thesis is Lactational Consultancy in the district of Jindřichův Hradec and this is also the main topic of the thesis ? the meaning of the term and the general principles of becoming a good consultant in the field of brestfeeding. Lactational consultancy is supported by the lactational league and that is why this organization is mentioned in the thesis; it is an independent and non profit-making organization but it is the most important one in the field of this consultancy. The th...

  18. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  19. The clinical epidemiology of spontaneous ICH in a sub-Sahara African country in the CT scan era: a neurosurgical in-hospital cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olufemi Adeleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background There is paucity of data-driven scientific reports from sub-Saharan Africa on the burden of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH. We have maintained a prospective consecutive in-hospital data base of cases of sICH referred for neurosurgical intervention over a 5-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the clinical epidemiology and brain-CT characterization of sICH from the data base in this region in the current era. Results There were 63 subjects, 38 (60.3% males, aged 28 to 85 years, mean 55.7 (SD, 12.7, the modal age distribution being the sixth decade. Uncontrolled hypertension was the main predisposition in the study: present, premorbid, in 79% but uncontrolled in 88% of these known cases, and exhibited malignant derangements of blood pressure in more than half. The clinical ictus to in-hospital presentation was delayed, median 72 hours; was in severe clinical state in 70%; 57% was comatose, and was complicated with fever in 57% and respiratory morbidity also in 55.6%. The main clinical symptomatology was hemiparesis, headache, vomiting and aphasia. The sICH was supratentorial on brain CT in 85.7%, ganglionic in 50.8% and thalamic in 58.3% of the latter. The bleed had CT evidence of mass effect and intraventricular extension in more than half. Twenty three patients (36.5% underwent operative interventionsConclusions In this patient population, sICH is mainly ganglionic and thalamic in location with significant rate of associated IVH. In-hospital clinical presentation is delayed and in critical state, and, the bleeding is uncontrolled hypertension related in >95%.

  20. The Rise of Standard I (< Me Ich: A Contribution to the Study of Functional Change in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wełna Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In its post-Norman Conquest development the Old English first person personal pronoun ic underwent transformations which, following the loss of the consonant, finally yielded the contemporary capitalised form I, contrasting with other Germanic languages, which retain a velar sound in the corresponding pronoun. The rather complex change of ich to I involves a loss of the final velar/palatal consonant, lengthening of the original short vowel, and capitalisation of the pronoun. It is argued here that the use of the capital letter was a consequence of vowel lengthening subsequent to the loss of the consonant. This seems to be confirmed by the observation that forms retaining a consonant are extremely rarely capitalised. The data adduced in the present paper will help verify as precisely as possible the distribution of the forms of that pronoun in Middle English dialects in order to determine to what extent the changes were functionally interdependent. The evidence comes from the Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose.

  1. Dynamics of electron solvation in I(-)(CH3OH)n clusters (4 ≤ n ≤ 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M; Yandell, Margaret A; Neumark, Daniel M

    2011-03-28

    The dynamics of electron solvation following excitation of the charge-transfer-to-solvent precursor state in iodide-doped methanol clusters, I(-)(CH(3)OH)(n = 4-11), are studied with time-resolved photoelectron imaging. This excitation produces a I···(CH(3)OH)(n)(-) cluster that is unstable with respect to electron autodetachment and whose autodetachment lifetime increases monotonically from ~800 fs to 85 ps as n increases from 4 to 11. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) and width of the excited state feature in the photoelectron spectrum show complex time dependence during the lifetime of this state. The VDE decreases over the first 100-400 fs, then rises exponentially to a maximum with a ~1 ps time constant, and finally decreases by as much as 180 meV with timescales of 3-20 ps. The early dynamics are associated with electron transfer from the iodide to the methanol cluster, while the longer-time changes in VDE are attributed to solvent reordering, possibly in conjunction with ejection of neutral iodine from the cluster. Changes in the observed width of the spectrum largely follow those of the VDEs; the dynamics of both are attributed to the major rearrangement of the solvent cluster during relaxation. The relaxation dynamics are interpreted as a reorientation of at least one methanol molecule and the disruption and formation of the solvent network in order to accommodate the excess charge.

  2. Dynamics of electron solvation in I-(CH3OH)n clusters (4 ≤ n ≤ 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M.; Yandell, Margaret A.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2011-03-01

    The dynamics of electron solvation following excitation of the charge-transfer-to-solvent precursor state in iodide-doped methanol clusters, I-(CH3OH)n=4-11, are studied with time-resolved photoelectron imaging. This excitation produces a I…(CH3OH)n- cluster that is unstable with respect to electron autodetachment and whose autodetachment lifetime increases monotonically from ˜800 fs to 85 ps as n increases from 4 to 11. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) and width of the excited state feature in the photoelectron spectrum show complex time dependence during the lifetime of this state. The VDE decreases over the first 100-400 fs, then rises exponentially to a maximum with a ˜1 ps time constant, and finally decreases by as much as 180 meV with timescales of 3-20 ps. The early dynamics are associated with electron transfer from the iodide to the methanol cluster, while the longer-time changes in VDE are attributed to solvent reordering, possibly in conjunction with ejection of neutral iodine from the cluster. Changes in the observed width of the spectrum largely follow those of the VDEs; the dynamics of both are attributed to the major rearrangement of the solvent cluster during relaxation. The relaxation dynamics are interpreted as a reorientation of at least one methanol molecule and the disruption and formation of the solvent network in order to accommodate the excess charge.

  3. Competitive dynamic I-Ching decision system%动态竞争易经决策系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴文; 林贵湖; 谭百玲

    2013-01-01

    建构动态竞争易经决策系统competitive dynamic I-Ching decision system,CDIDS,结合东西方系统思维为基础.本研究主探讨动态竞争的竞争者图像,以市场共同性及资源相似性为基础,整合竞争重要相似性易经决策的衡量方法,来计算竞争者间的竞争重要性认定相似度值.依据CDIDS衡量模式,以台湾进口汽车公司做实证分析,研究结果可以测量出不同竞争者的相对应象限位置,并可以辨识竞争者的竞争策略重要相关性;并且依据本研究CDIDS的系统,给予焦点厂商策略建议.

  4. High heat flux testing of ITER ICH&CD antenna beryllium faraday screen bars mock-ups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Meunier, L. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kuznetsov, V. [Efremov Institute, FSUE NIIEFA, St. Petersburg, 196641 (Russian Federation); Beaumont, B.; Lamalle, P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Conchon, D. [ATMOSTAT Co, F-94815 Villejuif (France); Languille, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER ICH&CD antenna beryllium faraday screen bars mock-ups were manufactured. • The mock-ups are submitted to high heat loads to test their heat exhaust capabilities. • The mock-ups withstand without damage the design limit load. • Lifetime is gradually reduced when the heat load is augmented beyond the design limit. • Thermal and mechanical behavior are reproducible, and coherent with the calculation. - Abstract: The Faraday Screen (FS) is the plasma facing component of ITER ion cyclotron heating antennas shielding. The requirement for the high heat exhaust, and the limitation of the temperatures to minimize strain and thus offer sufficient resistance to fatigue, imply the need for high conductivity materials and a high cooling flow rate. The FS bars are constructed by a hipping process involving beryllium tiles, a pure copper layer, a copper chrome zirconium alloy for the cooling channel and a stainless steel backing strip. Two FS bars small scale mock-ups were manufactured and tested under high heat flux. They endured 15,000 heating cycles without degradation under nominal heat flux, and revealed growing flaws when the heat flux was progressively augmented beyond. In this case, the ultrasonic test confirms a strong delamination of the Be tiles.

  5. I-.(CH3I)2 photoexcitation: The influence of dipole bound states on detachment and fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzor, Matthew; Mbaiwa, Foster; Lasinski, Joshua; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Mabbs, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of a photoelectron imaging study of the I-.(CH3I)2 cluster anion over excitation wavelengths 355-260 nm. The resulting spectra and photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) suggest extensive electron-molecule interaction following photoexcitation. Fragmentation channels are observed subsequent to excitation between 355 and 330 nm. The origin of these features, which begin 200 meV and peak 70 meV below the X band direct detachment threshold, is described in terms of a predissociative dipole bound state. The nature of the fragments detected and the energetics of the channel opening argue strongly in favor of an asymmetric, head to tail cluster anion geometry posited by Dessent et al. [Acc. Chem. Res. 31, 527 (1998)], 10.1021/ar950061f. Above the direct detachment threshold, PADs display evidence of phenomena akin to electron-molecule scattering. The fragment anions disappear above the X band threshold but reappear some distance below the second (A) direct detachment band. At these energies there is also rapid variation of the X band PAD, an observation attributed to autodetachment via spin-orbit relaxation of the iodine core of the cluster.

  6. Marketingová situační analýza BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec

    OpenAIRE

    Hron, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to carry out an analysis of each part of marketing mix and the environment in which the BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec basketball club is situated. Suitable and applicable recommendations are suggested to make the marketing mix more effective based on analysis of marketing situation. The first part is focused on describing the marketing mix and marketing situational analysis at a theoretical level. The practical part describes particular marketing tools which ar...

  7. Kein Mensch ist ein Ich-Land [No man is an island]. The metaphorof an island in reflections on friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Roszak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In her essay, the author recalls literary contexts (including John Donne, Michel Houellebecq and Ernest Hemingway and philosophical and anthropological contexts (including Aristotle, Thomas Merton, Maurice Blanchot, Jean-Paul Sartre and Gilles Deleuze presenting the poetic “I’s” various ways of approaching friendship. The quotation from a German translation of John Donne’s poem used in the title of the article is in itself a meaningful phonetic wordplay: “Kein Mensch ist ein Ich-Land” (no man is an “I” land, no man is an island. The main part of the essay includes an interpretation of the television series Lost — Joanna Roszak investigates philosophical references in the series and indicates biblical contexts (“Am I my brother’s keeper?”. A very apt comment to many episodes in the series is, according to the author, the formula told by Z. Herbert’s Fortinbras: Ani nam witać się ani żegnać żyjemy na archipelagach/ A ta woda te słowa cóż mogą cóż mogą” [It is not for us to greet each other or bid farewell we live on archipelagos/ and that water these words what can they do what can they do prince]. It is a similar defencelessness in which the main characters of Lost try to struggle the reality, even if they live together, and die all alone. Collective memory has become a safeguard for the community in the world, which is to be destined for homelessness and forlornness. The other person though becomes a reference point — it is him or her that makes it possible to find the way home.

  8. Im Dienste des Ich

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Steffen; Röske, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Der Band mit Aufsätzen von deutschen, französischen und amerikanischen Wissenschaftlern würdigt den facettenreichen Forscher Ernst Kris (Wien 1900–1957 New York) aus den Blickwinkeln verschiedener Disziplinen. Tatsächlich muss man, um sein Schaffen zu umreißen, drei Berufsbezeichnungen bemühen: Kunsthistoriker, Psychoanalytiker und Kommunikationsforscher. Mit 22 Jahren hatte Kris sein Kunstgeschichtsstudium an der Wiener Universität mit einer Promotionsschrift zum Naturabgussverfahren in...

  9. A comparative study of ICH validated novel spectrophotometric techniques for resolving completely overlapping spectra of quaternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouruddin W.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abdelkawy, M.; Emam, Aml A.

    2016-02-01

    A pharmaceutically marketed mixture of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine co-formulated as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. Simultaneous determination of the aforementioned pharmaceutical formulation without prior separation steps was applied using mean centering of ratio spectra and triple divisor spectrophotometric methods. Mean centering of ratio spectra method depended on using the mean centered ratio spectra in three successive steps which eliminated the derivative steps and so the signal to noise ratio was improved. The absorption spectra of the prepared solutions were measured in the wavelength range of 215-300 nm in the concentration ranges of 1-15, 3-15, 1-20, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 for Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. The amplitudes of the mean centered third ratio spectra were measured at 250 nm and 268 nm for Yohimbine and Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, respectively and at peak to peak 272-273 and 262-263 nm for Niacin and Caffeine, respectively. In triple divisor method each drug in the quaternary mixture was determined by dividing the spectrum of the quaternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture containing equal concentrations of the other three drugs. First derivative of these ratio spectra was obtained where determination could be achieved without any interference from the other three drugs. Amplitudes of 1-15, 3-15, 1-15, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 were used for selective determination of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. Laboratory prepared mixtures were analyzed by the developed novel methods to investigate their selectivity also, Super Act® capsules were successfully analyzed to ensure absence of interference from additives. The developed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were statistically compared with each other and with the reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA

  10. A multi-site comparison of in vivo safety pharmacology studies conducted to support ICH S7A & B regulatory submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Lorna; Milne, Aileen; Adkins, Debbie; Benjamin, Amanda; Bialecki, Russell; Chen, Yafei; Ericsson, Ann-Christin; Gardner, Stacey; Grant, Claire; Lengel, David; Lindgren, Silvana; Lowing, Sarah; Marks, Louise; Moors, Jackie; Oldman, Karen; Pietras, Mark; Prior, Helen; Punton, James; Redfern, Will S; Salmond, Ross; Skinner, Matt; Some, Margareta; Stanton, Andrea; Swedberg, Michael; Finch, John; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Parts A and B of the ICH S7 guidelines on safety pharmacology describe the in vivo studies that must be conducted prior to first time in man administration of any new pharmaceutical. ICH S7A requires a consideration of the sensitivity and reproducibility of the test systems used. This could encompass maintaining a dataset of historical pre-dose values, power analyses, as well as a demonstration of acceptable model sensitivity and robust pharmacological validation. During the process of outsourcing safety pharmacology studies to Charles River Laboratories, AstraZeneca set out to ensure that models were performed identically in each facility and saw this as an opportunity to review the inter-laboratory variability of these essential models. The five in vivo studies outsourced were the conscious dog telemetry model for cardiovascular assessment, the rat whole body plethysmography model for respiratory assessment, the rat modified Irwin screen for central nervous system assessment, the rat charcoal meal study for gastrointestinal assessment and the rat metabolic cage study for assessment of renal function. Each study was validated with known reference compounds and data were compared across facilities. Statistical power was also calculated for each model. The results obtained indicated that each of the studies could be performed with comparable statistical power and could achieve a similar outcome, independent of facility. The consistency of results obtained from these models across multiple facilities was high thus providing confidence that the models can be run in different facilities and maintain compliance with ICH S7A and B. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Entre mundos, gestos e palavras: memória corporal, literatura e história no Ballet-Drama K'iche'rab'inal Achi

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Augusto Horta Liza

    2006-01-01

    Esta pesquisa objetiva a realização de um estudo inter e multidisciplinar da obra Rab'inal Achi, considerada, até o presente momento, o principal remanescente da arte dramática mesoamericana. O Rab'inal Achi é reconhecido como patrimônio cultural da Guatemala, destacando-se, sobretudo,na condição de relíquia viva da comunidade K'iche-achi, assentada no município de Rab'inal (Departamento da Baixa Vera Paz). Devido à longevidade e ao valor cultural deste objeto-tema de estudo, fez-se necessári...

  12. Średnie sezonowe i roczne amplitudy dobowe temperatury powietrza i trendy ich zmian w Arktyce w okresie 1951-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Przybylak, Rajmund

    1996-01-01

    Przeprowadzone w ostatnich kilku latach badania zmienności z roku na rok średnich sezonowych i rocznych dobowych temperatur minimalnych i maksymalnych wykazały ich asymetryczny przebieg (Karl i in. 1991, 1993, 1994). Nad większością badanych obszarów znacznie silniejszy wzrost posiadają temperatury minimalne niż maksymalne. Karl i in. (1993) stwierdzili, że na 50% obszaru półkuli północnej i na 37% obszarów lądowych całej kuli ziemskiej wzrost dobowych temperatur minimalnych jest około 3-krot...

  13. Orientacje socjo-biograficzne młodych Polek na podstawie ich wyborów życiowych dokonanych i deklarowanych

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnota, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Wanda Czarnota Rozprawa doktorska „Orientacje socjo-biograficzne młodych Polek na podstawie ich wyborów życiowych dokonanych i deklarowanych” Rozprawa składa się z dziewięciu rozdziałów rozmieszczonych w czterech częściach. Część I jest wprowadzeniem do problematyki badań. Rozdział pierwszy dotyczy kategorii „kobieta” – „kobiecość” i zawiera przegląd wybranych fragmentów koncepcji antropologicznych, filozoficznych, psychologicznych i socjologicznych na temat podmiotu „kobieta/kobie...

  14. Die oligocaenen Mollusken von Buton als Auswürflinge eines Schlammsprudels betrachtet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1937-01-01

    Vor einigen Jahren beschrieb ich eine neue tertiäre Molluskenfauna aus Asphaltkalken der Insel Buton, deren Alter nur auf (Grund ihres faunistischen Charakters bestimmt werden konnte und nicht durch Kenntnis der Lagerungsverhältnisse unterstützt wurde. Ich gelangte zu dem Schlüsse, dass die Molluske

  15. Patient Experience Assessment is a Requisite for Quality Evaluation: A Discussion of the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Health Care Providers and Systems (ICH CAHPS) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Patient experience surveys provide a critical and unique perspective on the quality of patient-centered healthcare delivery. These surveys provide a mechanism to systematically express patients' voice on topics valued by patients to make decisions about choices in care. They also provide an assessment to healthcare organizations about their service that cannot be obtained from any other source. Regulatory agencies have mandated the assessment of patients' experience as part of healthcare value based purchasing programs and weighted the results to account for up to 30% of the total scoring. This is a testimony to the accepted importance of this metric as a fundamental assessment of quality. After more than a decade of rigorous research, there is a significant body of growing evidence supporting specifically the validity and use of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) surveys, including a version specific to in-center hemodialysis (ICH CAHPS). This review will focus on the ICH CAHPS survey including a review of its development, content, administration, and also a discussion of common criticisms. Although it is suggested that the survey assesses activities and experiences that are not modifiable by the healthcare organization (or the dialysis facility in our case) emerging evidence suggests otherwise. Dialysis providers have an exclusive opportunity to lead the advancement of understanding the implications and serviceability of the evaluation of the patient experience in health care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Regulatory incentives to ensure better medicines for older people: From ICH E7 to the EMA reflection paper on quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Hussain, Nasir; Sundberg, Katarina A E; Eggenschwyler, Doris; Ferris, Cristina; Robert, Jean-Louis; Cerreta, Francesca

    2016-10-30

    Ageing comes with an increased propensity in the alteration of human organ and body functions, which can e.g. result in multi-morbidity, frailty, polypharmacy, altered medication safety and/or efficacy, and problems with the practical use of medicines in a real world setting. Such problems may e.g. involve difficulties opening containers, swallowing large tablets, breaking tablets by hand, or correctly understanding the user instruction. This review aims to summarize the European regulatory activities towards better medicines for older people, with a main focus on formulation development and the overall drug product design. It addresses the ICH E7 guideline "Studies in support of special populations, geriatrics", the ICH Q8 guideline "Pharmaceutical development", the EMA good practice guide on "Risk minimisation and prevention of medication errors" and the forthcoming EMA CHMP QWP reflection paper on the "Quality aspects (pharmaceutical development) of medicines for older people". In addition, three key aspects to the practical use of medicines by older people are discussed in a wider context: multi-particulates including small tablets (also referred to as mini-tablets), ease of opening and storage conditions. Furthermore, attention is paid to work in progress e.g. incentives by the European national drug regulatory authorities, and patient centric drug product development.

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex on Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter; Availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 1: Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability among these texts from the local regional pharmacopeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  18. Study and ICH validation of a reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of the intact monoclonal antibody cetuximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martínez-Ortega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetuximab (CTX is a potent chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody (mAb approved worldwide for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Among the various biological and physical analyses performed for full study on this biopharmaceutic, the determination of the concentration preparations throughout manufacturing and subsequent handling in hospital is particularly relevant. In the present work, the study and validation of a method for quantifying intact CTX by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection ((RPHPLC/DAD is presented. With that end, we checked the performance of a chromatographic method for quantifying CTX and conducted a study to validate the method as stability-indicating in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines (ICH for biotechnological drugs; therefore, we evaluated linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, robustness and system suitability. The specificity of the method and the robustness of the mAb formulation against external stress factors were estimated by comprehensive chromatographic analysis by subjecting CTX to several informative stress conditions. As demonstrated, the method is rapid, accurate, and reproducible for CTX quantification. It was also successfully used to quantify CTX in a long-term stability study performed under hospital conditions.

  19. ICH GUIDANCE IN PRACTICE: DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ASSAY METHOD FOR FEBUXOSTAT AND DEGRADATION KINETIC STUDY IN ACID HYDROLYTIC CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha V. Sheth* and Jigar J. Pandya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The degradation behavior of Febuxostat was investigated under different stress degradation (hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal conditions recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH using HPLC and LCMS. Febuxostat was found to degrade significantly in acidic and alkaline conditions as well as in neutral hydrolysis. The drug was stable to dry heat, photolytic degradation and under oxidative condition. Resolution of drug and the degradation products formed under different stress studies were successfully achieved on a C-18 column utilizing Methanol- water (with 0.02%v/v TFA in the ratio of 95:5 and at the detection wavelength of 315 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity and specificity. The degradation kinetic of Febuxostat in acidic condition at different temperature was studied. The reaction order for Febuxostat in aqueous solvent system followed pseudo first order degradation kinetic. The catalytic rate constant and half-life at particular condition were determined. The Arrhenius plot showed the temperature dependence of Febuxostat.

  20. Study and ICH validation of a reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of the intact monoclonal antibody cetuximab$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Martínez-Ortega; Agustín Herrera; Antonio Salmerón-García; José Cabeza; Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez; Natalia Navas

    2016-01-01

    Cetuximab (CTX) is a potent chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved worldwide for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Among the various biological and physical analyses per-formed for full study on this biopharmaceutic, the determination of the concentration preparations throughout manufacturing and subsequent handling in hospital is particularly relevant. In the present work, the study and validation of a method for quantifying intact CTX by reverse-phase high-perfor-mance liquid chromatography with diode array detection ((RP)HPLC/DAD) is presented. With that end, we checked the performance of a chromatographic method for quantifying CTX and conducted a study to validate the method as stability-indicating in accordance with the International Conference on Harmo-nization guidelines (ICH) for biotechnological drugs; therefore, we evaluated linearity, accuracy, preci-sion, detection and quantification limits, robustness and system suitability. The specificity of the method and the robustness of the mAb formulation against external stress factors were estimated by compre-hensive chromatographic analysis by subjecting CTX to several informative stress conditions. As de-monstrated, the method is rapid, accurate, and reproducible for CTX quantification. It was also suc-cessfully used to quantify CTX in a long-term stability study performed under hospital conditions.

  1. Long term stability of rh-Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD)-liposomes prepared by the cross-flow injection technique following International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH)-guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorauer-Uhl, Karola; Wagner, Andreas; Katinger, Hermann

    2002-07-01

    The current market position of liposomes as drug carriers is still being discussed with regard to large scale production, product characterisation and the stability of the dispersions. In this study, long term stability of liposomal suspensions with encapsulated rh-Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase was tested according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) recommendations. The guidelines of the ICH provide general requirements for stability testing for registration and export in particular. The Institute of Applied Microbiology has examined a process to produce large amounts of pharmaceutical-grade liposomes for the treatment of inflammatory diseases by topical application. For the evaluation of its long-term storage stability, liposomal stability and protein stability were tested under appropriate conditions. Therefore, size alterations of the vesicles, protein release and protein activity were evaluated. During the observation period, neither significant alterations of the liposomes nor any protein degradation could be detected. In the light of these findings our liposomal formulations seem to provide chemical, physical and biological stability according to the definitions of the ICH. Appropriate lipid compounds and environmental factors, in combination with an optimised process and adequate storage conditions, facilitate the production of liposome dispersions suitable as drug carriers on the market.

  2. Not In-Service Railway Arched Bridges and Their Future/ Nieużytkowane Kolejowe Mosty Sklepione I Ich Przyszłość

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Artur; Dankowski, Marek; Wysokowski, Adam

    2015-06-01

    At the turn of the 19th and 20th century, on the areas of today northern and western Poland, the railway infrastructure was developing rapidly. In the late 80's of the previous century many of the railway lines, together with the whole infrastructure including bridges, were being closed down. The example of such practices can be the brick bridge located near Nojewo, Voivodeship wielkopolskie. This article presents the technical parameters of these bridges and their damages as well as ideas for the future development of the railway facilities. Na przełomie XIX i XX wieku na terenie dzisiejszej Polski zachodniej i północnej bardzo intensywnie rozwijana była infrastruktura kolejowa. W efekcie tych działań powstała sieć dróg żelaznych o dużym zagęszczeniu. Pod koniec lat 80-tych ubiegłego stulecia wiele z tych linii było stopniowo zamykanych. Na skutek tych przemian wiele linii oraz obiektów z nimi związanych, w tym obiekty mostowe, zostały pozostawione niekorzystnemu działaniu czasu. Przykładem takich wyłączonych z eksploatacji obiektów są mosty i wiadukty położone w okolicy miejscowości Nojewo. Wspomniane obiekty inżynierskie to ceglane konstrukcje sklepione znajdujące się w ciągu linii kolejowej nr 368 łączącej Szamotuły i Międzychód. W artykule zaprezentowano problem rewitalizacji nieużytkowanych mostów kolejowych na przykładzie obiektów w miejscowości Nojewo w województwie wielkopolskim. Opisano podstawowe parametry techniczne mostów oraz ich uszkodzenia. Przedstawiono propozycje zagospodarowania obiektów.

  3. Development and validation of stability indicating method for determination of sertraline following ICH guidlines and its determination in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Enany Nahed M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sertraline is a well known antidepressant drug which belongs to a class called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Most published methods do not enable studying the stability of this drug in different stress conditions. Results Two new methods were developed for the determination of sertraline (SER. Both methods are based on coupling with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl in borate buffer of pH 7.8 and measuring the reaction product spectrophotometrically at 395 nm (Method I or spectrofluorimetrically at 530 nm upon excitation at 480 nm (Method II. The response-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range 2-24 μg/mL and 0.25-5 μg/mL for methods I and II respectively with LOD of 0.18 μg/mL and 0.07 μg/mL, and LOQ of 0.56 μg/mL and 0.21 μg/mL for methods I and II, respectively. Conclusion Both methods were applied to the analysis of commercial tablets and the results were in good agreement with those obtained using a reference method. The fluorimetric method was further applied to the in vivo determination of SER in human plasma. A proposal of the reaction pathway was presented. The spectrophotometric method was extended to stability study of SER. The drug was exposed to alkaline, acidic, oxidative and photolytic degradation according to ICH guidelines. Moreover, the method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of oxidative degradation of the drug. The apparent first order rate constant and t1/2 of the degradation reaction were determined.

  4. The activity of radiocaesium in sediments around off Fukushima after the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Miho; Aono, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Naganuma, Sho; Kubo, Atsushi; Ito, Yukari; Ishimaru, Takashi; Kanda, Jota

    2014-05-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 have led to the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station (FNPS) and large amount of radioactive material were discharged by the hydrogen explosion and leaked from FNPS to the ocean. About three years have passed after the accident, radiocaesium in seawater off Fukushima except for part of area is gradually decreasing to the level before the accident. However, because the decrease of radiocaesium in marine sediment is more slowly than that in seawater, it is worried to influence on marine biota dwelled around the seabed over the long term. The aim of this study was to elucidate the variation and behavior of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) activities in the marine environment. Sediment and seawater samples were collected from three sites in 5 km-20 km area from FNPS (NP2 site ; 37° 25 N, 141°06 E, water depth 30 m, AN6 site ; 37° 33 N, 141°07 E, water depth 30 m, and M01 site ; 37° 33 N, 141°20 E, water depth 60 m) in May and October 2013 during some cruise of Umitaka-maru and Shinyo-maru (Tokyo University of Marine and Technology) .Vertical changes of 134Cs concentration (Bq/kg-dry) in sediment ranged 17-28, 8.2-53, and 4.2-11 at NP2, AN6 and M01 sites as of May 2013, respectively. At NP2 site, 134Cs inventory (Bq/m2) in seawater in October was about four times higher than that of 134Cs inventory in May. At NP2 and M01 sites in May, 134Cs concentration was higher in the shallow layer (0 cm-1 cm). On the contrary, at AN6 site in May and NP2 site in October, 134Cs concentration was higher in the middle layer (4 cm-5 cm). Trend of organic content at all stations were consistent with that of vertical change of 134Cs concentration. These results suggest that highest radiocaesium layer in the shallow as well as in the middle depth was caused by increase of river input and resedimentation.

  5. Impulsive phenomena, the impulsive character (der Triebhafte Charakter) and DSM personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Körner, Annett C

    2011-10-01

    Impulsive phenomena have frequently been associated with personality disorders, beginning with Reich's description of the impulsive-character (Reich, 1925/1975). However, questions remain regarding the cooccurrence of a wide variety of impulsive phenomena and whether an underlying structure influences the differential association of impulses to individual personality disorders. Adults entering residential treatment for treatment-refractory disorders were interviewed about their lifetime histories of 33 impulse items, following independent diagnostic interviews. Factor analysis suggested 12 underlying dimensions of impulsive phenomena, explaining 68% of the variance. Borderline and antisocial PDs had the highest impulse scores, followed by self-defeating, narcissistic, depressive, and passive-aggressive PDs. Schizoid, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent types were negatively associated with impulsive phenomena. Individuals with the highest impulse scores showed higher levels of borderline, antisocial and either self-defeating or passive-aggressive personality pathology, and were characterized by high Neuroticism and Openness and low Agreeableness on the NEO-FFI. Personality disorders and the NEO-FFI personality traits both predicted unique variance in impulsive phenomena, with the former predominating. Our findings bear striking similarities to Reich's (1925/1975) descriptions of the impulsive character.

  6. Implantação do Guia ICH Q8(R2): o processo de desenvolvimento farmacêutico sob uma abordagem científica e de gerenciamento de risco de qualidade

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes, Renata Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação avalia o impacto da aplicação do princípio de Quality by Design(QbD) apresentado no Guia ICH Q8(R2) Desenvolvimento Farmacêutico sobre a qualidade do processo de desenvolvimento e de produção de novos medicamentos de Farmanguinhos.O objetivo do desenvolvimento farmacêutico é projetar um produto de qualidade cujo processo de fabricação permita, de forma consistente, alcançar o desempenho pretendido com reprodutibilidade e confiabilidade. As informações e os conhecimentos adq...

  7. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS.

  8. Ich bin ein Unternehmer / Lasse Lehis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehis, Lasse, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    FIE-de sotsiaalmaksu tõstmisest. Lisatud MTA pressiteated: Pau, Aivar. FIE-d on tööjõustruktuuris madalaima taseme sotsiaalmaksu tasujad. Plakk, Liis. Maksuhaldur juhib tähelepanu riskidele tööandja survel FIE-ks astumisel. Lisatud ka ETTK pressiteated: Kriis, Tarmo. Tööandjate keskliit toetab maksuameti seisukohta FIE-de osas. Kriis, Tarmo. Tööandjate keskliit: maksumaksjate liit kaitseb maksudest kõrvale hoidmist. Kriis, Tarmo. Tööandjate keskliit kiidab sotsiaalmaksu miinimummäära kiiret tõstmist. Lisatud BNS uudis: Maksumaksjad on sotsmaksu miinimummäära kiire tõstmise vastu. Lisatud ka EML kiri Riigikogu rahanduskomisjonile: Varend, Õnneli. Ettepanekud sotsiaalmaksuseaduse muutmise seaduse eelnõu kohta. Lisatud: Seaduseelnõu Riigikogus : sõnavõtud sotsiaalmaksuseaduse muutmise seaduse eelnõu 1032 teisel lugemisel Riigikogus

  9. I-Ching of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, P.

    The yin/yang of I Chin philosophy can describe the acid/alkali balance and the development of acid rain concerns. The author describes the science of sulfur; the chemistry, transport, and ecological impacts as it moves from coal mine to ocean. He then addresses the regulatory options for reducing sulfur emissions or mitigating their environmental impacts at various stages of the coal-sulfur cycle. He sees no fair conclusion because the scientific community is still unwilling to reach a consensus on the widespread ecological risks and because cost-benefit balancing is neither neutral nor objective. If we conclude that a new regulatory initiative is in order, we should recognize that there are better and worse ways of implementing it. Long-term solutions lie in the aggressive promotion of cleaner coal and noncoal technologies. 3 references, 4 figures.

  10. Ich bin ein Unternehmer / Lasse Lehis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehis, Lasse, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    FIE-de sotsiaalmaksu tõstmisest. Lisatud MTA pressiteated: Pau, Aivar. FIE-d on tööjõustruktuuris madalaima taseme sotsiaalmaksu tasujad. Plakk, Liis. Maksuhaldur juhib tähelepanu riskidele tööandja survel FIE-ks astumisel. Lisatud ka ETTK pressiteated: Kriis, Tarmo. Tööandjate keskliit toetab maksuameti seisukohta FIE-de osas. Kriis, Tarmo. Tööandjate keskliit: maksumaksjate liit kaitseb maksudest kõrvale hoidmist. Kriis, Tarmo. Tööandjate keskliit kiidab sotsiaalmaksu miinimummäära kiiret tõstmist. Lisatud BNS uudis: Maksumaksjad on sotsmaksu miinimummäära kiire tõstmise vastu. Lisatud ka EML kiri Riigikogu rahanduskomisjonile: Varend, Õnneli. Ettepanekud sotsiaalmaksuseaduse muutmise seaduse eelnõu kohta. Lisatud: Seaduseelnõu Riigikogus : sõnavõtud sotsiaalmaksuseaduse muutmise seaduse eelnõu 1032 teisel lugemisel Riigikogus

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS USED ON THE ACTIVITY OF KINETIC ENDURANCE CHARAKTER APPLIED AS A CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    DIČE, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to compare food supplements used on the activity of endurance character and their influence on the cardiovascular system. The teoretical part is pursued to the basic food components and their metabolism and to kinetic activities splitting. The practical part gives information about splitting of sports supplements used on the activity of endurance character, their usage and effects. It deals with the question of human organism behaviour during the strain of endurance ...

  12. Motywy wędrówki dusz i dybuka w kulturze żydowskiej i ich współczesna realizacja w twórczości Jony Wolach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piątek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motifs of transmigration of souls and dybbuk in Jewish culture and their contemporary implementation in the works by Yona Wollach This article describes two concepts important for Jewish mysticism – dybbuk and the transmigration of soul, and goes on to present their contemporary usage in the works by Yona Wollach. The concept of the transmigration of souls (in Hebrew: gilgul neshamot describes a situation whereby the soul of a dead person returns to the this world and occupies a new body. In the case of the dybbuk (in Hebrew: dibuk, on the other hand, the body of a living person, who has his or her own soul, is possessed by the spirit of a dead person. The concepts of reincarnation and dybbuk played an important role not only in religious tradition but also in folklore and popular and high culture. Both became the focus of a number of artworks. The article presents fragments of the poems of the Israeli poet Yona Wollach (1944–1985, in which she describes psychological states similar to transmigration of souls and being captured by a dybbuk. The article aims to show that these poetic images are in close connection with Wollach`s concept of the human psyche.   Motywy wędrówki dusz i dybuka w kulturze żydowskiej i ich współczesna realizacja w twórczości Jony Wolach Artykuł przybliża dwa ważne pojęcia mistyki żydowskiej – dybuka i wędrówki dusz, a następnie ukazuje współczesne nawiązanie do nich w twórczości Jony Wolach. Pod pojęciem wędrówki dusz (hebr. gilgul neszamot rozumie się sytuację, w której dusza zmarłego wraca do świata doczesnego i zamieszkuje w nowym ciele. Natomiast w przypadku dybuka (hebr. dibuk dochodzi do zawładnięcia ciałem żywego człowieka, posiadającego już jedną duszę, przez ducha zmarłej wcześniej osoby. Pojęcia wędrówki dusz i dybuka odgrywały istotną rolę nie tylko w tradycji religijnej, ale i w folklorze oraz kulturze popularnej i wysokiej, stając się tematem wielu dzie

  13. Evaluación citotóxica y de exposición a drogas psicoactivas, mediante las pruebas de índice proliferativo (IP y de intercambios entre cromátides hermanas (ICH's, en individuos del suroccidente colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal S

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available De 65.888 jóvenes del Cauca, 4.349 (6,6% consumen marihuana, 2.043 (3,1% consumen cocaína, 725 (1,1% consumen bazuco y 791 (1,2% consumen éxtasis. Fue necesario, por lo tanto, realizar un monitoreo genético de la población, mediante el logro de los siguientes objetivos:
    1. Identificar el efecto Citotóxico de las drogas psicoactivas determinando el IP en linfocitos de adictos y no adictos.
    2. Evaluar la exposición del material genético de los adictos y no adictos, cuantificando los ICHs en linfocitos.

  14. Rezension von: Thomas Martinec, Claudia Nitschke (Hg.: Familie und Identität in der deutschen Literatur. Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Peter Lang Verlag 2009. — Ariane Eichenberg: Familie – Ich – Nation. Göttingen: V&R unipress 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kanz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Die Themen Generation und Familie gehören zu den wichtigsten Sujets literarischer Texte, insbesondere wenn diese die Herausbildung oder die Zerstörung von Identität problematisieren. Ein neuer, von Claudia Nitschke und Thomas Martinec herausgegebener Tagungsband ist der literatur- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Auseinandersetzung mit diesen Themen gewidmet. Sechs Jahrzehnte nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges hat vor allem das Genre des Generationenromans Hochkonjunktur, insbesondere Texte der dritten Generation zum Umgang der Großeltern-Generation mit dem Nationalsozialismus. Den Verfasser/-innen dieses neuen, in sich heterogenen Genres wird in der Studie von Ariane Eichenberg allerdings keine allzu große Wirkmächtigkeit bescheinigt. Im Gegenteil nährten die modischen Texte mit den Funden aus der Vergangenheit vor allem das Ich der Erzähler/-innen, deren eigene Gefühle und Selbstvergewisserung in einer von Unsicherheiten geprägten Gegenwart.

  15. ICH 患者血清和血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的变化研究%Hematoma fluid and serum of patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage about IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金安; 白西民

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察急性脑出血(ICH)患者血清和血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的变化。方法:选取80例在我院治疗的基底节区脑出血患者,按照发病时间将患者分为5组(发病时间≤6h、6h <发病时间≤12h、12h <发病时间≤24h、24h <发病时间≤72h、3d <发病时间≤7d),检测各组血清和血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的含量以及出血量和水肿量;另选取21例健康体检者,检测其血清 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的含量作对照。结果:IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10在患者静脉血、血肿液中的浓度均显著高于正常对照组,而患者静脉血与血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10浓度比较,差异无统计学意义。基底节区脑出血患者发病时间≤6h 与正常对照组比较,除 IL-10浓度升高不明显外,IL-4、IL-6、IL-8浓度均明显升高;24h <发病时间≤72h 时,IL-4、IL-6、IL-8浓度与其他各时段比较,以及3d <发病时间≤7d时,IL-10浓度与其他各时段比较,差异均具有统计学意义。各时段出血量和水肿量比较,差异均无统计学意义,出血量和水肿量均在发病时间≤6h至12h <发病时间≤24h 逐渐增大,12h <发病时间≤24h 达到峰值。结论:ICH 患者静脉血、血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8浓度可以作为早期检测(≤6h)ICH 的指标,并可通过不同炎症因子的含量变化判断 ICH 患者发病时间,且患者发病一周内周围脑组织出血量和水肿量变化不大。%Objective To observe the changes of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in serum and hematoma of ICH. Methods 80 cases ICH patients were divided into five groups(<6h, 6-12h, 12-24h, 24-72h, 3-7d). The control group were 21 healthy persons serum. The content of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in different time were compared and the amount of bleeding and edema. Results IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in patients with venous hematoma fluid concentrations were

  16. Hermeneutyczne rozumienie W-cielenia i Eucharystii: „Tenebrae” Paula Celana i interpretacyjny charakter kom-unii poprzez ciało, krew i obraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierciński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnal hermeneutics shows that pre-thematic bodily hermeneutics can complement cognitive hermeneutics. The thematization of sacramental imagination is an essential part of such an approach. Carnal hermeneutics finds new ways of showing how imagination inhabits our bodies and reflects on the emancipatory possibilities that are hidden in the process of maintaining and crossing the various boundaries that constitute our identity. Carnal reading is both reception and creation, i.e., it is not a reading into something but a reading from something. The act of interpreting Paul Celan’s Tenebrae is an exercise in a diacritical hermeneutics of communion and prayer, which contributes to the self-awakening of existence by elucidating the fundamental structures of our understanding of being.

  17. Lebendige Erzählungen: Die Rolle der Forschenden bei der Erzählung von Lebensgeschichten

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Narrative Forschung erlaubt, das "Innenleben" analytischer Texte "zu enthüllen", das sonst üblicherweise im Dunkeln bleibt, und ist insoweit eine machtvolles Instrument in der Werkzeugkiste der Forschenden. Der interpretative Charakter narrativer Forschung geht über das bloße Dokumentieren und Wiedergeben von Daten hinaus. In diesem Beitrag beschäftige ich mich mit ethischen Implikationen der narrative Wende in der Sozialforschung, so u.a. mit der Frage, wem eine Geschichte gehört, nachd...

  18. Występowanie, swoistość i krzyżowa reaktywność przeciwciał antybakteryjnych (Yersinia spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Borrelia burgdorferi oraz ich znaczenie w diagnostyce niesklasyfikowanych zapaleń stawów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Ząbek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostyka serologiczna niesklasyfikowanych zapaleń stawówo podejrzewanej etiologii infekcyjnej jest często uważana za podstawowąz uwagi na opóźnione objawy kliniczne w stosunku dowystąpienia infekcji. W prezentowanej pracy przedstawiono wynikibadań przeprowadzonych na 4830 surowicach pacjentów (w tymok. 53% dzieci i młodzieży, hospitalizowanych w 2009 r. w 4 od -działach klinicznych Instytutu Reumatologii w Warszawie.W badaniach zastosowano metodę immunoenzymatyczną (ELISA,a w przypadku konieczności potwierdzenia obecności przeciwciałdla Y. enterocolitica (u dzieci i B. burgdorferi – metodę immunoblotting(Western-blotting.Analizując uzyskane wyniki, stwierdzono podwyższony poziomprzeciwciał dla Yersinia spp. – w 35,3% surowic, dla S. Enteritidis –w 13%, Ch. trachomatis – w 10,6%, B. burgdorferi – w 14,7% (tab. I.Przeanalizowano występowanie przeciwciał poszczególnych klasw aspekcie ich przydatności diagnostycznej w określaniu infekcji.Szczególną uwagę zwracano na częste współwystępowanie w tejsamej surowicy przeciwciał dla kilku drobnoustrojów (w tychsamych klasach – w 56,8%, w różnych klasach – 20,7% (tab. III, IV.Potwierdzono obecność swoistych przeciwciał klasy IgA dla Yersiniaspp. w 60,8%, a klasy IgG – w 86,7%. Podobne badania nadswoistością przeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi wykazały ich potwierdzalnośćw 82,2% dla klasy IgG oraz w 45,9% dla klasy IgM (tab. II.Dodatkowo dokonano szczegółowej analizy częstości występowania przeciwciał dla swoistych antygenów Y. enterocolitica i B. burgdorferi(ryc. 1, 2.Diagnostyka serologiczna niesklasyfikowanych zapaleń stawówo podejrzewanej etiologii bakteryjnej: Yersinia spp., S. Enteritidis,Ch. trachomatis, B. burgdorferi, jest przydatna z racji opóźnionychobjawów klinicznych, jednakże obarczona wieloma trudnościamiinterpretacyjnymi, wynikającymi z:• częstego wykrywania przeciwciał w jednej klasie, zwłaszcza IgG,które nie

  19. 叶芝《基督重临》中“大记忆”蕴含的《易经》辩证哲学%Analysis of“Spiritus mundi”in Yeats’s The Second Coming from perspective of I-Ching philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恺熙

    2016-01-01

    叶芝的作品充满了多种宗教信义,“大记忆”就是其中之一。“大记忆”是叶芝在对东西方种种秘术亲身实践的基础上创立的与宗教息息相关的术语。叶芝的神秘宗教信义与《易经》的辩证哲学有着相通之处,二者均体现了人在社会变迁中思想精神的发展。从《易经》阴阳辩证哲学观点视角对叶芝《基督重临》( The Second Coming)的“大记忆”进行分析,探讨“大记忆”的成因及其蕴含的普世精神,并论证二者所蕴涵世界精神的互补与共存。%William Butler Yeats is one of the most famous poets in the twentieth century. His works containing a great deal of religious beliefs have been largely prevalent."Spiritus mundi" is one of his religious beliefs that had been founded based on his personal experiences of east and west occultism. I-Ching,one of Chinese classical philos-ophy,has similarity toYeats’religious beliefs. They both present dialectical relationship and development of objec-tive things. The paper tries to analyze Spiritus mundi in The Second Coming from the perspective of Occultism,ai-ming at probing the genesis and containing world spirit of"Spiritus mundi"as well as the similarity between Yeats’ religious beliefs and philosophy of I-Ching.

  20. Das Ich und der Andere in der psychologischen Technikforschung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraube, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    subjektiven Dimension menschlicher Lebenspraxis in der heutigen Psychologie beschrieben und gezeigt, warum die damit einhergehende Forschung die Bedeutung der Technik für die Lebensführung der Menschen nur unzureichend untersuchen kann. Daraufhin wird begründet, warum ein präzisiertes konzeptuelles...

  1. Ich glaube nicht an übersinnliche Kraft hinter Naturgesetzen

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva is the leader in research sector of the elementary particles. And a sud-tyrolean has an essential interest in it. Südtirol Online speaks with this physicist about Universe, the smallest components in nature, and about the question: "What is behind?"

  2. Wilhelm Reich, das Schreiben, meine Neurose und ich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Decker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Prosaiker, Dramatiker und Hörspielautor Jan Decker reflektiert in diesem Essay über Bedingungen und Widerstände des literarischen Schreibens. Dabei geht es weniger um poetologische Verfahren als vielmehr um ein Hinterfragen der Bedingungen und Dispositionen, die einen Menschen dazu verleiten, einen literarischen Text dort entstehen zu lassen, wo sich ein Selbstempfinden und die Welt berühren. Ein Bogen wird gespannt, der über die Erotik und Körperlichkeit des Schreibakts hinweg letztlich dazu führt, die »Ursprungsneurose« als das zu pflegende Enigma des Autors zu erkennen.

  3. Wissensmanagementsysteme in Schulen oder: wie bringe ich Ordnung ins Chaos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breiter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Die zunehmende Ausstattung von Schulen mit digitalen Medien wird zu einer Herausforderung für die Organisationsentwicklung. Digitale Materialien der Lehrkräfte sowie Schülerarbeiten in digitalisierter Form wachsen tagtäglich an. Bisher fehlen geeignete organisatorische und technische Möglichkeiten zur Archivierung, Verteilung und Nutzung. In Unternehmen hat sich mit dem Begriff Wissensmanagement ein organsatorisches Konzept etabliert, das die Nutzung der Ressource Wissen optimieren will. Um diese Prozesse zu unterstützen, wurden und werden informations- und kommunikationstechnische Werkzeuge entwickelt, deren Übertragung auf den Schulbereich aufgrund dessen organisatorischer Komplexität aber scheitern muss. In diesem Beitrag werden diese Besonderheiten herausgestellt und die Erfahrungen mit der Entwicklung eines webbasierten Wissensmanagementsystems in Zusammenarbeit mit Schulen skizziert.

  4. Religie świata i ich stanowisko wobec eutanazji

    OpenAIRE

    Skura-Madziała, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The attitude towards death and dying reflects the society’s view on a human being as a subject. Due to the progress in medical science a growing interest has been observed in the problem of death, including the right to dignified dying. One of the issues connected with the phenomenon of dying is the problem of euthanasia seen as one’s right to decide on one’s own death in extreme cases. The question of the legality of euthanasia is becoming a subject of consideration more and more ...

  5. Guidelines from the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Sarah K

    2005-08-10

    This article describes the development of international guidance on registration of technical dossiers supporting applications to market medicinal products. Aspects of guidance of particular relevance to the use of NMR spectroscopy in drug development and control are discussed.

  6. The Application of Modern Techniques and Measurement Devices for Identification of Copper Ore Types and Their Properties / Wykorzystanie nowoczesnych technik i urządzeń pomiarowych do identyfikacji typów rud miedzi i ich właściwości

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczykowska, Aldona; Trybalski, Kazimierz; Krawczykowski, Damian

    2013-06-01

    minerałów miedzionośnych oraz rodzajem ich skupień i wpryśnięć. Niezwykle istotne jest właściwe rozpoznanie rudy pod względem petrograficzno-mineralogicznym. Znajomość właściwości przerabianej rudy pozwala na pełniejsze jej wykorzystanie poprzez właściwe prowadzenie i sterowanie procesami, dobór ich parametrów takich m.in. jak: czas mielenia, parametry klasyfikacji, rodzaj odczynników flotacyjnych, czas flotacji. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki przeprowadzonych analiz mikroskopowych, analizy obrazów zdjęć skaningowych oraz procedury wykorzystania otrzymanych informacji do identyfikacji typów rud (zastosowanie sieci neuronowych do rozpoznawania składów litologicznych). W badaniach wykorzystano rudę miedzi, pochodzącą z jednego z zakładów górniczych KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Pobrane próbki rudy reprezentowały każdy z trzech typów litologicznych występujących w krajowych złożach: węglanową, łupkową oraz piaskowcową. Przeprowadzono ilościową analizę mineralogiczno-petrograficzną przy pomocy mikroskopu optycznego w świetle odbitym, a wyniki przedstawiono w tabelach 1 i 2. Wyniki te określają ilościowo stopień uwolnienia i zrosty dla jednego rodzaju minerału. Pokazano także przykładowe zdjęcia mikroskopowe zgładów poszczególnych typów litologicznych rud oraz próbek proszkowych tych typów (rys. 1 i 2). W kolejnym etapie badań wykorzystano skaningowy mikroskop elektronowy. Zdjęcia morfologii próbek uzyskane z mikroskopu elektronowego (obrazy SEM) były przedmiotem komputerowej analizy obrazu, umożliwiającej mikrostrukturalną klasyfikację ilościową typów rud. Analizowano wszystkie próbki poszczególnych typów litologicznych rudy miedzi: węglanowej, łupkowej i piaskowcowej oraz mieszanki tych typów w trzech klasach ziarnowych: 0÷45 μm, 45÷71 μm i 71÷100 μm. Celem przekształceń wykorzystanych w procedurze komputerowej analizy obrazu jest otrzymanie poprawnie posegmentowanego obrazu binarnego, kt

  7. Selected Properties of Flotation Tailings Wastes Deposited in the Gilów and Żelazny Most Waste Reservoirs Regarding Their Potential Environmental Management / Wybrane Właściwości Odpadów Poflotacyjnych Zdeponowanych W Zbiornikach Gilów I Żelazny Most W Aspekcie Możliwości Ich Zagospodarowania Przyrodniczego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Agnieszka; Śliwka, Małgorzata; Lis, Marcin

    2013-09-01

    Wastes originating from copper mining, particularly generated during the ore enrichment process constitute a considerable percentage of industrial wastes in Poland, which theoretically are supposed to provide a raw material base but remain wholly unmanaged. Wastes from copper flotation are deposited on the waste dumps which pose a significant eco-toxicological hazard. The paper discussed the results of analysis of selected post-floatation waste properties deposited in the Żelazny Most and Gilów reservoirs from the perspective of their environmental management. Odpady pochodzące z górnictwa miedzi, szczególnie powstające w procesie wzbogacania rudy, stanowią znaczny odsetek odpadów przemysłowych w naszym kraju, które teoretycznie zasilić mają bazę surowcową i w całości pozostają niezagospodarowane. Odpady z procesu flotacji miedzi są deponowane na składowiskach i stanowią zagrożeniem ekologicznym i ekotoksykologicznym dla środowiska przyrodniczego i człowieka. Niekorzystne oddziaływanie składowisk odpadów poflotacyjnych na środowisko to przede wszystkim deformacje terenu, zanieczyszczenia gleb zanieczyszczeń roślinności metalami ciężkimi, oraz zanieczyszczenie wód powierzchniowych i podziemnych. W artykule zostały omówione niektóre właściwości fizykochemiczne oraz ekotoksykologiczne odpadów poflotacyjnych deponowanych w zbiornikach Żelazny Most i Gilów pod kątem ich biologicznego zagospodarowania. Próbki pobranych osadów, po odpowiednim przygotowaniu, poddano ocenie wybranych parametrów fizycznych, analizie chemicznej oraz serii testów ekotoksykologicznych. Właściwości ekotoksykologiczne osadów oceniono przy użyciu baterii biotestów składającej się z dwóch biotestów pracujących na pięciu organizmach (tab. 1). W teście Phytotoxkit do pomiaru toksyczności osadu wykorzystano trzy rośliny: Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum i Sinapis alba. Mierzonym parametrem było zahamowanie kiełkowania nasion oraz d

  8. Good intentions and ICH-GCP: Trial conduct training needs to go beyond the ICH-GCP document and include the intention-to-treat principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Lois H; Graham, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    It is assumed investigators and statisticians fully understand the importance of avoiding missing outcomes and the intention-to-treat principle during design and analysis phases of a randomised controlled trial in order to obtain the most valuable and reliable results. However, many personnel undertaking day-to-day trial conduct and data collection commonly rely exclusively for guidance on the widely implemented, indeed regulated, International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice document as the guideline and standard for trial conduct. This article describes adverse consequences of omission of intention-to-treat principles from training for trial personnel and explores the need for training in addition to the International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice guideline document. Data from the Breast Boost Study were used to illustrate a comparison of actual results, where vigilant senior investigators re-enforced intention-to-treat requirements throughout all aspects of trial conduct with results that could easily have occurred if study personnel did not understand the importance of intention-to-treat principles. Experience as a co-ordinating centre for an international trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 08.06 Breast STARS) acted as an audit of data-management culture regarding intention-to-treat in Australia and New Zealand. Despite the Breast Boost Study exceeding planned accrual, it was demonstrated that the study, which found a statistically significant result, could have reported a negative or inconclusive result under the scenario of trial conduct personnel having lack of understanding of the importance of avoiding losses to follow-up. Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology 08.06 co-ordination experience verified that data-management culture in Australia and New Zealand does not adequately recognise intention-to-treat principles, and this is reflected in trial conduct. Trial data described are limited to two trials and in the Australian and New Zealand setting. To be both scientifically and ethically valid, guidelines for trial conduct should include and stress the importance of the intention-to-treat principle and in particular avoiding missing outcomes. Our discussion highlights the vitally important role played by personnel involved in day-to-day trial conduct. Inclusion of scientific principles in guideline documents and/or training which goes beyond International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice to include intention-to-treat is essential to achieve robust research results. Related aspects of randomised trial consent and ethics are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Wasale, trybutariusze, sojusznicy. ­Charakter relacji państw bałkańskich z Turcją osmańską w XIV wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Czamańska

    2015-08-01

    4. Entry into close, family relations with the ruling sultan meant usually a close political and military cooperation. Greek, Bulgarian and Serbian wives of the sultans had the right to remain in the Christian faith and often exerted a strong political influence. The support and protection of the closest relatives of the wife was fulfilled by the Turkish rulers. Thanks to it, for example Serbia of Stefan Lazarević was essentially strengthened, becoming at the same time the most serious support of Bajezid I in the Balkans.

  10. Die Lücke als Aufforderung. Comicadaptionen von Franz Kafkas Leben und Werk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wintersteiger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available "Man kann kein Buch über Kafka voraussetzungslos beginnen."[1] Und ebenso wenig eine Arbeit. Über kaum einen modernen Autor wurde dermaßen viel geschrieben, gedacht, spekuliert, interpretiert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit möchte ich – nach einer Einführung in die von Milan Kundera "Kafkology" genannte Masse an Zugängen zu Kafka – Adaptionen seiner Werke in Comics, bzw. Graphic Novels beleuchten. Besonders hervorgehoben werden soll hierbei der Faktor der Unvollständigkeit: Der unfertige Status des Kafkaschen Werks bietet sich, meiner These zufolge, dazu an (sprich: fordert geradezu dazu auf, es zu bearbeiten, zu revisionieren und zu deuten. Dem entspricht auch der inhärent fragmentarische Charakter des Mediums Comic. Da ich dem Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit der Kafkaschen Interpretationen und Adaptionen in diesem Rahmen nicht gerecht werden kann und will, möchte ich mich auf die Umsetzungen von Der Prozess[2] bei Mairowitz und Montellier[3] im grafischen Bereich konzentrieren.

  11. Ekonomiczne aspekty Małych Elektrowni Wodnych - wyszukiwanie optymalnych lokalizacji pod budowę MEW

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    W związku z dynamicznym wzrostem zapotrzebowania na energie elektryczną stale rozwijane są alternatywne źródła jej pozyskiwania. W niniejszym artykule autor koncentruje się na małych elektrowniach wodnych ze względu na ich niewykorzystywany potencjał w Polsce. Przeważający nizinny charakter ukształtowania terenu nie sprzyja budowaniu elektrowni na rzekach górskich, jednak wciąż występują tu niewykorzystywane na potrzeby energetyki rzeki nizinne, na których można zainstalować tzw. małe elek...

  12. Umowa o udostępnienie skrytki bankowej w prawie francuskim

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Umowa o udostępnienie skrytki bankowej nie jest uregulowana w prawie polskim, nie poświęcają jej też wiele uwagi ani doktryna, ani orzecznictwo. Natomiast judykatura i doktryna francuska już dawno zauważyły problemy łączące się z umową sejfową (fr. contrat de location de coffre-fort), o czym świadczą liczne orzeczenia sądowe oraz bogate piśmiennictwo. Przedmiotem rozważań są podstawowe aspekty analizowanej umowy w prawie francuskim: zawarcie i strony umowy, ich prawa i obowiązki, charakter pr...

  13. Organizational Behaviour in Perpective of The Research - Methodology Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Januszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Społeczne aspekty zarządzania są dziś dosyć dobrze opisane, jednak w niewystarczającym stopniu poddane weryfikacji empirycznej. Ma to związek z wykorzystywaniem narzędzi badawczych, które w porównaniu z innymi naukami, mają tu charakter subiektywny i nieporównywalny. W niniejszym artykule postawiono postulat wypracowania metodologii badań społecznych aspektów zarządzania, prezentując jako przykład rozwiązania wykorzystywane w psychologii. Jako że ich proste przełożenie nie jest mo...

  14. "Ich war nicht der allmächtige Autor" / Simon Stephens ; intervjueerinud Jacqueline Bolton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stephens, Simon, 1971-

    2012-01-01

    NO99 teatris esietendunud kolme teatri - NO99, Münchner Kammerspiele, Lyric Hammersmith Theatre - koostöös valminud lavastuse "Three Kingdoms" ("Kolm kuningriiki") teksti autor Simon Stephens räägib

  15. Creativity and mood disorders: The enigmatic case of Isaak Il'ich Levitan (1860-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Vladimir; Margolin, Jacob; Witztum, Eliezer

    2015-08-25

    Isaak Levitan (1860-1900) was one of Russia's most influential landscape artists. He lived a very short life, only 40 years, but left more than 1000 paintings. He suffered from mood fluctuations, and died as a result of serious heart disease. After an introduction related to the issue of creativity and mental disorders, a short biography of Levitan's life is outlined, followed by some examples of his mood and behavior. A section on the mood's reflection in Levitan's professional work is followed by a description of his romantic loves and disappointments and his relationship with his contemporary Russian, the writer Anton Chekhov.

  16. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  17. Ankündigung und Projektbeschreibung: Ich zeig es Dir - HOCH 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schön

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haben Sie schon mal mit einem Kurzvideo gelernt? Die Praxis zeigt, dass sich kurze Videos ideal für das Lehren und Lernen in Peer-to-Peer-Kontexten eignen. Seit Mitte Oktober 2012 produzieren Jugendliche zwischen 9 und 13 Jahren Unterrichtsvideos. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen kurzen Einblick in das laufende Projekt.Did you ever use short videos for teaching and learning? The project that is presented in this paper shows how young people from 9 to 13 years are producing short videos for teaching and learning in peer-to-peer contexts.

  18. "Ich Brauche Mix-Cough": Cross-Linguistic Influence Involving German, English and Farsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in early trilingualism involving the languages German, English and Farsi. The data come from the case study of the author's two children growing up in a trilingual family within a monolingual German-speaking environment. Specific types of CLI from the non-dominant language Farsi on German and…

  19. Filtration track membranes and their biomedical applications; Trekowe membrany filtracyjne oraz ich zastosowania biomedyczne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczkowski, M.; Wawszczak, D.; Starosta, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The characteristics of track filtration membranes has been performed. The investigation of radiation resistance has been carried out for different types of polymer foil used as a membrane material. Biomedical applications of track filtration membranes have been presented and discussed. 10 refs, 10 figs.

  20. "Ich war nicht der allmächtige Autor" / Simon Stephens ; intervjueerinud Jacqueline Bolton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stephens, Simon, 1971-

    2012-01-01

    NO99 teatris esietendunud kolme teatri - NO99, Münchner Kammerspiele, Lyric Hammersmith Theatre - koostöös valminud lavastuse "Three Kingdoms" ("Kolm kuningriiki") teksti autor Simon Stephens räägib

  1. Związki polifenolowe i ich suplementacja u kobiet po menopauzie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Połać

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolic compounds are a broad group of organic compounds of plant secondary metabolites, whichhave in their structure one or more aromatic rings and from one to several hydroxyl groups with acidic character.Due to their heterogeneous construction polyphenolic compounds have been classified into several groups:simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, xanthones, stilbenes, lignans, anthraquinones and the largest group– flavonoids. Polyphenols are characterized by a variety of biological activity. As natural antioxidants, they mayprotect against reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. Moreover, they have theability to seal blood vessels and of vasodilatation. Polyphenolic compounds also have anti allergic, antibiotic,antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulation effects. Many recent studies haveshown that a diet rich in polyphenolic compounds modulates several biomarkers of cardiovascular diseaseand cancer. Thanks to their pro-health properties, an increasing number of dietary supplements based on plantextracts are introduced for commercial use. Clinical studies confirm the effectiveness of supplementation withproducts containing polyphenolic compounds in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausalwomen. Polyphenols also have the ability of aromatase inhibition, which means that they can be used in theprevention of breast cancer. This article describes the characteristics and biological properties of polyphenoliccompounds, as well as clinical studies conducted in postmenopausal women taking polyphenols.

  2. Die heiligen Propheten, eure Apostel und ich. Metatextuelle Studien zum zweiten Petrusbrief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruf, M.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32823480X

    2010-01-01

    Of all New Testament writings, the Second Letter of Peter bears the most explicit witness to the varied literary activity of Early Christianity and most expressly reflects on its use of Scripture as prophecy. The present dissertation applies itself to this metatextual character of the Second Letter

  3. The Irony of Immaturity: K'iche' Children as Mediators and Buffers in Adult Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Elise

    2011-01-01

    In Santa Catarina Ixtahuacan adults constantly face the threat of resentment from other members of their community. Evading others' resentment requires concealing one's possessions, a feat that in turn entails the immoral act of speaking untruths. Children, however, can utter falsehoods that adults cannot because adults do not see children as…

  4. Konvertibilné obligácie a špecifiká ich hodnocovania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Hrvoľová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds belong to the group of innovations, which are connected with common features of more securities that are named hybrid or synthetic securities. This article will discuss advantages of these securities for investors and companies’ (issuers, specifics of convertible bonds valuation, conversion premium and premium for option, which are connected with convertible bonds valuation and with investors´ decision making, whether they will remain in the position of holder or whether they will convert convertible bonds into the shares of company.

  5. Development of MisMatch Transmission Line (MMTL) system for ICH&CD test rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajesh, P.; Jha, Akhil; Anand, Rohit; Harikrishna, JVS; Trivedi, Rajesh; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2015-12-01

    India is responsible for delivery of 8+1(prototype) RF sources to ITER Organization. Each RF source will provide 2.5MW of RF power at 2 VSWR in the frequency range of 35 to 65MHz with other stringent specifications. To test the sources at full performance, India is developing unique 3MW test facility with variable load condition (up to VSWR 3.0 at any phase angle in between 0°-360°), consisting of high power 50 Ohm dummy load, phase shifter and stub. The combined assembly of phase shifter and stub is called MisMatch Transmission Line (MMTL) system. Detailed RF and thermal simulation of the MMTL system has been done as a part of developmental activity. Simulations predict maximum RF voltage and current in the MMTL system are 18kV and 400A, respectively. Thermal simulation shows that system can be operated at 1.7MW/CW/3VSWR without active cooling. A detailed design and initial test results of MMTL system considering RF & mechanical aspect for testing ITER ICRF sources is described in this paper.

  6. On Zhu Xi's I-Ching studies%论朱熹之易学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史善刚

    2007-01-01

    朱熹之易学,以其特有的易学风格,在中国易学史上占有着重要的地位;朱熹易学之价值,在于他把易学看成是一门变易的学问,即所谓的"尚其变".通过对朱熹易说的几个独具特色的探讨,揭示朱熹易学中的辩证法因素,及他在易学上所取得的卓越成就;同时,亦指出朱熹易学和哲学思想上的不足,以及他所处历史条件的局限性.

  7. Symbolic School in I-Ching Study%论象本论学派

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其成

    2000-01-01

    @@象数派易学家在对待象与数的先后关系、象数与理气的关系等问题上,有着不同的认识,从而形成象学与数学两个流派,在哲学上形成象本论与数本论两种本体论倾向.……

  8. "Ich Brauche Mix-Cough": Cross-Linguistic Influence Involving German, English and Farsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in early trilingualism involving the languages German, English and Farsi. The data come from the case study of the author's two children growing up in a trilingual family within a monolingual German-speaking environment. Specific types of CLI from the non-dominant language Farsi on German and…

  9. Die heiligen Propheten, eure Apostel und ich. Metatextuelle Studien zum zweiten Petrusbrief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruf, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Of all New Testament writings, the Second Letter of Peter bears the most explicit witness to the varied literary activity of Early Christianity and most expressly reflects on its use of Scripture as prophecy. The present dissertation applies itself to this metatextual character of the Second Letter

  10. Politika regionálnych rozvojových bank: ich sektorové zameranie

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The thesis presents an overview of selected regional development banks in the world. It focuses on the sectoral specifics and searches similarities and differences among selected regional development banks. The first chapter describes selected regional development banks and their organizational structure, functions and activities. The second section compares the sectoral focus of three regional development banks and their selected development projects. The third chapter mentions the cooperati...

  11. Hospicyjne wsparcie zdrowego rodzeństwa terminalnie chorego dziecka/ Hospice assistance offered to the healthy siblings of a terminally ill child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRZEGORZ GODAWA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chore dziecko skupia uwagę najbliższych mu osób. Jego rodzina pragnie zminimalizować jego cierpienie. Wsparcia udzielają mu również organizacje pomocowe. Skoncentrowanie uwagi na chorym może jednak spowodować, iż zaniedbane zostaną potrzeby zdrowego rodzeństwa dziecka. Wszechogarniający charakter cierpienia, które pojawia się w życiu dziecka, swym zasięgiem obejmuje również jego bliskich, dlatego wsparcie zdrowego rodzeństwa chorych dzieci stanowi jeden z podstawowych celów działalności hospicjów dziecięcych. Ich pomoc opiera się na systemowym modelu rodziny, dzięki czemu zakres działań hospicyjnych jest bardzo szeroki. Chociaż pomoc choremu dziecku jest priorytetem, nie brakuje działań, które mają chronić również jego rodzinę przed destrukcyjnym wpływem choroby. Jedną z form realizacji wsparcia zdrowego rodzeństwa jest oddziaływanie psychopedagogiczne. Ma ono na celu nie tylko zminimalizowanie negatywnego wpływu choroby dziecka, ale również przygotowanie rodzeństwa do funkcjonowania po śmierci siostry czy brata. Interdyscyplinarny charakter pomocy hospicyjnej stanowi szansę na pomyślną realizację tych założeń.

  12. Uczelnia na zagranicznym rynku edukacyjnym – strategia internacjonalizacji szkoły wyższej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szromnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cel: Wyjaśnienie założeń i warunków realizacyjnych internacjonalizacji uczelni jako strategicznego kierunku jej rozwoju, a ponadto przedstawienie uniwersalnych scenariuszy strategicznych ekspansji uniwersytetu za granicą oraz determinantów sukcesu. Metodologia: Artykuł ma charakter koncepcyjny i opiera się na diagnozie oraz analizie na rynku usług edukacji uniwersyteckiej w Polsce. W wyniku studiów literatury specjalistycznej wyodrębniono główne zjawiska warunkujące funkcjonowanie i kierunki zmian szkolnictwa wyższego stanowiące ogólne tło rozważań i projektów szczegółowych. Wnioski: Autor wskazuje strategie uwarunkowania i procedury decyzyjne ekspansji uniwersytetu na zagraniczne rynki edukacji na poziomie wyższym. Akcentuje główne szanse i zagrożenia z tytułu działalności uczelni za granicą. Propozycje mają nie tylko charakter poznawczy, ale także mogą być podstawą ich aplikacji w realiach polskich uczelni. Oryginalność: Działalność uczelni zagranicznych na rodzimym rynku edukacyjnym jest zjawiskiem występujących w wielu krajach. W artykule zaproponowano koncepcję strategii internacjonalizacji uniwersytetu w jej wariancie ogólnym wraz ze szczegółową procedurą analityczno-decyzyjną. W piśmiennictwie fachowym ten aspekt rozwoju uczelni nie został rozwinięty zgodnie z założeniami marketingu międzynarodowego.

  13. "[...] denn gute Gemälde hatte ich versprochen, gute habe ich geliefert, aber, aber [...]". Ein folgenreicher Streit um die Erwerbung eines Filippino Lippi im Städelschen Kunstinstitut um 1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer, Corina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 19th century, German artists lived in Italy and worked as art agents for art galleries in their home countries, in cities like Munich or Berlin. One such art trade partner was the Städelsches Kunstinstitut (Städel's Art Institute, in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. One of their art agents was the painter Johann David Passavant, then living in Italy, who consulted with two of "the best living adepts", Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, and Giovanni Battista Metzger. Having sent the first shipment across the Alps, differences in taste, slander, and even character assassination between the protagonists involved in Frankfurt and the art agents in Italy provoked a conflict among an entire network of art connoisseurs across Europe (1817-1823. Using an excellent document record, the article reconstructs the debate which shows us the protagonists' lines of argument in the context of the varied and changing art ideals, their aims, and their methods of arriving at a solution. It is possible that this art trade story may reveal a part of the provenance of a lost painting of the Gemäldegalerie Berlin.

  14. 果粉不容错过!STARKESOUND IC-H1 Elite书架式音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    必须先谈历史虽然我们讲过STARKESOUND的历史,但今天必须来重新温习一下,因为IC—H1Elite和前辈们太不一样了。要说STARKESOUND,就得从另外一家传奇品牌Snell讲起。Snell是一家老牌音响品牌,这个公司一直坚持采用欧洲产的扬声器、采用最先进的光雕机来制作箱体、美国本土制造,成本很高,产品外观粗犷,价格不算亲民,但实际性价比很高。这样的产品深受有购买力,懂音响的发烧友喜爱。

  15. Simultaneous Estimation of Lamivudine and Stavudine by using RP-HPLC and Method Development as per ICH Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.HariPrasad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and accurate reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of lamivudine and stavudine in tablet dosage form is developed and validated. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C 18column grace smart RP18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm in isocratic mode, the mobile phase consisted of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.05 M phosphate buffer (adjusted topH 4.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid at a ratio of 60:20:20 v/v/v, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and ASPD detector is used. The eluents were monitored at 254 nm. The retention time of lamivudine and stavudine were found to be 2.50 min and 4.25 min, respectively. The linear ranges were found to be 10-602 2 μg/mL (r =0.9992 for lamivudine and 10-60 μg/mL (r =0.999 for stavudine . The proposed method is also found to be accurate, precise androbust. The method could be applied to routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing lamivudine and stavudine.

  16. Energetické výzvy Číny a ich odraz v diplomacii

    OpenAIRE

    Šnapková, Patrícia

    2010-01-01

    Energy is crucial for economic development of a country. It is very important for the Chinese leadership to ensure energy security of the country. China is the largest consumer of energy. Oil demand is surging and China imports more than a half of its consumption. Peking tries to get adequate supplies from abroad at reasonable prices. However, China faces serious dangers that could disrupt the imports. In order to avoid this risk, Peking builds strategic reserves, diversifies oil suppliers an...

  17. BYCIE CZY BYT? O DWÓCH PODSTAWOWYCH TERMINACH FILOZOFII HEIDEGGERA I PROBLEMACH Z ICH POLSKIMI PRZEKŁADAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL R. SOBOTA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Martin Heidegger’s texts are among the most difficult in the philosophical literature throughout the world. Paradoxically, despite they are commonly considered as untranslatable, they belong to the most frequently translated twentieth-century philosophical texts. High availability of translations makes the thought of Heidegger still enjoy great interest and result in a number of comments. The constantly growing number of translations of his texts affects shapes of national philosophies and their issues. It is particularly clearly visible in Poland where for a long time the philosophy of Heidegger was available only to the narrow circle of the German-speaking philosophers. The situation has changed significantly since the early nineties, when there rapidly began to appear translations of his major works. However, a different problem occured – namely the problem of translation. It is nowhere so much visible as in the case of two basic words: bycie (Being and byt (being. This text follows various ways of translating and interpretating of Heidegger’s terms, asking about their philosophical relevance and relationship to the established philosophical tradition. Not denying any previous choices, it tries to develop a relevant criterion for understanding the two concepts. In order to do this, it tries to reveal the most important idea of Heidegger’s philosophy.

  18. Polymorphic DNA sequences and their application in paternity testing; Polimorficzne sekwencje DNA i ich zastosowanie w dochodzeniu spornego ojcostwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomski, R. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Zaklad Genetyki Czlowieka]|[Akademia Rolnicza, Poznan (Poland)]|[Laboratorium Genetyki Molekularnej, Poznan (Poland); Kwiatkowska, J.; Chlebowska, H. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Zaklad Genetyki Czlowieka; Siemieniallo, B. [Akademia Rolnicza, Poznan (Poland); Slomska, M. [Laboratorium Genetyki Molekularnej, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Characteristics of polymorphic sequences of DNA, especially satellite, mini satellite and micro satellite sequences are presented. Own experience from the use of multi and single locus analysis of DNA in paternity testing has been compared with the results of research in other laboratories. Critical points of both types of analysis are discussed. (author). 53 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. Vom Exodus einer Töchtergeneration. Schrifstellerinnen um 1900 und das väterliche Über-Ich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kliewer

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Lausanner Literaturwissenschaftlerin Vuilleumier Pechota untersucht in ihrer Dissertation an drei Texten von Schrifstellerinnen der Jahrhundertwende, wie diese die Emanzipation von Töchtern gegen die Erwartungen ihrer Väter darstellen. Dabei stellt sie Parallelen auf zwischen der Situation von Frauen und der von Juden: Von beiden sei verlangt worden, dass sie sich an die herrschende Kultur anpassen. Ziel sei die Assimilation an das „Fremde“ gewesen.

  20. Application of ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management Tools for Advanced Development of Hot Melt Coated Multiparticulate Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Elena; Becker, Karin; Hate, Siddhi; Hohl, Roland; Schiemenz, Wolfgang; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile. The hot melt coated process was characterized via a flowchart, based on the identified potential critical process parameters (CPPs) and their impact on the CQAs. These CPPs were prioritized using a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and their critical impact on the CQAs was experimentally confirmed using a statistical design of experiments. Spray rate, atomization air pressure, and air flow rate were identified as CPPs. Coating amount and content of polysorbate 65 in the coating formulation were identified as critical material attributes. A hazard and critical control points analysis was applied to define control strategies at the critical process points. A fault tree analysis evaluated causes for potential process failures. We successfully demonstrated that a standardized quality risk management approach optimizes the product development sustainability and supports the regulatory aspects.

  1. Zadania działów zasobów ludzkich i ich ocena – model empiryczny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandl, J.; Fink, M.; Kraus, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    W niniejszym artykule autorzy przed­staw­iają oparty na empirii model depar­ta­mentu zarządza­nia zasobami ludzkimi (ZZL), który wyjaś­nia dzi­ała­nia i kry­te­ria oceny dzi­ałów ZL z per­spek­tywy menedżerów. Model stwor­zony został w opar­ciu o eksplo­racyjne bada­nia aus­tri­ac­kich menedżerów. D

  2. Influenceri na sociálnych sieťach a ich využitie v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovčíková, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis called "Influencers in Social media and their Use in Marketing" deals with the new current trend in which, instead of well-known celebrities, star just ordinary people. Despite of this, they managed to conquer the masses through social networks thanks to their unique personality and authenticity. The first chapter focuses on online marketing and explains the basic concept of it, its tools and communication mix, along with data on the structure of the Czech Internet populat...

  3. "Und den Geschmack habe ich heute auch noch auf der Zunge." Geruch und Geschmack im Lebensverlauf – Ein qualitatives Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Heckel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiografische Geruchserinnerungen, Vorlieben, Abneigungen und die zeitgeschichtlich geprägte Geruchs- und Geschmacksumwelt sind Teil der individuellen Konstruktion von Geruch und Geschmack. Der vorliegende Artikel geht der Frage nach, welche subjektive Bedeutung Geruch und Geschmack im Lebensverlauf älterer Personen haben. Während eines qualitativen Experiments wurden älteren Personen in vier Versuchen ausgewählte Gerüche und Geschmäcke dargeboten und "verschwundene" Gerüche und Geschmäcke erfragt. Die Auswertung der erhobenen Daten erfolgte mit Techniken des qualitativ-heuristischen Verfahrens und der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse unter Einsatz des Textanalysesystems MAXQDA Version 10. Die Teilnehmer/innen reagierten auf die Riech- und Schmeckproben mit Beschreibungen, Bewertungen, Emotionen und Erinnerungen. Sie nannten über fünfzig verschwundene Gerüche und Geschmäcke aus unterschiedlichen Lebensbereichen. Es wurden im Alltag auftretende Phänomene und subjektive Geruchs- und Geschmackstheorien der Teilnehmer/innen erfasst. Gerüche und Geschmäcke erhalten im Lebensverlauf individuelle emotionale und autobiografische Bedeutung, die zugleich zeitgeschichtlich, kulturell und umweltbedingt ist. Für das Alltagshandeln im gerontologischen Praxisfeld führt dies zur Forderung, Gerüche und Geschmäcke in konzeptionelle und theoretische Überlegungen einzubeziehen. Die vorliegende Studie leistet einen Beitrag zur qualitativen Sozialforschung, indem sie das qualitative Experiment als geeignete Methode zur Untersuchung des Forschungsgegenstandes Geruch und Geschmack im Lebensverlauf zeigt. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120332

  4. 《论语》与易学%The Analects of Confucius and I-ching Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任俊华

    2000-01-01

    《论语》是考证孔子与《周易》关系的第一手材料。其包含的易学思想主要有:(一)天道观,认为时空是无限的,天地运行自有规律性;(二)中和思想,认为日常生活和政治生活都要持中,不能过头;(三)刚柔之说.认为刚柔是万物无不具有的内在因索,主张刚贵柔贱。

  5. I-Ching and the Tuning System of Lü-Lü%易与吕律之确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 袁清

    2001-01-01

    制定律吕在中国古代是国家大事.律吕"隔八相生"可以从河图洛书中找到完美的对应关系,它说明了律吕和图书内在数理结构的同源性.而"三分损益"的律制算法,也可以通过河图的数学模式获得一种精确的定解.

  6. I-Ching versus 21st Century Science%易学与21世纪的科学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董光璧

    2008-01-01

    易学之所以从"中国之易学"发展到"世界之易学",是因为它有其超地域和超时代的因素.当代世界正处在新的历史转折时期,易学也必须作出适当的回应,既要承担新的历史使命又要面临着经受科学论证的考验.

  7. "Wenn ich leben soll, so sei es mit dir!" The relationship of father and son in Goethe's "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between father and son is a highly nuanced and persistent theme in Goethe's late novel Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre, but has received relatively little critical attention. Drawing on various aspects of the text, from the relationship between Wilhelm and his own son Felix, to the theme of migration from the ‘fatherland’, this essay contends that the relationship of the younger generation to the older traces a pattern of departure and return. The development in the son of an identity distinct and independent from that of the father is a preoccupation of the earlier chapters of the Wanderjahre in particular; but this process of individuation tends to be accompanied in the novel by continued, even increased, identification with the father, which may be conscious or unconscious. All the various stages of this fluctuating relationship are telescoped into a few rich, enigmatic images in the novel's closing scene, in which the threat of separation and the desire for proximity are held in suspension.

  8. ‘Wo soll ich hinfliehen vor diesem Mensch?’: Een luisteroefening in Ludwig Hofacker (1797−1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Kommers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available De aanwezigheid van de levende God in preken kunnen wij niet terzijde stellen of verontachtzamen. Waar dit wel gebeurt, daar wordt verkondiging een voordracht, zonder de volmacht. Orthodoxie komt in ademnood wanneer exegese en dogmatiek opgaan in een aantal meningen en waarbij het getuigenis van de Bijbel op de achtergrond komt. Ludwig Hofacker (1798–18281 was een prediker die in bijbelonderzoek en prediking zijn oor te luisteren legde aan de Bron. Het Woord van God was voor hem hét homiletisch magazijn. Dat nu nog steeds, in de 21e eeuw, zijn preken gelezen worden, geeft aan dat zijn erfenis een opmerkelijke is. Hij pakte het probleem van de geestelijke dorheid op in een tijd gekenmerkt door het opkomend klimaat van het humanistisch rationalisme. Hofackers prediking geeft weer waar het werkelijk om gaat: Christus alleen. Deze preken laten ook de prediker zelf zien. Zijn stem roept op wat de Reformatie zo na aan het hart lag, en de cadenzen van het sola gratia, sola Scriptura, en het sola fide zijn in elke preek te horen. Het religieuze eigene van Hofacker sluit grote missionaire bewogenheid in.In sermons we cannot disregard the presence of the living God, otherwise preaching will become a performance, without divine authority. Orthodoxy will be gasping for breath when exegesis and dogmatic theology are wholly absorbed in a number of opinions, causing biblical testimony to recede into the background. Ludwig Hofacker (1798–1828, was a preacher who in Bible study and preaching put his ears to the Fountain. The Word of God was his sole homiletic storehouse. Today, in our 21st century, his sermons are still being read. This indicates that he left us a remarkable body of work. He tackled the problem of spiritual dearth in a time of emerging humanistic rationalism. Hofacker’s preaching reflected his core belief: Christ only. His sermons also reflect the preacher himself. His voice clearly recalls what was held so dear in the Reformation, and the cadences of the sola gratia, sola Scriptura and sola fide are heard in every sermon. His religious individuality included a strong motivation for missions.

  9. "Und den Geschmack habe ich heute auch noch auf der Zunge." Geruch und Geschmack im Lebensverlauf – Ein qualitatives Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Heckel, Maria; Rester, David; Seeberger, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Autobiografische Geruchserinnerungen, Vorlieben, Abneigungen und die zeitgeschichtlich geprägte Geruchs- und Geschmacksumwelt sind Teil der individuellen Konstruktion von Geruch und Geschmack. Der vorliegende Artikel geht der Frage nach, welche subjektive Bedeutung Geruch und Geschmack im Lebensverlauf älterer Personen haben. Während eines qualitativen Experiments wurden älteren Personen in vier Versuchen ausgewählte Gerüche und Geschmäcke dargeboten und "verschwundene" Gerüche und Geschmäcke...

  10. Polityka rachunkowości w praktyce jednostek gospodarczych w kontekście jej oceny przez biegłych rewidentów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Świetla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramowy charakter regulacji prawa bilansowego umożliwia jednostkom gospodarczym świadome prowadzenie polityki rachunkowości, które pozwala na kreowanie obrazu przedsiębiorstwa, a tym samym na realizację jego celów i założeń gospodarczych. W artykule, na podstawie analizy literatury przedmiotu i aktów prawnych przedstawiono współczesne problemy związane z tworzeniem polityki rachunkowości i jej dostosowywaniem do indywidualnych potrzeb jednostek gospodarczych. Zaprezentowano także wyniki badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych na grupie polskich biegłych rewidentów. W ich opinii jednostki gospodarcze częściej wykorzystują instrumenty polityki rachunkowości w celu świadomego i celowego kreowania obrazu przedsiębiorstwa, niż w rozmyślnym fałszowaniu sprawozdań finansowych. Autorzy zwracają uwagę na wzrost znaczenia zewnętrznych jednostek konsultingowych w tworzeniu i dostosowywaniu polityki rachunkowości do potrzeb jednostek. Przeprowadzone rozważania skłaniają także do zmiany postrzegania roli biegłego rewidenta w badaniu polityki rachunkowości. W opinii autorów, potwierdzonej wynikami badań, biegły rewident powinien nie tylko sprawdzać zgodność przyjętych rozwiązań z prawem bilansowym, ale też oceniać ich celowość i zasadność w konkretnej sytuacji danej jednostki.

  11. Podejście Lean jako kierunek zmian w zarządzaniu i rachunkowości zarządczej w podmiotach usług medycznych – wyniki badań literaturowych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sobańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań literaturowych dotyczących kierunków zmian w zarządzaniu i rachunkowości w podmiotach usług medycznych w zakresie przenikania do nich podejścia lean. W badaniach tych przeanalizowano ponad 200 pozycji publikacji. Ostatecznie wybrano 19 pozycji literaturowych krajowych i zagranicznych opublikowanych w latach 1995–2013. Badanie literatury przeprowadzono w dwóch podstawowych obszarach: rozważań teoretycznych oraz wyników badań empirycznych (case study, badania ankietowe. Do realizacji celu artykułu zastosowano metodę analizy literatury przedmiotu. Jej przedmiotem były dwie grupy artykułów: teoretyczne oraz zawierające objaśniające wyniki badań empirycznych. Podejście lean, którego geneza wywodzi się z branży motoryzacyjnej (produkcyjnej, w pełni nadaje się do zastosowania w jednostkach ochrony zdrowia funkcjonujących w różnych obszarach kulturowych oraz do reformowania krajowych systemów opieki zdrowotnej w celu podniesienia ich efektywności. Przenikanie koncepcji lean do branży usług medycznych ma charakter ewolucyjny, podobnie jak następowało jej zastosowanie w branżach produkcyjnych.

  12. Dominująca rola suwerennych państw w ramach europejskiej polityki mniejszościowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Matyja

    2014-12-01

    ą charakter fakultatywno‑deklaratywny i w tym sensie nie zobowiązują państw do ich przestrzegania. Nawet w ramach Unii Europejskiej nie ma zasadniczo wiążących praw formułujących ochronę mniejszości narodowych. Państwa są suwerenne i to właśnie zasada suwerenności determinuje ich dobrą bądź złą wolę w zakresie ochrony mniejszości zamieszkujących ich terytorium.

  13. Siła nowoczesnych narzędzi internetowych i ich wkład w rozwój e-biznesu

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    W obecnych warunkach intensywnego rozwoju nowoczesnych technologii funkcjonowanie przedsiębiorstw zyskało nowe cechy i możliwości. Technologie obliczeniowe i elektronicznej wymiany informacji wielorako wpływają na sposoby działania firm. Z jednej strony stanowią narzędzia pomocne do usprawniania pracy przedsiębiorstw, z drugiej zaś mogą być podstawą do tworzenia nowych przedsięwzięć biznesowych. Wnioski zawarte w monografii ukazują konieczność pogłębiania wiedzy na temat zastosowania ...

  14. „Ne, das kann ich besser!“ Umfang und Bedeutung der Contemporary TV Drama Serie The Mentalist für FanfictionautorInnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elena Goldmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Einzelgänger und Außenseiter, die sich durch exzessives Konsumverhalten und extensives Trivialwissen um ein populärkulturelles Produkt auszeichnen – auch heute ist das Bild der Fans noch stark von Stereotypen geprägt. Meistens wird Fantum jedoch nicht mit Aktivität oder gar Kreativität gleichgesetzt. Viele Fans sind aber genau das: aktive ProduzentInnen von kulturellem Kapital. Dieser Artikel fokussiert eine derartige Fanaktivität: die Produktion von Fan Fiction. Darunter versteht man Fan-generierte, fiktionale Geschichten, die Charaktere sowie bestimmte Handlungselemente eines bestimmten (populärkulturellen Ausgangsproduktes – hier: die Serie The Mentalist – beinhalten, und heute auf entsprechenden Internetseiten gepostet werden. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit Bedingungen sowie Motivationen für die Produktion von deutschsprachiger Fan Fiction und der anschließenden Veröffentlichung derselben auf der Seite www.fanfiktion.de. Es wird gezeigt, dass die AutorInnen derartiger Texte, die eine immense Bandbreite aufweisen, sehr organisiert vorgehen. Des Weiteren wird die Bedeutung der Austauschund Review-Möglichkeiten auf den Fan Fiction Websites hervorgehoben, die sehr zentral für die interviewten fünf AutorInnen ist. English Abstract: Loners and outsiders, who can be distinguished through excessive consumption of and the knowledge of trivia around a specific cultural product as well as obsessive consumerism of said product – even today the image of fans is a highly stereotyped one. Usually, the reputation of a dedicated fan is not associated with an active, creative producer of cultural capital. In reality, most of them are though – a fact that can easily be shown by a single Google search. This article focuses one form of such fan-productivity: the creation of fan fiction. Fan fictions are user-generated, fictional stories which feature characters of the preferred, popular cultural fan object – here: the The Mentalist-series – and are nowadays posted on appropriate websites. To be more precise, this paper focuses conditions of and motivations for the production of German fan fiction and the consequent publication of said stories on the website www.fanfiktion.de of five authors. It will be underlined that all authors approach the production of fan fiction in a highly organized way even though their stories themselves show a great variety. Furthermore, the importance of fan fiction reviews and comments is essential for all five authors, whose age varies from 13 to 53 years.

  15. Validated specific HPLC methods for determination of prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin in the presence of degradation products formed under ICH-recommended stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Monika; Ojha, Tina; Singh, Saranjit

    2004-01-27

    The present paper describes development of stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay methods for three alpha-adrenergic-blocker drug substances, namely, prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin, in the presence of degradation products generated from forced decomposition studies. Resolution of drugs from degradation products was obtained using a reversed-phase C-18 column using water/acetonitrile/methanol/glacial acetic acid/diethylamine (25:35:40:1:0.017) as mobile phase for prazosin and terazosin and acetonitrile/water/glacial acetic acid/diethylamine (65:35:1:0.02) for doxazosin. The detection was done at 254 nm. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness.

  16. Wäre es Dir lieber, ich würde zu Recht verurteilt? - Sokrates Bund und die Frage der Kontrolle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser-Müller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Ablösung von zweifelhafter menschlicher Kontrolle durch eine zuverlässige Software bietet eindrucksvolle Möglichkeiten. Mit der flächendeckenden Einführung von Sokrates Bund zum Schuljahr 2014/2015 wird endlich die Identifzierung von Pisadurchschnittsverderbern möglich. Die AutorInnen diskutieren die Lage ... Die Situation war dramatisch: Ungerecht angeklagt wegen Verführung der Jugend und Gottlosigkeit, sieht Sokrates dem Tod durch den Schierlingsbecher entgegen und antwortet auf die ob des Fehlurteils durchaus verständliche Klage von Xanthippe mit der titelgebenden Frage. Anschließend verweigert er die Flucht und zieht es vor, sich dem formal korrekt gefällten falschen Urteil zu beugen. Eine legendäre Entscheidung, in der Sokrates die Gesetzestreue mit der Begründung, man müsse schlechte Gesetze ändern, dürfe sie aber nicht übertreten, über das eigene Wohl stellt.

  17. „…ich konnte viel über mein Leben lernen“ Soziologieunterricht an der Gymnasialen Oberstufe in Bremen – Eine „Parallelwelt“?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Papke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "Largely unnoticed by both sociology and the German educational institutions and their discourse, Bremen has been offering both Advanced Placement and standard level sociology classes in its schools in grades 11 through 13 for the last 30 years. This paper deals mainly with the relevance of the school subject of sociology as seen by about 100 students recruited from five different classes. The students discuss the difference between the school subject sociology and other social sciences related subjects taught in school. Against this background, the emergence, development and formation of the new Bremen curriculum for sociology will be presented, concluding with a tentative inquiry into the “lack of interrelation” between school and university.In der deutschen Bildungslandschaft und in der Soziologie nahezu nicht wahrgenommen gibt es in Bremen seit 30 Jahren Soziologieleistungs- und -grundkurse in der Gymnasialen Oberstufe. Dieser Aufsatz beschäftigt sich schwerpunktmäßig mit der Bedeutung des Unterrichtsfaches Soziologie aus der Sicht von ca. 100 Schülerinnen und Schülern aus fünf Oberstufenkursen. Die Jugendlichen setzen sich mit dem Unterschied zwischen dem Fach Soziologie und anderen sozialwissenschaftlichen Fächern in der Schule auseinander. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden kurz die Entstehung und die Erarbeitung des neuen Bremer Bildungsplanes Soziologie dargestellt, um am Ende fragend auf die „Beziehungslosigkeit“ zwischen Universität und Schule hinzuweisen.

  18. Talianske dialekty a ich použitie v južnej Brazílii : Italian Dialects and their Use in Southern Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Fabová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the sociolinguistic situation of two Italian-speaking communities in Santa Catarina. It presents a sociolinguistic panorama of Nova Trento and Nova Veneza from the 19th century, emphasizing the most important aspects of the history of Italian immigrants in Brazil, as well as the main factors that affected the use of Italian language varieties, and residents’ views and attitudes regarding the languages spoken in this part of southern Brazil. From the beginning of Italian immigration to Brazil the immigrants experienced different historical circumstances that have led to the current state of their dialects, mainly the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas. But after almost one hundred and fifty years the dialects are still spoken and they have become part of the Brazilian cultural heritage.

  19. Redefinícia mólu – pozadie zmien v SI sústave a ich vplyv na vzdelávanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Schubertová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Predkladaný príspevok prepája aktuálnu diskusiu o redefinícii základných jednotiek SI sústavy s vyučovaním chémie. Plánovaná definícia mólu má byť založená na presnom stanovení Avogadrovej konštanty. Problémy, ktoré sú spojené s takýmto definovaním mólu, vychádzajú však aj zo samotnej histórie veličiny látkové množstvo. Jedným zo základných problémov tohto charakteru je, že látkové množstvo je spomedzi základných veličín jedinou diskontinuálnou veličinou, ktorej jednotka mól nebola zavedená na základe vlastností prírody, ale na základe ľudskej dohody. Je teda otázne či je mól zaradený medzi základné jednotky SI sústavy logicky správne. Aj z tohto dôvodu je veličina látkové množstvo zaujímavá taktiež z didaktického hľadiska, ktoré je v príspevku diskutované.

  20. Peniaze ako zdroj šťastia v našich životoch? (Is Money a Source of Happiness in our lives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Horák

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins by referring to the research which distinguishes two different aspects of subjective well-being, namely 1. experiences of happiness – measured by frequency and intensity of joy, stress, anger, worry and sadness we experience at a certain moment and 2. life satisfaction. Survey shows that beyond an annual household income of $75 000 there is no increase in the experiences of happiness. The paper then refers to the psychological mechanisms and factors – namely hedonic adaptation, social comparison and stress as a result of a raise – that lower the capacity of money to buy us the experiences of happiness. Not only we get quickly used to the things we buy, money also puts us into stressful situations and makes us build barriers between people. The paper then specifies strategies of economic decision-making that contribute to the maximization of happiness, such as purchase of the experiences instead of the things, interrupted and postponed consumption, or prosocial spending. The research indicates that prosocial spending has higher causal impact on promoting happiness than personal spending. As a matter of fact, this phenomenon is not culturally limited to the West. Concluding assertion – expressed only in the form of hypothesis – says that prosocial spending which is a form of prosocial behavior strengthens – through production of happiness – mutual relations in the society (cooperation.

  1. Das Bin Ich. Ein Buch von mir uber mich (It's Me! A Book By and About Myself). Communicative Activities for German Immersion and Second Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer

    This workbook is intended as a text for the learner of German as a foreign language. The workbook is complete with exercises that require students to provide information about themselves. Students provide information by reading questions and filling in the blanks. Questions are asked about families, friends, likes and dislikes, hobbies, and even…

  2. Przemiany w gospodarce światowej z perspektywy przedsiębiorstwa. Fazy rozwoju kapitalizmu i ich konsekwencje dla podmiotów gospodarczych

    OpenAIRE

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The changes which take place in world economy influence the organizational systems and strategies of global market payers. It seems that the most important participants of that process are international corporations. Their position is the consequence of the capitalism transformation and its evolution from the enterprise to management and later investors’ form. The main aim of the paper is to prove the necessity of change in enterprises’ management systems as a consequence of wo...

  3. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 27: PORTRAIT OF THE KHARKOV MATHEMATICIAN NAUM IL'ICH AKHIEZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Description in brief of basic scientific achievements, features of personality and way of life of the known Kharkov mathematician Akhiezer N.I. Methodology. Existent scientific approaches for treatment and systematization of mathematical knowledges. Methods of historical method at research of development in society of such sections of mathematics as a theory of functions, functional analysis and integral equations. Results. Short information is presented about the basic creative and vital stages, and also fundamental scientific achievements indicated prominent mathematicians of the 20-th century. Some personal qualities of this remarkable Kharkov mathematician, leaving about itself kind memory for thankful descendants are described. Originality. First a scientist-electrophysicist for the wide circle of readers imagined a short scientifically-historical essay on the known mathematician of contemporaneity, being based on his scientific labours and published materials about him. Practical value. Scientific popularization of the known Kharkov mathematician and his achievements in the area of theory of functions and mathematical physics. Next philosophical reminder a wide reader on the example of life and prominent scientific results of labour of one known human personality about incessant in society connection of times and generations.

  4. ICH E14-compatible holter bin method and its equivalence to individual heart rate correction in the assessment of drug-induced QT changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Marek; Hnatkova, Katerina; Kowalski, Donna; Keirns, James J; Van Gelderen, E Marcel

    2014-11-01

    The Holter bin method evaluates QT interval changes in the presence of heart rate changes without correcting the QT interval. However, the method does not allow time-matched comparisons, thus contradicting available guidance and good practice. We report a modification of the methods that allows time-matched comparisons without any heart rate correction. The modified Holter bin method (a) finds matching baseline heart rates for each QT reading on treatment and (b) calculates ΔQT values from the QT intervals on baseline and on treatment that match in heart rates. The difference between ΔQT values on active treatment and placebo provides the ΔΔQT value. The method was compared with the individual correction method in the data of the mirabegron thorough QT study in which supratherapeutic doses of this β3-adrenoceptor agonist led to substantial heart rate changes. The modified Holter bin method reproduced closely the results obtained with the individual heart rate correction. At all time points of the mirabegron study, the differences between the mean ΔΔQT values by the Holter bin method and the individual correction method were below 1 millisecond. Compared to the individual correction, the Holter bin method led to slight increases in the standard deviations of ΔΔQT values, but these were on average below 0.25 millisecond. The Holter bin methodology can be modified to make it compatible with the available guidance and with good practice of clinical investigations. The results obtained with the modified Holter bin method are practically the same as with individualized heart rate corrected QT intervals. The close correspondence between the 2 methods demonstrates that the present possibilities of comparing QT interval duration in the presence of experiment-induced heart rate differences are not influenced by methodological artifacts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Zmiany w funkcjonowaniu serwisu społecznościowego Facebook i ich wpływ na jego użyteczność marketingową

    OpenAIRE

    Roge, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the last changes in social media marketing. In particular, the aim was to examine and describe how and why changes, especially in Facebook EdgeRank algorithm, influences marketing activities. Author analyzed changes in Facebook platform which was held in 2012. The information which was gathered could have practical significance. The existing knowledge needs to be brought into the industrial purchasing perspective in the social media ...

  6. Wybrane problemy wyceny składnikówaktywów i ich ujęcie w sprawozdaniachfinansowych banków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wielgórska-Leszczyńska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rachunkowość udostępnia szczegółową i wszechstronną informację o działalności banku. Dla odbiorców najważniejsze są dane o należnościach i depozytach, gdyż to one decydują o kondycji finansowej i płynności banku. Z analizy sprawozdań finan-sowych dwunastu banków, których akcje są notowane na Giełdzie Papierów Warto-ściowych w Warszawie, wynika że nie zawsze są ujawniane wystarczające dane o polityce rachunkowości i zbyt mało miejsca poświęca się należnościom od klien-tów, które stanowią od 30% do 86,8% aktywów. Także nie wskazuje się na fakt, że tylko od 5% do 13,4% aktywów jest finansowanych kapitałami własnymi. Badanie pokazało rozbieżności między bankami w zakresie ujawniania informacji, zastoso-wanych metod wyceny, prezentacji danych w raportach finansowych pod względem ilości i jakości. W najbliższych latach rachunkowość w bankach będzie zmieniała się i rozwijała wraz ze zmianami, jakie są wprowadzane w systemie bankowym. Rozwój ten powinien też iść w kierunku lepszej prezentacji tych składników, które mają zasadniczy wpływ na kondycję i bezpieczeństwo banku. Udostępniane dane powinny być wiarygodne, porównywalne i aktualne oraz podane w sposób syntetyczny (skoncentrowany.

  7. „Warum ich nicht Diorit-Trachyt sagen soll.“ – Ein geologischer Brief Gustav Roses an Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Treuber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Gustav Rose (1798-1873 begleitete Alexander von Humboldt auf seiner Russlandreise und stand bis zu Humboldts Tod persönlich und postalisch zum ihm in Kontakt. Die Edition des vorliegenden Briefs zielt darauf ab, die Bedeutung der Person Gustav Rose in ihrer Beziehung zu Alexander von Humboldt und ihrem Einfluss auf den mineralogisch-geologischen Teil des Kosmos zu beleuchten und dem Leser dieses interessante historische Dokument zugänglich zu machen. Abstract Gustav Rose (1798-1873 accompanied Humboldt on his journey to Russia. He kept in touch with Humboldt after this expedition until Humboldt died in 1859. The edition of the letter at hand aims at highlighting Rose’s relation to Humboldt and how he influenced the geological and mineralogical part of the Kosmos. It shall also make this impressive historical document accessible to readers by providing illustrating annotations.

  8. Basidiomicetos resupinados de Costa Rica. Myxariaceae s. Jülich, Sebacinaceae We.lls & Oberw., y Treme.llodend:ropsidaceae Jü!ich

    OpenAIRE

    Kisimova-Horovitz, Liuba; Oberwinkler, Franz; Gómez P., Luis D.

    2015-01-01

    Se describen como nuevas para la ciencia o para Costa Rica trece especies de hongos de las familias Myxariaceae sensu JUlich: Heterochaetella brachyspora, Myxarium atratum. Myxarium granulum, Myxarium laccatum. Myxarium mesomorphum. Myxarium mesonucleatum sp. nov., Myxarium subsphaerosporum sp. nov., Protodontia subgelatinosa, Pseudohydnum gelatinosum, Pseudohydnum gelatinosum varo paucidentata. Una especie rara de Sebacinaceae, Efibulobasidium albescens una Tremellodendropsidaceae, Tremellod...

  9. Historyczne miasta oraz ich rozwój dla potrzeb społeczeństwa (nowe dzielnice autorstwa Renzo Piano)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonenberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    Интеграция новых урбанизированных образований с существующей исторической городской тканью представляет собой сложную задачу для градостроителей и архитекторов. Проекты, выполненные под руководством Ренцо Пьяно для Тренто (реализации 2013), Генуи и Милана демонстрируют современные способы регенерации городских районах и их интеграции с окружающей городской тканью. Разнообразие и специфичность этих трех проектов можно рассматривать в качестве иллюстрации современных тенденций исторических горо...

  10. 《易经》管理决策模式分析%The Analysis of I-Ching's Management Decision-making Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢彦玲

    2007-01-01

    是中国古人的智慧结晶,是古人为预知自然、社会和人生的变化而创立的独特预卜神秘符号系统,一直是后人在日常决策时的重要依据.近年来,国内外盛行将思想运用于企业的经营管理实务中.从现代管理决策的学术角度来解析,其中蕴藏了具有管理意义的个体管理决策模式.

  11. Harmony Concept in I-Ching and the Construction of Harmonious Society%《周易》和谐观与建设和谐社会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余剑梅

    2008-01-01

    作为"五经"之首的是中国传统文化的精华,蕴涵着用于"天下治理"的深刻而丰富的和谐价值观.以"保合太和乃利贞"为核心的中华传统和谐价值观,是我国建设和谐社会的思想源泉.以传承中华传统文化和古为今用的精神,挖掘和诠释的和谐价值观,有利于我们探讨建设和谐社会中的天人和谐、社会和谐和身心和谐问题.

  12. 易学中的元亨利贞说%The Doctrine of "YuanHengLiZhen" in the Theory of I-Ching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑万耕

    2004-01-01

    本文依据朱熹"将易各自看"的易学观,梳理"元亨利贞"说的演变,认为:对中的"元亨利贞"不必定于一体,不必一例求之;春秋战国时人以伦理道德观念加以解说,是一种新的创造;汉唐人又将其提升到形而上的层面加以解释,使之获得了世界观的意义;而宋明道学又将"元亨利贞"说进一步高度哲理化了.

  13. Cultural Sediments of I-Ching and Its Writing Era%《易经》的文化沉积与写作年代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菲菲

    2004-01-01

    有几点可以表明其写作年代的文化沉积:隐晦的图腾意识;"利建侯"的社会环境;以"邑人"为庶民的社会分层;不使用"哉、矣、也、乎"等语气词的语言风格.根据这些文化沉积推断,成书于殷末.

  14. Adverse events of interferon beta-1a: a prospective multi-centre international ICH-GCP-based CRO-supported external validation study in daily practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.H.; Sindic, C.; Sanders, E.; Hawkins, S.; Linssen, W.; Munster, E. van; Frequin, S.T.F.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to methodological shortcomings the available post-registration data on the adverse events (AEs) occurring in interferon beta-1a (INFb-1a)-treated patients fail to adequately validate phase III data and only partially inform on safety in daily practice. We assessed AEs in relapsing

  15. Women’s health behaviors and selected determinants in breast cancer prevention / Zachowania zdrowotne kobiet i wybrane ich determinanty w profilaktyce raka piersi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślusarska Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women in Poland. Health behaviors concerning lifestyle and breast self-examination (BSE constitute a significant element of early prevention.

  16. Das Bin Ich. Ein Buch von mir uber mich (It's Me! A Book By and About Myself). Communicative Activities for German Immersion and Second Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer

    This workbook is intended as a text for the learner of German as a foreign language. The workbook is complete with exercises that require students to provide information about themselves. Students provide information by reading questions and filling in the blanks. Questions are asked about families, friends, likes and dislikes, hobbies, and even…

  17. THE RESULTS OF USING OF INDICATORS OF THE HIGH-TEST CAST IRON OF TYPE ICH STRUCTURE IN CONDITIONS OF PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Majorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of development of the indicator of highstrength pig-iron are submitted in the report. The indicator using allows to carry out the testing of the pig-iron structure in conditions of manufacture without additional preparation of the casting surface.

  18. ICH guidelines and PhEur monographs on derivation and characterisation of cell substrates used for production of biotechnological/biological products. International Conference on Harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbelaer, R

    1999-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the guidance which is available in the EU as it would be applicable to licensing requirements for influenza vaccines produced on banked cells. Whereas ensuring compliance of cell banks would be relatively straightforward, ensuring compliance of new virus seeds (and possibly harvests) with requirements concerning adventitious viral contamination needs further evaluation.

  19. Typologické prvky stavieb pre bývanie: Vymedzenie špeciálnych foriem bývania a ich charakteristika

    OpenAIRE

    Krajčovičová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Housing is one of the most important elements of a person’s life. Indeed, it fulfils several basic human needs, described aptly by Maslow’s pyramid: the physiological needs, the need for safety and, in a sense, also the need for love and belonging.

  20. Alochtónne jemnozrnné sedimenty a ich vztah ku genéze Liskovskej jaskyne (Chočské podhorie, severné Slovensko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Bónová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of sedimentological and mineralogical methods with emphasis on heavy mineral assemblage research applied to allochthonous sediments in the Liskovská Cave located in the western part of the Liptovská Basin (in the tectonic horst composed of Triassic limestones at foothills of the Chocské vrchy Mts. were used for the identification their provenance and sedimentary history. Allochthonous fine-grained mud was studied in three profiles (LI-1 to LI-3. The sediments originated from the suspension in slow water flow to stagnant water (slackwater facies. This material could be later redeposited during the younger flooding event and small-scale slumps and gravity flows (mudflows have been locally generated on steeper cave floors. Based on mineralogical study the cave sediments are composed of quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, K-feldspar, plagioclase and dolomite. A heavy mineral assemblage is formed by garnet, zircon, apatite, monazite, tourmaline, staurolite, amphibole, rutile, titanite, epidote, sillimanite, allanite, andalusite, pyroxene and xenotime. Opaque minerals are represented by ilmenite, pyrite, magnetite, Cr-spinel, hematite, Cu-sulfides and Feoxyhydroxides. Their mineralogical character indicates the heterogenous source material which was transported by the Váh River. The results are significant for a more accurate reconstruction of origin and development of the cave, mainly its sedimentary phases in Middle and Late Pleistocene related to floods from the adjacent river bed.

  1. Interesariusze spółek kapitałowych z udziałem państwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Postuła

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cel: Celem artykułu jest określenie, kto jest interesariuszem spółki kapitałowej z udziałem państwa. Metodologia: Badania miały charakter interdyscyplinarny; składały się na nie analiza regulacji prawnych oraz badania ankietowe przeprowadzone wśród członków zarządów i rad nadzorczych polskich spółek Skarbu Państwa, a także wśród pracowników Ministerstwa Skarbu Państwa (MSP, nadzorujących spółki. Próba badawcza obejmowała całą populację, czyli wszystkie spółki Skarbu Państwa, w których prawa z akcji wykonuje Minister Skarbu Państwa, oraz wszystkich pracowników MSP nadzorujących spółki. Wnioski: Interesariuszami spółek Skarbu Państwa są członkowie ich zarządów, rad nadzorczych oraz pracownicy spółek. Cechy interesariuszy poosiadają także minister i wiceministrowie Skarbu Państwa oraz pracownicy MSP. Akcjonariusz, czyli Skarb Państwa, nie jest interesariuszem samoistnym (autonomicznym, ponieważ jest reprezentowany przez ministra lub wiceministrów, którzy z kolei są obsługiwani przez pracowników MSP. Implikacje badawcze: Wnioski wyprowadzone w artykule mogą mieć znaczenie nie tylko w odniesieniu do polskich spółek Skarbu Państwa, lecz także mogą mieć charakter uniwersalny, odnosząc się  również do spółek z udziałem państwa w innych krajach. Z uwagi na fakt, iż w reakcji na skutki kryzysu fi nansowego państwa zwiększają swoją aktywność w gospodarce, także jako akcjonariusze spółek kapitałowych, problematyka interesariuszy spółek z udziałem państwa oraz wpływu czynników politycznych i administracyjnych na te spółki może stanowić istotne pole badań w dziedzinie nadzoru korporacyjnego. Oryginalność: Badania są pierwszymi badaniami obejmującymi wszystkie spółki z udziałem Skarbu Państwa. Ich istotnym walorem jest interdyscyplinarność, co pozwoliło wskazać, jakie są implikacje praktyczne przyjętych rozwiązań regulacyjnych. W badaniach

  2. Aaron V. Cicourel: Es ist nicht so, dass ich prinzipielle Einwände gegen Quantifizierung oder Formalisierung oder Modellbildungen hätte. Wogegen ich mich allerdings verwehre ist, quantitative Methoden anzuwenden, die mit dem jeweiligen Untersuchungsphänomen nicht vereinbar sind

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Andreas; Mey, Günter

    2004-01-01

    Dieses hauptsächlich per E-Mail geführte Interview beginnt mit einer Beschreibung des wissenschaftlichen Werdegangs von Aaron V. CICOUREL, ausgehend vom Studium über seine Zeit als Doktorand und Assistenzprofessor bis hin zu seinen ersten Erfahrungen mit Feldforschung (Teil 1). Teil zwei enthält kritische Reflexionen über das Problem der ökologischen Validität, das in mündlichen und schriftlichen Befragungen auftritt, die Ethnographie ausklammern. CICOUREL plädiert – und das ist sein spezifis...

  3. A theology of matter. The strong interaction at strong resonance at the meeting point of I and not-I. Conjectures about oscillating strings and fluctuating vacuum energy; Eine Theologie der Materie. Die starke Wechselwirkung bei starker Resonanz am Begegnungs-Ort von Ich und Nicht-Ich. Mutmassungen ueber oszillierende Strings und fluktuierende Vakuum-Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boes, Roderick H.

    2011-07-01

    This book shows that matter and consciousness are intertwined and mutually produce. Quantum vacuum fluctuations ensure that the latent energy of each event is present as zero-point energy simultaneously at all points of the cosmos.

  4. Ich spreche anders, aber das ist auch deutsch: línguas em conflito em uma escola rural localizada em zona de imigração no sul do Brasil Ich spreche anders, aber das ist auch deutsch: languages in conflict in a rural school located in an immigration area in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Pereira Fritzen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O bilingüismo/multilingüismo como fenômeno social ainda é pouco reconhecido no cenário brasileiro, apesar de o tema ter conquistado espaço na academia. Em termos gerais, considera-se o Brasil um país monolíngüe, onde se fala apenas o português brasileiro. Há, no entanto, vários contextos de línguas minoritárias (grupos indígenas, grupos de imigrantes, zonas de fronteira, comunidades de surdos em que o uso de várias línguas é a regra. Nesses contextos sociolingüisticamente complexos há relações assimétricas e de conflito entre a língua hegemônica e as línguas minoritárias, em geral estigmatizadas. O presente estudo, parte dos resultados de uma pesquisa etnográfica, focaliza o conflito lingüístico presente em uma escola rural localizada numa comunidade bilíngüe/multilíngüe em zona de imigração alemã no sul do país, onde, ainda hoje, as crianças aprendem em casa a língua de herança, empregada em âmbito familiar e social. Com suporte teórico predominantemente vindo do bilingüismo visto de uma perspectiva social e dos Estudos Culturais, o objetivo principal deste artigo é problematizar a situação de contato/conflito lingüístico existente na região alvo da pesquisa e sua interface com questões de identidades construídas nos discursos hegemônicos. Além disso, discute-se como esses conflitos emergem nas relações interacionais entre os professores e entre alunos e professores, dentro da instituição escolar. Os registros sugerem que o bilingüismo da comunidade penetra na escola e que os conflitos lingüísticos e identitários ganham ainda mais força nas interações sociais entre os sujeitos que ali convivem.Bilingualism/multilingualism as a social phenomenon is still little recognized in the Brazilian scenario, despite it has gotten space in the academy. Usually, Brazil is seen as a monolingual country, where the Brazilian Portuguese is the only language spoken. There are, however, contexts of minority languages (indigenous groups, groups of immigrant, border regions, deaf communities in which the use of several languages is the rule. In these sociolinguistically complex contexts there are both asymmetric and conflicting relations between the hegemonic language and minority languages, usually stigmatized. This study develops itself from the results of an ethnographic research, focusing the language conflict that is present in a rural school located in a bilingual/multilingual community in a region of German immigration in the south of the country, where, even nowadays, children learn at home the inherited language, which is used in the familiar and social contexts. With a theoretical basis mostly acquired from bilingualism analyzed from a social perspective and from the perspective of the Cultural Studies, the main aim of this article is to problematize the language contact/conflict situation existing in the target region and its interface with identity questions built in the hegemonic discourses. Moreover, it is discussed the way these conflicts emerge in the interactional relations between teachers and among teachers and students within school. The data suggests that the community's bilingualism gets into school, and that the language and identity conflicts become even stronger within the social interactions among the individuals that live together in that space.

  5. 心经与易旨——唐慧净法师《心经疏》"四不思议"之易旨比照衍说%Heart Sutra and I-Ching's Orientation About I-Ching's Ideology and the "Four Inconceivable Ideas" in The Annotation of Prajna-paramita-hrdaya-sutra by Master Huijing in Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善文

    2011-01-01

    唐代慧净法师,言及之内含和作用,以为有四方面的"不可思议"之妙,曰"教不思议"、"理不思议"、"行不思议"、"果不思议".儒家群经之首的,其精深弘奥的哲学思想.于教、理、行、果四端,也具备显著的不可思议之旨趣.沿着这条思路,将的基本思想与的哲学内涵略作比较,颇可揭示二者之间的契合所在.

  6. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  7. Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia from acute intracerebral hemorrhage: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is frequent pathology in emergency departments. Coagulopathies leading to ICH are rare. We describe here the case of diagnosis of a chronic myeloid leukemia from ICH in emergencies.

  8. Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia from acute intracerebral hemorrhage:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Rejeb Imen; Kammoun Leila; Ksibi Hichem; Ayadi Adnane; Chaari Mourad; Chaari Adel; Kallel Choumous; Rekik Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is frequent pathology in emergency departments. Coagulopathies leading to ICH are rare. We describe here the case of diagnosis of a chronic myeloid leukemia from ICH in emergencies.

  9. Koncepcja resilience. Kluczowe pojęcia i wybrane zagadnienia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucka, Anna; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Streszczenie Celem niniejszej pracy jest przybliżenie kluczowych pojęć związanych koncepcją resilience. Ta koncepcja wyjaśnia fenomen pozytywnej adaptacji dzieci i młodzieży narażonych na duże ryzyko, przeciwności losu i/lub zdarzenia traumatyczne. Koncepcja resilience akcentuje znaczenie czynników i mechanizmów chroniących w wieku rozwojowym. Z tych przyczyn może być bardzo użyteczna dla rozwijania programów profilaktyki i promocji zdrowia psychicznego wśród dzieci i młodzieży. W niniejszym przeglądzie wykorzystano prace znaczących Autorów zajmujących się tą dziedziną m.in. M. Ruttera. N. Garmezy, E. Werner, S. Luthar, A. Sameroffa, K. Kumpfer, A. Masten, M. Zimmermana, D. Cicchetti. W przeglądzie uwzględniono ponad 20 artykułów i rozdziałów książkowych, które ukazały się w ostatnich 25 latach. Zostały one wybrane z elektronicznej bazy publikacji dostępnej na Uniwersytecie Michigan: elektronicznej bazy SAMSHA oraz z elektronicznych baz publikacji naukowych dostępnych w naszym kraju. W artykule przytoczono kilka definicji resilience, które wskazują na jej interaktywny i dynamiczny charakter. Uwzględniają one wzajemny wpływ czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących (i ich interakcję) na zachowanie człowieka, jego kompetencje i zdrowie psychiczne. W pracy opisano podstawowe pojęcia związane z resilience: ryzyko, czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące, pozytywną adaptację oraz teoretyczne modele i mechanizmy resilience. Przedstawiono różnice między mechanizmami ryzyka a mechanizmami chroniącymi. Zasygnalizowano też trudności związane z wykorzystaniem podstawowych pojęć resilience w badaniach empirycznych m.in. w określeniu wskaźników ryzyka, wyodrębnieniu grup ryzyka, określeniu wskaźników pozytywnej adaptacji. PMID:19301507

  10. Obecność w powietrzu atmosferycznym grzybów z gatunku Fusarium culmorum i ich oporność na antymikotyki – hipotetyczne zagrożenie dla zdrowia ludzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the atmospheric air, fungal spores of the genus Fusarium are present which may be resistant to antifungal drugs used in medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity to selected antimycotics, and to identify the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration for strains belonging to the species F. culmorum. Material and methods. Fungal strains were isolated from atmospheric air sampling in the vicinity of fields where winter wheat was cultivated. Evaluation of susceptibility to antifungal drugs was carried out using E-test strips. Results. All isolates were characterized by resistance to ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole. MIC for amphotericin B was 0.023 µg · cm–3, for voriconazole 0.016 µg·cm–3, for posaconazole 0.006 µg·cm–3 and for caspofungin 0.25 µg·cm–3. Among the isolates tested, 8 were resistant to voriconazole, 3 resistant to posaconazole and 10 resistant to amphotericin B. Conclusions. The examined strains presented different sensitivity to antifungal drugs. The strongest fungicidal activity was found in the case of: posaconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B. In the atmospheric air there may exist strains of F. culmorum which have natural resistance to some antimycotics.

  11. „Bardzo nieliczni czują, że ich życie nie jest życiem, lecz śmiercią”. Fiodor Dostojewski i Lew Szestow wobec idei szczęścia i egzystencjalnej satysfakcji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kruszelnick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In my paper Iset the existential interpretation of Dostoevsky’s Notes from the Underground proposed by Lev Shestov against the religious and psychological interpretations of this novel in order to excavate a vital problem in Dostoevsky, which is the inversion of hierarchy in pairs of oppositional categories such as normality-pathology, happiness-unhappiness, harmony-dissonance, omnitude-lack, certainty-uncertainty, joy-despair, faith-doubt. Following Shestov I argue that Dostoevsky embraces those categories that are traditionally mistrusted and negatively valorized and by so doing he rehabilitates the “underground”, accursed and unhappy existence at the expense of regular, “normal” life, easily founding spiritual certainty and every day satisfaction. Such an un-problematic life Dostoevsky’s man from the underground regards as a false, smug and eventually – “dead”. In further part of my study I focus on the religious aspect of Shestov’s later philosophy and try to prove that the perspective of faith gradually introduced to his reading of Dostoevsky in no way cancels Shestov’s early philosophy of the underground, despair and tragedy. On the contrary: if faith “obtained” is likely to become yet another mask of “evidence” and “certainty” and in this way might put stop to existential doubts and spiritual dissatisfaction, then neither Dostoevsky, nor Shestov himself, can easily trust it. In this situation despair and tragedy cannot but hold in Dostoevsky’s and Shestov’s thought and the circle of searching and suffering must remain vicious. I demonstrate the consistency in Shestov’s philosophical thought on Dostoevsky and its constant adequacy for understanding one of the crucial existential dilemmas in the works of the Russian writer.

  12. European guidelines for prevention and management of influenza in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and leukemia patients: summary of ECIL-4 (2011), on behalf of ECIL, a joint venture of EBMT, EORTC, ICHS, and ELN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, D; Mohty, B; de la Camara, R; Cordonnier, C; Ljungman, P

    2013-06-01

    Influenza may cause severe disease and mortality in leukemia patients and in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. The 4th European Conference of Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-4) has developed evidence-based guidelines for prevention and management of influenza infections in these patients. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction is the diagnostic test of choice, as it is the most sensitive and specific test for influenza. The risks for severe influenza and fatal outcome include lymphopenia, older age, influenza soon after transplantation or chemotherapy, steroid treatment, and lack of early antiviral therapy. Neuraminidase inhibitors (oral oseltamivir or inhalation of zanamivir) are currently the most effective therapeutic agents for influenza. Main preventive measures include annual vaccination of patients, household contacts, and hospital staff. This review summarizes ECIL-4's main recommendations.

  13. A validated stability-indicating RP-LC method for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine and perindopril in tablet dosage form and their stress degradation behavior under ICH-recommended stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2013-01-01

    A stability-indicating RP-LC assay method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cardiovascular drugs amlodipine and perindopril in the presence of degradation products generated from forced decomposition studies. The developed method is applicable for the determination of related substances in bulk drugs and simultaneous assay in a tablet pharmaceutical dosage form. Separation of the drugs and their degradation products was obtained using an RP Waters Spherisorb ODS1 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 pm particle size) with the mobile phase acetonitrile-water (30 + 70, v/v) containing 15 mM phosphoric acid. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 5.0. A flow rate of 1.2 mL/min was used for the separations, with detection at 215 nm. The chromatographic separation was performed at a column temperature of 45 degrees C. Atenolol was chosen as the internal standard. Amlodipine and perindopril were exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Degradation studies showed that both compounds were degraded under these stress conditions. The method was found to be stability-indicating and can be used for the routine analysis of amlodipine and perindopril in the studied combined tablet dosage form.

  14. Segmentation of young consumers in terms of their market activity Segmentacja młodych konsumentów według ich aktywności rynkowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adamczyk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Children and teenagers constitute a separate market group, which is heterogeneous in terms of their behaviour, market attitudes and activity. This is the basis for distinguishing four market segments, different in terms of the demographic, economic and psychographic characteristics of young participants in the market.

  15. Ich glaube, wir können es uns gar nicht leisten, nichts von Religion zu verstehen.“ Grundkompetenzen für Lehrerinnen und Lehrer im Umgang mit Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Kohler-Spiegel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Recht von Kindern, sich mit Religion auseinanderzusetzen, ist in den Kinderrechten der UN verankert, Friedrich Schweitzer spricht von den „großen Fragen“. Diesen Fragen Raum zu geben beinhaltet ein Begleiten der Kinder, unabhängig ihrer formalen religiösen Zugehörigkeiten. Da sich Religiöses in der Schule auf sehr vielfältige Art zeigt, bedarf es der kurzen Klärung, was darunter verstanden wird, bevor beschrieben wird, welche Grundkompetenzen Lehrpersonen brauchen, um Kinder in der Vielfalt dieser Erfahrungen und Fragen zu begleiten. „I believe we cannot afford to not understand religion.“ Basic competences for teachers in handling religion Children‘s entitlement to deal with religion is constituted in the Human Rights for Children of the UN, Friedrich Schweitzer refers to it as „The big questions“. To create space for these questions implies to shepherd the children, regardless of their formal religious affiliation. Driven by the diversity of religiousness in school, some brief clarification of this topic is required, before characterizing which basic expertise educational personnel need to have in order to guide children through the variety of these experiences and questions.

  16. „Die Bedingungen, die ich als Frau vorfand, haben logischerweise zu meinem Ausstieg geführt“ “The Conditions that I encountered as a women obviously led to me to quit.”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina Mischau

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Warum gibt es, trotz zahlreicher Maßnahmen zur Steigerung des Frauenanteils in ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Studiengängen oder auch zur Integration von Frauen in entsprechende Berufsfelder, nach wie vor so wenige Ingenieurinnen in Deutschland? Warum wird technische Gestaltungs- und Definitionsmacht nahezu ungebrochen mit „Männlichkeit“ oder dem Bild „des Ingenieurs“ verknüpft? Warum zeigt sich die ingenieurwissenschaftliche Fachkultur, wie die Fachkulturforschung im ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Feld selbst, als besonders „resistent“ oder „widerständig“ gegen die Kategorie Geschlecht? Diesen spannenden und politisch provokanten Fragen geht Christiane Erlemann nach. In ihrem Buch rekonstruiert sie die Hinwendung zum, die Auseinandersetzung mit dem und letztlich die Abwendung vom ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Feld anhand biographisch orientierter narrativer Interviews mit Ingenieurinnen, die ihren Beruf „an den Nagel gehängt“ haben.Why, in spite of the numerous measures to increase the number of women studying engineering and their integration into corresponding careers, are there still so few female engineers in Germany? Why is technical prowess still associated with masculinity and the images of the male engineer? Why does the dominant culture in engineering, just like the culture of research in this discipline, prove to be particularly resistant to questions of gender? These are the exciting and politically provocative questions that Christiane Erlemann pursues. Using interviews with female engineers who have left their profession, she re-examines the process of first deciding to become an engineer, pursuing such a career and, finally, deciding to quit.

  17. Evaluation of the persistence in the induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE) by alkylating agents; Evaluacion de la persistencia en la induccion de Intercambio en las Cromatidas Hermanas (ICH) por agentes alquilantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez R, R.; Huerta V, C.; MOrales R, P.R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The persistence in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) by the alkylating agents methyl and ethyl-methanesulfonates (MMS and EMS) was evaluated. For it, to groups of mice its were administered a dose of these agents and later its were analyzed the induced SCE's in two periods: early and late. Both agents caused high increments of SCE in the early period and small in the late one; however, the caused lately by EMS was significantly bigger. This late induction of SCE by EMS possibly is associated with an epigenetic change or with the presence of etiladucts in the phosphodiester bonds of the DNA. (Author)

  18. Znalosti dětí v mateřské škole o stavbě těla živočichů.

    OpenAIRE

    HAMPEJSOVÁ, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about wild animals living in the area Lusatian Mountains, Českolipsko, Dubskaand, Českosaské Švýcarsko, marginally in the Zoopark in Chomutov as a model group in environmental education in kindergarten. The aim is to find out the level of acquainting children with the selected endangered species, to compare how children perceive these animals, to find out how the children receive information about this topic. This research shows the range of available educational materials and ...

  19. »Das blogg ich ab.« Popliterarisches Erzählen in Blogs, analysiert am Beispiel von Sven Regeners ›Logbüchern‹ »Meine Jahre mit Hamburg-Heiner«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Schmidtke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag betrachtet die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen popliterarischen Erzählens in SchriftstellerInnen-Blogs. Am Beispiel der Blog-Projekte Sven Regeners (inzwischen auch als Buch unter dem Titel Logbücher. Meine Jahre mit Hamburg-Heiner erschienen wird analysiert, wie die beiden Pop-Charakteristika der Autorinszenierung und der Aktualität adaptiert und medienspezifisch eingelöst werden. Es kann gezeigt werden, dass Regeners Blogs zwar durchaus popliterarische Merkmale aufweisen und diese auf innovative Weise im Raum des Internets umsetzen, dabei allerdings immer noch hinter den Potenzialen onlinebasierten Erzählens zurückbleiben.

  20. "Ich Möchert Schon Einmal Nach Wien" – Mief Und Muff In Franz Xaver Kroetz‘ Oberösterreich (1972 Und Der Brasilianischen Übersetzung Von 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Heidermann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alta Áustria ist das Heft No. 20 der Reihe Caderno de Teatro Alemão, die vor rund 30 Jahren von verschiedenen brasilianischen Goethe-Instituten herausgegeben wurde. Die Kroetz-Übersetzung selbst ist in Curitiba entstanden, eine Gruppe von Übersetzern zeichnet für sie verantwortlich, geleitet wurde das Projekt von Heidede Emiliy Liede. Wir gehen der Frage nach, inwieweit das fatal Kleinbürgerliche im Österreich der Siebziger Jahre überhaupt einem brasilianischen Theaterpublikum vermittelbar ist. Wird die Enge der Zweierbeziehung mit ihren Fluchttendenzen als gemeinsame soziale Erfahrung gewertet? Ist Oberösterreich ambitionierte österreichische Landeskunde? Umfassende Zivilisationskritik? Frühe Konsumismuskritik? Inwieweit steht hinter dem Erfolg des Stücks nicht auch ein perfides Behagen am Spießertum der Anderen? In derselben Publikationsreihe erschienen Mensch Meier, Das Nest, und Wer durch Laub geht – mithin ein bedeutender Teil Kroetzscher Theaterdichtung. Der Beitrag wird nach kulturellen Affinitäten fragen und Provokationen einzuordnen versuchen, auch in übersetzungstheoretischer Hinsicht.

  1. "Ich Möchert Schon Einmal Nach Wien" – Mief Und Muff In Franz Xaver Kroetz‘ Oberösterreich (1972 Und Der Brasilianischen Übersetzung Von 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Heidermann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alta Áustria ist das Heft No. 20 der Reihe Caderno de Teatro Alemão, die vor rund 30 Jahren von verschiedenen brasilianischen Goethe-Instituten herausgegeben wurde. Die Kroetz-Übersetzung selbst ist in Curitiba entstanden, eine Gruppe von Übersetzern zeichnet für sie verantwortlich, geleitet wurde das Projekt von Heidede Emiliy Liede. Wir gehen der Frage nach, inwieweit das fatal Kleinbürgerliche im Österreich der Siebziger Jahre überhaupt einem brasilianischen Theaterpublikum vermittelbar ist. Wird die Enge der Zweierbeziehung mit ihren Fluchttendenzen als gemeinsame soziale Erfahrung gewertet? Ist Oberösterreich ambitionierte österreichische Landeskunde? Umfassende Zivilisationskritik? Frühe Konsumismuskritik? Inwieweit steht hinter dem Erfolg des Stücks nicht auch ein perfides Behagen am Spießertum der Anderen? In derselben Publikationsreihe erschienen Mensch Meier, Das Nest, und Wer durch Laub geht – mithin ein bedeutender Teil Kroetzscher Theaterdichtung. Der Beitrag wird nach kulturellen Affinitäten fragen und Provokationen einzuordnen versuchen, auch in übersetzungstheoretischer Hinsicht.

  2. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis and monitoring of renal scarring in hypertensive children; Rola badania scyntygraficznego w rozpoznaniu zmian bliznowatych w nerkach i ocena ich dynamiki u dzieci z nadcisnieniem tetniczym

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieteska-Klimczak, A.; Wyszynska, T.; Toth, K.; Januszewicz, P. [Pracownia Medycyny Nuklearnej, Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of scintiscan using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA to diagnose and evaluate renal scarring and its dynamics in children with hypertension due to reflux nephropathy. The study covered 51 children aged 1 to 18 years in whom a scintiscan was performed immediately after diagnosis of hypertension. This test was repeated in 23 of these patients after 1 to 5 years. Advanced bilateral scarring with normal renal function was found in over 80% of the children. Established hypertension was observed in 66% of the patients. No progression of scarring or deterioration of renal function was found in the majority (76%) of the reexamined patients. Those patients who responded poorly to treatment for hypertension and who initially had impaired and deteriorating renal function showed progression of scarring. (author) 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo; Relacion de la desmetilacion del ADN con la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toribio E, E

    2005-07-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  4. Dependability issues in designing warehouse facilities and their functional areas / Zagadnienia niezawodności w projektowaniu magazynów i ich obszarów funkcjonalnych magazynów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewczuk Konrad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Niezawodność obiektu magazynowego wynika z niezawodności jego obszarów funkcjonalnych i wpływa na niezawodność całego łańcucha dostaw. Aspekty niezawodnościowe pracy magazynu powinny być uwzględniane na etapie projektu, jednakże jest to trudne ze względu na złożoność tych systemów oraz zmienność struktury jakościowej i ilościowej strumieni materiałów na wejściach. Aktualnie stosowane procedury projektowania obiektów magazynowych uwzględniają klasyczne miary niezawodności jako kryterium oceny rozwiązania jedynie w dużym uproszczeniu. W artykule podjęto próbę usystematyzowania podstawowych zagadnień badawczych związanych z niezawodnością magazynów będących elementami łańcuchów dostaw, a jednocześnie obiektami technicznymi. Na tej podstawie możliwe będzie wyspecyfikowanie miar niezawodności możliwych do określenia w oparciu o typowe parametry obiektu magazynowego. Pozwoli to na uogólnienie modelu do oceny niezawodności procesu magazynowego.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF FLOOR QUALITY ON DAIRY COW BEHAVIOUR AND THEIR BODY CLEANLINESS VPLYV KVALITY PODLAHY NA SPRÁVANIE DOJNÍC A ICH ČISTOTU POVRCHU TELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília KUŠNÍROVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of floor quality on the behaviour and cleanliness of the diary cow‘s body. The analysis results show that cows housed in the section with the separated manure solids spent more time lying (41.47% and also laid less in the corridor manure (0.91% than the cows in the section with separated manure solids and the rubber mats where they were laying generally less (35.71%, they spent more time lying in the corridor manure (1.55% and in terms of preference of lying area the cows clearly preferred the separated manure solids (25.8%. Based on observations we can say that cows housed in sections of slurry solid phase were cleaner (average 6.13 points than cows in the section with the rubber and a separated manure (averagely 7.28 points. Nowadays the free housing systems with different types of litter and boxes are frequently used, while the proper littering influences the lying preferences of an animal. In practice, for the dairy cows the deepened lying boxes littered with natural materials such as sawdust, shavings, straw, dried manure and sand boxes or elevated boxes covered with a synthetic material, mattresses or mats are used.Cieľom práce bolo zhodnotiť vplyv kvality podlahy na správanie a čistotu povrchu tela dojníc. Z analýzy výsledkov vyplýva, že dojnice ustajnené v sekcii so separovaným kalom hnojovice venovali ležaniu väčšiu časť (41,47% a ležali aj menej v hnojnej chodbe (0,91% ako dojnice v sekcii so separovaným kalom hnojovice aj gumenými matracmi, kde dojnice celkovo menej ležali (35,71%, viac času ležali v hnojnej chodbe (1,55% a z hľadiska uprednostňovania ležoviska ležali jednoznačne viac na separovanom kale hnojovice (25,8%. Na základe pozorovaní možno povedať, že dojnice ustajnené v sekciách so separovaným kalom hnojovice boli čistejšie (priemerne 6,13 bodov ako dojnice v sekcii so separovaným kalom hnojovice aj gumou (priemerne 7,28 bodov. V súčasnosti sa využívajú voľné systémy ustajnenia s rôznymi typmi podstielok a boxov, pričom samotné podstielky ovplyvňujú dobu ležania. V praxi sa pre dojnice používajú prehĺbené ležiskové boxy podstielané prírodným materiálom ako napr. piliny, hobliny, slama, sušený maštalný hnoj, či piesok alebo vyvýšené boxy pokryté syntetickými materiálmi - matrace, rohože.

  6. Pharmacovigilance during the pre-approval phases: an evolving pharmaceutical industry model in response to ICH E2E, CIOMS VI, FDA and EMEA/CHMP risk-management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, Craig G; Petchel, Kasia S; Mickail, Hani; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; McHale, Mary; Grana, John M; Marquez, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance science has traditionally been a discipline focussed on the postmarketing or post-authorisation period, with due attention directed towards pre-clinical safety data, clinical trials and adverse events. As the biological sciences have evolved, pharmacovigilance has slowly shifted toward earlier, proactive consideration of risks and potential benefits of drugs in the pre- and peri-approval stages of drug development, leading to a maturing of drug safety risk management. Further advances in biology, pharmacology and improvements in computational applications to medicine have led to the development of more complex medicines previously unobtainable and have also permitted a more thorough assessment of risks and potential benefits even earlier in the development process. Elevated public concern with the safety of more sophisticated medicines, combined with new science, have led pharmaceutical innovators, regulators and healthcare professionals to collaborate to develop guidelines, which drive enhanced pharmacovigilance and safety risk management earlier in drug development. In this paper, we review international guidelines on pharmacovigilance planning applicable to the pre-approval phases of medicines development and provide author opinion on these guidelines' potential drug safety implications. We discuss the possible evolution of a pharmaceutical industry model to respond to these guidelines; a view on multidisciplinary safety management teams is provided to encourage refinement of safety-signal identification and risk assessment early in drug development and to communicate important safety concerns to internal research efforts, patients, investigators and regulators. We further describe these functions in the context of the complexities of vulnerable populations, including the example of medicines research for paediatric populations. We also discuss the special role of epidemiology in pre-approval drug development and the impact on epidemiological science of changes to the pharmacovigilance paradigm.

  7. 《周易》筮法的哲学思想及其科学观%The Divination Rule of I-Ching :Its Philosophical Thinking and Scientific Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2007-01-01

    依据有关史实证明周易象数六、七、八、九与阴阳老少的对应关系,占筮认知系统与科学测量认知系统十分类似,其隐含有或然决定论和主观参与客观的哲学思想,这种思想对现代科学观很有启示.

  8. On the I-ching Authors' Consciousness of Subject and Ideology of Seeking Morality from the Interior%论《易经》作者的主体意识与道德内求思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴传永

    2000-01-01

    《易经》作者具有强烈的主体意识和道德内求思想,这典型地表现在《谦》、《节》、《中孚》、《遁》等集中论述道德修养的专卦之中,亦散见于《乾》、《履》、《同人》、《恒》、《随》、《升》、《萃》、《既济》诸卦之中。《易经》作者之所以对主体意识和道德内求思想给予了极大的关注,是因为在生产力极不发达的古代社会中,主体意识和道德伦理对于古老社会共同体内各种关系的协调和稳定,对于人类改造客观世界活动的成功,具有至关重要的作用。

  9. 《周易》取象思维方式对《庄子》寓言的影响%Image Using in I-Ching and Fable Creation in The Zhuangzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春海; 曹春茹

    2008-01-01

    庄子受的影响,在散文中采用取象思维方式创作了大量寓言.这些寓言意在婉曲地表达深刻的哲理,给人们以某种启示,并具有不确定性、歧义性和跨越时空的特点.所取之"象"较更加鲜活而独具艺术魅力,其取象艺术对后世的语言和文学发展也有深远影响.

  10. 坤卦卦名探原——兼论八卦卦气说产生的时代%Origin of Name of Kun in I-Ching with Concurrent Remarks on Eight-Trigram Guaqi Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖名春

    2000-01-01

    @@引言 坤卦的原名是什么?从《乾凿度》到《玉篇》,从宋人到清儒都有所探讨.长沙马王堆汉墓帛书《周易》经传出土以后,学者们又发表了许多意见.……

  11. An Interpretation of the Principle of I-ching Learning Departed from Modern Systematics,Informatics and Synergetics%从当代系统论、信息论、协同学看易学原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元珪

    2000-01-01

    《易》之中寓有宇宙、自然、人生的信息库,古人以之为筮书,预测未知之吉、凶、祸、福。今之读《易》君子,明白荀子所说的“善为易者不占”,当观察万事万物之儿微时,自然了然于心。其实,宇宙自然的信息与人心息息相通,知儿者,自明。

  12. 刚强劲健的中国龙——周易乾卦六龙发微%Vigorous and Sturdy Dragon of China——The Six Dragons from Qian in I-Ching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善文

    2000-01-01

    @@大凡历代读《周易》的人,一翻开这部被学者共同尊为“群经之首”的经典,首先接触到并为之所深深吸引的便是《周易》六十四卦的开篇第一卦《乾》卦——卦中让读者留下最为不可磨灭之印象的,……

  13. Wang Yang-ming's" Long-chang Wu Dao" and I-ching Learning%王阳明"龙场悟道"的《易》学因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄黎星

    2006-01-01

    在王阳明"心学"思想体系的形成发展过程中,"龙场悟道"是一个重要的转机,而处于下锦衣狱、谪龙场驿的忧患中,王阳明曾精心研读,并有不少抒论之作.本文对此展开论析,以探明王阳明"龙场悟道"中的学因素.

  14. Personality disorders – different outlooks and attempts at their integration [Zaburzenia osobowości – różne spojrzenia i próby ich integracji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabski, Bartosz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different approaches to personality disorders. The authors critically discuss the contemporary categorical psychiatrie (medical classification and also present psychological approaches with the special attention put to personałity trait theories and stemming from them the Five Factor Model (FFM. Due to the coming time of the publication of a new revision of the American classification DSM- 5 the detailed description of the proposals for the new system has been presented. The authors included the most updated version which has just recently been published on the DSM-5 APA web site on 1 lth June 2011. The proposed changes go forward to the voices of critiąue of present solutions, and create a hybrid system which will incorporate some elements of the dimensional approach to personality disorders.

  15. "Es ist meine Art, einen und denselben Gegenstand zu verfolgen, bis ich ihn aufgeklärt habe" Äußerungen Alexander von Humboldts über sich selbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Schwarz

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and Spanish. Alexander von Humboldt has been characterized as the second, scientific discoverer of the New World, as the last universal scientist, Aristotle of modern times, etc. However, more or less hidden in his correspondence we find certain self-characterizations which are not that well-known. Some of them are quoted and discussed in the paper. Thus, an attempt is made to answer the question why Humboldt liked to call himself "the old man from the mountains", and whether or not he found it appropriate to be called "Aristotle of our age."

  16. Properties of Artificial Gaseous Mixtures for their Safe Use and Support the Natural Gas Supply Networks / Własności Sztucznych Mieszanin Gazowych do Bezpiecznego ich Użytkowania i Wspomagania Zasilania Sieci Gazu Ziemnego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2012-11-01

    The increase in natural gas consumption by the general public and industry development, in particular the petrochemical and chemical industries, has made increasing the world interest in using gas replacement for natural gas, both as mixtures of flammable gases and gas mixtures as LPG with air (SNG - Synthetic Natural Gas). Economic analysis in many cases prove that to ensure interchangeability of gas would cost less than the increase in pipeline capacity to deliver the same quantity of natural gas. In addition, SNG systems and installations, could be considered as investments to improve security and flexibility of gas supply. Known existing methods for determining the interchangeability of gases in gas gear based on Wobbe index, which determines the heat input and the burning rate tide, which in turn is related to flame stability. Exceeding the Wobbe index of a value increases the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust than the permissible concentration. Methods of determining the interchangeability of gases is characterized by a gas in relation to the above-described phenomena by means of quantitative indicators, or using diagrams interchangeability, where the gas is characterized by the position of a point in a coordinate system. The best known method for determining the interchangeability of gases is Delbourg method, in which the gas is characterized by the revised (expanded) Wobbe Index (Wr), the combustion potential, rate of soot formation (Ic) and the ratio of the formation of yellow ends (I). Universal way to determine the interchangeability of gas is also Weaver accounting method. It does not require determination of the reference gas. It is designed for utensils for household gas and gas pressure p = 1.25 kPa. The criteria and definition of gas interchangeability volatility in practice to the combustion in a gas gear. In the case of gas exchange in industrial furnaces, interchangeability criteria are usually not very useful because of other conditions of combustion and heat exchange. In industrial reheating furnace gas is combusted in a sealed combustion chambers. Air supply is regulated. The exhaust gases are discharged into canals and the chimney to the atmosphere. The temperature difference between load (fuel gas) and the flame is much less than in the case of gas household appliances. In the furnace heat exchange takes place mainly by radiation in 85% to 95%. The value of heat flux flowing from the gas to a heated charge is not proportional to the heat load burners. Interchangeability of gas is linked by adding to natural gas, a certain amount of gas that is a substitute for natural gas in meeting the criteria for substitution in order to ensure certainty of supply of natural gas to customers. Gases that can be used in the processes of blending and used as replacement gases are mainly a mixture of propane and propane - butane (LPG - Liquid Petroleum Gas), landfill gas or biogas (LFG - Landfill Gas) and dimethyl ether (DME). One of the more well-known gas mixtures used in many countries around the world to compensate for peak demands is a mixture containing about 75% of natural gas and approximately 25% propane / air (LPG / air). Also in Poland is prepared to amend the provisions in this regard (at this moment - oxygen in the gas network can not exceed 0.2%). In this paper, the calculations of interchangeability of gas mixtures LFG - LPG and LPG - air (SNG) for natural gas was made. It was determined whether the analyzed mixtures have similar stable flame zones regardless of the quality of LFG fuel and whether they may in whole or in part replace CH4, without any modification of equipment suction air for combustion. The obtained results will determine whether the fuel can be used as a replacement for natural gas used in such household appliances and, possibly, industrial burners. In connection with the possibility of changes in the quality of LFG, depending on such factors as storage time, as pre-treatment, will be determined the degree of interchangeability of LFG as a fuel mixed with regard to its quality.

  17. FEEDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE FATTENING, CARCASS AND QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF PIGS SKRMOVANIE GENETICKY MODIFIKOVANCH PLODN A ICH VPLYV NA VKRMOV, JATOCN A KVALITATVNE PARAMETRE OPANCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment we judged the influence of genetically modified plants on the fattening-, carcass-, and pig quality parameters. We have recorded better fattening parameters in the group fed with the GM crops. We recorded statistically provable differences in the number of the test fattening days (30 100 kg, in the lifelong average daily gains, in the test fodder consumption (30 100 kg. We have recorded better carcass indicators in the group fed without the GM plants, which was statistically confirmed in the valuable meaty parts as well as thigh portions. There were no statistically provable differences found out in the meat quality indicators between the groups.

  18. Orestes bojownikiem ruchu oporu, czyli mit Atrydów w filmie "Podróż komediantów" Theo Angelopoulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Łomanowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orestes as a resistance fighter, or the myth of the Atreides in Theo Angelopoulos’s film The travelling players The paper examines the use of the Atreides myth in Theo Angelopoulos’s film The travelling players (1975 in the context of the director’s interpretation of the phenomenon of myth. Angelopoulos treated myth as a set of archetypical situations and patterns of conduct constantly reproduced in the history of the world. He intertwined elements of classical stories with the history of Greece and the Byzantine tradition, thus showing their universal character. In The travelling players, Angelopoulos used the story of betrayed and murdered Agamemnon, who is avenged by his children: Orestes and Electra, but he moved it into modern times, setting the film in Greece of the 1940s and 1950s. The myth is reproduced with modulations: the most important events take place as a result of interventions of History, not fate or decisions of the gods. Moreover, the characters’ conflicts are enriched with a political dimension, as Angelopolous portrays the discord between their ideological stances. But the members of the acting company are as helpless in the face of events as the family of the king of Argos.   Orestes bojownikiem ruchu oporu, czyli mit Atrydów w filmie Podróż komediantów Theo Angelopoulosa Artykuł jest analizą sposobu wykorzystania przez Theo Angelopoulosa mitu Atrydów w filmie Podróż komediantów (1975 w kontekście dokonanej przez niego interpretacji zjawiska mitu. Grecki reżyser traktował mit jako zbiór archetypicznych sytuacji i wzorów postępowania odtwarzanych nieustannie w dziejach świata. Elementy antycznych opowieści splatał w filmach z historią Grecji i tradycją bizantyjską, ujawniając ich uniwersalny charakter. W Podróży komediantów wykorzystał historię zdradzonego i zamordowanego Agamemnona, który zostaje pomszczony przez swoje dzieci: Orestesa i Elektrę, ale przeniósł ją w czasy wsp

  19. Cerebral venous etiology of intracranial hypertension and differentiation from idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mircea Iencean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the characteristics that distinguish between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICH and ICH caused by intracranial vascular damage. Twenty-one patients with ICH were included in this study. The analysis of the symptomatology correlated with the values of intracranial pressure, and the imaging findings revealed significant differences between these two types of ICH. ICH caused by intracranial venous vascular damage is named vascular ICH. Vascular ICH has a known etiology, such as cerebral vascular illness, and a relatively rapid increase in intracranial pressure of approximately 21 cmH2O and imaging findings show characteristic images of thrombosis or stenosis of the intracranial venous system, while all brain images (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-magnetic resonance imaging are normal in idiopathic ICH. The treatment of vascular ICH is etiologic, pathogenic, and symptomatic, but that of idiopathic ICH is only symptomatic.

  20. Cerebral venous etiology of intracranial hypertension and differentiation from idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iencean, Stefan Mircea; Poeata, Ion; Iencean, Andrei Stefan; Tascu, Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the characteristics that distinguish between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICH) and ICH caused by intracranial vascular damage. Twenty-one patients with ICH were included in this study. The analysis of the symptomatology correlated with the values of intracranial pressure, and the imaging findings revealed significant differences between these two types of ICH. ICH caused by intracranial venous vascular damage is named vascular ICH. Vascular ICH has a known etiology, such as cerebral vascular illness, and a relatively rapid increase in intracranial pressure of approximately 21 cmH2O and imaging findings show characteristic images of thrombosis or stenosis of the intracranial venous system, while all brain images (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-magnetic resonance imaging) are normal in idiopathic ICH. The treatment of vascular ICH is etiologic, pathogenic, and symptomatic, but that of idiopathic ICH is only symptomatic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  3. Parasites can enhance infections of fish with bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In aquaculture systems, fish are commonly infected by multiple pathogens, including parasites. Parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) and bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri are two common pathogens of cultured channel catfish. The objectives were to 1) evaluate the susceptibility of Ich parasitize...

  4. Resveratrol Attenuates Neurodegeneration and Improves Neurological Outcomes after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Bonsack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating type of stroke with a substantial public health impact. Currently, there is no effective treatment for ICH. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the post-injury administration of Resveratrol confers neuroprotection in a pre-clinical model of ICH. To this end, ICH was induced in adult male CD1 mice by collagenase injection method. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg or vehicle was administered at 30 min post-induction of ICH and the neurobehavioral outcome, neurodegeneration, cerebral edema, hematoma resolution and neuroinflammation were assessed. The Resveratrol treatment significantly attenuated acute neurological deficits, neurodegeneration and cerebral edema after ICH in comparison to vehicle treated controls. Further, Resveratrol treated mice exhibited improved hematoma resolution with a concomitant reduction in the expression of proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β after ICH. Altogether, the data suggest the efficacy of post-injury administration of Resveratrol in improving acute neurological function after ICH.

  5. Incident Cerebral Microbleeds in a Cohort of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Marta; Benedictus, Marije R; Boulouis, Grégoire; Rossi, Costanza; Dequatre-Ponchelle, Nelly; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to identify prognostic and associated factors of incident cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) survivors. Observational prospective cohort of 168 ICH survivors who underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging at ICH onset and during follow-up (median scan interval, 3.4; interquartile range, 1.4-4.7) years. We used logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, and scan interval. Analyses were stratified according to the index ICH location (58 lobar ICH, 103 nonlobar ICH, excluding patients with multiple or unclassifiable ICH). Eighty-nine (53%) patients had CMBs at ICH onset, and 80 (48%) exhibited incident CMBs during follow-up. Predictors of incident CMBs at ICH onset were ≥1 CMBs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-4.35), old radiological macrohemorrhage (aOR, 6.78; 95% CI, 2.76-16.68), and CMBs in mixed location (aOR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.67-8.31). When stratifying by ICH location, incident CMBs were associated in nonlobar ICH with incident lacunes (aOR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.04-7.85) and with the use of antiplatelet agents (aOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.14-7.32). In lobar ICH, incident CMBs were associated with incident radiological macrohemorrhage (aOR, 9.76; 95% CI, 1.07-88.77). Prognostic and associated factors of incident CMBs differed according to the index ICH location. Whereas in lobar ICH, incident CMBs were associated with hemorrhagic biomarkers, in nonlobar ICH, ischemic burden also increased. CMBs may be interesting biomarkers to monitor in randomized trials on restarting antithrombotic drugs after ICH. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from Curcuma longa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-Ich theronts. Anti-Ich efficac...

  7. Mehrsprachigkeit - Language Awareness – Sprachbewusstheit. Einführung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Angela Budde

    2016-10-01

    Ich bedanke mich bei allen AutorInnen für ihre Beiträge und für die überaus große Kooperationsbereitschaft. Diese habe ich ebenso im Herausgeberteam erfahren und auch diesem möchte ich herzlich danken.

  8. Parnassiana nova : V. Nomina collectiva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1955-01-01

    O. Bang-Haas hat sich bereits 1915 in Iris, v. XXIX p. 181-185 für den Gebrauch einheitlicher Aberrationsbenennungen von Parnassiern in der Form von nomina collectiva eingesetzt ; Bryk und ich haben dies gleichfalls getan. Immer wieder ertappe ich mich aber dabei, dass ich meinem Vorhaben, nomina co

  9. Prior antiplatelet therapy and outcome following intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, B B; Béjot, Y; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy (APT) promotes bleeding; therefore, APT might worsen outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the hypothesis that pre-ICH APT use is associated with mortality and poor functional outcome following ICH....

  10. Parnassiana nova : V. Nomina collectiva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1955-01-01

    O. Bang-Haas hat sich bereits 1915 in Iris, v. XXIX p. 181-185 für den Gebrauch einheitlicher Aberrationsbenennungen von Parnassiern in der Form von nomina collectiva eingesetzt ; Bryk und ich haben dies gleichfalls getan. Immer wieder ertappe ich mich aber dabei, dass ich meinem Vorhaben, nomina

  11. Berichtigung von P. G. Krause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Paul Gustaf

    1888-01-01

    In meiner Arbeit »Ueber Tertiäre, Cretaceïsche und Aeltere Ablagerungen aus West-Borneo” (Dieser Band, Seite 169 ff.) habe ich eine neue, tertiäre Corbula- Art, Corbula borneensis nov. sp. benannt. Wie ich sogleich nach Beendigung des Druckes bemerke, habe ich übersehen, dass dieser Name bereits für

  12. Clinical Manifestations of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Term Neonates: 18 Years of Experience in a Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chen Ou-Yang

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Unexplained anemia, seizure, and cyanosis were the major presenting signs in infants with symptomatic ICH. A diagnosis of ICH should be considered in term neonates who present with one or more of these signs. Although the mortality in term infants with symptomatic ICH was low, more than half

  13. Prior antiplatelet therapy and outcome following intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, B B; Béjot, Y; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy (APT) promotes bleeding; therefore, APT might worsen outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the hypothesis that pre-ICH APT use is associated with mortality and poor functional outcome following ICH....

  14. Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 a

  15. Deficyt budżetowy i dług publiczny oraz kompetencje organów władzy do ich kształtowania – w świetle przepisów konstytucji i prawa Unii Europejskiej

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The issues of public debt and budget deficit are regulated by constitutions (e.g. of Poland, Germany, Spain) as well as by the law of the European Union. The constitutional regulations concerning public debt and deficit are norms primarily directed at governments and parliaments. However, these regulations mainly have a preventive and auxiliary character and cannot by themselves stop the debt level of the state from increasing. Financial aims concerning debt and deficit can be achieved by non...

  16. How to use solar energy in the home and garden? Instructions and suggestions for easy self-construction of solar-powered systems: garden lighting, fountains, solar accumulators and solar motors; Wie nutze ich Solarenergie in Haus und Garten?. Bauanleitungen und Anregungen zum leichten Selbstbau von Solaranlagen wie z.B. Solar-Gartenbeleuchtung, Solar-Springbrunnen, Solar-Akkumulatoren, Solar-Elektromotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, B.

    1995-08-01

    The book reports on solar energy utilization: - solar energy and photovoltaics, - solar cell modules for self-construction, - self-sufficient solar power supply, - solar-powered pumps and engines, - ventilation and cooling using solar power, - heating using solar power, - garden lighting using solar power. (HW) [Deutsch] Das Buch berichtet ueber die Nutzung von Solarenergie: - Solarenergie und Photovoltaic; - Solarzellenmodule in Selbstbau; - Selbstversorgung mit Solarstrom; - Solar-Pumpen und -Motoren; - Lueften und Kuehlung mit Solarstrom; - Heizen mit Solarstrom; - Gartenbeleuchtung mit Solarstrom. (orig.)

  17. Teórie etnickej identity Kanchan Chandrovej a národnej indiferencie a možnosti ich uplatnenia pri historickom i etnologickom výskume jazykovo-kultúrne heterogénneho obyvateľstva juhoslovenských regiónov a miest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Ficeri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovak and Hungarian social sciences have paid sufficient attention to research on the transformation of the ethnic identities of people living mainly in ethnically mixed regions and towns of southern Slovakia. In the course of the 20th century, the affected population switched its ethnic identification codes depending on the assimilation political practices or the ethnic policy of the respective state authorities. The aim of this paper is to point out, through the theory of ethnic identity by political scientist Kanchan Chandra from New York (2012, the possibilities of applying an innovative analytical language to the historical and current research of assimilation processes, which enable a more exact grasping of the mechanisms of ethno-cultural changes in the southern Slovakian region heterogenous in terms of language and culture. The inhabitants of this type of regions and towns were easily ethnicised given their potential to become holders of several types of nominal ethnic identities which were activated (assimilation or deactivated (dissimilation depending on the situation in various contexts of the daily public and private life. This “non-national” behaviour of the population (ethnical practice had a causal influence on the current ethnic structure of the “lost” or “recovered” town, which can be interpreted as an expression of national indifference – the concept advocated by social scientists Tara Zahra, Jeremy King or Pieter Judson.

  18. A Population-Based Study of the Incidence and Case Fatality of Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Undetermined Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Afzal, Mohammad R; Malik, Ahmed A; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Jahangir, Nauman; Suri, M Fareed K

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of reliable recent data regarding epidemiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) of undetermined etiology in population-based studies. To determine the incidence and case fatality of ICH of undetermined etiology using a population-based design. Medical records and neuroimaging data of all patients with ICH from Stearns and Benton Counties, Minnesota, between June 1st, 2012 and June 30th, 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a first-time diagnosis of ICH were categorized as of undetermined etiology if ICH was without features typical of hypertensive etiology with normal or no magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/angiograms. We calculated the incidences of [1] probable and possible hypertensive ICH; [2] related to arteriovenous malformation, cavernous malformation, or aneurysmal rupture (angiographic or MRI diagnoses); [3] secondary to anticoagulation; and [4] of undetermined etiology adjusted for age and sex based on the 2010 US census. Of the 50 identified ICHs among 136,654 resident populations, seven were true incident cases of ICH of undetermined etiology in this population-based study. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of ICH of undetermined etiology was 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9] per 100, 000 person-years, which was lower than probable and possible hypertensive ICH incidence of 12.8 [95% CI 8.4-17.2] per 100,000 person-years. The age-adjusted case fatality rate at 1 month was 8.14 and 0.4 per 100,000 persons for probable and possible hypertensive ICHs and ICHs of undetermined etiology, respectively. Our results should prompt further studies into identification of causes in ICH patients presently classified as ICH of undetermined etiology to reduce the incidence and case fatality of such ICHs.

  19. On The Motive of G-bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over a perfect field $k$ and $\\mathcal{G}$ a $G$-bundle over a scheme $X/k$. The main aim of this article is to study the motive associated with $\\mathcal{G}$, inside the Veovodsky Motivic categories. We consider the case that $\\charakt k=0$ (resp. $\\charakt k\\geq 0$), the motive associated to $X$ is geometrically mixed Tate (resp. geometrically cellular) and $\\mathcal{G}$ is locally trivial for the Zariski (resp. \\'etale) topology on $X$ and show that the motive of $\\mathcal{G}$ is a geometrically mixed Tate motive. Moreover for a general $X$ we construct a filtration on the motive associated to $\\mathcal{G}$ in terms of weight polytopes. Along the way we give some applications and examples.

  20. [MRI semiotics features of experimental acute intracerebral hematomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Gubskiĭ, L V; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of revealing intracerebral hematomas (ICH), using MRI, within the first hours after onset and to determine their MRI semiotics features. Thirty animals with experimental ICH were studied. A method of two-stage introduction of autologous blood was used to develop ICH as human spontaneous intracranial hematomas. Within 3-5h after blood introduction to the rat brain. The control MRI was performed in the 3rd and 7th days after blood injections. ICH were definitely identified in the first MRI scans. The MRI semiotics features of acute ICH and their transformations were assessed. The high sensitivity of MRI to ICH as well as the uniform manifestations in all animals were shown. In conclusion, the method has high specificity for acute ICH detection.

  1. Gastrointestinal bleeding after intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective review of 808 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tie-Cheng; Li, Jian-Guo; Shi, Hong-Mei; Yu, Dong-Ming; Shan, Kai; Li, Li-Xia; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Tian-Hua

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the incidence and risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The available medical records of patients with ICH admitted from June 2008 to December 2009 for any episode of GI bleeding, possible precipitating factors and administration of ulcer prophylaxis were reviewed. The prevalence of GI bleeding was 26.7%, including 3 cases of severe GI bleeding (0.35%). Patients with GI bleeding had significantly longer hospital stay and higher in-hospital mortality compared with patients without GI bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, sepsis and ICH volume were independent predictors of GI bleeding. About 63.4% of patients with ICH received stress ulcer prophylaxis. GI bleeding occurred frequently after ICH, but severe events were rare. Age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, sepsis and ICH volume were independent predictors of GI bleeding occurring after ICH.

  2. Inequalities and cultural differences in Bombay: A framework of analysis of a mega city in the south

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sujata

    2004-01-01

    Der Beitrag setzt sich mit zwei Fragen auseinander: (1) Welchen Charakter haben Exklusion und soziale Ungleichheit in Bombay (Mumbai) heute? (2) In welchem Verhältnis stehen Ungleichheit und Exklusion zum Aufkommen nativistisch-chauvinistischer Strömungen im politischen Bereich? Die Verfasser gliedert ihre Untersuchung in drei historische Phasen, die Ära des Kolonialismus vom Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis in die 1940er Jahre, die postkoloniale Autarkie-Phase bis in die 1970er Jahre und die da...

  3. wehmuetig, witzig, wunderbar - Subjektive tags als Wegweiser im Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Höltschi, P; Aschoff, F R; Schwabe, G

    2008-01-01

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Anwendung so genannter subjektivbewertender tags – einer möglichen Form von tags zur Bildung von Folksonomien, welche den emotionalen Inhalt einer Ressource beschreiben. Die dominierende Mehrheit von tags in heutigen Folksonomien besitzt einen eher objektiven Charakter. Unklare subjektiv-gefärbte Begriffe gefährden die eindeutige Zuordnung von Inhalten zu Klassen, senken somit die innere Konsistenz der Taxonomie und werden aus diesem Grund eher vermieden. ...

  4. Evolutionäre Strategien und multitome Optimierung

    OpenAIRE

    Rosé, Helge

    1998-01-01

    Für die erfolgreiche Lösung eines Optimierungsproblems ist die Wahl der verwendeten Suchstrategie von entscheidender Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Kriterien dieser Wahl. Dabei stellen sich drei grundlegende Fragen: Welche Strategien der Optimierung eines gegebenen Problems existieren überhaupt, und was für Eigenschaften besitzen sie? Wodurch wird der Charakter eines Optimierungsproblems bestimmt, und gibt es Klassen ähnlicher Probleme? Besteht eine Verbindung zwischen den E...

  5. Integration einer Stromerzeugung aus Windenergie und Speichersystemen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Druckluft-Speicherkraftwerken

    OpenAIRE

    Kruck, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Die Stromerzeugung aus Windenergie hat in den vergangenen Jahren, insbesondere unterstützt durch das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), stark zugenommen und belief sich im Jahr 2006 auf einen Anteil von rund 4,8 % an der Bruttostromerzeugung. Aufgrund des fluktuierenden Charakters der Windstromerzeugung ist die Integration und Einspeisung dieses Anteils in das Netz der öffentlichen Versorgung bereits heute mit teilweise erheblichen Problemen verbunden. Diese werden sich in Zukunft weiter v...

  6. Ernst Kretschmer 1888-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, H

    1990-08-01

    Until his retirement in 1959 Ernst Kretschmer was Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Tübingen. He published eight monographs, five of which were of eminent importance and at least two exerted considerable influence on European psychiatry for several decades, namely Der sensitive Beziehungswahn (1918) and Körperbau und Charakter (1921). His theory on constitutional body types and character became an integral part of German schoolbooks.

  7. Zur Diskurs- und Dispositivanalyse des kollektiven Gedächtnisses als Antwort auf einen öffentlichen Krisenzustand. Zwischen Habermas und Foucault

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Der kommunikativ-produktive Charakter des kollektiven Gedächtnisses basiert auf einem Ausschluss von "beschämender" Vergangenheit. Für HABERMAS besteht der Kampf um einen kommunikativen Raum in der Abgrenzung zwischen Wirtschafts- und Herrschaftsmacht und "Gewalten der gesellschaftlichen Integration" wie z.B. dem kollektiven Gedächtnis. Für FOUCAULT ist jedoch das kollektive Gedächtnis ein Produkt der ökonomisierten gesellschaftlichen Integration. Seine Kategorie "Dispositiv" bezeichnet die M...

  8. Zur Diskurs- und Dispositivanalyse des kollektiven Gedächtnisses als Antwort auf einen öffentlichen Krisenzustand : zwischen Habermas und Foucault

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    "Der kommunikativ-produktive Charakter des kollektiven Gedächtnisses basiert auf einem Ausschluss von 'beschämender' Vergangenheit. Für Habermas besteht der Kampf um einen kommunikativen Raum in der Abgrenzung zwischen Wirtschafts- und Herrschaftsmacht und 'Gewalten der gesellschaftlichen Integration' wie z.B. dem kollektiven Gedächtnis. Für Foucault ist jedoch das kollektive Gedächtnis ein Produkt der ökonomisierten gesellschaftlichen Integration. Seine Kategorie 'Dispositiv' bezeichnet die ...

  9. Berglinien im Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Der Artikel analysiert aus bildwissenschaftlicher und historischer Perspektive die unveröffentlichte Skizze zu einem Bergdiagramm aus dem handschriftlichen Nachlass Alexander von Humboldts. Das mehrfach beklebte Skizzenblatt stand im Zentrum klimageografischer Fragestellungen nach den Gründen für die weltweit unterschiedlich hohen Schneegrenzen in Gebirgen. Aufgrund des unfertigen, skizzenhaften Charakters des Diagramms lassen sich Fragen über den Forschungskontext des Diagramms, den epistemi...

  10. Berglinien im Vergleich. Bemerkungen zu einem klimageografischen Diagramm Alexander von Humboldts

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Der Artikel analysiert aus bildwissenschaftlicher und historischer Perspektive die unveröffentlichte Skizze zu einem Bergdiagramm aus dem handschriftlichen Nachlass Alexander von Humboldts. Das mehrfach beklebte Skizzenblatt stand im Zentrum klimageografischer Fragestellungen nach den Gründen für die weltweit unterschiedlich hohen Schneegrenzen in Gebirgen. Aufgrund des unfertigen, skizzenhaften Charakters des Diagramms lassen sich Fragen über den Forschungskontext des Dia...

  11. Learning Communities im Web 2.0 am Beispiel von Methopedia – Inspirationen für die Lehre?

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Margit; Niemczik, Christian; Büschenfeldt, Maika

    2010-01-01

    Was macht »Communities«, in denen Millionen von Menschen sich unter einander elektronisch via Internet aus tauschen, so attraktiv? Definitionen »virtueller Gemeinschaften« betonen ins besondere den sozialen Zusammenschluss auf der Grundlage persönlicher Beziehungen im Cyber space. Im folgenden Beitrag geht es um die Frage, wie das Phänomen der großen Akzeptanz solcher sozialer Netzwerke im Sinne von Bildung und lebensbegleitendem Lernen genutzt werden kann. Gerade der informelle Charakter von...

  12. Die Satire in der portugiesischen mittelalterlichen Literatur, ein Bestandteil der gesamteuropäischen Geschichte

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Pereira, Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo, como o próprio título indica ocupa-se do desenvolvimento dos diferentes géneros satíricos durante a Idade Média em Portugal, colocando os parâmetros balizadores que de forma decisiva contribuiram para a formação das mentalidades no nosso país. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Obwohl mehrere Gattungen mit satirischem Charakter vorhanden waren, bevor die Römer die so gena...

  13. Der Einfluss der Social-Network-Site Facebook auf die Bildungspartizipation und das Konsumverhalten ihrer Nutzer

    OpenAIRE

    Sterl, Sebastian; Graupner, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Forschungsarbeit – im Charakter einer Pionierstudie auf diesem Gebiet – wird mittels selbstkonstruiertem Onlinesurvey untersucht, inwiefern die Social-Network-Site Facebook die Bildungspartizipation und das Konsumverhalten ihrer Nutzer beeinflusst und verändert. Nach Definition eines sozialen Netzwerks, einer Social-Network-Site und definitorischer Eingliederung von Facebook als solche wird die Sozialplattform selbst historisch und faktisch erklärt und der bisherige Forsch...

  14. Qualität von Anfang an – Voraussetzung für Extrakte höchster Güte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegtmeier, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Für den nachhaltigen Erfolg eines Produktes ist dessen Reproduzierbarkeit der Qualität von entscheidender Bedeutung. Bei Pflanzenextrakten sind die wesentlichen Parameter zum Erreichen dieses Qualitätszieles pflanzliches Ausgangsmaterial, Auszugsmittel, Anlage und Verfahrensmethode. Aufgrund des Charakters der europäischen arzneimittelrechtlichen Regularien konzentrieren sich Optimierungen auf das Pflanzenmaterial. Die künftige Entwicklung von Extraktionsverfahren wird sich außerdem zunehmend an prädiktiven Konzeptionen wie Quality by Design orientieren.

  15. Classification of Bleeding Events: Comparison of ECASS III (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study) and the New Heidelberg Bleeding Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ulf; Möhlenbruch, Markus Alfred; Herweh, Christian; Ulfert, Christian; Bendszus, Martin; Pfaff, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after acute ischemic stroke treatments represents a feared complication with possible prognostic implications. In recent years, ICHs were commonly classified according to the ECASS (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study). To improve the clinical applicability and relevance, the new Heidelberg Bleeding Classification (HBC) has been proposed in 2015. Here, we compared the ECASS and HBC classification with regard to observed events and prognostic relevance. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively compiled database of patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation who received mechanical thrombectomy between February 2011 and March 2016 was performed. Presence of ICH after mechanical thrombectomy was evaluated on postinterventional computed tomographic imaging. ICHs were specified according to both ECASS III and HBC classification and analyzed with regard to their symptoms and outcome. ICHs were observed in 156 of 768 patients (20.3%). Using ECASS III classification, 101 ICHs could be unambiguously assigned, of which 28 (27.7%; 3.6% of all treated patients) were symptomatic ICHs. Using HBC, 55 additional ICHs could be categorized. Of these total 156 ICHs, 29 (18.6%; 3.8% of all treated patients) were classified as symptomatic according to HBC. Classification of ICH by ECASS III and HBC criteria show distinct differences. These differences warrant special attention during interpretation and comparison of scientific publications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Christensen, Hanne; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Csiba, Laszlo; Harnof, Sagi; Krieger, Derk; Mendelow, David; Molina, Carlos; Montaner, Joan; Overgaard, Karsten; Roine, Risto O; Schmutzhard, Erich; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Toni, Danilo; Stapf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time. No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH.

  17. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... during the first year of follow-up compared with controls (ICH: hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.09-3.24, p year (ICH: HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.75-2.32, p ... and SAH using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of death during the first year of follow-up and survivors at 1 year. RESULTS: Case fatality after ICH was 42.0%, compared with 28.7% after SAH. It increased with age (ICH: 29.7% for 20-49 years...

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes a process for the evaluation and recommendation by the ICH Q4B Expert Working Group (EWG) of selected pharmacopeial texts to facilitate their recognition by regulatory authorities for use as interchangeable in the ICH regions. Following favorable evaluations, ICH will issue topic-specific annexes with information about these texts and their implementation (the Q4B Outcomes). Implementation of the Q4B annexes is intended to avoid redundant testing by industry in favor of a common testing strategy in each ICH regulatory region.

  19. Rapamycin protects against neuronal death and improves neurological function with modulation of microglia after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Liu, F; Yang, T; Jin, T; Zhang, H; Luo, X; Wang, M

    2016-09-30

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a devastating brain disorder with high mortality and poor prognosis and effective therapeutic intervention for the disease remains a challenge at present. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin on ICH-induced brain damage and the possible involvement of activated microglia. ICH was induced in rats by injection of type IV collagenase into striatum. Different dose of rapamycin was systemically administrated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at 1 h after ICH induction. Western blot analysis showed that ICH led to a long-lasting increase of phosphorylated mTOR and this hyperactivation of mTOR was reduced by systemic administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the sensorimotor deficits induced by ICH, and attenuated ICH-induced brain edema formation as well as lesion volume. Nissl and Fluoro-Jade C staining demonstrated that administration with rapamycin remarkably decreased neuronal death surrounding the hematoma at 7 d after ICH insult. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that rapamycin inhibited ICH-induced excessive expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in ipsilateral hemisphere. Furthermore, activation of microglia induced by ICH was significantly suppressed by rapamycin administration. These data indicated that treatment of rapamycin following ICH decreased the brain injuries and neuronal death at the peri-hematoma striatum, and increased neurological function, which associated with reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. The results provide novel insight into the neuroprotective therapeutic strategy of rapamycin for ICH insult, which possibly involving the regulation of microglial activation.

  20. "Dispositiv" als Kategorie

    OpenAIRE

    Hubig, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Untersuchung verfolge ich drei Ziele: - Ich will klären, was Foucault unter Dispositiv" versteht. - Ich will klären, welchen Status der Aufweis von Dispositiven für Foucaults Vorstellung von Geschichte hat, ohne mich von der expliziten Theorie- und Methodologieabstinenz Foucaults abschrecken zu lassen (JSH 243). Wenn es vielmehr" (!) dessen Absicht war, eine Geschichte der verschiedenen Verfahren zu entwerfen, durch die in unserer Kultur Menschen zu Subjekten g...

  1. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time...... and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH....

  2. Historisches Rätsel Der rastlose Amerikaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Andreas

    2004-09-01

    In der Schule, die er mit acht Jahren zum ersten Mal von innen sah, hielt man ihn nicht für allzu helle - schließlich hinkte der Kleine oft hinter der Klasse her. Und es hat etwas Tragisches, wenn der wohl berühmteste Erfinder aller Zeiten und Halter von 2000 Patenten im Alter über seinen Vater sagt: Er dachte, ich sei dumm. Und ich meinte schon fast selbst, ich sei ein Dummkopf.

  3. Classical and operant learning in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Eschbach, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In dieser Doktorarbeit studiere ich einige psychologische Aspekte im Verhalten der Drosophila, insbesondere von Drosophila Larven. Nach einer Einleitung, in der ich den wissenschaftlichen Kontext darstelle und die Mechanismen der olfaktorischen Wahrnehmung sowie des klassichen und operanten Lernens beschreibe, stelle ich die verschiedenen Experimente meiner Doktorarbeit vor. Wahrnehmung Das zweite Kapitel behandelt die Art, in der adulte Drosophila zwischen Einzeldüften und Duftgemischen gene...

  4. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, William N; Slot, Karsten Bruins; Fernandes, Peter; Sandercock, Peter; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2012-11-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke but is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to identify the risk factors for ICH with a systematic review of the published literature. We searched for studies of rtPA-treated stroke patients that reported an association between a variable measured before rtPA infusion and clinically important ICH (parenchymal ICH or ICH associated with clinical deterioration). We calculated associations between baseline variables and ICH with random-effect meta-analyses. We identified 55 studies that measured 43 baseline variables in 65 264 acute ischemic stroke patients. Post-rtPA ICH was associated with higher age (odds ratio, 1.03 per year; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04), higher stroke severity (odds ratio, 1.08 per National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale point; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.11), and higher glucose (odds ratio, 1.10 per mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.14). There was approximately a doubling of the odds of ICH with the presence of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, renal impairment, previous antiplatelet agents, leukoaraiosis, and a visible acute cerebral ischemic lesion on pretreatment brain imaging. Little of the variation in the sizes of the associations among different studies was explained by the source of the cohort, definition of ICH, or degree of adjustment for confounding variables. Individual baseline variables were modestly associated with post-rtPA ICH. Prediction of post-rtPA ICH therefore is likely to be difficult if based on single clinical or imaging factors alone. These observational data do not provide a reliable method for the individualization of treatment according to predicted ICH risk.

  5. Microhydration Effects on the Intermediates of the (I- + CH3I) SN2 Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Keisuke; Togano, Eijiro; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki; Inokuchi, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    Hydrated I-(CH3I) complexes, I-(CH3I)(H2O)1-3, are investigated by IR photodissociation spectroscopy for examining the stable structures of the intermediates of the (I- + CH3I → ICH3 + I-) SN2 reaction under hydrated conditions. The structures and the energetics of the complexes suggest that just one or two H2O molecules will effectively inhibit this SN2 reaction.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VFN327 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DFIMVKPAGPYMDIIREVKDHVKVPVCCYQVSGEYAMIYHASVAGGIDLKSGVMES LISLQRSGCDIFITYFTPQLLDG*nyknkrkkenny...YGPFRDAAGSGAKHGDRQAYQLPIASRGLGLRAALRDE AEGADFIMVKPAGPYMDIIREVKDHVKVPVCCYQVSGEYAMIYHASVAGGIDLKSGVMES LISLQRSG...CDIFITYFTPQLLDG*nyknkrkkennynnk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ich*fliikykir*tsypptn*n

  7. Cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin reduced white matter injury and prevented post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongwei; Ma, Kang; Zhao, Hengli; Feng, Zhou; Yang, Yang; Ge, Hongfei; Zhang, Xuan; Tang, Jun; Yin, Yi; Liu, Xin; Tan, Liang; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity, mortality, and disability associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) represent a global burden. To date, there is no effective therapy for ICH other than supportive care. In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of Cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin (CEGI) injection in a rat model of ICH with ventricular extension (IVH/ICH). The IVH/ICH rat model was induced via injection of type IV collagenase in the caudate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental animals were randomized to receive CEGI, monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM-1), or normal saline. The modified Garcia scale, corner turn test, immunofluorescence staining for myelin basic protein (MBP) and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and magnetic resonance imaging were employed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CEGI in the IVH/ICH rat model. CEGI treatment significantly alleviated the neurobehavioral dysfunction, reduced the lateral ventricular enlargement, promoted hematoma absorption, effectively up-regulated MBP/MAP-2 expression, and ameliorated white matter fiber damage post-ICH induction. Our results demonstrate that CEGI has significant neuroprotective effects in a rat model of IVH/ICH. Therefore, it can be used as a candidate drug for the clinical treatment of IVH/ICH. PMID:27782218

  8. The value of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of the bleeding source in non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhages: a comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Lutz, Juergen; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is currently regarded as the gold standard in detecting underlying vascular pathologies in patients with intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH). However, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic workup of ICHs has considerably increased in recent years. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and yield of MRI for the detection of the underlying aetiology in ICH patients. Sixty-seven consecutive patients with an acute ICH who underwent MRI (including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and DSA during their diagnostic workup) were included in the study. Magnetic resonance images were retrospectively analysed by two independent neuroradiologists to determine the localisation and cause of the ICH. DSA was used as a reference standard. In seven patients (10.4%), a DSA-positive vascular aetiology was present (one aneurysm, four arteriovenous malformations, one dural arteriovenous fistula and one vasculitis). All of these cases were correctly diagnosed by both readers on MRI. In addition, MRI revealed the following probable bleeding causes in 39 of the 60 DSA-negative patients: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (17), cavernoma (9), arterial hypertension (8), haemorrhagic transformation of an ischaemic infarction (3) and malignant brain tumour with secondary ICH (2). Performing MRI with MRA proved to be an accurate diagnostic tool in detecting vascular malformations in patients with ICH. In addition, MRI provided valuable information regarding DSA-negative ICH causes, and thus had a high diagnostic yield in ICH patients. (orig.)

  9. Outcomes from intracerebral hemorrhage among patients pre-treated with statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been associated with improved clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but with an increased risk of incidental spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. We investigated whether the statin use before ICH, was associated with functional independence, 90 days after treatment. METHOD: We analyzed 124 consecutive ICH patients with 90-day outcome data who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 2006 and 2009. Eighty-three patients were included in this study. Among ICH survivors, univariate Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to determine subject characteristics that were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Statin usage was determined through interviewing the patient at the time of ICH and confirmed by reviewing their medical records. Independent status was defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale grades 4 or 5. RESULTS: Statins were used by 20 out of 83 patients (24% before ICH onset. There was no effect from pre-ICH statin use on functional independence rates (28% versus 29%, P=0.84 or mortality (46% versus 45%, P=0.93. CONCLUSION: Pre-ICH statin use is not associated with changes to ICH functional outcome or mortality.

  10. Passive Transdermal Systems Whitepaper Incorporating Current Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) Development Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Buskirk, Glenn A; Arsulowicz, Daniel; Basu, Prabir; Block, Lawrence; Cai, Bing; Cleary, Gary W; Ghosh, Tapash; González, Mario A; Kanios, David; Marques, Margareth; Noonan, Patrick K; Ocheltree, Terrance; Schwarz, Peter; Shah, Vinod; Spencer, Thomas S; Tavares, Lino; Ulman, Katherine; Uppoor, Rajendra; Yeoh, Thean

    2012-01-01

    ... and control principles. Important topics reviewed include ICH harmonization, quality by design, process analytical technologies, product and process validation, improvements to control of critical excipients, and discussion...

  11. Visualisation of intracerebral haemorrhage with flat-detector CT compared to multislice CT: results in 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Richter, Gregor; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Goelitz, Philipp; Kalender, Willi A; Ganslandt, Oliver; Doerfler, Arnd

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the reliability of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) detection with C-arm-mounted flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) in the angio suite as compared to multislice CT (MSCT). In this study 44 patients with 45 ICH were included. All patients were investigated with MSCT and FD-CT during angiographic evaluation. As a control group we included 16 patients without ICH. In each haematoma we assessed volumetric data of the ICH and counted the numbers of ICH-positive slices. Using interobserver ratings, we additionally investigated the potential of FD-CT to serve as a diagnostic tool to detect ICH. In FD-CT three haematomas were not detected because of motion and beam-hardening artefacts in the region close to the skull base. The r value for the degree of interobserver agreement for the number of slices was 0.95 for MSCT and 0.94 for FD-CT. Measurements of the area and the calculated volume of the ICH showed high inter- and intraobserver agreement. Our results indicate that FD-CT is a helpful tool in the daily emergency management of ICH patients as detection of ICH was found to be nearly as reliable as in MSCT. Limitations of this technology are motion and beam-hardening artefacts that may mask small haematomas located in the posterior fossa or the skull base.

  12. Management of intracerebral hemorrhage--use of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Sherman, Deb S; Kiser, Tyree H

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a neurologic injury resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Statins play a significant role in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events. Despite clear benefits of statins in ischemic stroke, post hoc analyses of some studies suggest there may be a link between statin therapy and development of ICH. Direct pharmacologic effects of decreased serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in conjunction with pleiotropic effects are thought to be linked to this possible increase in ICH risk. In the face of the potential of statins to increase the risk of ICH, recent evidence suggests that statins may also have beneficial effects on patient outcomes when continued or initiated following an ICH. This discordance in findings and the overall lack of well-designed prospective clinical trials increase the complexity of clinical decision making when utilizing statin therapy in patients with, or at risk for, ICH. This review evaluates the pharmacologic effects of statin therapy and describes how these effects translate to both risks and benefits in ICH. The current literature regarding the effects of statin therapy on clinical outcomes in ICH is evaluated to help guide clinicians with decisions regarding initiation, continuation, or discontinuation of statin therapy in patients with ICH.

  13. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  14. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with cerebral microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan; Werring, David J

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a radiological marker of cerebral small vessel disease corresponding to small haemosiderin foci identified by blood-sensitive MRI. CMBs are common in older community populations, and in individuals with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We summarize how CMBs might contribute to assessing the future risk of ischaemic stroke and ICH to inform antithrombotic (antiplatelet or anticoagulant) decisions. CMBs are a risk factor for future ischaemic stroke and ICH in all community and hospital populations studied. Following ischaemic stroke/TIA treated with antithrombotics, increasing CMB burden increases the risk of ICH more steeply than that of ischaemic stroke. In ICH populations the risk of recurrent ICH increases with CMB burden, and is highest in those with strictly lobar CMBs or other haemorrhagic findings (e.g. cortical superficial siderosis) suggesting cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In ischaemic stroke or patients with TIA less than five CMBs should not affect antithrombotic decisions, although with more than five CMBs the risks of future ICH and ischaemic stroke are finely balanced, and antithrombotics might cause net harm. In lobar ICH populations, a high burden of strictly lobar CMBs is associated with CAA and high ICH risk; antithrombotics should be avoided unless there is a compelling indication.

  15. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Clinical and computed tomography findings in predicting in-hospital mortality in Central Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lelo Tshikwela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH constitutes now 52% of all strokes. Despite of its deadly pattern, locally there is no clinical grading scale for ICH-related mortality prediction. The first objective of this study was to develop a risk stratification scale (Kinshasa ICH score by assessing the strength of independent predictors and their association with in-hospital 30-day mortality. The second objective of the study was to create a specific local and African model for ICH prognosis. Materials and Methods: Age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, smoking, alcohol intake, and neuroimaging data from CT scan (ICH volume, Midline shift of patients admitted with primary ICH and follow-upped in 33 hospitals of Kinshasa, DR Congo, from 2005 to 2008, were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 185 adults and known hypertensive patients (140 men and 45 women were examined. 30-day mortality rate was 35% (n=65. ICH volume>25 mL (OR=8 95% CI: 3.1-20.2; P 7 mm, a consequence of ICH volume, was also a significant predictor of mortality. The Kinshasa ICH score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: Presence of coma coded 2 (2 × 2 = 4, absence of coma coded 1 (1 × 2 = 2, ICH volume>25 mL coded 2 (2 × 2=4, ICH volume of ≤25 mL coded 1(1 × 2=2, left hemispheric site of ICH coded 2 (2 × 1=2, and right hemispheric site of hemorrhage coded 1(1 × 1 = 1. All patients with Kinshasa ICH score ≤7 survived and the patients with a score >7 died. In considering sex influence (Model 3, points were allowed as follows: Presence of coma (2 × 3 = 6, absence of coma (1 × 3 = 3, men (2 × 2 = 4, women (1 × 2 = 2, midline shift ≤7 mm (1 × 3 = 3, and midline shift >7 mm (2 × 3 = 6. Patients who died had the Kinshasa ICH score ≥16. Conclusion: In this study, the Kinshasa ICH score seems to be an accurate method for distinguishing those ICH patients who need continuous and special management

  16. External validation of the SEDAN score: The real world practice of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombat Muengtaweepongsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH is the most serious adverse event in stroke patients who received i.v. rt-PA and is usually associated with poor outcomes. The SEDAN score is built up to predict sICH. We aim to externally validate the SEDAN score in Thai patients from single center in the real world practice. Methods: The SEDAN score of stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA at Thammasat University Hospital from January 2010 to June 2012 was calculated. Patients were divided into three groups including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (AsICH and no intracerebral hemorrhage (NoICH. The primary outcome of analyses was sICH. Each parameter of the SEDAN score and correlation between score and sICH were analyzed with univariate and multivariate model. Results: 295 patients (18.6% of stroke admission were treated with i.v. rt-PA. 13 patients (4.4% had sICH and 31 patients (10.4% had AsICH. Baseline blood sugar >12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10(SEDAN were associated with sICH by univariate analysis (P value = 0.018, 12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10 were 1.248, 2.503, 1.107, 1.532 and 1.263 respectively. Conclusions: The SEDAN score was practical to use and predictive in Thai population. Each parameter of the SEDAN score was an independent risk factor for sICH after treatment with i.v. rt-PA.

  17. Traumatic intracranial haemorrhage is in association with an increased risk of subsequent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shiang; Lin, Tzu-Chiao; Hung, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) leads to systemic inflammatory response and arrhythmia. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, is associated with systemic inflammation. However, limited evidence is available regarding the association between traumatic ICH and AF. This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide population-based cohort, in Taiwan and total 130 171 individuals with traumatic ICH from 2000 to 2011 were identified. Furthermore, individuals without traumatic ICH were selected as a comparison cohort by the propensity score method. Individuals with prior history of AF were excluded from this study. The endpoint of interest was the occurrence of AF and the follow-up was terminated by the occurrence of AF, loss of follow-up or the passing of 31 December 2011. During the follow-up period, the incidence of AF was higher in patients with traumatic ICH than in those without traumatic ICH (4.24 vs 4.12 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex and all AF-associated comorbidities, the individuals with traumatic ICH had a 1.25-fold increased risk of AF (HR=1.25, 95% CI=1.18 to 1.32; prisk of AF was the highest in the individuals with both traumatic ICH and comorbidities; this risk was higher than that of the individuals with only traumatic ICH; it was also higher than the risk for those only with comorbidities. In this large-scale cohort study, the future risks of AF are higher in patients with traumatic ICH compared with the comparison cohort. Carefully monitoring the occurrence of AF and proper anticoagulation therapy might be important in patients with traumatic ICH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. New understandings of the genetic basis of isolated idiopathic central hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Marco; Libri, Domenico Vladimiro; Guizzardi, Fabiana; Guarducci, Elena; Maiolo, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Elisa; Asci, Roberta; Persani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a rare disease that is characterized by delayed/absent puberty and/or infertility due to an insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal pituitary-gonadal axis by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action. Because reduced or normal luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels may be observed in the affected patients, the term idiopathic central hypogonadism (ICH) appears to be more appropriate. This disease should be distinguished from central hypogonadism that is combined with other pituitary deficiencies. Isolated ICH has a complex pathogenesis and is fivefold more prevalent in males. ICH frequently appears in a sporadic form, but several familial cases have also been reported. This finding, in conjunction with the description of numerous pathogenetic gene variants and the generation of several knockout models, supports the existence of a strong genetic component. ICH may be associated with several morphogenetic abnormalities, which include osmic defects that, with ICH, constitute the cardinal manifestations of Kallmann syndrome (KS). KS accounts for approximately 40% of the total ICH cases and has been generally considered to be a distinct subgroup. However, the description of several pedigrees, which include relatives who are affected either with isolated osmic defects, KS, or normo-osmic ICH (nICH), justifies the emerging idea that ICH is a complex genetic disease that is characterized by variable expressivity and penetrance. In this context, either multiple gene variants or environmental factors and epigenetic modifications may contribute to the variable disease manifestations. We review the genetic mechanisms that are presently known to be involved in ICH pathogenesis and provide a clinical overview of the 227 cases that have been collected by the collaborating centres of the Italian ICH Network.

  19. The incidence, hospital expenditure, and, 30 day and 1 year mortality rates of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Lung; Ting, Hsien-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Tsung

    2014-01-01

    The risks of morbidity and mortality are high in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The medical care resources associated with sICH are also substantial. This study aimed to evaluate the medical expenditure for sICH patients in Taiwan. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Research Database from 2005 to 2010. The inclusion criterion was first-event sICH; traumatic ICH patients were excluded. Student's t-test, multiple linear regression and the chi-squared test were employed as the statistical methods. Our results showed that the incidence of sICH was 40.77 patients per 100,000 of population per year in Taiwan. The incidence increased with age and was greater in men than women. The mean hospital length of stay (LOS) of first-event sICH patients was 31.8 days; the mean LOS in the intensive care unit was 7.9 days; and the mean survival time was 60.4 months. The mortality rate within 30 days and within 1 year was 19.8 and 29.6%, respectively. The mean hospital expenditure of first-event sICH patients was USD $7572, and was highly correlated with LOS. In conclusion, the incidence of sICH in Taiwan is higher than that in white and black populations of northern America and some European countries and lower than that in the Asian populations of Japan and China. The features of male and female sICH patients differ. Our findings suggest that the hospital expenditure and mortality rate of sICH patients in Taiwan are comparable with those of other countries.

  20. Association between cerebral microbleeds and the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhage - a 3.0 T MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shengjun; Gao, Peiyi; Sui, Binbin; Xue, Jing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Jing, Lina (Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)); Zhai, Renyou (Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)), Email: ryzhai219@hotmail.com

    2012-03-15

    Background. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) detected by gradient-echo MRI have been proven to be a potential risk factor for further bleeding, while the association between CMBs and the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhage has not been well investigated. Purpose. To analyze the association between CMBs and the first onset of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH). Material and Methods. Two hundred and two consecutive inpatients with ICH and 234 consecutive outpatients without ICH as control group were enrolled in this study. MR imaging including T2-GRE, T{sub 1}W, T{sub 2}W and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were performed to detect CMBs and other abnormalities. Prevalence, distribution, and grades of CMBs, as well as the location and size of the intracerebral hematoma were analyzed, respectively. Comparison was made between pICH and control group. Logistic analysis was performed to evaluate the association between CMBs and ICH. The correlation between hematoma size and CMBs grade/numbers was analyzed. Results. CMBs were detected in 140 patients in pICH (69.3%) group and 62 patients in control group (26.5%). The incidence of CMBs in pICH group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.0001). As the logistic regression analysis results, CMBs was the risk factor associated with ICH, with modulation OR value of 8.363 (95% CI 5.210-13.421). The volume of ICH with CMBs was 12.57 +- 17.23 mL, and the volume of ICH without CMBs was 17.77 +- 26.97 mL. Negative correlation was demonstrated between CMBs number and ICH volume (rs = -0.1769, P = 0.0118), as well as between CMBs grade and hematoma volume (rs = -0.1185, P = 0.1557). Conclusion CMBs may be an independent risk factor for the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhage

  1. Changes of ferrous iron and its transporters after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaiqing; Shao, Anwen; Hu, Weimin; Xue, Fang; Zhao, Hongping; Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Guanglai; Sun, Zhitang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferrous iron is a major source inducing oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1) is the important and well-known plasma membrane transport protein which was proved to be involved in the transport of free ferrous iron in mammals. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the unique exporter of ferrous iron from mammalian cells. The role of DMT1 and FPN1 in brain after ICH is still not elucidated. Therefore, we measure the expression of DMT1 and FPN1, to explore the correlations between ferrous iron and its specific transporters after ICH. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-striatal infusions of 0.5 U type IV collagenase to establish ICH model. Ferrous iron content in brain was determined using Turnbull's method. DMT1 and FPN1 expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of confocal laser microscopy, we determined the colocalization of DMT1 and FPN1 at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after ICH. Ferrous iron deposition was shown in the perihematomal zone as early as 1 day after ICH; it reached a peak after 7 days and was not elevated within 14 days following ICH. The expression of the DMT1 upregulated and reached to peak at day 7 after ICH. FPN1 reached a plateau at 3 days post-ICH. Expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were in parallel with ferrous iron deposition. There was a positive correlation between FPN1 and DMT1. DMT1 mainly localized in the cytoplasm of glias and neurons. FPN1 were mostly distributed on the membrane of endothelial cells and glias. Confocal microscope showed that DMT1 colocalized with FPN1. DMT1 and FPN1 are positively influenced by ferrous iron status in brain after ICH. DMT1 and FPN1 attenuate iron overload after ICH via increasing transmembrane iron export.

  2. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P 32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong predictors for 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage, and by relying on them it is possible to identify high-risk patients with poor short-term outcome. The ICH score and the ICH-GS accurately predict the 30-day mortality. PMID:27583176

  3. Regulamin rezerwatu. O książce "Jewish Poland Revisited" Eriki Lehrer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Matyjaszek

    2016-01-01

    social and spatial.   Regulamin rezerwatu. O książce Jewish Poland Revisited Eriki Lehrer Artykuł stanowi recenzję książki Jewish Poland Revisited Eriki Lehrer, prezentującej wyniki antropologicznych badań na temat żydowsko-polskich projektów pamięci realizowanych w byłej dzielnicy żydowskiej na krakowskim Kazimierzu. Omawiając tezy pracy, autor poddaje krytycznej analizie proponowany przez Lehrer projekt etnografii możliwości i wynikającą z niego strategię akceptacji współczesnego Kazimierza jako przestrzeni spotkania, za którą idzie akceptacja zasad uczestnictwa narzuconych gościom przez polskich zarządców Kazimierza. W artykule rozpatrywane są dwie takie zasady, warunkujące możliwość uczestnictwa gościa w kurczącej się przestrzeni publicznej Kazimierza. Pierwszą z nich autor opisuje jako nakaz porzucenia bezpośrednio dostępnej, fizycznej przestrzeni dzielnicy i niesionych przez nią historii, których znakiem jest ocalała zabudowa. W to miejsce Lehrer wprowadza podział na przestrzeń społeczną i fizyczną, skutkiem czego stłumione zostają ślady brutalnej przeszłości, w przeciwnym razie bezpośrednio obecne. Drugą zasadę autor odtwarza jako wymóg akceptacji roli współczesnych polskich właścicieli jako brokerów i pośredników żydowskiego dziedzictwa, co w konsekwencji pociąga za sobą akceptację ich wątpliwych prawnie i moralnie roszczeń do zawłaszczonej przestrzeni. Skupienie uwagi na regulaminie uczestnictwa, który ustanawia i utrzymuje warunkowy charakter żydowskiej obecności w przestrzeni Kazimierza, prowadzi autora do wniosku o konieczności rewaluacji i redefinicji tradycyjnego rozdziału dyscyplin, który tworzy konceptualny podział na społeczne przestrzenie i architektoniczne obiekty, oraz do krytycznego namysłu nad obowiązującym obecnie w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej rozumieniem pojęcia „dziedzictwo”. Tego rodzaju poszukiwanie uznaje autor za warunek przezwyciężenia ignorowanego zwykle

  4. Influence of the Plow Filling and Thread Angle onto the Plow Head Efficiency / Wpływ Współczynnika Wypełnienia Organu Oraz Kąta Nawinięcia Płata Ślimaka Na Sprawność Ładowania Frezującymi Organami Ślimakowymi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydro, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory examinations on the plow heads at various filling rate and material grain-size, as well as various values of worm thread angle of the plow head have been executed. Influence of the worm thread angle and plow head filling onto optimal loading efficiency, has also been tested. Eksploatacja węgla kamiennego w Polsce odbywa się przy zastosowaniu kompleksów ścianowych kombajnowych jak również kompleksów strugowych. Ten drugi z kompleksów jest znacznie mniej rozpowszechniony w Polsce i stosowany do pokładów o miąższości poniżej 1,5 m. Do głównych maszyn i urządzeń ścianowego kompleksu kombajnowego należy zaliczyć maszynę urabiająco - ładującą jaką jest kombajn ścianowy, obudowę zmechanizowaną oraz przenośnik ścianowy. Elementami roboczymi w kombajnie ścianowym są frezujące organy ślimakowe, które mocowane są na ramionach kombajnu. Zadaniem frezujących organów ślimakowych jest realizacja jednocześnie dwóch procesów. Pierwszym z procesów jest frezowanie czyli oddzielanie kawałków węgla od calizny. Drugi proces to proces ładowania urobku, polegający na ciągłym odprowadzaniu urobku na przenośnik ścianowy. Równoległość realizacji pracy tych dwóch procesów, uniemożliwia w warunkach rzeczywistych przeprowadzenie obserwacji procesu ładowania i dokonania jakichkolwiek pomiarów i analiz. Dlatego też, przeprowadzane badania i pomiary opisywane w literaturze zwykle miały charakter modelowy lub stanowiskowy, gdyż tylko takie warunki umożliwiały rozdział tych funkcji organu (Chodura, 1992; Hyong Jong Gol, 1990; Jaszczuk & Tomaszewski, 2004; Krauze, 1997). W związku z powyższym, chcąc bliżej poznać prawa rządzące procesem ładowania, zdecydowano się na rozdzielenie tych dwóch procesów i przeprowadzenie badań laboratoryjnych. Przedmiotowe badania zostały przeprowadzone w laboratorium Katedry Maszyn Górniczych, Przeróbczych i Transportowych AGH. W badaniach uwzględniono wpływ jednego z

  5. Maßgeschneiderte smektische Flüssigkristalle vom ‚de Vries‘-Typ : Struktur-Eigenschaftsvariationen in nanosegregierenden Organosiloxanen und Organocarbosilanen

    OpenAIRE

    Bogner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, neuartige ‚de Vries‘-Materialien zu untersuchen sowie den Einfluss der thermodynamischen Natur des SmA-SmC-Phasenübergangs und verschiedener chemischer Strukturmotive auf das ‚de Vries‘-Verhalten zu klären. Außerdem sollten durch Formulierung die für Display-Anwendungen wichtigen Eigenschaften in einer ferroelektrischen Testmischung optimiert werden. Um den Einfluss der thermodynamischen Natur des SmA-SmC-Phasenübergangs auf den ‚de Vries‘-Charakter zu studieren...

  6. Dyskurs edukacyjny w nauczaniu języka angielskiego dzieci przedszkolnych: studium etnograficzne

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Wydział Neofilologii: Instytut Filologii Angielskiej Rozprawa doktorska dotyczy dyskursu edukacyjnego w nauczaniu języka angielskiego dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym i składa się z sześciu rozdziałów. Trzy pierwsze rozdziały mają charakter teoretyczny, dwa kolejne stanowią część empiryczną pracy. Ostatni rozdział zawiera wnioski z przeprowadzonych przez autorkę rozprawy badań oraz implikacje dla dydaktyki języka obcego na poziomie przedszkolnym oraz wczesnoszkolnym. W części teoretycznej pra...

  7. Unterstützung von Lerngemeinschaften in verteilten intelligenten Lehrsystemen

    OpenAIRE

    Harrer, Andreas Georg

    2007-01-01

    Intelligente Lehrsysteme (ILS) ermöglichen einzelnen Lernern einen dem individuellen Kenntnisstand und Eigenschaften angepassten rechnergestützten Unterricht. Lernen in Gruppen bietet zusätzlich die Möglichkeit zur Einübung sozialer Fähigkeiten und zur flexiblen Gestaltung von Lernformen. Bisherige Ansätze von Gruppenlernsystemen stellen eine verteilte Lernumgebung zur Verfügung, durch die eine Zusammenarbeit räumlich oder zeitlich verteilter Studenten ermöglicht wird, ohne jedoch die charakt...

  8. "Niewidzialne miasta" – Michal Ajvaz czyta Italo Calvino

    OpenAIRE

    Gawarecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Niewidzialne miasta Italo Calvino (1972) to proza fikcyjna, w której autor próbuje rozważyć istotne atrybuty nowoczesnej urbanizacji. Bohater, Marco Polo, w rozmowie z Kublai khan ukazuje kilka wyimaginowanych miast, które są uznawane za alegoryczne przykłady antropologicznych, semiotycznych, metafizycznych aspektów architektonicznych miasta jako zjawiska historycznego, filozoficznego i kulturowego. Calvino jednak podkreśla indywidualny charakter opisywanych miejsc. Powieść Michała Ajvaz zaty...

  9. Arriving before starting – About time travel and warp drive

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Zeitreisen und Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit sind zwei Menschheitsträume; sie beflügeln die Fantasie und bieten Stoff für skurrile Geschichten. Eine Arbeit zum Thema „Zeitreisen und Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit“ zwingt zu einer Auseinandersetzung mit dem Begriff der „Zeit“. Die Vielschichtigkeit und der antinomische Charakter dieses Begriffes machen es schwer, „Zeit“ genauer zu fassen. Zeit tritt uns entgegen als Form der Wahrnehmung in ihrer zutiefst subjektiven Seite, als b...

  10. KILKA UWAG NA TEMAT ZGODY NA ZABIEG MEDYCZNY WYRAŻANEJ PRZEZ MAŁŻONKA W TRYBIE ART. 68 KODEKSU RODZINNEGO I OPIEKUŃCZEGO

    OpenAIRE

    Haberko, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Artykuł obejmuje sytuację wyrażenia zgody męża matki w przypadku procedur medycznych obejmujących wspomaganie ludzkiego rozrodu. Znowelizowany art. 68 Kodeksu rodzinnego i opiekuńczego przyjmuje niedopuszczalność zaprzeczenia ojcostwa dziecka w tej sytuacji. Ustawodawca łączy skutek w obszarze prawa cywilnego z wyrażeniem zgody, nie definiuje jednak, jaki charakter winna mieć zgoda małżonka, a w szczególności czy wystarczy jej wyrażenie w sposób dorozumiany. The paper tackles the issue of ...

  11. ドイツ民族商業補助者連合(DHV)の教育活動 : その全体像と「民族主義的」特色 : 補説 フィヒテ協会と雑誌『ドイツ民族性』

    OpenAIRE

    竹岡, 健一

    2011-01-01

    Diese Abhandlung ist Teil der Beschäftigung mit der Buchgemeinschaft „Deutsche Hausbücherei“, die 1916 vom deutschnationalen Handlungsgehilfen-Verband (DHV) gegründet wurde, und die in der Zeit der Weimarer Republik und des Dritten Reiches zur Vorbreitung des völkischen Gedankens in Deutschland beitrug. Weiter wird versucht, das Gesamtbild und den „völkischen“ Charakter der Bildungsarbeit des DHVs zu analysieren, und damit festzustellen, dass die Bildungsarbeit des DHVs einen weitreichenden E...

  12. Kein Abschied vom Leitbild 'Zivilmacht' : die Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik und die Zukunft Europäischer Außenpolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Dembinski, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    'Die derzeitigen Meinungsverschiedenheiten über die richtige Strategie gegenüber dem Irak sollten nicht darüber hinwegtäuschen, dass sich der Charakter der Europäischen Union (EU) mit der Herausbildung der Europäischen Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik grundlegend verändern wird. Diesen bedeutsamen Prozess nimmt die HSFK zum Anlass für ein Experiment: Zeitgleich werden zwei Reports veröffentlicht, die sich mit dem Spannungsverhältnis zwischen der oft gewählten Selbstcharakterisierung der ...

  13. Cyborg oder Göttin: Wie Technikforscherinnen ihr Verhältnis zu Technik sehen

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrike Kissmann

    2001-01-01

    Die Autorinnen haben für die Beiträge eigene auto/biographische Erlebnisse ausgewählt, in denen der mediale Charakter von Technik deutlich wird. Die Geschichten erzählen also von Technik, die soziale Ordnung und Bedeutung vermittelt und auf diese Weise dazu beiträgt, Geschlechtergrenzen und andere Grenzen wie die zwischen „bekannt“ und „fremd“ oder „normal“ und „anormal“ herzustellen. Die Auto/Biographien sind durch Technik einerseits fremdbestimmt, andererseits zeigen die Autorinnen auch, wi...

  14. Acoustics of the 'smart'; Die Akustik des smart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedisser, W. [Micro Compact Car GmbH, Renningen (Germany); Kutter-Schrader, H. [Stankiewicz GmbH, Adelheidsdorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The 'smart' concept included the development of a new acoustic system for this vehicle. Acoustic factors were considered early in the design and vdevelopment process in order to optimize the vehicle noise. The project was carried out in close cooperation between the car producer and its system partners. [German] Bei der Entwicklung des Smart wurden auch auf dem Gebiet der Entwicklung der Gesamtfahrzeugakustik neue Wege beschritten. Durch fruehzeitige Beruecksichtigung akustischer Belange konnten die Grundlagen gelegt werden fuer ein Gesamtgeraeusch, das dem Charakter des Fahrzeugs entspricht. Die Umsetzung im Rahmen der Gesamtfahrzeugentwicklung erfolgt in enger Zusammenarbeit von Fahrzeughersteller und Systempartner. (orig.)

  15. Efficacy of deferoxamine in animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review and stratified meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Jin Cui

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a subtype of stroke associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. No proven treatments are available for this condition. Iron-mediated free radical injury is associated with secondary damage following ICH. Deferoxamine (DFX, a ferric-iron chelator, is a candidate drug for the treatment of ICH. We performed a systematic review of studies involving the administration of DFX following ICH. In total, 20 studies were identified that described the efficacy of DFX in animal models of ICH and assessed changes in the brain water content, neurobehavioral score, or both. DFX reduced the brain water content by 85.7% in animal models of ICH (-0.86, 95% CI: -.48- -0.23; P < 0.01; 23 comparisons, and improved the neurobehavioral score by -1.08 (95% CI: -1.23- -0.92; P < 0.01; 62 comparisons. DFX was most efficacious when administered 2-4 h after ICH at a dose of 10-50 mg/kg depending on species, and this beneficial effect remained for up to 24 h postinjury. The efficacy was higher with phenobarbital anesthesia, intramuscular injection, and lysed erythrocyte infusion, and in Fischer 344 rats or aged animals. Overall, although DFX was found to be effective in experimental ICH, additional confirmation is needed due to possible publication bias, poor study quality, and the limited number of studies conducting clinical trials.

  16. Gene polymorphisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese population: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭贤佩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the genes polymorphisms associated with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH)in Chinese quantitatively or qualitatively by searching all case control studies related comprehensively.Methods Odds ratio(OR)and 95%confidence intervals(95%CI)were determined for each polymorphism using fixed or random model with Revman 5.1.Results Statistically significant associations with ICH were

  17. Gedichte aus den Jahren 1968 bis 1975 / Viivi Luik ; tõlk. Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Viivi, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Tekst saksa ja eesti keeles. Sisu: Weite = Avarus ; "Wie der Krieg..." = "Otsekui sõda..." ; "es vergehn..." = "hävivad..." ; Das Geheimnis = Saladus ; "Ob auch ich weiss..." = "Kas minagi tean..." ; "Ich redete einmal von Feldern..." = "Rääkisin väljadest ükskord..." ; Andere = Teine ; Der Tag = Päev

  18. 76 FR 65199 - International Conference on Harmonisation; E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... BFC appendix describes the relationship between data elements from the 2001 ICH E2B guidance and draft... http://www.regulations.gov . Submit written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305... industry representatives. FDA also seeks input from consumer representatives and others. ICH is...

  19. Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Features of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sang Joon; Kim, Tae Jung; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common subtype of stroke and a critical disease usually leading to severe disability or death. ICH is more common in Asians, advanced age, male sex, and low- and middle-income countries. The case fatality rate of ICH is high (40% at 1 month and 54% at 1 year), and only 12% to 39% of survivors can achieve long-term functional independence. Risk factors of ICH are hypertension, current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, hypocholesterolemia, and drugs. Old age, male sex, Asian ethnicity, chronic kidney disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) increase the risk of ICH. Clinical presentation varies according to the size and location of hematoma, and intraventricular extension of hemorrhage. Patients with CAA-related ICH frequently have concomitant cognitive impairment. Anticoagulation related ICH is increasing recently as the elderly population who have atrial fibrillation is increasing. As non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are currently replacing warfarin, management of NOAC-associated ICH has become an emerging issue. PMID:28178408

  20. APPLICATION OF SECONDARY MATERIALS AT PRODUCTION OF DETAILS FROM CHROME CAST IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The groups of alloy steel scrap. suitable for wear-resistant synthetic chromium and iron grades ich18VN ich18VM are studied and defined. Found that the number of alloyed steel scrap in the charge for these irons can be more than 85%, and the price of the charge decreases from 30 to 45%.

  1. Wann löste sich das Gebiet des Indischen Archipels von der Tethys? (eine Fortsetzung)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1931-01-01

    Die vorstehende Frage versuchte ich schon im Jahre 1914 zu beantworten 1). Dabei gelangte ich zu diesem Ergebnis: „Zar Zeit der Entstehung der eocänen Ablagerungen von Nanggulan...... war das Gebiet des jetzigen Java vollständig von der Tethys losgelöst und seitdem ist die Verbindung mit letzterer a

  2. The Intracranial-B2LEED3S Score and the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Ischemic Stroke Patients Under Antiplatelet Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Vicaut, Eric; Bousser, Marie Germaine; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Mattle, Heinrich; Rothwell, Peter M; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sacco, Ralph L; Greving, Jacoba P; Algra, Ale

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic antiplatelet therapy in the post-acute phase of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke is limited by the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) complications. METHODS: We developed an ICH risk score based on the PERFORM trial cohort (n = 19,100), which included patients with a

  3. Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH...

  4. Kawachin na ri kitzij-kipixab' Qanan Qatat--Florezcan las palabras de los hombres de maiz (The Blossoming of Our Ancestors' Words). [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM is part of an interactive and dynamic multimedia package of information and games for learning K'iche' and Ixil. This CD-ROM contains selected radio programs for preschool students, scripted from the four storybooks created by Project "Enlace Quiche." It includes stories in K'iche', Ixil, and Spanish. (VWL)

  5. Intracerebral hemorrhage location and outcome among INTERACT2 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delcourt, C; Sato, S.; Zhang, S.; Sandset, E.C.; Zheng, D.; Chen, X.; Hackett, M.L.; Arima, H.; Hata, J.; Heeley, E.; Salman, R.A.; Robinson, T.; Davies, L.; Lavados, P.M.; Lindley, R.I.; Stapf, C.; Chalmers, J.; Anderson, C.S.; Klijn, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify associations between intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) location and clinical outcomes among participants of the main phase Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). METHODS: Associations between ICH sites and poor outcomes (death [6] or maj

  6. Kawachin na ri kitzij-kipixab' Qanan Qatat--Florezcan las palabras de los hombres de maiz (The Blossoming of Our Ancestors' Words). [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM is part of an interactive and dynamic multimedia package of information and games for learning K'iche' and Ixil. This CD-ROM contains selected radio programs for preschool students, scripted from the four storybooks created by Project "Enlace Quiche." It includes stories in K'iche', Ixil, and Spanish. (VWL)

  7. Parnassiana nova : XXXIII. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1963-01-01

    PARNASSIUS GLACIALIS BUTLER Während meines vorjährigen — leider zu kurzen — Aufenthalts in Japan konnte ich in Begleitung entomologischer Freunde das Biotop von Parnassius glacialis Butler kennen lernen und eine Anzahl Falter dieser Art erbeuten. Ich habe die P. glacialis in The National Science Mus

  8. Zehn Oden = Kümme oodi / Kristjan Jaak Peterson ; Deutsch von Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Kristjan Jaak, 1801-1822

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: An Gott ; Sonnenuntergang ; Herbst ; Der Mensch ; Der Mond ; Freundschaft ; Ich muss trinken. Liedchen ; Hoffnung ; Ich bin wieder glücklich ; Der Sänger. Orig.: Jummalale ; Päva loja-minneminne ; Süggise ; Innimenne ; Kuu ; Söbradus ; Ma pean joma. Lauloke ; Lotus ; Ollen jälle önnis ; Laulja

  9. Fresh frozen plasma versus prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with intracranial haemorrhage related to vitamin K antagonists (INCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Poli, Sven; Griebe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) versus prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in patients with VKA-ICH. METHODS: We did an investigator-initiated, multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Patients aged at least 18 years with VKA-ICH who presented within 12 h after symptom onset...

  10. Neuroprotective pentapeptide CN-105 improves functional and histological outcomes in a murine model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Beilei; James, Michael L; Liu, Ji; Zhou, Guanen; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Lascola, Christopher D; Acheson, Shawn K; Dubois, Laura G; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Wang, Haichen

    2016-10-07

    Presently, no pharmacological treatments have been demonstrated to improve long-term functional outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Clinical evidence associates apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype with ICH incidence and outcome. While apoE modifies neuroinflammatory responses through its adaptive role in glial downregulation, intact apoE holoprotein is too large to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, we developed a 5-amino acid peptide - CN-105 - that mimics the polar face of the apoE helical domain involved in receptor interactions. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of CN-105 in a mouse model of ICH. Three doses of CN-105 (0.05 mg/kg) was administered by tail vein injection within 24 hours after ICH induction. Functional assessment showed durable improvement in vestibulomotor performance after CN-105 treatment, as quantified by increased Rotarod latencies on Days 1-5 post-ICH, and long-term improvement in neurocognitive performance, as quantified by reduced Morris water maze latencies on Days 29-32 post-ICH. Further, brain water content was significantly reduced, neuroinflammation was decreased and hippocampal CA3 neuronal survival was increased, although hemorrhage volume was not affected by CN-105. We concluded, therefore, that pentapeptide CN-105 improved short- and long-term neurobehavioral outcomes in a murine model of ICH, suggesting therapeutic potential for patients with acute ICH.

  11. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time. N...

  12. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Beer, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounted for 9% to 27% of all strokes worldwide in the last decade, with high early case fatality and poor functional outcome. In view of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the management of ICH, the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) has upd...

  13. Implications of in-use photostability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baertschi, Steven W; Clapham, David; Foti, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Basic guidance on the photostability testing of pharmaceuticals, designed to cover manufacturing and storage over shelf life, has long been established within ICH Q1(ICH,B(10) , but the guideline does not cover the photostability of drugs during or after administration (i.e., under conditions of ...

  14. Human neural stem cells genetically modified to overexpress brain-derived neurotrophic factor promote functional recovery and neuroprotection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong J; Lim, In J; Lee, Min C; Kim, Seung U

    2010-11-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a lethal stroke type; mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, so an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs) selectively migrate to the brain and promote functional recovery in rat ICH model, and others have shown that intracerebral infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing BDNF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs and increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. The HB1.F3.BDNF (F3.BDNF) human NSC line produces sixfold higher amounts of BDNFF over the parental F3 cell line in vitro, induces behavioral improvement, and produces a threefold increase in cell survival at 2 weeks and 8 weeks posttransplantation. Brain transplantation of human NSCs overexpressing BDNF provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results indicate that the F3.BDNF human NSCs should be of great value as a cellular source for experimental studies involving cellular therapy for human neurological disorders, including ICH.

  15. Ergebnisse der Nachuntersuchung einiger Rhizostomeen-Typen Haeckel's und Chun's aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Hamburg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1922-01-01

    Durch das Entgegenkommen der Herren Prof. Dr. Hans Lohmann und Prof. Dr. Ernst Hentschel, denen ich hiefür bestens danke, wurde ich in die Lage versetzt, einige Typen-Exemplare von Haeckel und Chun, die sich im Zoologischen Museum der Universität in Hamburg befinden, nachzuuntersuchen. Dies erwies

  16. Parnassiana nova : XI. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1956-01-01

    Bevor ich mit der Behandlung der tiroler und bayrischen Unterarten von P. apollo L. in dieser Fortsetzung beginne, möchte ich ein Versäumnis bei der Aufzählung der spanischen Rassen nachholen. subsp. maurilianus Fern. (Bol. Soc. Esp. p. 180, 1926), Typus Palencia, Sierra del Brezo, Villafria, ist al

  17. Intraventricular Bleeding and Hematoma Size as Predictors of Infection Development in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Felipe; Brunser, Alejandro; Lavados, Pablo; Illanes, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. The physiopathology of this phenomenon is not very clear. We conducted a prospective observational study investigating the correlation and independent predictors of infections in patients with ICH. Patients admitted between April 1997 and June 2013 with ICH diagnosis were evaluated for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two hundred twenty-two patients were included in this study. Ninety four patients (42.6%) presented with an infection during hospitalization being more common than pneumonia (30%) and urinary tract infections (14%). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (95% confidence interval [CI], 62.7% versus 39.3%; P < .001) and higher ICH score (95% CI, 2.31% versus 1.67%; P = .0014) were more common in patients who had infections. We found the following risk factors for having an infection in patients with ICH: IVH (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% IC, 1.3-4.1), each point of ICH score (OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6), and having a hematoma volume larger than 30 cc (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). The localization of the hematoma was not found to be relevant. ICH score, size of the hematoma, and presence of IVH are independent risk factors for having an infection after ICH. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracranial hemorrhage in congenital bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian, Shadi; Motlagh, Hoda; Naderi, Majid; Dorgalaleh, Akbar

    2017-09-09

    : Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), as a life-threatening bleeding among all kinds of congenital bleeding disorders (CBDs), is a rare manifestation except in factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency, which is accompanied by ICH, early in life, in about one-third of patients. Most inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs) are mild to moderate bleeding disorders that can never experience a severe bleeding as in ICH; however, Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, a common and severe inherited platelet function disorder, can lead to ICH and occasional death. This bleeding feature can also be observed in grey platelet syndrome, though less frequently than in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. In hemophilia, intracerebral hemorrhage is affected by various risk factors one of which is the severity of the disease. The precise prevalence of ICH in these patients is not clear but an estimated incidence of 3.5-4% among newborns with hemophilia is largely ascertained. Although ICH is a rare phenomenon in CBDs, it can be experienced by every patient with severe hemophilia A and B, FXIII deficiency (FXIIID), FVIID, FXD, FVD, FIID, and afibrinogenemia. Upon observing the general signs and symptoms of ICH such as vomiting, seizure, unconsciousness, and headache, appropriate replacement therapies and cranial ultrasound scans must be done to decrease ICH-related morbidity and mortality.

  19. Parnassiana nova : XVII. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 12)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1957-01-01

    Meine in Parnassiana Nova VIII wiedergegebene Beurteilung der spanischen apollo-subspecies muss ich aufgrund der grossen Serien davon, die ich aus Sammlung R. Oberthür erworben habe, und aufgrund des Gedankenaustausches mit Dr. W. Marten teilweise berichtigen. subsp. chrysophorus Fruhst., die

  20. Die Geologie von Camarena de la Sierra und Riodeva (Provinz Teruel, Spanien)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wz., R. Martin

    1936-01-01

    Als ich im Jahre 1933 ein Gebiet für meine Feldarbeit suchte, wählte ich auf Veranlassung von Herrn Dr. I. M. van der Vlerk die Gemeinde Camarena de la Sierra südlich von Teruel, wo G. R. J. Terpstra, damals Student der Geologie zu Leiden, im Sommer 1931 eine geologische Aufnahme angefangen hatte,

  1. Parnassiana nova : XVII. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 12)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1957-01-01

    Meine in Parnassiana Nova VIII wiedergegebene Beurteilung der spanischen apollo-subspecies muss ich aufgrund der grossen Serien davon, die ich aus Sammlung R. Oberthür erworben habe, und aufgrund des Gedankenaustausches mit Dr. W. Marten teilweise berichtigen. subsp. chrysophorus Fruhst., die niedri

  2. Cynatratoside-C efficacy against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and toxicity tests on grass carp and mammal blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), a ciliated protozoan parasite, results in high fish mortality and causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. To find new efficient anti-Ich agents, cynatratoside-C was isolated from Cynanchum atratum by bioassay-guided fractionation in a previous study. This st...

  3. Reta'maxik Qatzij--Conociendo Nuestro Idioma (Knowing Our Language). [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM is part of an interactive and dynamic multimedia package of information and games for learning K'iche' and Ixil. This CD-ROM includes six books in electronic format with interactive exercises that support improved bilingual and intercultural education and teacher training, specifically in the languages of K'iche' and Ixil. Books…

  4. Bemerkungen über Pedipalpi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijer, E.A.M.

    1931-01-01

    EINLEITUNG. Es ist mir eine grosse Freude, bevor ich anfange mit dem Erfolg meiner Studien der Pedipalpen in einigen Artikeln niederzuschreiben, meinen besten Dank auszusprechen für die Hilfe, die mir von vielen Seiten geboten wurde. Zuerst danke ich Herrn Prof. Dr. E. D. van Oort, Direktor des „Rij

  5. [Behavioral change and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in adult rats after intracerebral hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianjun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Pengbo; Chen, Xinlin; Guo, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jianshui; Yang, Pengbo

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between behavioral changes and cell proliferation in subventricular zone (SVZ) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in adult rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into a behavioral test group (n = 19) and a bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) immunohistochemical staining group (n = 21). ICH was induced by stereotactial injection of collagenase type VII into straitum. Proliferating cells were labeled by injection intrapenitoneally of bromodeoxyuridine in a pulse protocal. Rats were killed on day 2, 7, 14, and 28 after the ICH. Behavioral test and bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical staining were performed.Behavioral change was tested by forelimb placing test, Berderson's grade and corner turn test in rats. Cell counting of bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive cells in SVZ was performed. There were marked neurological deficits by day 2 after the ICH, with progressive recovery of function over 4 weeks. A significant increase in the number of bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive cells in the ipsilateral and cortralateral SVZ was observed from 2 to 14 days with a peak at day 7 after the ICH compared with the sham group.The bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive cells decreased to control level 28 days after the ICH. Proliferation of cells in SVZ corresponds well with behavioral recovery after the ICH, which indicates SVZ cells may be involved in the repairing process after the ICH.

  6. Long-term antithrombotic treatment in intracranial hemorrhage survivors with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korompoki, Eleni; Filippidis, Filippos T; Nielsen, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting recurrent intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke (IS) in ICH survivors with atrial fibrillation (AF) during long-term follow-up. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane...

  7. Die Geologie von Camarena de la Sierra und Riodeva (Provinz Teruel, Spanien)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wz., R. Martin

    1936-01-01

    Als ich im Jahre 1933 ein Gebiet für meine Feldarbeit suchte, wählte ich auf Veranlassung von Herrn Dr. I. M. van der Vlerk die Gemeinde Camarena de la Sierra südlich von Teruel, wo G. R. J. Terpstra, damals Student der Geologie zu Leiden, im Sommer 1931 eine geologische Aufnahme angefangen hatte, w

  8. Efficacy of Ichthyophthirius vaccines in channel catfish against white spot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius (Ich) is a protozoan that causes white spot disease in many cultured fish and lead to severe losses in aquaculture. Two trials were conducted to determine the efficacy and serum antibody response of different formulation of Ich vaccines in channel catfish. In trial I, catfish were i...

  9. Baicalein Promotes Neuronal and Behavioral Recovery After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Via Suppressing Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ning; Wei, Yinghai; Li, Binru; Pang, Linlin

    2017-01-21

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an important public health problem in neurology, which is not only associated with high mortality but also leading to disability. Yet no satisfactory treatment has been developed. The secondary injury that resulted from a number of self-destructive processes such as neuroinflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress, is the key factor contributing to ICH-induced brain damage. Baicalein has been proved to improve neuronal functional recovery in rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic brain damage. To investigate the effect of baicalein on ICH and its underlying mechanism, a collagenase-induced ICH rat model was performed. Baicalein treatment significantly decreased neurological severity score at day 1 and 3 after ICH injury. Our results showed that the lesion volume, the brain water content, the expression levels of four pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-6 and TNF-α) and the numbers of apoptotic cells were reduced significantly in ICH rats receiving baicalein treatment, especially in 50 mg/kg baicalein-treated group. Moreover, baicalein increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and down-regulated MDA level of brain tissues in rats. These results suggested that the therapeutic efficacy of baicalein on repairing brain damage is probably caused by suppressing apoptosis, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Baicalein could be developed into a novel drug for clinical treatment of ICH and ICH-related brain injuries.

  10. Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    in-the-loop IA information assurance ICD Initial Capabilities Document ICH International Conference on Harmonisation IDA Institute for Defense...6 62 FR 25692 (May 9, 1997) is an International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) document called Good...evaluating CTEs—can be called the internal or realized environment. It is derived from the performance required of each design item (product, subsystem

  11. Parnassiana nova : XI. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1956-01-01

    Bevor ich mit der Behandlung der tiroler und bayrischen Unterarten von P. apollo L. in dieser Fortsetzung beginne, möchte ich ein Versäumnis bei der Aufzählung der spanischen Rassen nachholen. subsp. maurilianus Fern. (Bol. Soc. Esp. p. 180, 1926), Typus Palencia, Sierra del Brezo, Villafria, ist

  12. Parnassiana nova : XIII. Vier neue Hybriden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1957-01-01

    Zu dem Gelingen der nachstehend beschriebenen Kreuzungen haben drei Wiener Entomologen beigetragen, deren Namen ich eigentlich bei der Benennung der Hybriden festzuhalten die Absicht hatte. Da das indessen nach den neuesten Nomenklaturregeln nicht statthaft ist, muss ich mich darauf beschränken zu

  13. Die Mollusken der Njalindungschichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1909-01-01

    Die Versteinerungen, welche im folgenden behandelt sind, sammelten meine Frau und ich im Jahre 1910 in den Preanger-Regentschappen von Java, in der Gegend von Njalindung ¹). Sie stammen aus Sedimenten, für welche ich den Namen Njalindungschichten einführte, und für die Gastropoden wurde bereits eine

  14. Reta'maxik Qatzij--Conociendo Nuestro Idioma (Knowing Our Language). [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM is part of an interactive and dynamic multimedia package of information and games for learning K'iche' and Ixil. This CD-ROM includes six books in electronic format with interactive exercises that support improved bilingual and intercultural education and teacher training, specifically in the languages of K'iche' and Ixil. Books…

  15. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Fails to Improve Outcomes Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Sherrefa R; Iniaghe, Loretta O; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal stroke subtype, with no effective therapies. Hematoma expansion and inflammation play major roles in the pathophysiology of ICH, contributing to primary and secondary brain injury, respectively. Fucoidan, a polysaccharide from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, has been reported to activate a platelet receptor that may function in limiting bleeding, and to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fucoidan on hemorrhaging and neurological outcomes after ICH. Male CD-1 mice were subjected to experimental ICH by infusion of bacterial collagenase. Animals were randomly divided into the following groups: sham, ICH + vehicle, ICH + 25 mg/kg fucoidan, ICH + 75 mg/kg fucoidan, and ICH + 100 mg/kg fucoidan. Brain water content, neurobehavioral outcomes, and hemoglobin content were evaluated at 24 h post ICH. Our findings show that fucoidan failed to attenuate the ICH-induced increase in BWC. The neurological deficits that result from ICH also did not differ in the treatment groups at all three doses. Finally, we found that fucoidan had no effect on the hemoglobin content after ICH. We postulate that fucoidan treatment did not improve the measured outcomes after ICH because we used crude fucoidan, which has a high molecular weight, in our study. High-molecular-weight fucoidans are reported to have less therapeutic potential than low molecular weight fucoidans. They have been shown to exhibit anti-coagulant and pro-apoptotic properties, which seem to outweigh their anti-inflammatory and potential procoagulant abilities. We propose that using a low-molecular-weight fucoidan, or fractionating the crude polysaccharide, may be effective in treating ICH. Future studies are needed to confirm this.

  16. Statins and risk of poststroke hemorrhagic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitz, Jan F; MacIsaac, Rachael L; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Siegerink, Bob; Bath, Philip M; Endres, Matthias; Lees, Kennedy R; Nolte, Christian H

    2016-04-26

    To assess whether statin treatment before or after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) affects the risk of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), postacute ICH, and mortality within 90 days. Data were sought from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive, an international repository of clinical trials data. Using propensity score matching, we retrospectively compared patients with prior statin treatment and newly initiated statin within 3 days after AIS to patients without statin exposure. Outcomes of interest were acute symptomatic ICH (sICH), any acute ICH, postacute ICH, and mortality during follow-up of 3 months. A total of 8,535 patients (mean age 70 years, 54% male, median baseline NIH Stroke Scale score 13) were analyzed. After propensity score matching, prior statin use was not strongly associated with sICH (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.14) or any ICH (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.92-1.98). There was no evidence of an interaction between prior statin use and thrombolysis. New initiation of statins was not associated with postacute ICH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.60, 95% CI 0.70-3.65). There was a signal towards lower 90-day mortality in patients with prior statin use (adjusted HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-1.00) and especially early initiation of statins (adjusted HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.97). Statin use prior to AIS was not associated with early hemorrhagic complications, irrespective of treatment with thrombolysis. New initiation of statin treatment early after AIS did not affect risk of postacute ICH, but might be associated with reduced mortality. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. New understandings of the genetic basis of isolated idiopathic central hypogonadism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Bonomi; Domenico Vladimiro Libri; Fabiana Guizzardi; Elena Guarducci; Elisabetta Maiolo; Elisa Pignatti; Roberta Asci; Luca Persani

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a rare disease that is characterized by delayed/absent puberty and/or infertility due to an insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal pituitary-gonadal axis by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action.Because reduced or normal luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels may be observed in the affected patients,the term idiopathic central hypogonadism (ICH) appears to be more appropriate.This disease should be distinguished from central hypogonadism that is combined with other pituitary deficiencies.Isolated ICH has a complex pathogenesis and is fivefold more prevalent in males.ICH frequently appears in a sporadic form,but several familial cases have also been reported.This finding,in conjunction with the description of numerous pathogenetic gene variants and the generation of several knockout models,supports the existence of a strong genetic component.ICH may be associated with several morphogenetic abnormalities,which include osmic defects that,with ICH,constitute the cardinal manifestations of Kallmann syndrome (KS).KS accounts for approximately 40% of the total ICH cases and has been generally considered to be a distinct subgroup.However,the description of several pedigrees,which include relatives who are affected either with isolated osmic defects,KS,or normo-osmic ICH (nlCH),justifies the emerging idea that ICH is a complex genetic disease that is characterized by variable expressivity and penetrance.In this context,either multiple gene variants or environmental factors and epigenetic modifications may contribute to the variable disease manifestations.We review the genetic mechanisms that are presently known to be involved in ICH pathogenesis and provide a clinical overview of the 227 cases that have been collected by the collaborating centres of the Italian ICH Network.

  18. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Exert Broad Effects on Short- and Long-Term Biological and Functional Outcomes in Rodents with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Satoshi; Schaar, Krystal; Xi, Xiaopei; Pido, Jennifer; Parsha, Kaushik; Aronowski, Jaroslaw; Savitz, Sean I.

    2015-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) are a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. However, the effect of MNCs in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been fully studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of autologous MNCs in experimental ICH. ICH was induced by infusion of autologous blood into the left striatum in young and aged male Long Evans rats. Twenty-four hours after ICH, rats were randomized to receive an intravenous administration of autologous MNCs (1 × 107 cells/kg) or saline. We examined brain water content, various markers related to the integrity of the neurovascular unit and inflammation, neurological deficit, neuroregeneration, and brain atrophy. We found that MNC-treated young rats showed a reduction in the neurotrophil infiltration, the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive cells, and the expression of inflammatory-related signalings such as the high-mobility group protein box-1, S100 calcium binding protein B, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and aquaporin 4. Ultimately, MNCs reduced brain edema in the perihematomal area compared with saline-treated animals at 3 days after ICH. Moreover, MNCs increased vessel density and migration of doublecortin-positive cells, improved motor functional recovery, spatial learning, and memory impairment, and reduced brain atrophy compared with saline-treated animals at 28 days after ICH. We also found that MNCs reduced brain edema and brain atrophy and improved spatial learning and memory in aged rats after ICH. We conclude that autologous MNCs can be safely harvested and intravenously reinfused in rodent ICH and may improve long-term structural and functional recovery after ICH. The results of this study may be applicable when considering future clinical trials testing MNCs for ICH. PMID:26414707

  19. Which risk factors are more associated with ischemic stroke than intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Emer R; Kapral, Moira K; Fang, Jiming; Eikelboom, John W; ó Conghaile, Aengus; Canavan, Michelle; O'Donnell, Martin J

    2012-08-01

    The decision to prescribe oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation is based on an assessment of the competing risks of ischemic stroke and major bleeding, of which intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most important type. We sought to determine the comparative importance of risk factors for ischemic stroke and ICH in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation with particular emphasis on risk factors common to both stroke types. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or ICH and atrial fibrillation included in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network constituted the cohort. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between baseline risk factors and presentation with ICH versus ischemic stroke. Risk factors included: (1) those previously reported to be risk factors for both ischemic stroke and major bleeding (particularly ICH) ("shared" risk factors, including age, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack and preadmission dementia); and (2) other risk factors associated with either stroke subtype alone. A total of 3197 patients presented with atrial fibrillation and acute stroke, of which 12.2% presented with ICH. Of the "shared" risk factors, age (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.34 per decade) and prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12-1.87) were more associated with ischemic stroke than ICH, whereas a history of hypertension (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.68-1.17), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92-1.64), renal impairment (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.71), and alcohol intake were not more strongly associated with either stroke subtype. Of the risk factors known to be associated with both ischemic stroke and ICH in patients with atrial fibrillation, we found that none had a stronger association with ICH. Older age was more strongly associated with ischemic stroke than ICH.

  20. Utility of Early MRI in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijman, Christine A.C.; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Bruins, Sara; Fischbein, Nancy; Schwartz, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Background The optimal diagnostic evaluation for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ICH diagnosis and management. Methods Eighty-nine (72%) of 123 patients with spontaneous ICH underwent a brain CT and MRI within 30 days of ICH onset. Seventy patients with a mean age of 62 ± 15 years were included. A stroke neurologist and a general neurologist, each blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reviewed the admission data and the initial head CT and then assigned a presumed ICH cause under 1 of 9 categories. ICH cause was potentially modified after subsequent MRI review. The final ‘gold standard’ ICH etiology was determined after review of the complete medical record by an independent investigator. Change in diagnostic category and confidence and the potential impact on patient management were systematically recorded. Results Mean time to MRI was 3 ± 5 days. Final ICH diagnosis was hypertension or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in 50% of patients. After MRI review the stroke neurologist changed diagnostic category in 14%, diagnostic confidence in an additional 23% and management in 20%, and the general neurologist did so in 19, 21 and 21% of patients, respectively. MRI yield was highest in ICH secondary to ischemic stroke, CAA, vascular malformations and neoplasms, and did not differ by age, history of hypertension, hematoma location or the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions The results of this study suggest potential additive clinical benefit of early MRI in patients with spontaneous ICH. PMID:20733299

  1. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas manifesting as venous infarction and/or intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Naoko; Naito, Isao; Takatama, Shin; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Iwai, Tomoyuki [Geriatrics Research Institute and Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Maebashi (Japan); Shimaguchi, Hidetoshi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Maebashi (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) rarely cause venous infarction (VI) and/or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) despite the presence of cortical venous drainage (CVD). The present study investigated the characteristics of CS DAVFs manifesting as VI/ICH. Fifty-four patients treated for CS DAVFs were retrospectively studied. Six patients presented with VI/ICH. Two of the three patients presenting with ICH had CVD only to the superficial sylvian vein (SSV) or the deep sylvian vein (DSV). Three patients presenting with VI had multiple drainages, and angiography of these patients showed a varix on the SSV, drainage into the DSV with agenesis of the second and third segment of basal vein of Rosenthal, and thrombosis of the distal petrosal vein. CS DAVF with CVD only carries higher risk of VI/ICH than multiple drainages. Many CS DAVFs presenting with VI, especially those with drainage into the petrosal vein, have multiple drainages in the early stage. Thrombosis of the inferior and superior petrosal sinuses and superior orbital vein gradually increases pressure of the CVD, and then, VI may occur. In contrast, CS DAVFs with CVD only from the beginning, common in the patients with drainage into the SSVs and DSVs, are likely to cause ICH. Angiographic risk factors causing VI/ICH are CVD only, varix formation, agenesis of the second and third segment of basal vein of Rosenthal, and thrombosis of the superior orbital vein, lateral half of the superior petrosal sinus, and distal CVD. (orig.)

  2. Early onset of forced impaired forelimb use causes recovery of forelimb skilled motor function but no effect on gross sensory-motor function after capsular hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Hamakawa, Michiru; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Masuda, Tadashi; Hida, Hideki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2011-11-20

    Intensive use of the impaired forelimb promotes behavioral recovery and induces plastic changes of the central nervous system after stroke. However, the optimal onset of intensive use treatment after stroke is controversial. In this study, we investigated whether early forced impaired limb use (FLU) initiated 24h after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) of the internal capsule affected behavioral recovery and histological damage. Rats were subjected to ICH via low-dose collagenase infusion or sham stroke. One day after surgery, the ipsilateral forelimbs of half of the ICH and sham rats were casted for a week to induce the use of their contralateral forelimbs. Behavioral assessments were performed on days 10-12 and 26-28 after the surgery and followed by histological assessments. Improvements in skilled reaching and coordinated stepping function were found in the FLU-treated group in comparison with the untreated group after ICH. Additionally, FLU-treated ICH animals showed more normal and precise reaching and stepping movements as compared with ICH control animals. In contrast, FLU did not have a significant impact on gross sensory-motor functions such as the motor deficit score, contact placing response and spontaneous usage of the impaired paw. The volume of tissue lost and the number of spared corticospinal neurons in lesioned motor cortex were not affected by early FLU after ICH. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of early focused use of an impaired limb after internal capsule hemorrhage.

  3. Necrostatin-1 Reduces Neurovascular Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D. King

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is the most common form of hemorrhagic stroke, accounting for 15% of all strokes. ICH has the highest acute mortality and the worst long-term prognosis of all stroke subtypes. Unfortunately, the dearth of clinically effective treatment options makes ICH the least treatable form of stroke, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic targets. Recent work by our laboratory identified a novel role for the necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1, in limiting neurovascular injury in tissue culture models of hemorrhagic injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that necrostatin-1 reduces neurovascular injury after collagenase-induced ICH in mice. Necrostatin-1 significantly reduced hematoma volume by 54% at 72 h after-ICH, as compared to either sham-injured mice or mice administered an inactive, structural analogue of necrostatin-1. Necrostatin-1 also limited cell death by 48%, reduced blood-brain barrier opening by 51%, attenuated edema development to sham levels, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes after ICH. These data suggest a potential clinical utility for necrostatin-1 and/or novel necroptosis inhibitors as an adjunct therapy to reduce neurological injury and improve patient outcomes after ICH.

  4. Expression of Rho Kinase Ⅱ in Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Relationship with Thrombin%脑出血模型大鼠Rho激酶Ⅱ的表达及其与凝血酶的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文洪波; 崔桂云; 高修明; 王晓龙; 陆军; 沈霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of Rho kinase Ⅱ (ROCK Ⅱ) around hematoma in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at different time points and its relationship with thrombin.Methods:A total of 180 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into sham group(S group),ICH group and argatroban group(ICH + A group).ICH model was established by injecting autologous blood.Argatroban was injected in situ at a dose of 0.5 mg/L.The expression of ROCK Ⅱ around hematoma at different time points and its effect on thrombin were detected by immunohistochemical method.The expression of ROCK Ⅱ protein around hematoma was detected by Western blotting.Nerve functions of rats were assessed at 48 h by Longa score and forelimb use asymmetry test.Results:Expression of ROCK Ⅱ around hematoma was found at 0.5 h and reached to a maximal value at 24 h in ICH group and ICH + A group.Subsequently it decreased gradually.However,at the corresponding time points after 12 h,the expression levels of ROCKⅡ in ICH + A group were obviously lower than those in ICH group(P<0.01).The expression levels of ROCK Ⅱ in S group were obviously lower than those in ICH group and ICH + A group,and the trend has not changed.The results of ICH group by Western blotting method and immunohistochemical method were consistent.Neurological deficit scores in ICH group and ICH + A group at 48 h increased significantly than those in S group(P< 0.01),while neurological deficit scores in ICH + A group were significantly lower than those in ICH group(P<0.01).Conclusions:ROCK Ⅱ play a role in brain injury after ICH.Thrombin may have a role in brain injury after ICH through promoting the expression of ROCK Ⅱ.%目的:观察大鼠脑出血(ICH)后不同时间点血肿周围组织Rho激酶Ⅱ(ROCKⅡ)表达及其与凝血酶的关系.方法:180只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分为假手术组(S组)、ICH组和阿加曲班组(ICH+A组).ICH组和ICH+A组采用自体血注入法建立大鼠ICH模

  5. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and outcomes after ground-level falls in geriatric trauma patients taking preinjury anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Subhash; Sharma, Rohit; Grotts, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Lisa; Kaminski, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after a fall in geriatric patients. We sought to determine whether there were differences in ICH rates and outcomes based on type of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent after a ground-level fall (GLF). Our institutional trauma registry was used to identify patients 65 years old or older after a GLF while taking warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin over a 2-year period. Rates and types of ICH and patient outcomes were evaluated. Of 562 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 218 (38.8%) were on warfarin, 95 (16.9%) were on clopidogrel, and 249 (44.3%) were on aspirin. Overall ICH frequency was 15 per cent with no difference in ICH rate, type of ICH, need for craniotomy, mortality, or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Patients with ICH were more likely to present with abnormal Glasgow Coma Score, history of hypertension, and/or loss of consciousness.

  6. Comparison of 2 approaches for determining the natural history risk of brain arteriovenous malformation rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen; McCulloch, Charles E; Johnston, S Claiborne; Lawton, Michael T; Sidney, Stephen; Young, William L

    2010-06-15

    Estimating risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) for patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the natural course is essential for assessing risks and benefits of treatment. Traditionally, the survival period starts at the time of diagnosis and ends at ICH, but most patients are quickly censored because of treatment. Alternatively, a survival period from birth to first ICH, censoring at the date of diagnosis, has been proposed. The authors quantitatively compared these 2 timelines using survival analysis in 1,581 Northern California brain AVM patients (2000-2007). Time-shift analysis of the birth-to-diagnosis timeline and maximum pseudolikelihood identified the point at which the 2 survival curves overlapped; the 95% confidence interval was determined using bootstrapping. Annual ICH rates per 100 patient-years were similar for both the birth-to-diagnosis (1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36) and the diagnosis-to-ICH (1.17, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.53) timelines, despite differences in curve morphology. Shifting the birth-to-diagnosis timeline an optimal amount (10.3 years, 95% CI: 3.3, 17.4) resulted in similar ICH survival curves (P = 0.979). These results suggest that the unconventional birth-to-diagnosis approach can be used to analyze risk factors for natural history risk in unruptured brain AVM patients, providing greater statistical power. The data also suggest a biologic change around age 10 years influencing ICH rate.

  7. Cerebroprotection by the neuronal PGE2 receptor EP2 after intracerebral hemorrhage in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, He; Wu, Tao; Han, Xiaoning; Wan, Jieru; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Wenwu; Lu, Hong; Yang, Qingwu; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by prostaglandins such as PGE2 may contribute to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the cell-specific signaling by PGE2 receptor EP2 differs depending on whether the neuropathic insult is acute or chronic. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we investigated the role of EP2 receptor in two mouse models of ICH induced by intrastriatal injection of collagenase or autologous arterial whole blood. We used middle-aged male mice to enhance the clinical relevance of the study. EP2 receptor was expressed in neurons but not in astrocytes or microglia after collagenase-induced ICH. Brain injury after collagenase-induced ICH was associated with enhanced cellular and molecular inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activity. EP2 receptor deletion exacerbated brain injury, brain swelling/edema, neuronal death, and neurobehavioral deficits, whereas EP2 receptor activation by the highly selective agonist AE1-259-01 reversed these outcomes. EP2 receptor deletion also exacerbated brain edema and neurologic deficits in the blood ICH model. These findings support the premise that neuronal EP2 receptor activation by PGE2 protects brain against ICH injury in middle-aged mice through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects and anti-MMP-2/9 activity. PGE2/EP2 signaling warrants further investigation for potential use in ICH treatment.

  8. T lymphocytes infiltration promotes blood-brain barrier injury after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Jichao; Zhu, Haitao; Yang, Yang; Wen, Zexian; Chen, Yaxing; Li, Lan; Lin, Jiangkai; Feng, Hua

    2017-09-01

    T lymphocytes migrate into the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and promote cerebral inflammation, thus exacerbating neuronal injury. However, the relationship between of T lymphocytes infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury after ICH has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution of infiltrating T lymphocytes after ICH in C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and the accompanying change rules of BBB permeability were detected by Evans blue dye leakage and tight junction protein expression. Furthermore, T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice and T lymphocyte-decreased C57BL/6 mice treated with fingolimod were used to verify the relationship between T lymphocytes infiltration and BBB leakage after ICH. Here, we reported that brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes in the hemorrhagic hemisphere began to accumulate on the first day and peaked on the fifth day after ICH; BBB leakage also at peaked on the fifth day. Moreover, T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice showed minor BBB leakage after ICH compared with C57BL/6 control mice. Similarly, fingolimod treatment can significantly decrease T lymphocyte infiltration and promote BBB integrity compared with a vehicle control. Overall, our results suggested that suppression of T lymphocyte infiltration may be a novel way to improve BBB integrity after ICH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Statins and intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Haiping; Hu Zhiping; Lu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To briefly review the literature regarding the impact of statins on the prevention and treatment of stroke,especially on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).We described statins' effects,mechanism of ICH,serum total cholesterol and ICH,and the relationship between statins and ICH.Data sources All articles used in this review were mainly searched from the PubMed database with no limitations of language and year of publication.Study selection Randomized controlled studies,prospective cohort studies,animal experiments,and meta-analysis articles related to this topic in the past decade were selected.Results Statins play an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and also have an impact on the treatment of vascular diseases.There still exist controversies about the relationship between statins and ICH.More clinical and experimental trials indicate that statins do not increase the risk of ICH.Conclusion A low or a regular dose of statins would not increase the risk of ICH.

  10. Expression of thrombin and its associated protein in cerebellum of human and rat after intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yi; QI Ji-ping; ZHU Hong; SONG Yue-jia; WU He; JIA Ying; ZHANG Guang-mei

    2010-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can cause brain damage through a number of pathways.The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of thrombin, protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in rat and human cerebellum after ICH.Methods A model of ICH was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by direct injection of autologous blood (50 μl) into caudate nucleus.Patients with injured hemorrhage were also enrolled in this study.Different expressions of thrombin,PAR-1, PN-1 were detected in rat and human cerebellum by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.Results In rat cerebellum, thrombin protein significantly increased at 6 hours and reached the maximum 2 days afterICH.The expression of PAR-1 protein reached the maximum at 24-48 hours, and then began to decrease.The expression of PN-1 protein reached the maximum at 3 hours, decreased somewhat after that and increased a little at 5days after ICH.While in human cerebellum, the changing tendency of thrombin, PAR-1 and PN-1 was almost conform to the rat.Conclusion In cerebellum, thrombin can activate PAR-1 expression after ICH, and PN-1 appears quickly after ICH in order to control the deleterious effect of thrombin.

  11. APOE polymorphisms influence longitudinal lipid trends preceding intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether APOE genotype influences a previously observed decline in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels preceding primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as a potential demonstration of nonamyloid mechanisms of APOE in ICH risk. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective longitudinal analysis using patients with known APOE genotype drawn from an ongoing cohort study of ICH. Serum lipid measurements for TC, triglycerides (TGs), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) collected within 2 years before and after index ICH were extracted from electronic medical records. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to compare APOE allele–specific effects on temporal serum lipid trends in ICH. Demographics, medical history, medications, and health maintenance data were included as fixed effects. Inter- and intraindividual variations in lipid levels were modeled as random effects. Results: A total of 124 ICH cases were analyzed. APOE ε4 carriers had greater rates of decline in serum TC and LDL within 6 months preceding ICH (TC: −7.30 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0035; LDL: −8.44 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0001). Conversely, serum TC and LDL levels in APOE ε2 carriers were unchanged within the same time period. APOE genotype had no associations with serum HDL or TG trends. Conclusions: APOE allele status predicts serum TC and LDL changes preceding acute ICH. Our results have implications for ongoing efforts in dissecting the role of dyslipidemia in cerebrovascular disease risk. APOE genotype–specific influence on lipid trends provides a clue for one mechanism by which APOE may influence risk of ICH. Further characterization of the metabolic roles of APOE is needed to improve the understanding of APOE biology in cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:27433544

  12. A20 Ameliorates Intracerebral Hemorrhage–Induced Inflammatory Injury by Regulating TRAF6 Polyubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaoyou; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Kai; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Yanchun; Xiong, Xiaoyi; Wang, Faxiang; Yang, Yuanrui; Zhu, Wenyao; Liu, Juan; Liao, Maofan; Wu, Lirong; Duan, Chunmei; Li, Jie; Gong, Qiuwen; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ao; Yang, Meihua; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Reducing excessive inflammation is beneficial for the recovery from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, the roles and mechanisms of A20 (TNFAIP3), an important endogenous anti-inflammatory factor, are examined in ICH. A20 expression in the PBMCs of ICH patients and an ICH mouse model was detected, and the correlation between A20 expression and neurologic deficits was analyzed. A20 expression was increased in PBMCs and was negatively related to the modified Rankin Scale score. A20 expression was also increased in mouse perihematomal tissues. A20−/− and A20-overexpressing mice were generated to further analyze A20 function. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, A20−/− and A20-overexpressing mice showed significant increases and decreases, respectively, in hematoma volume, neurologic deficit score, mortality, neuronal degeneration, and proinflammatory factors. Moreover, WT-A20−/− parabiosis was established to explore the role of A20 in peripheral blood in ICH injury. ICH-induced damage, including brain edema, neurologic deficit score, proinflammatory factors, and neuronal apoptosis, was reduced in A20−/− parabionts compared with A20−/− mice. Finally, the interactions between TRAF6 and Ubc13 and UbcH5c were increased in A20−/− mice compared with WT mice; the opposite occurred in A20-overexpressing mice. Enhanced IκBα degradation and NF-κB activation were observed in A20−/− mice, but the results were reversed in A20-overexpressing mice. These results suggested that A20 is involved in regulating ICH-induced inflammatory injury in both the central and peripheral system and that A20 reduces ICH-induced inflammation by regulating TRAF6 polyubiquitination. Targeting A20 may thus be a promising therapeutic strategy for ICH. PMID:27986908

  13. Management of intracerebral hemorrhage – use of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Matre ET

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Edward T Van Matre,1 Deb S Sherman,2 Tyree H Kiser1,21Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a neurologic injury resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Statins play a significant role in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events. Despite clear benefits of statins in ischemic stroke, post hoc analyses of some studies suggest there may be a link between statin therapy and development of ICH. Direct pharmacologic effects of decreased serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in conjunction with pleiotropic effects are thought to be linked to this possible increase in ICH risk. In the face of the potential of statins to increase the risk of ICH, recent evidence suggests that statins may also have beneficial effects on patient outcomes when continued or initiated following an ICH. This discordance in findings and the overall lack of well-designed prospective clinical trials increase the complexity of clinical decision making when utilizing statin therapy in patients with, or at risk for, ICH. This review evaluates the pharmacologic effects of statin therapy and describes how these effects translate to both risks and benefits in ICH. The current literature regarding the effects of statin therapy on clinical outcomes in ICH is evaluated to help guide clinicians with decisions regarding initiation, continuation, or discontinuation of statin therapy in patients with ICH.Keywords: intracerebral hemorrhage, statin pharmacology, intracranial hemorrhage, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, pleiotropic effects

  14. Characteristics of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanao Akiyama

    Full Text Available The first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC introduced to the market in Japan was dabigatran in March 2011, and three more NOACs, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have since become available. Randomized controlled trials of NOACs have revealed that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH occurs less frequently with NOACs compared with warfarin. However, the absolute incidence of ICH associated with NOACs has increased with greater use of these anticoagulants, and we wanted to explore the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment course of patients with NOACs-associated ICH.We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of symptomatic ICH patients receiving NOACs between March 2011 and September 2014.ICH occurred in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean ± SD age, 72.8 ± 3.2 years. Mean time to onset was 146.2 ± 111.5 days after starting NOACs. Five patients received rivaroxaban and 1 patient received apixaban. None received dabigatran or edoxaban. Notably, no hematoma expansion was observed within 24 h of onset in the absence of infusion of fresh frozen plasma, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VIIa or hemodialysis. When NOAC therapy was initiated, mean HAS-BLED and PANWARDS scores were 1.5 ± 0.5 and 39.5 ± 7.7, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure was 137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg within 1 month before spontaneous ICH onset.Six symptomatic ICHs occurred early in NOAC therapy but hematoma volume was small and did not expand in the absence of infusion of reversal agents or hemodialysis. The occurrence of ICH during NOAC therapy is possible even when there is acceptable mean systolic blood pressure control (137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg and HAS-BLED score ≤ 2. Even stricter blood pressure lowering and control within the acceptable range may be advisable to prevent ICH during NOAC therapy.

  15. Increased expression of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 aggravates brain inflammation via regulation of the function of microglia/macrophages after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, ChangJun; Wang, Tao; Cheng, Si; Liu, YuGuang

    2013-12-01

    Microglia/macrophages are known to play important roles in initiating brain inflammation after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) have been proven to play a critical part in several inflammatory diseases through regulation of both adaptive and innate immune responses. Tim-3 can be expressed by microglia/macrophages and regulates their function in the innate immune response. However, the effect of Tim-3 on inflammatory responses following ICH is unclear. In this study, we investigated Tim-3 expression, the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and brain water content in peri-hematomal brain tissue at 12 hours and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-ICH in wild type (WT) ICH and Tim-3-/- ICH mice. The numbers of Tim-3 positive cells,astrocytes, neutrophils and microglia/macrophages were detected using immunofluorescence staining. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Double immunofluorescence labeling was performed to identify the cellular source of Tim-3 expression. Mouse neurological deficit scores were assessed through animal behavior. Expression of Tim-3 increased early in mouse peri-hematomal brain tissue after autologous blood injection, peaked at day 1, and was positively correlated with the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and brain water content. Tim-3 was predominantly expressed in microglia/macrophages. Compared with WT mice, Tim-3-/- mice had reduced ICH-induced brain inflammation with decreased TNF-α and IL-1β, cerebral edema and neurological deficit scores. Moreover, Tim-/- inhibited activation of microglia/macrophages. The number of activated microglia/macrophages in Tim-3-/- ICH mice was much lower than that in WT ICH mice. Our findings demonstrate that Tim-3 plays an important role in brain inflammation after ICH, and may be a potential treatment target.

  16. NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyi; Chen, Sheng; Hu, Qin; Feng, Hua; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2014-02-01

    The NLRP3 (NALP3, cryopyrin) inflammasome, a key component of the innate immune system, facilitates caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1β processing, which amplifies the inflammatory response. Here, we investigated whether NLRP3 knockdown decreases neutrophil infiltration, reduces brain edema, and improves neurological function in an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mouse model. We also determined whether mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) governed by mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTPs) would trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation following ICH. ICH was induced by injecting autologous arterial blood (30μl) into a mouse brain. NLRP3 small interfering RNAs were administered 24 hours before ICH. A mPTP inhibitor (TRO-19622) or a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger (Mito-TEMPO) was coinjected with the blood. In naive animals, rotenone, which is a respiration chain complex I inhibitor, was applied to induce mitochondrial ROS production, and followed by TRO-19622 or Mito-TEMPO treatment. Neurological deficits, brain edema, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, in vivo chemical cross-linking, ROS assay, and immunofluorescence were evaluated. ICH activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 knockdown reduced brain edema and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels at 24 hours, and improved neurological functions from 24 to 72 hours following ICH. TRO-19622 or Mito-TEMPO reduced ROS, NLRP3 inflammasome components, and MPO levels following ICH. In naive animals, rotenone administration induced mPTP formation, ROS generation, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which were then reduced by TRO-19622 or Mito-TEMPO. The NLRP3 inflammasome amplified the inflammatory response by releasing IL-1β and promoting neutrophil infiltration following ICH. Mitochondria ROS may be a major trigger of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The results of our study suggest that the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome may effectively reduce the inflammatory response following ICH

  17. AHV beziehen mit 65 Jahren, das ist heute zu früh : Wir sollten das Rentenalter der gestiegenen Lebenserwartung anpassen

    OpenAIRE

    Bütler, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Wenn ich mich an eines erinnern kann aus den frühen 1970er Jahren, so ist es die jeweils ungeduldig erwartete sonntägliche Hitparade am Radio. Der damalige Moderator der - wie ich mangels Frühenglisch verstand - "Bestzähler" auf dem Plattenteller, Jürg Marquart, wurde kürzlich 65 (Gratulation!). Inzwischen einer der 300 reichsten Schweizer, stellte er klar: "Ich verzichte nicht auf meine AHV." Er habe seinen Solidaritätsbeitrag geleistet. Dass er einen Bruchteil zurückbekomme (vermutlich im P...

  18. On the distribution of batch shelf lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michelle; Stroup, Walter; Christopher, David; Schwenke, James

    2013-01-01

    Implicit in ICH Q1E (International Conference on Harmonization [ICH], 2003b ) are definitions of batch shelf life (the time the batch mean crosses the acceptance limit) and product shelf life (the minimum batch shelf life). The distribution of batch means over time projects to a distribution of batch shelf lives on the x-axis. Assuming multivariate normality, shelf life is the ratio of correlated Gaussian variables. Using Hinkley ( 1969 ), we describe the relationship between quantiles of the distributions of batch shelf lives and batch means. Exploiting this relationship, a linear mixed model is used to estimate a target quantile of batch shelf lives to address the ICH objective.

  19. Planung als politische Praxis? Zum emotionalen Risikomanagement praktischen Verhaltens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Schubert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Politisches Planen in der öffentlichen Verwaltung charakterisiere ich als ambivalent, unentscheidbar und graduell. Nicht zuletzt darum stellen sich Planungssituationen den planenden Individuen stets einzigartig dar. Deren Sinn für das situativ angemessene (politische Verhalten mache ich in der emotionalen Rationalität aus. Anhand von vier das Planungshandeln prägenden Tendenzen, nämlich lösungsorientiert‑pragmatisch, schwach‑konzeptionell, strategisch‑einsam und politisch‑passiv zu sein, dämpfe ich allzu hohe Erwartungen an Planung als politische Praxis und verweise auf Ansätze einer politischeren Planungspraxis.

  20. SERDP and ESTCP Expert Panel Workshop on Reducing the Uncertainty of DNAPL Source Zone Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    whey ...W ar re n M ich iga n Bo rd en O nta rio - So lve nts Os ca da , M ich iga n Hi ale ah C ou nty F lor ida Ca mp L eje un e L` As so mp tio n... iga n Bo rd en O nta rio - So lve nts Os ca da , M ich iga n Hi ale ah C ou nty F lor ida Ca mp L eje un e L` As so mp tio n, Qu eb ec Bl oo

  1. Liebe, Neugier, Spiel - Wie kommt das Neue in die Welt? Systemische und neurobiologische Betrachtungen

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Wie für viele andere, so hat Gerald Hüther auch für mich das Tor zu den Neurowissenschat en aufgestoßen, Neugier und Faszination ob der vielen Entdeckungen und Entwicklungen geweckt. Einige seiner Bücher (Hüther, 1998, 2001b, 2004) haben eigene Bilder aktiviert: Vor und im Studium arbeitete ich viele Jahre im Straßenbau. Vom Vermessungswesen über die Erdarbeiten bis zur Teerkolonne hatte ich einige Stufen des Straßenbaus kennen gelernt. Mich faszinierte, wie eine neue Straße entstand: Ich er...

  2. A Decision-Oriented Investigation of Air Force Civil Engineering’s Operations Branch and the Implications for a Decision Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    indicate the person’s preference on each scale. There are 16 different types possible: ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ...letter type ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ *144 IV. Findings and Analysis This chapter presents and...Combined I I 37.7% 11 0.8% II 0.8% 11 3.3% I1.. .-, I ISTP 11 ISFP INFP INTP I ICh. of R & RI ICh. of R & RICh. of R & R ICh. of R & RI 1 7.8% 1I 0% I1 0% 1

  3. Ist der Wenn-Dann-Ismus immer noch eine Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Arko, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Im Folgenden werde ich über den Wenn-Dann-Ismus als Strategie zur Verringerung unserer ontologischen Verpflichtungen in der Mathematik sprechen. Ich beginne mit der Definition des Wenn-Dann-Ismus in Principles of Matemathics. Danach setze ich mich mit Puntnams Kritik des Wenn-Dann-Ismus auseinander. Es folgen einige Argumente von Cian Dorr, die diese Kritik unterstützen. Zuletzt soll von der ontologischen Sparsamkeit als allgemeinem Motiv für die Aneignung des Wenn-Dann-Ismus die Rede sein. I...

  4. Indeterminate cell histiocytosis that presented clinically as benign cephalic histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovic, Adele; Chernoff, Karen; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Schaffer, Julie V

    2014-12-16

    Indeterminate cell histiocytosis (ICH) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by immunophenotypic features of both Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. We describe a 12-month-old boy with a four-month history of asymptomatic, small, pink-tan papules on his face. Histopathologic evaluation showed a superficial, dermal infiltrate of histiocytes that was positive for S100, CD1a, CD68, and Factor XIIIa. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of the clinical presentation of benign cephalic histiocytosis with immunohistochemical findings of ICH. We review the classification of histiocytic disorders and the clinical and immunohistochemical features of both ICH and benign cephalic histiocytosis.

  5. Term neonate with intracranial hemorrhage and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, H M; Rooks, V J; Wolfe, S Q; Sawyer, T L

    2012-08-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucocutaneous telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The disease rarely presents in the neonatal period, primarily manifesting with epistaxis and gastrointestinal bleeding in adulthood. Occasionally, HHT can also present with symptoms related to AVMs in the cerebral, pulmonary or gastrointestinal vasculature. In prior reports, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) secondary to cerebral AVM in neonates with HHT has been catastrophic and uniformly fatal. Here we report a case of a newborn with HHT and ICH from a suspected AVM who survived with aggressive medical management and surgical intervention, and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on ICH in neonates with HHT.

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; addendum to International Conference on Harmonisation Guidance on S6 Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biotechnology-Derived Pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "S6 Addendum to Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biotechnology-Derived Pharmaceuticals'' (S6 addendum). The S6 addendum was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The S6 addendum is intended to incorporate new knowledge and experience gained since the implementation of the ICH guidance entitled "S6 Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biotechnology-Derived Pharmaceuticals'' (ICH S6) and to clarify and provide greater detail to enable the development of safe and effective biopharmaceuticals.

  7. Gclust Server: 109491 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ich is a global transcriptional regulator with roles in transcription initiation and elongation and in mRNA ...ength 836 Representative annotation Subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, which is a global transcriptional regulator with roles

  8. Føtal og neonatal alloimmun trombocytopeni er en mulig fatal tilstand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling Taaning, Ellen Birkerod; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) may lead to intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) resulting in neurological damage or death. In FNAIT, transplacental maternal antibodies cause destruction of fetal platelets. Maternal immunisation occurs to fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs...

  9. Run-up to participation in ATACH II in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, K; Sato, S; Koga, M; Yamamoto, H; Nakagawara, J; Furui, E; Shiokawa, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Okuda, S; Sakai, N; Kimura, K; Okada, Y; Yoshimura, S; Hoshino, H; Uesaka, Y; Nakashima, T; Itoh, Y; Ueda, T; Nishi, T; Gotoh, J; Nagatsuka, K; Arihiro, S; Yamaguchi, T; Minematsu, K

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Japan. Seventeen Japanese institutions are participating in the Antihypertensive Treatment for Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH) II Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT01176565; UMIN 000006526). This phase III trial is designed to determine the therapeutic benefit of early intensive systolic blood pressure (BP) lowering for acute hypertension in ICH patients. This report explains the long run-up to reach the start of patient registration in ATACH II in Japan, including our preliminary study, a nationwide survey on antihypertensive treatment for acute ICH patients, a multicenter study for hyperacute BP lowering (the SAMURAI-ICH study), revision of the official Japanese label for intravenous nicardipine, and construction of the infrastructure for the trial. PMID:23230457

  10. Reference: 80 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ity was reduced or became abnormal. We showed that the mutant RAM lost its QC identity after germination, wh...ich was specified during embryogenesis, whereas the identity of differentiated tissues was maintained. In th

  11. Disease: H00613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yperostosis mainly affecting long bones, mandible, clavicles, and ribs. It usually affects infants less than...e prenatal form of ICH is lethal in which extensive hyperostosis affects nearly all long bones and the fetus

  12. Mittheilungen über Scyphomedusen I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1921-01-01

    Hiemit beabsichtige ich eine Reihe kleinerer Mittheilungen über Semaeostomeen und Rhizostomeen des Rijksmuseums van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden zu veröffentlichen, welche die Systematik, Biologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Anatomie verschiedener Scyphomedusen behandeln. Die vorliegenden beiden

  13. Vägistatud sakslanna kirjutas sellest raamatu / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    15. aastaselt punaarmeelaste vägistamiste ohvriks langenud sakslanna Gabriele Köpp avaldas teda tabanud kannatustest raamatu "Warum war ich bloss ein Mädchen : das Trauma einer Flucht 1945" (München, 2010)

  14. Немка написала книгу о насилии солдат / Эвелин Калдоя

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Калдоя, Эвелин, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    15. aastaselt punaarmeelaste vägistamiste ohvriks langenud sakslanna Gabriele Köpp avaldas teda tabanud kannatustest raamatu "Warum war ich bloss ein Mädchen : das Trauma einer Flucht 1945" (München, 2010)

  15. Judaica et Aegyptiaca : de Maccabaeorum libro III quaestiones historicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Jakob

    1941-01-01

    Disputans de libro, quem composuerat H. Willrich, inscripto "Judaica, Forschungen zur hellenistisch-jiidischen Geschichte und Litteratur", 1900, dixit P. Wendland (Berl. Philol. Wochenschrift anni 1900, p. 1197 seqq.) : "Ich unterschreibe Willrichs Urteil, dasz die Geschichte des hellenistischen Jud

  16. Pattern and location of intracerebral hemorrhage in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-16

    Oct 16, 2015 ... (ICH) is the second most common subtype of stroke with a worldwide ... hemorrhage (DCH) (including brain stem and cerebellar). Pattern and location .... hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease which are common in ...

  17. Judaica et Aegyptiaca : de Maccabaeorum libro III quaestiones historicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Jakob

    1941-01-01

    Disputans de libro, quem composuerat H. Willrich, inscripto "Judaica, Forschungen zur hellenistisch-jiidischen Geschichte und Litteratur", 1900, dixit P. Wendland (Berl. Philol. Wochenschrift anni 1900, p. 1197 seqq.) : "Ich unterschreibe Willrichs Urteil, dasz die Geschichte des hellenistischen Jud

  18. Mittheilungen über Scyphomedusen I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1921-01-01

    Hiemit beabsichtige ich eine Reihe kleinerer Mittheilungen über Semaeostomeen und Rhizostomeen des Rijksmuseums van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden zu veröffentlichen, welche die Systematik, Biologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Anatomie verschiedener Scyphomedusen behandeln. Die vorliegenden beiden k

  19. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts for treating increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis with or without ventriculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycosis, especially in patients that are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive, and frequently involves the central nervous system. Methods We assessed the potential of ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS in preventing mortality due to uncontrollable intracranial hypertension (ICH in 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Results After 2 weeks of antifungal therapy consisting of amphotericin B deoxycholate with or without fluconazole, patients with persistent ICH underwent VPS, despite having persistent Cryptococcus neoformans infection. In 12 patients, the uncontrollable ICH was resolved by VPS. Conclusions Patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis who have ICH must be considered for VPS even with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures.

  20. Oxidative Stress in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Sources, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is associated with the highest mortality and morbidity despite only constituting approximately 10–15% of all strokes. Complex underlying mechanisms consisting of cytotoxic, excitotoxic, and inflammatory effects of intraparenchymal blood are responsible for its highly damaging effects. Oxidative stress (OS also plays an important role in brain injury after ICH but attracts less attention than other factors. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the metabolite axis of hemoglobin-heme-iron is the key contributor to oxidative brain damage after ICH, although other factors, such as neuroinflammation and prooxidases, are involved. This review will discuss the sources, possible molecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets of OS in ICH.

  1. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne, Malediv

  2. Sequence Classification: 899001 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ich is a Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor and positive regulator of phosphate pathway; but appears to be lacking the SPX domain || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/19115043 ...

  3. Mr. Robot: Schizophrenie, Paranoia und korporative Gier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jan jagodzinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die erste Staffel von Mr. Robot (2015 − aus Gilles Deleuzes symptomatologischer Position, die sich auf das Spannungsfeld zwischen ‹dem Klinischen und dem Kritischen› fokussiert. Zum Zeitpunkt des Verfassens dieses Artikels war nur die erste Staffel verfügbar. Im Folgenden zeige ich am Beispiel der Hauptfigur Elliot Anderson, inwiefern die Serie Einblicke in unsere ‹Kontrollgesellschaft› – auch eine Deleuzsche Entwicklung – gewähren kann. Zudem wird ein Vergleich mit dem Film «Kein System ist sicher», der ähnliche gesellschaftliche Fragen thematisiert, vorgenommen. Obwohl ich auf medienpädagogische Aspekte nur indirekt eingehen werde, hebe ich im Laufe der Argumentation hervor, dass solche Fernsehnarrative das allgemeine Publikum oder das, was ich als ‹jedermann› beschreibe, mit ethischen Problemen und Dilemmata unserer globalen kapitalistischen Ordnung konfrontieren.

  4. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne,

  5. Migraine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; González-Pérez, Antonio; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between hemorrhagic stroke and migraine using data from The Health Improvement Network database. FINDINGS: We ascertained 1,797 incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 1,340 of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Density-based sampling was used...... to select 10,000 controls free from hemorrhagic stroke. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we calculated the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with migraine, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, oral contraceptive...... use, and health services utilization.The risk (odds ratio [OR]) of ICH among migraineurs was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.5), and of SAH was (1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.5). The association with ICH was stronger for migraine diagnosed ≥20 years prior to ICH (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4), but not with SAH...

  6. Decompressive craniotomy or craniectomy?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-22

    Sep 22, 2012 ... Materials and Methods: Review of all cases of bony decompression done at the Memfys .... ICH=Intracerebral hemorrhage, ASDH=Acute subdural hematoma, EDH=Extradural .... ischaemic strokes: Swiss recommendations.

  7. Multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages following accidental massive lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Sandoval Jose

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH are uncommon. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman with previous diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus and who was brought to our hospital with altered mental status and urinary incontinence. Medical history of hypertension, hematological disorders or severe head trauma was absent. Platelet count and coagulation profile were unremarkable. An initial head computed tomography (CT showed sulcal enlargement and ventricular dilatation, but no evidence of ICH. A tap test indicated as a guide to case selection for shunt surgery accidentally resulted in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF overdrainage. The patient presented sudden neurological deterioration, with sluggishly responsive pupils and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A new head CT demonstrated multiple supra and infratentorial ICH. The patient became comatose and had a fatal course. Hence, CSF overdrainage may either cause or precipitate multiple simultaneous ICHs, affecting both the infratentorial and supratentorial regions.

  8. Myanmar Web Pages Crawler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su Mon Khine; Yadana Thein

    2015-01-01

    .... There is very little research area in crawling for Myanmar Language web sites. Most of the language specific crawlers are based on n-gram character sequences wh ich require training documents, the proposed crawler differ from those crawlers...

  9. Praha kevade eelmäng Eestis / Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2016-01-01

    12. märtsil Estonia kontserdisaalis ERSO "Suurlinna tuled II. Praha", kavas Bedřich Smetana sümfooniliste poeemide tsükkel "Minu kodumaa" Eesti Riikliku Sümfooniaorkestri esituses Paavo Järvi juhatusel

  10. Føtal og neonatal alloimmun trombocytopeni er en mulig fatal tilstand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling Taaning, Ellen Birkerod; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) may lead to intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) resulting in neurological damage or death. In FNAIT, transplacental maternal antibodies cause destruction of fetal platelets. Maternal immunisation occurs to fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs...

  11. The unintended consequences of clinical trials regulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D McMahon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alex McMahon and colleagues critique the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidance on good clinical practice (GCP, arguing that it is having a disastrous effect on noncommerical randomized clinical trials in Europe.

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs" (the ICH E2C guidance). The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). In the Federal Register of May 19, 1997 (62 FR 27470), FDA published the ICH E2C guidance, which recommends a unified standard for the format, content, and reporting frequency for postmarketing periodic safety update reports (PSURs) for drug and biological products. This guidance, an addendum to the ICH E2C guidance, provides additional information on the content and format of PSURs, including clarification of the objectives, general principles, and model for PSURs. This guidance is intended to help harmonize collection and submission of postmarketing clinical safety data.

  13. 78 FR 74151 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Providing Waiver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Industry on Providing Postmarket Periodic Safety Reports in the International Conference on Harmonisation... auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for Registration... technology. Reporting in Accordance With International Conference on Harmonisation--Periodic...

  14. The value and benefits of the International Conference on Harmonisation to drug regulatory authorities: advancing harmonization for better public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molzon, J A; Giaquinto, A; Lindstrom, L; Tominaga, T; Ward, M; Doerr, P; Hunt, L; Rago, L

    2011-04-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) is an unparalleled undertaking, which has brought together drug regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical trade associations from Europe, Japan, and the United States, to discuss the scientific and technical aspects of medical product registration. Launched in 1990, the value and benefits of ICH to regulators are being realized. ICH has harmonized submission requirements and created a harmonized submission format that is relieving both companies and regulatory authorities of the burdens of assembling and reviewing separate submissions for each region. As more countries embrace ICH guidelines, we anticipate additional benefits, including the promotion of good review practices and, ultimately, a common regulatory language that will facilitate further interactions among global drug regulatory authorities.

  15. 75 FR 18848 - Preparation for International Conference on Harmonisation Steering Committee and Expert Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preparation for International Conference on Harmonisation... International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) as well as the upcoming meetings in Tallinn, Estonia. The topics... associations to promote international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in...

  16. 77 FR 21782 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance for Industry on E2C(R2) Periodic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance... draft guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of.... Regarding the ICH: Michelle Limoli, Office of International Programs, Food and Drug Administration,...

  17. The unintended consequences of clinical trials regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Alex D McMahon; Conway, David I; MacDonald, Tom M; McInnes, Gordon T

    2009-01-01

    Alex McMahon and colleagues critique the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidance on good clinical practice (GCP), arguing that it is having a disastrous effect on noncommerical randomized clinical trials in Europe.

  18. 78 FR 44573 - Guidance for Industry on Providing Submissions in Electronic Format-Postmarket Non-Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... submissions of non-expedited ICSRs only in XML, prepared according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) standards for database-to-database transmission of information.\\7\\ When submitted in...

  19. Über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Peristonzähne bei Polytrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, Roelof

    1930-01-01

    zie: Kapitel I In den folgenden Untersuchungungen habe ich mittels einer gröszeren Anzahl Schnittserien von Kapseln verschiedenier Entwicklung versucht, die Einzelheiten der Anlage ud Weiterbildung des Polytrichumperistoms möglichst genau festzustellen. ... Zie: Kapitel IX

  20. Routine Repeat Head CT may not be Indicated in Patients on Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Therapy Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCammack, Kevin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH. This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of subjects undergoing evaluation for ICH after mild TBI in patients on ACAP therapy between January of 2012 and April of 2013. We assessed for the frequency of ICH on both the initial noncontrast HCT and on the routine six-hour follow-up HCT. Additionally, chart review was performed to evaluate the clinical implications of ICH, when present, and to interrogate whether pertinent clinical and laboratory data may predict the presence of ICH prior to imaging. We used multivariate generalized linear models to assess whether presenting Glasgow Coma Score (GCS, loss of consciousness (LOC, neurological or physical examination findings, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or specific ACAP regimen predicted ICH. Results: 144 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Ten patients demonstrated initial HCT positive for ICH, with only one demonstrating delayed ICH on the six-hour follow-up HCT. This patient was discharged without any intervention required or functional impairment. Presenting GCS deviation (p<0.001, LOC (p=0.04, neurological examination findings (p<0.001, clopidogrel (p=0.003, aspirin (p=0.03 or combination regimen (p=0.004 use were more commonly seen in patients with ICH. Conclusion: Routine six-hour follow-up HCT is likely not indicated in patients on ACAP therapy, as our study suggests clinically significant delayed ICH does not occur. Additionally, presenting GCS deviation, LOC, neurological examination

  1. Systemic administration of urocortin after intracerebral hemorrhage reduces neurological deficits and neuroinflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew Hock-Kean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH remains a serious clinical problem lacking effective treatment. Urocortin (UCN, a novel anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, protects injured cardiomyocytes and dopaminergic neurons. Our preliminary studies indicate UCN alleviates ICH-induced brain injury when administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV. The present study examines the therapeutic effect of UCN on ICH-induced neurological deficits and neuroinflammation when administered by the more convenient intraperitoneal (i.p. route. Methods ICH was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intrastriatal infusion of bacterial collagenase VII-S or autologous blood. UCN (2.5 or 25 μg/kg was administered i.p. at 60 minutes post-ICH. Penetration of i.p. administered fluorescently labeled UCN into the striatum was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Neurological deficits were evaluated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS. Brain edema was assessed using the dry/wet method. Blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption was assessed using the Evans blue assay. Hemorrhagic volume and lesion volume were assessed by Drabkin's method and morphometric assay, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Microglial activation and neuronal loss were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of UCN reduced neurological deficits from 1 to 7 days post-ICH. Surprisingly, although a higher dose (25 μg/kg, i.p. also reduced the functional deficits associated with ICH, it is significantly less effective than the lower dose (2.5 μg/kg, i.p.. Beneficial results with the low dose of UCN included a reduction in neurological deficits from 1 to 7 days post-ICH, as well as a reduction in brain edema, BBB disruption, lesion volume, microglial activation and neuronal loss 3 days post-ICH, and suppression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production 1, 3 and 7 days post-ICH

  2. Low-Density Lipoprotein and Intracerebral Hematoma Expansion in Daily Alcohol Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle R. Pletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH rate correlates with alcohol consumption. Alcohol leads to elevated blood pressure (BP and inhibition of platelet aggregation. These factors could promote excessive bleeding. To our knowledge, in the setting of normal liver function tests, there are no studies that have systematically evaluated the relationship between daily alcohol use and hematoma expansion. The aim of this study is to compare the baseline ICH characteristics, frequency of hematoma expansion, and outcomes in patients with ICH who are daily alcohol users with those who are not daily alcohol users. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive patients who presented from July 2008 to July 2013 to the Tulane University Hospital in New Orleans, La., USA, with a spontaneous ICH. Ninety-nine patients who met these criteria were admitted. Patients who underwent hematoma evacuation were excluded. Hemorrhage volumes were calculated based on the ABC/2 method. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL was dichotomized into low (2 and nonparametric equivalents where appropriate. ICH growth in 24 h and LDL were evaluated using linear regression. Results: Of the 226 patients who met inclusion criteria, 20.4% had a history of daily alcohol use. The average age was 61 years (range 19-94, 55.6% of the patients were males, and 67.1% were of African American origin. Daily alcohol use was associated with male gender, lower rate of home antihypertensive, higher presenting BP, and lower platelet counts, but there was no difference in ICH characteristics, ICH growth, or clinical outcome. Daily alcohol use in patients with a low LDL level was associated with supratentorial location and trends for lower baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, higher ICH score, and follow-up ICH volume, but no significant difference in significant hematoma expansion or clinical outcome except for a trend for higher mortality was found

  3. Clinical management of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulants: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH is associated with high mortality and morbidity, and for this reason it is the most feared complication of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT. Recommendations are available for the immediate reversal of OAT, but these measures are not always used uniformly and rapidly. The aim of this study was to critically review the treatment of spontaneous OAT-related ICH in our hospital. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients admitted to our ward between January 2006 and January 2010 for spontaneous OAT-related ICH. Results: In the analyzed period, 15 patients were hospitalized for OAT-related ICH (supratentorial in 66.5%, infratentorial in 20%, acute subdural hematoma in 13.5%. In 66.5% of the patients, the INR on arrival was within the therapeutic range. In 60% of the cases, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS on arrival was > 8/15. Three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC was administered in 80% of the cases, and 30% of patients received fresh frozen plasma (FFP and recombinant activated factor VII (FVIIra. One patient received PCC plus PFC, and another received PCC with FVIIra. FFP alone was used in 13.5% of the patients. All of the patients received intravenously administered vitamin K1. Treatment was started in the Emergency Room in 33.5% of the cases; in the other 66.5% it began on our ward. In 66.5% of the patients, the treatment was effective in reversing OATwithin 8 hours. In 2 cases, the hematoma was surgically evacuated, and the patients survived. Total mortality for OAT-related ICH was 46.5% (32.9% in non-OAT-related ICH. In 71.5% of the patients with OAT-related haemorrhages, death occurred within 48 hours of arrival. Sixty percent of the patients with ICH > 60 cm3 (20% in patients with ICH < 60 cm3 and 100% of those with GCS < 7/15 died. For survivors, the median modified Rankin Scale at discharge was 3. All survivors were still alive at 3 months after

  4. Bipyridine, an iron chelator, does not lessen intracerebral iron-induced damage or improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperumal, Jayalakshmi; Wowk, Shannon; Jones, Sarah; Ma, Yonglie; Colbourne, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Iron chelators, such as the intracellular ferrous chelator 2,2'-bipyridine, are a potential means of ameliorating iron-induced injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We evaluated bipyridine against the collagenase and whole-blood ICH models and a simplified model of iron-induced damage involving a striatal injection of FeCl2 in adult rats. First, we assessed whether bipyridine (25 mg/kg beginning 12 h post-ICH and every 12 h for 3 days) would attenuate non-heme iron levels in the brain and lessen behavioral impairments (neurological deficit scale, corner turn test, and horizontal ladder) 7 days after collagenase-induced ICH. Second, we evaluated bipyridine (20 mg/kg beginning 6 h post-ICH and then every 24 h) on edema 3 days after collagenase infusion. Body temperature was continually recorded in a subset of these rats beginning 24 h prior to ICH until euthanasia. Third, bipyridine was administered (as per experiment 2) after whole-blood infusion to examine tissue loss, neuronal degeneration, and behavioral impairments at 7 days post-stroke, as well as body temperature for 3 days post-stroke. Finally, we evaluated whether bipyridine (25 mg/kg given 2 h prior to surgery and then every 12 h for 3 days) lessens tissue loss, neuronal death, and behavioral deficits after striatal FeCl2 injection. Bipyridine caused a significant hypothermic effect (maximum drop to 34.6 °C for 2-5 h after each injection) in both ICH models; however, in all experiments bipyridine-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle controls on all other measures (e.g., tissue loss, behavioral impairments, etc.). These results do not support the use of bipyridine against ICH.

  5. [話題]Developing a Course for the International Cyber University of Health within the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hokama, Tomiko; Department of Maternal & Child and Global Health, School of Health Sciences Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Japan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present our experience of developing an International Child Health course for the International Cyber University of Health within the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (ICUH within APACPH) and to review the current International Child Health (ICH) cyber course. Evaluation about the survey of the ICH course showed that 2 out of 6 students thought the lecture notes were not explanatory enough and 4 students did not use the site for writing their...

  6. Regularization design for high-quality cone-beam CT of intracranial hemorrhage using statistical reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with pathologies such as hemorrhagic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Multi-detector CT is the current front-line imaging modality for detecting ICH (fresh blood contrast 40-80 HU, down to 1 mm). Flat-panel detector (FPD) cone-beam CT (CBCT) offers a potential alternative with a smaller scanner footprint, greater portability, and lower cost potentially well suited to deployment at the point of care outside standard diagnostic radiology and emergency room settings. Previous studies have suggested reliable detection of ICH down to 3 mm in CBCT using high-fidelity artifact correction and penalized weighted least-squared (PWLS) image reconstruction with a post-artifact-correction noise model. However, ICH reconstructed by traditional image regularization exhibits nonuniform spatial resolution and noise due to interaction between the statistical weights and regularization, which potentially degrades the detectability of ICH. In this work, we propose three regularization methods designed to overcome these challenges. The first two compute spatially varying certainty for uniform spatial resolution and noise, respectively. The third computes spatially varying regularization strength to achieve uniform "detectability," combining both spatial resolution and noise in a manner analogous to a delta-function detection task. Experiments were conducted on a CBCT test-bench, and image quality was evaluated for simulated ICH in different regions of an anthropomorphic head. The first two methods improved the uniformity in spatial resolution and noise compared to traditional regularization. The third exhibited the highest uniformity in detectability among all methods and best overall image quality. The proposed regularization provides a valuable means to achieve uniform image quality in CBCT of ICH and is being incorporated in a CBCT prototype for ICH imaging.

  7. KERSTIN GIER: AUF DER ANDEREN SEITE IST DAS GRAS VIEL GRÜNER (2011) AZRA ŠIROVNIK: TAŠČA (2007) PRIMERJAVA ZVRSTNOPOETOLOŠKIH VIDIKOV SODOBNEGA NEMŠKEGA IN SLOVENSKEGA ROMANA

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Das Ziel meiner Arbeit wird sein, gattungspoetologische Aspekte des Liebesromans theoretisch vorzustellen und die Liebesromane der deutschen Autorin Kerstin Gier Auf der anderen Seite ist das Gras viel grüner und der slowenischen Autorin Azra Širovnik Tašča unter dem gattungstheoretischen Gesichtspunkt zu analysieren. Dabei werde ich die Untergattung des Liebesromans theoretisch erläutern. Danach werde ich mich, ausgehend von den Untersuchungen des Romans von S. Neuhaus und Alojzija Zupan ...

  8. "Esst estnische Pasteten in estnischen Nischen" : Ilmar Laabans poetische Welt / Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänicke, Gisbert, 1937-

    2000-01-01

    Artikkel sisaldab I. Laabani luuletusi saksa k.: Das Ende der Ankerkette ist des Gesanges Beginn ; Ich liebe euch ; "Die Quelle des Tods in sauberen Wolken..." ; Vögel des Selbstmords ; "Ich zerstreue mich über meinen Tisch..." ; Pornografisch ; Die Moral des Nordlichts ; Mikrokosmos 1, 20, 23, 26, 29, 30, 34, 49. Samuti sisaldab artikkel I. Laabani rootsik. luuletuse "Hur står det till?" saksak. teksti ja I. Laabani saksa k. kirjutatud luuletuse "Funkenspielstück".

  9. Brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: The role of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiangjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH results in secondary brain edema and injury that may lead to death and disability. ICH also causes inflammation. It is unclear whether inflammation contributes to brain edema and neuron injury or functions in repairing the brain tissue. Aims: To understand the effect of inflammation in ICH, we have carried out an investigation on the various aspects and the dynamic changes of inflammation. Settings and Design: An ICH model was generated by injecting 50 ml autologous tail artery blood stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of 30 rats, which were randomly divided into five ICH groups. Similarly, five Sham control groups were generated by inserting the needle to the right caudate nucleus of rats. Materials and Methods: Rat behavior was evaluated over the time course (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d in each group. The rats were then killed by administering an overdose of pentobarbital. Following the euthanasia, the brain water content, neuronal loss, glia proliferation, inflammatory infiltration and brain morphology of the rats were measured. Additionally, the expression of TNF-a,IL-6, ICAM-1, VEGF, NF-kB, C3 and CR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by student′s t test. Results: Rat brain water content increased progressively over the time course and reached its peak at 48h followed ICH. The maximum of inflammatory infiltrate (especially neutrophils and immunopositive cells of TNF-a, IL-6 and NF-kB, were at 48h. The expression of C3 and CR2 reached their peaks at 48-72h, while the expression ICAM-1 and VEGF were at maximum at 72h followed ICH. Conclusions: The results suggested that the inflammatory cytokines, complement system and VEGF may have a function in the development of the brain edema and neuron injury followed ICH.

  10. Gender and age interact to affect early outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odera Umeano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a common and devastating form of cerebrovascular disease. In ICH, gender differences in outcomes remain relatively understudied but have been examined in other neurological emergencies. Further, a potential effect of age and gender on outcomes after ICH has not been explored. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that age and gender interact to modify neurological outcomes after ICH. METHODS: Adult patients admitted with spontaneous primary supratentorial ICH from July 2007 through April 2010 were assessed via retrospective analysis of an existing stroke database at Duke University. Univariate analysis of collected variables was used to compare gender and outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined as discharge to hospice or death. Using multivariate regression, the combined effect of age and gender on outcome after ICH was analyzed. RESULTS: In this study population, women were younger (61.1+14.5 versus 65.8+17.3 years, p=0.03 and more likely to have a history of substance abuse (35% versus 8.9%, p<0.0001 compared to men. Multivariable models demonstrated that advancing age had a greater effect on predicting discharge outcome in women compared to men (p=0.02. For younger patients, female sex was protective; however, at ages greater than 60 years, female sex was a risk factor for discharge to hospice or death. CONCLUSION: While independently associated with discharge to hospice or death after ICH, the interaction effect between gender and age demonstrated significantly stronger correlation with early outcome after ICH in a single center cohort. Prospective study is required to verify these findings.

  11. Zehn Oden / Kristjan Jaak Peterson ; [Deutsch von Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Kristian Jaak, 1801-1822

    2001-01-01

    On ilmunud ka kogumikus "Iaak. Kristian Jaak Peterson 200" (Tln. : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2001, lk. 105-122). Sisu: Der Mond = Kuu ; Freundschaft = Sõprus ; Der Sänger = Laulja ; An Gott = Jumalale ; Hoffnung = Lootus ; Ich muss Trinken. Liedchen = Ma pean jooma. Lauluke ; Ich bin wieder glücklich = Olen jälle õnnis ; Der Mensch = Inimene ; Sonnenuntergang = Päeva loojaminemine ; Herbst = Sügise.

  12. Effects of bilastine on T-wave morphology and the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes; Kanters, Jørgen K.;

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) E14 guideline for thorough QT studies requires assessing the propensity of new non-antiarrhythmic drugs to affect cardiac repolarization. The present study investigates whether a composite ECG measure of T-wave morphology (Morphology Combination...... Score [MCS]) can be used together with the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in a fully ICH E14-compliant thorough QT study to exclude clinically relevant repolarization effects of bilastine, a novel antihistamine....

  13. Ethik als soziale Praxis: Einführung zur Debatte über qualitative Forschung und Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    Ethische Fragen sind in der Humanforschung zunehmend wichtig geworden. Aus diesem Grund erscheint es angebracht, dass FQS den Fragen eine Debatte widmet, die sich mit den vielen ethischen Entscheidungsebenen in der qualitativen Forschung befassen. In diesem Beitrag greife ich auf persönliche Erfahrungen zurück, um die Ethikdebatte formell im Allgemeinen und die Beiträge im Besonderen einzuleiten. Ich lade unsere Leser und Leserinnen ein, an dieser Debatte über ethische Fragen in der qualitati...

  14. Hemostasis in Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Deepak; Dua, Dharti; Torbey, Michel T.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world with no proven effective treatment. Majority of hematoma expansion occur within 4 h after symptom onset and is associated with early deterioration and poor clinical outcome. There is a vital role of ultra-early hemostatic therapy in ICH to limit hematoma expansion. Patients at risk for hematoma expansion are with underlying hemostatic abnormalities. Treatment strategy should include appropriate intervention based on the history of use of antithrombotic use or an underlying coagulopathy in patients with ICH. For antiplatelet-associated ICH, recommendation is to discontinue antiplatelet agent and transfuse platelets to those who will undergo neurosurgical procedure with moderate quality of evidence. For vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH, administration of 3-factor or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) rather than fresh frozen plasma to patients with INR >1.4 is strongly recommended. For patients with novel oral anticoagulant-associated ICH, administering activated charcoal to those who present within 2 h of ingestion is recommended. Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against dabigatran (direct thrombin inhibitor) is approved by FDA for emergency situations. Administer activated PCC (50 U/kg) or 4-factor PCC (50 U/kg) to patients with ICH associated with direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) if idarucizumab is not available or if the hemorrhage is associated with a DTI other than dabigatran. For factor Xa inhibitor-associated ICH, administration of 4-factor PCC or aPCC is preferred over recombinant FVIIa because of the lower risk of adverse thrombotic events. PMID:28360881

  15. Association Between Serum Calcium Level and Extent of Bleeding in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Charidimou, Andreas; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Jessel, Michael J; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M; Romero, Javier M; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, M Edip; Greenberg, Steven M; Anderson, Christopher D; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2016-11-01

    Calcium is a key cofactor of the coagulation cascade and may play a role in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). To investigate whether a low serum calcium level is associated with an increase in the extent of bleeding in patients with ICH as measured by baseline hematoma volume and risk of hematoma expansion. Prospective cohort study of 2103 consecutive patients with primary ICH ascertained during the period between 1994 and 2015 at an academic medical center. The statistical analysis was performed in January 2016. Total calcium level was measured on admission, and hypocalcemia was defined as a serum calcium level of less than 8.4 mg/dL. Baseline and follow-up hematoma volumes, detected by noncontrast computed tomography, were measured using a computer-assisted semiautomatic analysis. Hematoma expansion was defined as an increase of more than 30% or 6 mL from baseline ICH volume. Associations between serum calcium level and baseline hematoma volume and between serum calcium level and ICH expansion were investigated in multivariable linear and logistic regression models, respectively. A total of 2123 patients with primary ICH were screened, and 2103 patients met the inclusion criteria (mean [SD] age, 72.7 [12.5] years; 54.3% male patients), of whom 229 (10.9%) had hypocalcemia on admission. Hypocalcemic patients had a higher median baseline hematoma volume than did normocalcemic patients (37 mL [IQR, 15-72 mL] vs 16 mL [IQR, 6-44 mL]; P bleeding in patients with ICH. A low calcium level may be associated with a subtle coagulopathy predisposing to increased bleeding and might therefore be a promising therapeutic target for acute ICH treatment trials.

  16. Formal Specification and Analysis of Cloud Computing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    QoS) Management in Service-Oriented Enterprise Architectures. IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, 0: 21 –32, 2004...Prof. Dr. Alexander Knapp Betreuer: Prof. Dr. José Meseguer Abgabe: 24. Januar 2012 Hiermit versichere ich, dass ich diese Masterarbeit selbständig...system [75]. Deduction in rewriting logic consists of the concurrent application of the rewriting rules in R modulo the equations in E ∪A. 3.2. The

  17. Fetal Intracranial Hemorrhage (Fetal Stroke: Report of Four Antenatally Diagnosed Casesand Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fen Huang

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: This small series demonstrate that an antenatal diagnosis of fetal stroke with intraventricular hemorrhage Grades III and IV or with brain parenchymal involvement appears to be associated with poor neurologic outcome. Due to the significant neonatal neurologic impairment and potential medicolegal implications of antepartum fetal ICH, it follows that obstetricians and sonographers should be familiar with predisposing factors and typical diagnostic imaging findings of rare in utero ICH events.

  18. Die Anima in Eschenbachs Parzival

    OpenAIRE

    Kitunen, S. (Sakari)

    2014-01-01

    In meiner Pro-Gradu -Arbeit untersuche ich die Darstellung und Entwicklung des Jungschen Animabegriffes im Parzival von Wolfram von Eschenbach. Ich werde die in Parzival vorkommenden Charaktere als Anima- und Animus-Figuren analysieren und untersuchen, wie die Interaktion zwischen ihnen die Entwicklung des Helden beeinflusst. Viele Werke, die das Thema Frauen bzw. Weiblichkeit im Mittelalter behandeln, gehen oft davon aus, dass die Frauen in der mittelalterlichen Literatur als Objekte behande...

  19. "Esst estnische Pasteten in estnischen Nischen" : Ilmar Laabans poetische Welt / Gisbert Jänicke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänicke, Gisbert, 1937-

    2000-01-01

    Artikkel sisaldab I. Laabani luuletusi saksa k.: Das Ende der Ankerkette ist des Gesanges Beginn ; Ich liebe euch ; "Die Quelle des Tods in sauberen Wolken..." ; Vögel des Selbstmords ; "Ich zerstreue mich über meinen Tisch..." ; Pornografisch ; Die Moral des Nordlichts ; Mikrokosmos 1, 20, 23, 26, 29, 30, 34, 49. Samuti sisaldab artikkel I. Laabani rootsik. luuletuse "Hur står det till?" saksak. teksti ja I. Laabani saksa k. kirjutatud luuletuse "Funkenspielstück".

  20. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with cerebral microbleeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D.; Werring, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a radiological marker of cerebral small vessel disease corresponding to small haemosiderin foci identified by blood-sensitive MRI. CMBs are common in older community populations, and in individuals with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We summarize how CMBs might contribute to assessing the future risk of ischaemic stroke and ICH to inform antithrombotic (antiplatelet or anticoagulant)...

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage recurrence on vitamin K antagonist: severity of the first episode and HASBLED score fail to identify high-risk patients from the CHIRONE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia; Dentali, Francesco; Testa, Sophie; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2017-01-01

    The most feared complication of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The previously published CHIRONE Study fails to identify risk factors associated with ICH recurrence after VKAs resumption. The aim of this secondary analysis of the study is to evaluate if patients who need surgery or with severe neurological sequelae after the first episode show a higher risk of ICH recurrence. The HASBLED score was used to stratify bleeding risk and to evaluate the distribution of recurrence in relation to each class of risk. The study included 267 patients from 27 Italian centers. The treatment of the index ICH, surgical or medical was recorded; modified Rankin Scale score of 3 or more was used to define patients with severe neurological impairment; HASBLED score of 3 or more was used to identify high bleeding risk patients. During follow-up, 20 patients (7.5%) had ICH recurrence (rate of 2.56 × 100 patient-years). No difference in the type of treatment [hazard ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-4.74] and neurological impairment with modified Rankin Scale 3 or more (hazard ratio = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.31-2.83) were found in relation to ICH recurrence. The mean HASBLED score was similar between the two groups (P = 0.54). In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that neither the severity of the index ICH at presentation nor the HASBLED clinical prediction rule should be used to assess the risk of recurrence in patients who need VKAs resumption after a previous ICH.

  2. The Investigators' Brochure: a comparison of the draft international conference on harmonisation guideline with current Food and Drug Administration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchetto, D M

    1995-12-01

    For several years, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has participated in a collaborative effort to harmonize the technical procedures for development and regulatory approval of human pharmaceuticals in multiple countries. This harmonization effort is the work of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). At this point, ICH focuses on achieving harmonization of technical requirements in three major regions of the world, i.e., the United States, European Union, and Japan. One area for which harmonization is being sought is the format and content of the Investigators' Brochure. On October 27, 1993, the ICH Steering Committee agreed that the ICH draft guideline on the Investigators' Brochure should be made available for public comment. On August 9, 1994, the FDA published the draft guideline for the format and content of the Investigators' Brochure. This draft guideline was prepared by the Efficacy Expert Working Group of the ICH. FDA solicited written comments on this draft guideline until October 11, 1994. Ultimately, FDA intends to adopt the ICH Steering Committee's final guidelines on Investigators' Brochures as part of a larger document on good clinical practices. Therefore, the content of this draft guideline warrants careful attention. In this paper, ICH's proposed information for inclusion in the Investigators' Brochure is reviewed and compared with current regulatory requirements of FDA. The expanded contents of the Investigators' Brochure proposed by ICH, which represent potential new requirements beyond current FDA regulations, are highlighted. The major controversial elements of this draft guideline are summarized.

  3. Predictors of tracheostomy in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Shadi; Moore, Page; Ray, Bappaditya; Keyrouz, Salah G

    2013-06-01

    One third of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) require mechanical ventilation; in most, tracheostomy may be necessary. Limited data exist about predictors of tracheostomy in ICH. The aim of our study is to identify predictors of tracheostomy in ICH. We reviewed medical records of patients seen in our institution between 2005 and 2009, using ICD-9 codes for ICH, for admission clinical and radiological parameters. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to identify tracheostomy predictors. Ninety patients with ICH were included in the analysis, eleven of which required tracheostomy. Patients requiring a tracheostomy were more likely to have a large hematoma volume (≥30mL) (63.4% vs. 29.1%, p=0.037), intraventricular hemorrhage (81.8% vs. 27.8%, pintubation≥14 days (54.5% vs. 1.27%, pintubation days (OR=87.49, ppredictors. We could potentially predict the need for tracheostomy early in the course of ICH based on the admission GCS score; duration of intubation is another predictor for tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy could decrease the time, and therefore risks of prolonged endotracheal intubation and length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival and outcome after endotracheal intubation for acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, C D; Phillips-Bute, B G; Laskowitz, D T; Lynch, J R; Chilukuri, V; Borel, C O

    1999-04-22

    To assess survival and functional outcome in patients endotracheally intubated after ischemic stroke (IS) or spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Endotracheal intubation is both a necessary life support intervention and a measure of severity in IS or ICH. Knowledge of associated clinical variables may improve the estimation of early prognosis and guide management in these patients. We reviewed 131 charts of patients with IS or ICH who were admitted to the Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit at Duke University Medical Center between July 1994 and June 1997 and required endotracheal intubation. Stroke risk factors, stroke type (IS or ICH) and location (hemispheric, brainstem, or cerebellum), circumstances surrounding intubation, neurologic assessment (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS] and brainstem reflexes), comorbidities, and disposition at discharge were documented. Survivors were interviewed for Barthel Index (BI) scores. Survival was 51% at 30 days and 39% overall. Variables that significantly correlated with 30-day survival in multivariate analysis included GCS at intubation (p = 0.03) and absent pupillary light response (p = 0.008). Increase in the GCS also correlated with improved functional outcome measured by the BI (p = 0.0003). In patients with IS, age and GCS at intubation predicted survival, and in patients with ICH, absent pupillary light response predicted survival. Predictors for mortality differ between patients with IS and ICH; however, decreased level of consciousness is the most important determinant of increased mortality and poor functional outcome. Absent pupillary light responses also correspond with a poor prognosis for survival, but further validation of this finding is needed.

  5. Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In order to study the clinical manifestation and risk factor of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH).Methods:The 256 patients were analysed who admitted to our hospital for intracerebral hemorrhage between 1995 and 1997.The 15(5 .86%)patients had a recurrent ICH.There were 9 men and 6 women and the mean age of the patients was 63.5 ± 6.4years at the first bleeding episode and 67.8± 8. 5 years at the second. The mean interval between the two bleeding episodes was 44.6 ± 12.5 months. The 73.3%patients were hypertensive .′The site of the first hemorrhage was ganglionic in 8 patients , ]ohar in six paients and brainstem in one .The recurrent hemorrhage occurred at a different location from the previous ICH.The most common pattern of recurrence was “ganglionic -ganglionic” (7 patients), lobar - ganglionic (3 patients), lobar-lobar(three patients), which was always observed in hypertensive patients. The outcome after the recurrent hemorrhage was usually poor. By comparison with 24 patients followed up to average 47.5± 18.7 months with isolated ICH without recurrence .Only lobar hematoma and a younger age were risk factors for recurrences whereas sex and previous hypertension were not. The mechanism of recurrence of ICH were multiple(hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy).Contral of blood pressure and good living habit after the first hemorrhage may prevent ICH recurrences.

  6. Gender Differences in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Hospital-Based Multicenter Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Bueno Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences are well described for patients with ischemic stroke. Conversely, sex disparities in stroke presentation, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH were not previously studied. Our objective was to compare the frequency of risk factors, management patterns, symptoms at presentation, complication rates, and outcomes between genders in patients with ICH in Fortaleza, Brazil. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from patients admitted to 19 hospitals in Fortaleza with a diagnosis of ICH by trained research coordinators from June 2009 to October 2010. Daily visits to the selected hospitals were performed, and all patients admitted with a diagnosis of ICH were prospectively evaluated. Results: We evaluated 364 patients, 47.5% of whom were women. Men were younger (59.3 ± 14.58 years vs. 66.3 ± 14.6 years, p Conclusion: Overall risk factors for ICH in men and women were similar in our series. Men had a higher frequency of alcohol abuse and smoking. Women were older, had an increased time length from symptoms onset to hospital admission and had a worse prognosis at discharge. A better understanding of the gender disparities in patients with ICH will hopefully lead to better outcomes in both sexes in the future.

  7. Deadly intracranial bleed in patients with dengue fever: A series of nine patients and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Jo Ee; Gee, Teak Sheng; Nasser, Abdul Wahab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. To date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. World Heath Organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. One of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Methodology: We collected data of patients with ICH diagnosed via a plain computed tomography of the brain (CT brain) with thrombocytopenia and positive Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein (NS1) antigen test or positive dengue serology IgM from January 2014 till June 2015 at our center. Nine patients were included and all 20 other remaining patients reported in literature so far are discussed. Discussion: We found that all patients in our center requiring neurosurgical intervention died. Another interesting observation is that detection of Dengue IgG usually meant more severe ICH and poorer outcomes. From our series, platelet levels did not seem to influence the outcome. Conclusion: We recommend that for early detection of ICH, Dengue IgG should be routinely screened and a high index of suspicion be maintained. Future research should be focused on determining predictors of ICH in patients with dengue fever so that preventive steps can be taken as mortality is high and no treatment seems beneficial at the moment once severe ICH occurs. PMID:27365962

  8. Deadly intracranial bleed in patients with dengue fever: A series of nine patients and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Jo Ee; Gee, Teak Sheng; Nasser, Abdul Wahab

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. To date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. World Heath Organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. One of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We collected data of patients with ICH diagnosed via a plain computed tomography of the brain (CT brain) with thrombocytopenia and positive Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein (NS1) antigen test or positive dengue serology IgM from January 2014 till June 2015 at our center. Nine patients were included and all 20 other remaining patients reported in literature so far are discussed. We found that all patients in our center requiring neurosurgical intervention died. Another interesting observation is that detection of Dengue IgG usually meant more severe ICH and poorer outcomes. From our series, platelet levels did not seem to influence the outcome. We recommend that for early detection of ICH, Dengue IgG should be routinely screened and a high index of suspicion be maintained. Future research should be focused on determining predictors of ICH in patients with dengue fever so that preventive steps can be taken as mortality is high and no treatment seems beneficial at the moment once severe ICH occurs.

  9. Nutritional status in acute stroke: undernutrition versus overnutrition in different stroke subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Kwon, S; Yang, Y H; Kim, E K; Jeon, M Y; Kim, J S

    1998-09-01

    Nutritional status in the acute stage of stroke has not been properly evaluated in different stroke subtypes. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of different subtypes of stroke patients. We studied 88 female patients with first-ever strokes. Strokes were divided into cerebral infarction (CI, n=67) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, n=21). We measured the nutritional status of the patients in the acute stage of stroke with the use of 8 parameters including 3 biochemical and 5 anthropometric ones. These variables were assessed in stroke patients and 120 age-matched controls, and were compared with each other. In the acute stage of stroke, undernourishment was significantly (P=0.000) more prevalent in the ICH group (62%) than in the CI group (25%) or controls (13%). On the other hand obesity was present in 10%, 24% and 17% in patients with ICH, those with CI, and controls, respectively, which was not significantly different (P=0.461). Only abdominal skinfold thickness was significantly greater in patients with CI than in those with ICH or controls. Conclusions - Our results illustrate that undernourishment is prevalent in acute stroke patients, significantly more so in patients with ICH than in those with CI. Stroke patients, especially those with ICH, should receive special nutritional intervention starting immediately after admission.

  10. PGE2-EP3 signaling exacerbates intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes in 24-mo-old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Lampert, Andrew S; Diller, Matthew A; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    With the population aging at an accelerated rate, the prevalence of stroke and financial burden of stroke-related health care costs are expected to continue to increase. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype more commonly affecting the elderly population, who display increased mortality and worse functional outcomes compared with younger patients. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E prostanoid (EP) receptor subtype 3 in modulating anatomical outcomes and functional recovery following ICH in 24-mo-old mice. EP3 is the most abundant EP receptor in the brain and we have previously shown that signaling through the PGE2-EP3 axis exacerbates ICH outcomes in young mice. Here, we show that EP3 receptor deletion results in 17.9 ± 6.1% less ICH-induced brain injury (P EP3-mediated neurotoxicity. Identified mechanisms include reduced blood accumulation and modulation of angiogenic and astroglial responses. Using this aged cohort of mice, we have confirmed and extended our previous results in young mice demonstrating the deleterious role of the PGE2-EP3 signaling axis in modulating brain injury and functional recovery after ICH, further supporting the notion of the EP3 receptor as a putative therapeutic avenue for the treatment of ICH. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Treatment of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm accompanying intracerebral hematomas: endovascular coiling followed by hematoma evacuation with burr hole trephination and catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joonho; Kim, Byung Moon; Shin, Yong Sam; Lim, Yong Cheol; Park, Sang Kyu

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of endovascular coiling of ruptured anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysms followed by intracerebral hematoma (ICH) evacuation with burr hole trephination and catheterization. Twelve patients treated by coiling with subsequent ICH drainage with burr hole trephination and catheterization were recruited from 290 patients with ruptured AcomA aneurysm in our hospital between January 2001 and June 2007. The clinical and radiographic characteristics and outcomes of the 12 patients were retrospectively analyzed. All 12 patients were male, aged from 29 to 62 years, and had ICHs with 16-ml to 45-ml volumes; nine (75%) of them had frontal ICHs on the opposite side of the dominant A1. Admission Hunt-Hess (HH) grade was 4 in eight patients, 3 in two, and 5 in two. The treatment outcomes in 8 of the 12 patients were good recovery or moderately disabled (Glasgow Outcome Scale; GOS 5 or 4), and functionally dependent (GOS 3 or 2) in the other 4 patients at the 6-month clinical follow-up. There was no rebleeding during the follow-up (mean, 22.9 months; range, 7 to 68 months). The result of our series suggests that coiling with subsequent evacuation of the ICH with burr hole trephination and catheterization may be an alternative treatment option for ruptured AcomA aneurysm with an ICH requiring evacuation on the opposite side of the dominant A1.

  12. Inhibition of neuronal ferroptosis protects hemorrhagic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Han, Xiaoning; Lan, Xi; Gao, Yufeng; Wan, Jieru; Durham, Frederick; Cheng, Tian; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhongyu; Jiang, Chao; Ying, Mingyao; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity, but our knowledge of post-ICH neuronal death and related mechanisms is limited. In this study, we first demonstrated that ferroptosis, a newly identified form of cell death, occurs in the collagenase-induced ICH model in mice. We found that administration of ferrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis, prevented neuronal death and reduced iron deposition induced by hemoglobin in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Mice treated with ferrostatin-1 after ICH exhibited marked brain protection and improved neurologic function. Additionally, we found that ferrostatin-1 reduced lipid reactive oxygen species production and attenuated the increased expression level of PTGS2 and its gene product cyclooxygenase-2 ex vivo and in vivo. Moreover, ferrostatin-1 in combination with other inhibitors that target different forms of cell death prevented hemoglobin-induced cell death in OHSCs and human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived neurons better than any inhibitor alone. These results indicate that ferroptosis contributes to neuronal death after ICH, that administration of ferrostatin-1 protects hemorrhagic brain, and that cyclooxygenase-2 could be a biomarker of ferroptosis. The insights gained from this study will advance our knowledge of the post-ICH cell death cascade and be essential for future preclinical studies.

  13. Acesso aos medicamentos para tratamento da doença de Alzheimer fornecidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celline Cardoso Almeida-Brasil

    Full Text Available Resumo: Avaliou-se as barreiras de acesso ao tratamento da doença de Alzheimer com base nos processos administrativos de medicamentos inibidores da colinesterase (IChE, enviados à Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre 2012 e 2013. Utilizando-se informações de 165 processos selecionados aleatoriamente, abordaram-se as dimensões de acesso: acessibilidade geográfica, acomodação, aceitabilidade, disponibilidade e capacidade aquisitiva. O trâmite administrativo para o fornecimento dos IChE levou em média 39 dias e foi influenciado por características do trajeto percorrido pelo usuário. A maioria dos prescritores cumpriu menos de 80% dos critérios exigidos pelo Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas (PCDT da doença de Alzheimer. Como resultado, 38% dos processos não foram deferidos. A capacidade aquisitiva para o tratamento privado mensal com IChE foi de cerca de 21 dias de salário mínimo. Conclui-se que a burocracia do trâmite administrativo e a dificuldade de seguimento do PCDT pelos prescritores prejudicam o acesso ao tratamento da doença de Alzheimer e constituem uma grande carga para o orçamento dos pacientes.

  14. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS IN 3901 PATIENTS WITH STROKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Feng Liu; Guy van Melle; Julien Bogousslavsky

    2005-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency of various risk factors for overall stroke and to identify risk factors for cerebral infarction (CI) versus intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large hospital-based stroke registry.Methods Data from a total of 3901 patients, consisting of 3525 patients with CI and 376 patients with ICH were prospectively coded and entered into a computerized data bank.Results Hypertension and smoking were the most prominent factors affecting overall stroke followed by mild internal carotid artery stenosis (< 50%), hypercholesterolemia, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), diabetes mellitus, and cardiac ischemia. Univariate analysis showed that factors in male significantly associated with CI versus ICH were old age, a family history of stroke, and intermittent claudication; whereas in female the factors were oral contraception and migraine. By multivariate analysis, in all patients, the factors significantly associated with CI as opposed to ICH were smoking, hypercholesterolemia, migraine, TIAs, atrial fibrillation, structural heart disease, and arterial disease. Hypertension was the only significant factor related with ICH versus CI.Conclusions The factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are not exactly the same. Cardiac and arterial disease are the most powerful factors associated with CI rather than ICH.

  15. Quantitative Intracerebral Hemorrhage Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschelli, John; Ullman, Natalie L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Eloyan, Ani; Martin, Neil; Vespa, Paul; Hanley, Daniel F.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The location of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is currently described in a qualitative way; we provide a quantitative framework for estimating ICH engagement and its relevance to stroke outcomes. Methods We analyzed 111 patients with ICH from the MISTIE II clinical trial. We estimated ICH engagement at a population level using image registration of CT scans to a template and a previously labeled atlas. Predictive regions of NIHSS and GCS stroke severity scores, collected at enrollment, were estimated. Results The percent coverage of the ICH by these regions strongly outperformed the reader-labeled locations. The adjusted R2 almost doubled from 0.129 (reader-labeled model) to 0.254 (quantitative-location model) for NIHSS and more than tripled from 0.069 (reader-labeled model) to 0.214 (quantitative-location model). A permutation test confirmed that the new predictive regions are more predictive than chance: p<.001 for NIHSS and p<.01 for GCS. Conclusions Objective measures of ICH location and engagement using advanced CT imaging processing provide finer, objective, and more quantitative anatomic information than that provided by human readers. PMID:26451031

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 9 on Tablet Friability General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 9: Tablet Friability General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Tablet Friability General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 7 on Dissolution Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 7: Dissolution Test General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Dissolution Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 12 on Analytical Sieving General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 12: Analytical Sieving General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Analytical Sieving General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (the core ICH Q4B guidance).

  19. Intracranial hemorrhage in full-term newborns: a hospital-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouwer, Annemieke J.; Groenendaal, Floris; Koopman, Corine; Vries, Linda S. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, PO Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Han, Sen K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurosurgery, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with parenchymal involvement has been diagnosed more often in full-term neonates due to improved neuroimaging techniques. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and neuroimaging data in the neonatal period and relate imaging findings to outcome in a hospital-based population admitted to a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). From our neuroimaging database, we retrospectively retrieved records and images of 53 term infants (1991-2008) in whom an imaging diagnosis of ICH with parenchymal involvement was made. Clinical data, including mode of delivery, clinical manifestations, neurological symptoms, extent and site of hemorrhage, neurosurgical intervention, and neurodevelopmental outcomes, were recorded. Seventeen of the 53 term infants had infratentorial ICH, 20 had supratentorial ICH, and 16 had a combination of the two. Seizures were the most common presenting symptom (71.7%), another ten infants (18.9%) presented with apneic seizures, and five infants had no clinical signs but were admitted to our NICU because of perinatal asphyxia (n = 2), respiratory distress (n = 2), and development of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (n = 1). Continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography recordings were performed in all infants. Clinical or subclinical seizures were seen in 48/53 (90.6%) infants; all received anti-epileptic drugs. Thirteen of all 53 (24.5%) infants died. The lowest mortality rate was seen in infants with supratentorial ICH (10%). Three infants with a midline shift required craniotomy, six infants needed a subcutaneous reservoir due to outflow obstruction, and three subsequently required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The group with poor outcome (death or developmental quotient (DQ) <85) had a significantly lower 5-min Apgar score (p =.006). Follow-up data were available for 37/40 survivors aged at least 15 months. Patients were assessed with the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales

  20. Thromboembolic risks of recombinant factor VIIa Use in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-Y Chou Sherry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa may be used for rapid hemostasis in life-threatening hemorrhage. In warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH, FVIIa use is controversial and may carry significant thromboembolic risks. We compared incidence of baseline thromboembolic risk factors and thromboembolism rates in wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa to those treated with standard therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and vitamin K alone. Methods We identified 45 consecutive wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa over 5-year period, and 34 consecutive wICH patients treated with standard therapy alone as comparison group. We compared the incidence of post-hemorrhage cardiac and extra-cardiac thromboembolic complications between two treatment groups, and used logistic regression to adjust for significant confounders such as baseline thromboembolic risk factors. We performed secondary analysis comparing the quantity of FFP transfused between two treatment cohorts. Results Both rFVIIa-treated and standard therapy-treated wICH patients had a high prevalence of pre-existing thromboembolic diseases including atrial fibrillation (73% vs 68%, deep venous thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE (22% vs 18%, coronary artery disease (CAD (38% vs 32%, and abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG (78% vs 85%. Troponin elevation following wICH was prevalent in both groups (47% vs 41%. Clinically significant myocardial infarction (MI, defined as troponin > 1.0 ng/dL, occurred in 13% of rFVIIa-treated and 6% of standard therapy-treated patients (p=0.52. Past history of CAD (p=0.0061 and baseline abnormal EKG (p=0.02 were independently associated with clinically significant MI following wICH while rFVIIa use was not. The incidences of DVT/PE (2% vs 9%; p=0.18 and ischemic stroke (2% vs 0%; p=0.38 were similar between two treatment groups. Recombinant FVIIa-treated patients had lower mean INR at 3 (p=0.0001 and 6 hours (p Conclusions Pre

  1. Atypical radiological and intraoperative findings of acute cerebral hemorrhage caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm in a patient with severe chronic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Kato, Taisei; Kitamura, Takayuki; Sekine, Tetsuro; Takagi, Ryo; Teramoto, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) associated with mild anemia is commonly observed on radiological examination, and there are several reports of ruptured aneurysms occurring with ICH but without accompanying subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the relationship among computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and intraoperative findings of ICH caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm in patients with severe chronic anemia has been rarely reported and is poorly understood. Here, we report atypical radiological and intraoperative findings of acute ICH caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm in a patient with severe chronic anemia. A 64-year-old man with anemia was admitted to our hospital after he experienced left hemiparesis and a disturbance of consciousness. At a referring institution, he showed evidence of macrocytic anemia (white blood cell count, 9,000/μL; red blood cell count, 104×10(4)/μL; hemoglobin, 4.0 g/dL; hematocrit, 12.2%; and platelet count, 26.6×10(4)/μL). Both CT and MRI showed a right frontal ICH. The outer ring of the hematoma appeared as low-density area on CT, a low-intensity area on T1-weighted MRI, and a high-intensity area on T2-weighted MRI with a serous component. The patient received a blood transfusion and underwent surgical removal of the hematoma the following day. The white serous effusion visualized with CT and MRI was identified as a blood clot in the hematoma cavity. The blood that leaks from blood vessels appears as a high-intensity area on CT because it undergoes plasma absorption in a solidification shrinkage process, and is, therefore, concentrated. Although we did not examine the white effusion to determine if serous components were present, we speculated that the effusion may have contained serous components. Therefore, we removed the part of the effusion that appeared as a low-density area on CT. The presence of ICH without subarachnoid hemorrhage suggested the possible adhesion and rupture of a previous

  2. Presence of Concomitant Systemic Cancer is Not Associated with Worse Functional Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprügel, Maximilian I; Kuramatsu, Joji B; Gerner, Stefan T; Sembill, Jochen A; Hartwich, Julius; Giede-Jeppe, Antje; Madžar, Dominik; Beuscher, Vanessa D; Hoelter, Philip; Lücking, Hannes; Struffert, Tobias; Schwab, Stefan; Huttner, Hagen B

    2017-08-03

    Data on clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and concomitant systemic cancer disease are very limited. Nine hundred and seventy three consecutive primary ICH patients were analyzed using our prospective institutional registry over a period of 9 years (2006-2014). We compared clinical and radiological parameters as well as outcome - scored using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and analyzed in a dichotomized fashion as favorable outcome (mRS = 0-3) and unfavorable outcome (mRS = 4-6) - of ICH patients with and without cancer. Relevant imbalances in baseline clinical and radiological characteristics were adjusted using propensity score (PS) matching. Prevalence of systemic cancer among patients with ICH was 8.5% (83/973). ICH patients with cancer were older (77 [70-82] vs. 72 [63-80] years; p = 0.002), had more often prior renal dysfunction (19/83 [22.9%] vs.107/890 [12.0%]; p = 0.005), and smaller hemorrhage volumes (10.1 [4.8-24.3] vs. 15.3 [5.4-42.9] mL; p = 0.017). After PS-matching there were no significant differences neither in mortality nor in functional outcome both at 3 months (mortality: 33/81 [40.7%] vs. 55/158 [34.8%]; p = 0.368; mRS = 0-3: 28/81 [34.6%] vs. 52/158 [32.9%]; p = 0.797) and 12 months (mortality: 39/78 [50.0%] vs. 70/150 [46.7%]; p = 0.633; mRS = 0-3: 25/78 [32.1%] vs. 53/150 [35.3%]; p = 0.620) among patients with and without concomitant systemic cancer. ICH volume tended to be highest in patients with hematooncologic malignancy and smallest in urothelial cancer. Patients with ICH and concomitant systemic cancer on average are older; however, they show smaller ICH volumes compared to patients without cancer. Yet, mortality and functional outcome is not different in ICH patients with and without cancer. Thus, the clinical history or the de novo diagnosis of concomitant malignancies in ICH patients should not lead to unjustified treatment restrictions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Passivhaus contra bioclimatic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainer, Aless [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-12-15

    In recent years, Passivhaus has become religious movement. It steals into various European strategic documents like Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential (2006) and Resolution of European Parliament (2007/2106(INI)). This article deals with the concept of internal environment and compares the passive and the bioclimatic concepts. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] In den letzten Jahren hat sich um die Passivhausidee eine Bewegung von religioesem Charakter gebildet. Es hat sich den Weg in diverse strategische EU-Dokumente gebahnt, wie etwa in den ''Aktionsplan fuer Energieeffizienz: Das Potenzial ausschoepfen'' (2006) und die Entschliessung des Europaeischen Parlaments dazu (2007/2106(INI)). Dieser Artikel behandelt das Konzept vom Innenraumklima und vergleicht das Konzept des Passivhauses mit bioklimatischen Konzepten. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Mikrokalorimetrická studie bakteriální degradace ropy a ropných produktů

    OpenAIRE

    Bola, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá studiem degradace nafty, jako jednoho z možných produktů ropy pomocí bakteriálních kmenů Pseudomonas Putida a Pseudomonas Chlororaphis. Tato práce je motivována prozkoumáním využitelnosti metody, která nebyla k těmto účelům prozatím používána – kalorimetrická analýza. Pomocí IČ spektrometrie (ATR), kalorimetrie a UV-VIS spektrometrie byla studována míra a charakter interakcí. Kalorimetrická analýza ukázala, že Pseudomonas Putida má větší schopnost degradability...

  5. O pewnej (rewolucyjnej) hipotezie Harolda J. Bermana – prawo i nauka w średniowieczu

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczyński, Marcin J.

    2015-01-01

    W książce „Prawo i rewolucja” Harold J. Berman wysuwa hipotezę, że pewne polityczne i społeczne przekształcenia przełomu XI i XII wieku miały, jak to określa, formatywny charakter w odniesieniu do całej późniejszej historii Zachodu. Pierwszorzędną rolę w tych wydarzeniach, określanych przez Bermana rewolucją, odgrywali prawnicy-dekretyści. Co więcej, Berman wiąże te przekształcenia z powstaniem uniwersytetów oraz, w ogólności, z pojawieniem się nowożytnej nauki. W artykule prześledzę znaczeni...

  6. VD 16, 17 und 18: Retrospektive nationalbibliographische Verzeichnung vor dem Hintergrund sich verändernder technischer Rahmenbedingungen

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    Wiebke Herr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beim VD 16, 17 und 18 handelt es sich um drei retrospektive Nationalbibliographien des 16., 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. Angelegt wurden die drei Verzeichnisse der im deutschen Sprachraum/Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke zeitlich versetzt zueinander. Die gesamte Entstehungsspanne reicht dabei mittlerweile über 50 Jahre. Dass es im Laufe der Zeit zu methodischen Verschiebungen gekommen ist, erstaunt deshalb wenig. Dieser Artikel konzentriert sich gezielt auf Veränderungen, die sich durch technische Entwicklungen für den Charakter der VDs ergeben haben. Als wesentliche technische Einflussgrößen lassen sich Verzeichnisformate und Digitalisierungsmöglichkeiten beschreiben. Folgen und Chancen ergeben sich daraus vor allem für vier Bereiche: Funktionen, Erschließungsstandards und Vollständigkeit der VDs sowie die Zugriffsmöglichkeiten auf ihre Daten.

  7. Neues Denken in der Unternehmensführung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Erich; Bullinger, Hans-Jörg; Gagsch, Bernd; Westkämper, Engelbert; Balve, Patrick; Gausemeier, Jürgen; Pfänder, Tomas; Wenzelmann, Christoph; Schloske, Alexander; Thieme, Paul; Bleicher, Knut; Dierkes, Meinolf; Wildemann, Horst; Ackermann, Karl-Friedrich; Bahner, Jens; Antoni, Conny H.

    Tiefgreifende und turbulente Veränderungen im Aufgabenumfeld schaffen neue, kritische Anforderungen an die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Unternehmen. Unternehmensführer sind herausgefordert, das vorherrschende Geschäftsverständnis zu hinterfragen, neue Quellen der Wirtschaftlichkeit zu erschließen, ihre Unternehmen beweglicher und lernfähiger zu gestalten sowie mehrere Strategiehebel gleichzeitig zu bedienen. Als Vorlage zur notwendigen Transformation von Unternehmen aus starren, mechanistischen in bewegliche, lernfähige Organisationen kann die "Idee des wandlungsfähigen Unternehmens“ oder das Konzept der "kreativen Compartments“ dienen. Mit diesem Wandel der Unternehmen verändert sich das Rollenverständnis der Führungskräfte. An die Führungsinstrumente werden neue Anforderungen gestellt. Unternehmenssteuerung in einer sich entwickelnden "Wissens-Wirtschaft“ erfordert neben ergebnisorientierten Informationssystemen umfassende Wissenssysteme. Planung und Kontrolle müssen ihren mechanistisch-instrumentellen Charakter ablegen und mehr zu Prozessen des Lernens und Verlernens werden.

  8. Landschaftsbereiche der Provinz Latina

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    Luigi Piemontese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Das Konzept der Landschaft setz sich zusammen aus verschiedenen Bezugspunkten und Interpretationen, je nach dem Blickpunkt, und ihre Wahnehrung veraendert sich je nach der verschiedenartigen Brille mit der man sie sieht. Der Artikel, geht von der Definition der Landschaft aus, wie sie in der Eurpaischen Konvention zitiert ist :“ Ein Teil des Landes, wie es von seinen Volk gesehen ist, dessen Charakter geformt ist aus naturlichen und menschlichen Faktoren und deren Wechselverhaeltnis”. Er wird fortgefuehrt mit der Identifikation der Landschaftsbereiche der Provinz Latina, die angesehn werden sollen als klimatisch, litologisch und morphologisch aenliche Landschaftsportionen, in denen erstens die Merkmale der Flora und Fauna klar werden und an zweiter Stelle, durch den Gebrauch des Territoriums und die Veraendungen mit denen er es gezeichnet hat, das Tun des Menschen. Die Methodik ruht teilweise auf der Klassifizierung des Territoriums, ausgearbeitet von C.Blasio und dem Konkretfall angeglichen.

  9. Profilaktyka biegunki podróżnych u dorosłych

    OpenAIRE

    Ksiądzyna, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Biegunka podróżnych to zespół objawów spowodowanych ostrym zakażeniem przewodu pokarmowego, występujący u osób podróżujących poza miejsce zamieszkania (zwykle za granicę) do krajów o niższych standardach higienicznych, zwłaszcza do strefy tropikalnej i subtropikalnej. Do obszarów związanych z najwyższym ryzykiem zachorowania należą: Afryka, Ameryka Środkowa i Południowa oraz Azja. Biegunka podróżnych uchodzi za najczęstszy problem zdrowotny związany z podróżą. Mimo że ma zwykle charakter ...

  10. Touristification in Berlin. Ein Bericht zur Workshop-Reihe des Vereins Kritische Geographie Berlin

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    Kritische Geographie Berlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Die Gruppe Kritische Geographie Berlin beschäftigt sich seit Längerem mit Phänomenen, Ursachen, Akteuren und Wirkungsweisen des neuen touristischen Interesses an Berliner ‚Trend-Bezirken’ wie etwa Mitte, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg und den nördlichen Teilen Neuköllns. Nachdem zunächst in mehreren Diskussionen und internen Workshops ein Überblick über das Thema und einzelne Facetten jener ‚Touristifizierung der Stadt’ erarbeitet wurde, folgte in den Jahren 2012/13 eine öffentliche Workshop-Reihe. Hier wurde der Versuch unternommen, in einer strukturierten Annäherung an unterschiedliche Dimensionen der ‚Touristification’ diese in ihrem komplexen Charakter lesbarer zu machen und sich über Fragen der Analyse und Bewertung, aber auch zu möglichen Interventionen und Initiativen auszutauschen.

  11. Zróżnicowanie parametrów geotechnicznych gruntów spoistych południowo-zachodniej Polski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wojnicka-Janowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Podstawą w projektowaniu konstrukcji inżynierskiej lub jej elementów jest znajomość podłoża gruntowego, w szczególności jego parametrów geotechnicznych. Przedstawione opracowanie ma charakter analizy zmienności regionalnej parametrów geotechnicznych gruntów ilastych południowo-zachodniej Polski, pod względem stratygraficznym zaliczonych do utworów neogeńskich. W publikacji wykorzystano bieżące badania własne uzupełnione o archiwalne badania próbek gruntów ilastych pochodzących z Legnicy i Głogowa. Wyniki badań opracowano statystycznie oraz przedstawiono w formie tabelarycznej.

  12. Historyczność kultury. W poszukiwaniu myślowego fundamentu współczesnej historiografii.

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Wiktor

    2009-01-01

    Pracę tę ma można uznać za studium z obszaru intelektualnej historii kultury europejskiej. W tym ujęciu dotyczy ona powstawania, w okresie od początku XVIII wieku do początku XX wieku, ważnych dyskursów opisujących i wyjaśniających świat: filozoficznego empiryzmu, ekonomii politycznej, społecznego darwinizmu i teologii naturalnej. Praca ta także ma charakter studium z historii idei, gdzie badanym zagadnieniem jest historyczność kultury czyli zbiór myślowych kategorii, których obecność w ró...

  13. Cyborg oder Göttin: Wie Technikforscherinnen ihr Verhältnis zu Technik sehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kissmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen haben für die Beiträge eigene auto/biographische Erlebnisse ausgewählt, in denen der mediale Charakter von Technik deutlich wird. Die Geschichten erzählen also von Technik, die soziale Ordnung und Bedeutung vermittelt und auf diese Weise dazu beiträgt, Geschlechtergrenzen und andere Grenzen wie die zwischen „bekannt“ und „fremd“ oder „normal“ und „anormal“ herzustellen. Die Auto/Biographien sind durch Technik einerseits fremdbestimmt, andererseits zeigen die Autorinnen auch, wie Selbstbestimmung über diese Grenzen hinweg möglich ist. Sie benutzen Donna Haraways Cyborg Metapher (1985, um das Selbst in der Verflechtung von Sozialem und Technischem auto/biographisch zu rekonstruieren.

  14. Rezension zu: Christoph Palmert, Suzan Douma, Matthias Meitzler, Johannes Wahl: Devianz als Alltag. Eine wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit Prostitution, Freiern und Stripclubs im Frankfurter Bahnhofsviertel. Norderstedt: Books on Demand 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Darley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Band umfasst Beiträge von vier Nachwuchswissenschaftler/-innen, die das Prostitutionsmilieu des Bahnhofsviertels von Frankfurt am Main einer wissenschaftlichen Analyse unterzogen haben. Wie der Titel des Werks zu erkennen gibt, ordnen sie ihre Studien in die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema ‚Devianz‘ ein. Der verwendete methodologische Ansatz – die Feldforschung – scheint hier besonders angebracht zu sein, um herrschende Vorstellungen vom devianten Charakter der Prostitution mit der Empirie zu konfrontieren. Leider scheitert der Band daran, die ethnographischen Beobachtungen mit einer wissenschaftlichen Analyse der Begriffe ‚Devianz‘ und ‚Normen‘ (und deren sozialen Konstruktion zu verknüpfen. Bedauernswert ist zudem die fehlende Reflexion über den Zusammenhang zwischen Raum, Gender und Politik im Lichte des Sonderfalls der Prostitution im Frankfurter Bahnhofsviertel.

  15. Eine außergewöhnliche Biographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rönz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Erst im Alter von 44 Jahren, als ihre beiden Söhne erwachsen waren, begann die Wienerin Ida Pfeiffer Forschungsreisen zu unternehmen, die sie in den folgenden 16 Jahren zunächst ins Heilige Land und anschließend zweimal um die ganze Welt führen sollten. Die hierzu veröffentlichten Reiseberichte erfreuten sich beim zeitgenössischen Publikum großer Beliebtheit, die von den Reisen mitgebrachten Sammlungen stellten eine bedeutende Bereicherung für die Wissenschaft dar. Trotz dieser für die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts ungewöhnlichen weiblichen Biographie blieb Ida Pfeiffer dennoch in ihren Schriften eine Verfechterin der bürgerlichen Normen und Werte. Diesen widersprüchlichen Charakter zu beleuchten hat sich Gabriele Habinger zur Aufgabe gemacht.

  16. Rezension von: Stefan Schoppengerd: Hoffnungslos vereinnahmt? Kritik der Geschlechterverhältnisse in Marketing und Popkultur. Münster: Westfälisches Dampfboot 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rauter-Nestler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In seiner Studie überprüft Stefan Schoppengerd die Diagnose der Vereinnahmung feministischer Kritik durch den neoliberalen Kapitalismus auf ihre Gültigkeit. Es gelingt ihm zu zeigen, dass diese Diagnose in ihrem Anspruch auf Allgemeingültigkeit nicht zutrifft, indem er mittels einer empirischen Untersuchung konkrete Orte des Widerstands im Diskurs des sogenannten Popfeminismus ausmacht. Hier, so Schoppengerd, ist weiterhin auch grundsätzliche feministische Kapitalismuskritik möglich. Während der empirische Teil sehr detailliert ist, hat die Auseinandersetzung mit den unterschiedlichen theoretischen Positionen, die der Studie zugrunde liegen, eher den Charakter eines Überblicks. Dies liest sich zwar äußerst pointiert und zugänglich, lässt aber auch Fragen offen.

  17. Heidegeer a Kierkegaard: pojetí boha a posvátného

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    Jiří Olšovský

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text je zaměřen zejména na posvátný charakter světa a přírody, jak se zračí v pojetí bytí a božského u Heideggera a Kierkegaarda. Bytí zde zůstává tématem, spolu se základní péčí a starostí o svět a věci v něm. Ukazuje se, že spodní proud Heideggerova myšlení je znovu-probuzení „zbožného myšlení“ a rezervovanost. Zejména článek chce upozornit na Heideggerovy odkazy k mysticismu a Kierkegaardův „pramen víry“. V úvahách nad Heideggerovým dílem je třeba se zamyslet, zda otázka Boha může být rozhodnuta jen v blízkosti bytí a svatosti. O noumenální charakter naší „zahrady“ je nezbytné znovu náležitě pečovat, a zaposlouchat se proto do řeči těch, kteří byli s to se přiblížit k bytí a božskému, k posvátnému pobývání na zemi.

  18. Intranasal delivery of hypoxia-preconditioned bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced regenerative effects after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinmei; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, James Ya; Zhang, Yongbo; Li, Jimei; Wei, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity with very limited treatment options. Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach to replace damaged brain tissues and promote regenerative processes. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intranasally delivered hypoxia-preconditioned BMSCs could reach the brain, promote tissue repair and improve functional recovery after ICH. Hemorrhagic stroke was induced in adult C57/B6 mice by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, intranasal BMSC treatment group, and vehicle treatment group. BMSCs were pre-treated with hypoxic preconditioning (HP) and pre-labeled with Hoechst before transplantation. Behavior tests, including the mNSS score, rotarod test, adhesive removal test, and locomotor function evaluation were performed at varying days, up to 21days, after ICH to evaluate the therapeutic effects of BMSC transplantation. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the neurotrophic effects. Intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs were identified in peri-injury regions. NeuN+/BrdU+ co-labeled cells were markedly increased around the hematoma region, and growth factors, including BDNF, GDNF, and VEGF were significantly upregulated in the ICH brain after BMSC treatment. The BMSC treatment group showed significant improvement in behavioral performance compared with the vehicle group. Our data also showed that intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs migrated to peri-injury regions and provided growth factors to increase neurogenesis after ICH. We conclude that intranasal administration of BMSC is an effective treatment for ICH, and that it enhanced neuroregenerative effects and promoted neurological functional recovery after ICH. Overall, the investigation supports the potential therapeutic strategy for BMSC transplantation therapy against hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fate of diffusion restricted lesions in acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hsiung Tsai

    Full Text Available Diffusion-restricted lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI are detected in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. In this study, we aimed to determine the fate of DWI lesions in ICH patients and whether the presence of DWI lesions is associated with functional outcome in patients with ICH.This prospective study enrolled 153 patients with acute ICH. Baseline MRI scans were performed within 2 weeks after ICH to detect DWI lesions and imaging markers for small vessel disease (SVD. Follow-up MRI scans were performed at 3 months after ICH to assess the fate of the DWI lesions. We analyzed the associations between the characteristics of DWI lesions with clinical features and functional outcome.Seventeen of the 153 patients (11.1% had a total of 25 DWI lesions. Factors associated with DWI lesions were high initial systolic and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP at the emergency room, additional lowering of MAP within 24 hours, and the presence of white matter hyperintensity and cerebral microbleeds. Thirteen of the 25 DWI lesions (52% were not visible on follow-up T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and were associated with high apparent diffusion coefficient value and a sharper decease in MAP. The regression of DWI lesions was associated with good functional outcome.More than half of the DWI lesions in the ICH patients did not transition to visible, long-term infarction. Only if the DWI lesion finally transitioned to final infarction was a poor functional outcome predicted. A DWI lesion may be regarded as an ischemic change of SVD and does not always indicate certain cerebral infarction or permanent tissue injury.

  20. Top 100 most-cited articles on Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Syed Ali Raza; Gilani, Jaleed Ahmed; Fatima, Kaneez; Faheem, Urooba; Kazmi, Omar; Siddiqi, Javed; Khosa, Faisal

    2017-09-21

    A bibliometric uses the citation count of an article to determine its impact on the clinical world. There is a paucity of literature concerning top article citations on spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The main objective of this investigation was to bridge this gap and to provide understanding of the trends on the most influential articles written on this subject. Scopus Library database was searched to determine the citations of all published spontaneous ICH articles. Articles that focused on other forms of ICH, such as trauma-related hemorrhages, sub-arachnoid hemorrhages, hemorrhages due to anti-coagulation, vascular malformations or cavernomas were excluded from our list. Our articles were divided into two groups; 'Specific' articles, that focused specifically on spontaneous ICH, and 'Generalized' articles that were about ICH in general, including spontaneous as well as other forms of ICH. We did not apply any time or study-type restriction in our search. The top 100 cited articles were selected and analyzed by 2 independent investigators. Broderick J was the author with most publications in the list (n=21). The largest subset of the spontaneous ICH articles was published in the 5-year periods from 1996 to 2000 and 2001 to 2005 (n=27 each). United States had the highest number of articles (n=49). The journal with the highest number of top 100 cited articles was Stroke with 39, followed by 16 in Neurology. In conclusion, our study identifies the trends related to the subject of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage by analyzing the citation frequency of the most cited articles in the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  2. Sesamin suppresses activation of microglia and p44/42 MAPK pathway, which confers neuroprotection in rat intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, M; Monda, A; Takemoto, R; Matsuoka, Y; Kitamura, C; Ohashi, K; Shibuya, H; Inoue, A

    2013-03-01

    Thrombin plays important roles in the pathology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The recruitment of activated microglia, accompanied by thrombin-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, contributes to ICH-associated neuron loss. Here we investigated the possibility that sesamin, a lignan of sesame seed oil, is a natural candidate as an inhibitor of microglial activation and MAPK pathways under ICH insults. Sesamin (30-100 μM) suppressed thrombin-induced nitric oxide (NO) production by primary-cultured rat microglia via inhibition of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression, independently of the antioxidative effect. Sesamin selectively inhibited p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation in the MAPK family (p38 and p44/42) involved in iNOS protein expression in primary-cultured rat microglia. An in vivo rat ICH model was prepared by intrastriatal injection of 0.20U collagenase type IV unilaterally. ICH evoked the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, microglial proliferation with morphological change into the activated ameboid form, and neuron loss. The phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK was inhibited by intracerebroventricular administration of 30-nmol sesamin. Sesamin prevented ICH-induced increase of microglial cells in the perihematomal area. Notably, ramified microglia, the resting morphology, were observed in brain sections of the animals administrated sesamin. Sesamin furthermore achieved neuroprotection in the perihematomal area but not in the hematomal center. These results suggest that sesamin is a promising natural product as a novel therapeutic strategy based on the regulation of microglial activities accompanied by the activated p44/42 MAPK pathway in ICH.

  3. Intracerebral hemorrhage as a manifestation of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid revascularization: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Pedro; Nogueira, Jerina; Rodrigues, Filipe Brogueira; Nascimento, Ana; Carvalho, Mariana; Marreiros, Ana; Nzwalo, Hipólito

    2017-09-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the context of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is an uncommon but potentially lethal complication after carotid revascularization for carotid occlusive disease. Information about its incidence, risk factors and fatality is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of ICH in the context of CHS after carotid revascularization. We searched the PubMed and EBSCO hosts for all studies published in English about CHS in the context of carotid revascularization. Two reviewers independently assessed each study for eligibility based on predefined criteria. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and the PROSPERO register was made (register no. CRD42016033190), including the pre-specified protocol. Forty-one studies involving 28,956 participants were deemed eligible and included in our analysis. The overall quality of the included studies was fair. The pooled frequency of ICH in the context of CHS was 38% (95% CI: 26% to 51%, I2 = 84%, 24 studies), and the pooled case fatality of ICH after CHS was 51% (95% CI: 32% to 71%, I2 = 77%, 17 studies). When comparing carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), post-procedural ICH in the context of CHS was less frequent in CEA. ICH following CHS occurred less often in large series and was rare in asymptomatic patients. The most common risk factors were periprocedural hypertension and ipsilateral severe stenosis. ICH as a manifestation of CHS is rare, more frequent after CAS and associated with poor prognosis. Periprocedural control of hypertension can reduce its occurrence.

  4. The effect of the results of the STICH trial on the management of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage in Newcastle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, M A; Mahattanakul, W; Gregson, B A; Mendelow, A D

    2008-12-01

    Recently, the Surgical Trial in IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (STICH) was unable to show an overall benefit from 'early surgery' compared with a policy of 'initial conservative treatment'. Here, we evaluated the impact of the STICH results on the management of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals. The STICH results were released to the Neurosurgery Department at Newcastle General Hospital in November 2003; using ICD-10 data, we analysed ICH admissions before (2002) and after (2004, 2006, 2007) this. We assessed numbers of Neurosurgery and Stroke Unit admissions, numbers of clot evacuation procedures, and 30-day mortality rate (Neurosurgery vs. Stroke Unit admissions). Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) admissions data were also collected to corroborate our findings. There were 478 spontaneous supratentorial ICH admissions in total; 156 in 2002, 120 in 2004, 106 in 2006 and 96 in 2007. SAH admissions remained remarkably constant over this period. Neurosurgery admissions decreased significantly across the four time periods, from 71% of total ICH admissions (n = 156) in 2002 to 55% (n = 96) in 2007, and Stroke Unit admissions increased significantly from 8% (n = 156) in 2002 to 30% (n = 96) in 2007 (chi(2) = 20.968, p < 0.001, df = 3). Clot evacuation procedures also decreased significantly from 32% (n = 111) of Neurosurgery admissions in 2002 to 17% (n = 53) in 2007 (chi(2) = 11.919, p = 0.008, df = 3). 30-day mortality increased in Neurosurgery from 14% of Neurosurgery admissions (n = 111) in 2002 to 26% (n = 53) in 2007, and decreased in the Stroke Unit, from 42% of Stroke Unit admissions (n = 12) in 2002 to 17% (n = 29) in 2007. The STICH results have significantly impacted ICH management in Newcastle, with a trend towards fewer Neurosurgery admissions and clot evacuations, and increased Stroke Unit admissions. The role of surgery for ICH remains controversial, and randomization continues in STICH II for patients

  5. Prostaglandin E2 EP2 Receptor Deletion Attenuates Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury and Improves Functional Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L. Leclerc

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating type of stroke characterized by bleeding into the brain parenchyma and secondary brain injury resulting from strong neuroinflammatory responses to blood components. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is significantly upregulated following ICH and contributes to this inflammatory response in part through its E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2. Signaling through the EP2 receptor has been shown to affect outcomes of many acute and chronic neurological disorders; although, not yet explored in the context of ICH. Wildtype (WT and EP2 receptor knockout (EP2−/− mice were subjected to ICH, and various anatomical and functional outcomes were assessed by histology and neurobehavioral testing, respectively. When compared with age-matched WT controls, EP2−/− mice had 41.9 ± 4.7% smaller ICH-induced brain lesions and displayed significantly less ipsilateral hemispheric enlargement and incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Anatomical outcomes correlated with improved functional recovery as identified by neurological deficit scoring. Histological staining was performed to begin investigating the mechanisms involved in EP2-mediated neurotoxicity after ICH. EP2−/− mice exhibited 45.5 ± 5.8% and 41.4 ± 8.1% less blood and ferric iron accumulation, respectively. Furthermore, significantly less striatal and cortical microgliosis, striatal and cortical astrogliosis, blood–brain barrier breakdown, and peripheral neutrophil infiltration were seen in EP2−/− mice. This study is the first to suggest a deleterious role for the PGE2-EP2 signaling axis in modulating brain injury, inflammation, and functional recovery following ICH. Targeting the EP2 G protein-coupled receptor may represent a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.

  6. The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan; Kidwell, Chelsea; McCauley, Jacob L; Osborne, Jennifer; Brown, Mark W; West, Sandra E; Rademacher, Eric W; Waddy, Salina; Roberts, Jamie N; Koch, Sebastian; Gonzales, Nicole R; Sung, Gene; Kittner, Steven J; Birnbaum, Lee; Frankel, Michael; Testai, Fernando Daniel; Hall, Christiana E; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Flaherty, Matthew; Coull, Bruce; Chong, Ji Y; Warwick, Tanya; Malkoff, Marc; James, Michael L; Ali, Latisha K; Worrall, Bradford B; Jones, Floyd; Watson, Tiffany; Leonard, Anne; Martinez, Rebecca; Sacco, Ralph I; Langefeld, Carl D

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have consistently demonstrated variation in incidence, location, age at presentation, and outcomes among non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic populations. We report here the design and methods for this large, prospective, multi-center case-control study of ICH. The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study is a multi-center, prospective case-control study of ICH. Cases are identified by hot-pursuit and enrolled using standard phenotype and risk factor information and include neuroimaging and blood sample collection. Controls are centrally identified by random digit dialing to match cases by age (±5 years), race, ethnicity, sex, and metropolitan region. As of March 22, 2013, 1655 cases of ICH had been recruited into the study, which is 101.5% of the target for that date, and 851 controls had been recruited, which is 67.2% of the target for that date (1267 controls) for a total of 2506 subjects, which is 86.5% of the target for that date (2897 subjects). Of the 1655 cases enrolled, 1640 cases had the case interview entered into the database, of which 628 (38%) were non-Hispanic black, 458 (28%) were non-Hispanic white, and 554 (34%) were Hispanic. Of the 1197 cases with imaging submitted, 876 (73.2%) had a 24 hour follow-up CT available. In addition to CT imaging, 607 cases have had MRI evaluation. The ERICH study is a large, case-control study of ICH with particular emphasis on recruitment of minority populations for the identification of genetic and epidemiological risk factors for ICH and outcomes after ICH.

  7. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  8. CD163 Expression in Neurons After Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Cao, Shenglong; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Huang, Yining; Xi, Guohua

    2017-05-01

    CD163, a receptor for hemoglobin, is involved in hemoglobin clearance after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In contrast to microglial/macrophage CD163, neuronal CD163 hemoglobin has not been well studied. This study examined the expression of neuronal CD163 in a pig model of ICH and in vitro rat cortical neurons and the impact of deferoxamine on that expression. There were 2 parts to this study. In the in vivo part, piglets had injection of autologous blood into the right frontal lobe. The time course of CD163 expression and the effect of deferoxamine on the expression of CD163 after ICH were determined in the grey matter. In the in vitro part, the levels of CD163 and neuronal death and the effect of deferoxamine were examined in rat cortical neurons culture treated with hemoglobin. CD163-positive cells were found, and the CD163 protein levels were upregulated in the ipsilateral grey matter after ICH. The CD163 levels peaked at days 1 and 3. The CD163-positive cells were colocated with NeuN-positive, heme oxygenase-2-positive, and terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. Deferoxamine treatment attenuated ICH-induced CD163 upregulation and significantly reduced both brain CD163 and hemoglobin levels at day 3. Treating neuronal cultures with hemoglobin for 24 hours resulted in CD163 upregulation and increased cell death. Deferoxamine significantly attenuated the hemoglobin-induced neuronal death and CD163 upregulation. CD163 is expressed in neurons and upregulated after ICH. Deferoxamine reduced ICH-induced CD163 upregulation and brain cell death in vivo and hemoglobin-induced CD163 upregulation and neuronal death in vitro. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The impact of cerebral microbleeds on intracerebral hemorrhage and poor functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Wang, Shuang; Lv, Yan; Zheng, Xin; Qiu, Jing; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    It is still controversial whether pre-existing cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) increase the risks of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and poor functional outcome (PFO) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of CMBs on ICH and PFO of AIS patients with IVT. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science from inception to August 3, 2016, with language restriction in English. We included studies that reported the relationship between CMBs and ICH or PFO after thrombolysis. Two retrospective and nine prospective studies met inclusion criteria (total 2702 patients). The overall prevalence of CMBs on pre-IVT MRI scans was 24.0%. Pre-existing CMBs on MRI scans were not significantly associated with a higher risk of early sICH (OR 1.74; 95% CI 0.91-3.33; I (2) = 44.5%). Subgroup analyses did not substantially influence these associations. The presence of CMBs was associated with the increased risk of 3-month PFO (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.08-2.31; I (2) = 54.2%), PH (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.34-3.42; I (2) = 11.0%) and any ICH (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.04-1.95; I (2) = 0.0%), respectively. This meta-analysis showed that CMBs presence was not significantly associated with the increased risk of early sICH after IVT. However, the results also demonstrated that CMBs presence increased the risks of 3-month PFO, PH and any ICH after IVT. Due to a small number of included studies and methodological limitations, the results of this meta-analysis should be interpreted cautiously. CMBs presence should not be a contraindication to IVT for AIS patients based on the existing evidence.

  10. Cerebral Microbleeds and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Post Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Ramin; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Singh, Mantinderpreet; McCormack, Michael; Goyal, Nitin; Ishfaq, Muhammad Fawad; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Nearing, Katherine; Elijovich, Lucas; Alexandrov, Anne W; Liebeskind, David S; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2017-03-01

    Stroke patients who have cerebral micro bleeds (CMBs) could be potentially at a greater risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) than those patients without CMBs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the presence and burden of CMBs are associated with post IVT sICH. In this multicenter study, consecutive patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator were prospectively identified and analyzed. Patients without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 24 hours of treatment were excluded. CMBs were defined as round or oval, hypointense lesions with associated blooming on T2*-weighted MRI up to 10 mm in diameter. Outcome measures included the occurrence of sICH or death. Of 672 patients with IVT (mean age 62 ± 14 years, 52% men, median admission NIHSS: 7 points), 103 patients had CMBs on T2*-MRI. Ten patients had more than 10, whereas the remaining 93 patients had 1-10 CMBs on T2*-MRI. The rates of sICH did not differ between patients with and patients without 1-10 CMBs (5.8% versus 3.5%; P = .27). However, sICH occurred more frequently (P = .0009) in patients with > 10 CMBs (30%, 95% confidence interval [CI] by the adjusted Wald method: 10%-61%). After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of >10 CMBs on T2*-MRI was independently (P = .0004) associated with a higher likelihood for sICH (odds ratio [OR]:13.4, 95%CI:3.2-55.9). Our findings indicate an increased risk of sICH after IVT when more than 10 CMBs are present. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neovascularization and functional recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage is conditioned by the Tp53 Arg72Pro single-nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Sobrino, Tomás; Agulla, Jesús; Bobo-Jiménez, Verónica; Ramos-Araque, María E; Duarte, Juan J; Gómez-Sánchez, José C; Bolaños, Juan P; Castillo, José; Almeida, Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating subtype of stroke that lacks effective therapy and reliable prognosis. Neovascularization following ICH is an essential compensatory response that mediates brain repair and modulates the clinical outcome of stroke patients. However, the mechanism that dictates this process is unknown. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote endothelial repair and contribute to ischemia-induced neovascularization. The human Tp53 gene harbors a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 72, which yields an arginine-to-proline amino-acidic substitution (Arg72Pro) that modulates the apoptotic activity of the p53 protein. Previously, we found that this SNP controls neuronal susceptibility to ischemia-induced apoptosis in vitro. Here, we evaluated the impact of the Tp53 Arg72Pro SNP on vascular repair and functional recovery after ICH. We first analyzed EPC mobilization and functional outcome based on the modified Rankin scale scores in a hospital-based cohort of 78 patients with non-traumatic ICH. Patients harboring the Pro allele of the Tp53 Arg72Pro SNP showed higher levels of circulating EPC-containing CD34(+) cells, EPC-mobilizing cytokines - vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α - and good functional outcome following ICH, when compared with the homozygous Arg allele patients, which is compatible with increased neovascularization. To assess directly whether Tp53 Arg72Pro SNP regulated neovascularization after ICH, we used the humanized Tp53 Arg72Pro knock-in mice, which were subjected to the collagenase-induced ICH. The brain endothelial cells of the Pro allele-carrying mice were highly resistant to ICH-mediated apoptosis, which facilitated cytokine-mediated EPC mobilization, cerebrovascular repair and functional recovery. However, these processes were not observed in the Arg allele-carrying mice. These results reveal that the Tp53 Arg72Pro SNP determines

  12. Heme activates TLR4-mediated inflammatory injury via MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway in intracerebral hemorrhage

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    Lin Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH-induced neurological deficits; however, the signaling pathways are not apparent by which the upstream cellular events trigger innate immune and inflammatory responses that contribute to neurological impairments. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays a role in inflammatory damage caused by brain disorders. Methods In this study, we investigate the role of TLR4 signaling in ICH-induced inflammation. In the ICH model, a significant upregulation of TLR4 expression in reactive microglia has been demonstrated using real-time RT-PCR. Activation of microglia was detected by immunohistochemistry, cytokines were measured by ELISA, MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB were measured by Western blot and EMSA, animal behavior was evaluated by animal behavioristics. Results Compared to WT mice, TLR4−/− mice had restrained ICH-induced brain damage showing in reduced cerebral edema and lower neurological deficit scores. Quantification of cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β and assessment of macrophage infiltration in perihematoma tissues from TLR4−/−, MyD88−/− and TRIF−/− mice showed attenuated inflammatory damage after ICH. TLR4−/− mice also exhibited reduced MyD88 and TRIF expression which was accompanied by decreased NF-κB activity. This suggests that after ICH both MyD88 and TRIF pathways might be involved in TLR4-mediated inflammatory injury possibly via NF-κB activation. Exogenous hemin administration significantly increased TLR4 expression and microglial activation in cultures and also exacerbated brain injury in WT mice but not in TLR4−/− mice. Anti-TLR4 antibody administration suppressed hemin-induced microglial activation in cultures and in the mice model of ICH. Conclusions Our findings suggest that heme potentiates microglial activation via TLR4, in turn inducing NF-κB activation via the MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway, and ultimately

  13. Recombinant-activated factor Ⅶ and neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Wei Li; Suju Ding; Jianping Tang; Jing Fang; Benqiang Deng; Tao Wu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Activated clotting factor Ⅶ has been demonstrated to exhibit obvious anti-apoptosis effects.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of activated clotting factor Ⅶ on neuronal apoptosis at different time points following rat intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled,animal experiment was performed at the Neurobiological Laboratory of Second Military Medical University from October 2005 to April 2006.MATERIALS:Recombinant-activated clotting factor Vlla (rFⅧa) was purchased from Danish Novo Nordisk,Denmark.In situ cell death detection kit-POD kit was purchased from Roche,Switzerland.Caspase-3 activity determination kit from Biovision,USA.METHODS:A total of 72 healthy,male,Sprague Dawley rats,aged 5-8 months,were randomly assigned to three groups (n=24):sham-operated,ICH model,and rFⅧa.In the ICH model and rFⅧa groups,80.0 μL autologous non-clotting blood from rat tails was injected into the right caudate putamen to establish the ICH.The empty microinjector was inserted into the caudate putamen in the sham-operated group.The ICH model and rFⅧa groups were subdivided into four subsets separately:6,24,72 hours and 7 clays following ICH.The rats in the rFⅧa group were injected with 160 μg/kg rFⅧa via the dorsal vein of the penis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Apoptotic cells were detected in the right caudate putamen by TUNEL;caspase-3 activity by spectrophotometry;and rat neurological function was evaluated by neurological functional impairment scales.RESULTS:Rat neurological function was deteriorated at 24,72 hours,and 7 days following ICH.The TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in the right caudate putamen was significantly increased in the ICH rats (P<0.05);rFVlla treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in the right caudate putamen (P<0.05),and neurological function was significantly improved (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:rFⅧa was applied within 72 hours after ICH,which reduced

  14. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

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    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  15. Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Intraventricular Extension—Getting the Prognosis Right Early

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    Christoph Stretz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEarly accurate outcome prognostication for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH and accompanying intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is often challenging (1. Acute hydrocephalus often contributes to a poor clinical exam (2 and can portend significant morbidity and mortality (3. Accordingly, the inpatient neurologist may feel inclined to recommend limitations of care for an ICH patient admitted with a large IVH burden and poor exam.Case presentationWe present a patient with significant IVH and minimal ICH who deteriorated rapidly to coma after presentation. Despite this exam, an initially non-functioning diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and temporary halt of further attempts of CSF diversion in the setting of an early “do not resuscitate order,” our patient gradually improved and, with supportive ICU care and rehabilitation, was able to communicate and ambulate with assistance at 12 weeks.ConclusionPatients with ICH with IVH do have the capacity to improve dramatically even with relatively conservative management. Unless previous limitations of care exist, we recommend that early judgments of prognosis for patients with ICH and/or IVH should be delayed for at least 72 h until the patient’s clinical trajectory over time is better understood.

  16. Estimating the Quantitative Demand of NOAC Antidote Doses on Stroke Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Farahmand, Dana; Niemann, Daniela; Ikenberg, Benno; Hohmann, Carina; Abruscato, Mario; Thonke, Sven; Strzelczyk, Adam; Hedtmann, Günther; Neumann-Haefelin, Tobias; Kollmar, Rainer; Singer, Oliver C; Ferbert, Andreas; Steiner, Thorsten; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Reihs, Anke; Misselwitz, Björn; Foerch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The first specific antidote for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) has recently been approved. NOAC antidotes will allow specific treatment for 2 hitherto problematic patient groups: patients with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT)-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and maybe also thrombolysis candidates presenting on oral anticoagulation (OAT). We aimed to estimate the frequency of these events and hence the quantitative demand of antidote doses on a stroke unit. We extracted data of patients with acute ischemic stroke and ICH (demand for NOAC antidote doses on stroke units. Eighteen percent of ICH patients within 6 h of symptom onset or an unknown symptom onset were on OAT. Given a NOAC share at admission of 40%, about 7% of all ICH patients may qualify for NOAC reversal therapy. Thirteen percent of ischemic stroke patients admitted within 4 h presented on anticoagulation. Given the availability of an appropriate antidote, a NOAC share of 50% could lead to a 6.1% increase in thrombolysis rate. Stroke units serving populations with a comparable demographic structure should prepare to treat up to 1% of all acute ischemic stroke patients and 7% of all acute ICH patients with NOAC antidotes. These numbers may increase with the mounting prevalence of atrial fibrillation and an increasing use of NOAC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

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    Serpil Demirci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

  18. The Definition of a Prolonged Intensive Care Unit Stay for Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients: An Application with National Health Insurance Research Database

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    Chien-Lung Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Length of stay (LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH patients is one of the most important issues. The disease severity, psychosocial factors, and institutional factors will influence the length of ICU stay. This study is used in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD to define the threshold of a prolonged ICU stay in sICH patients. Methods. This research collected the demographic data of sICH patients in the NHIRD from 2005 to 2009. The threshold of prolonged ICU stay was calculated using change point analysis. Results. There were 1599 sICH patients included. A prolonged ICU stay was defined as being equal to or longer than 10 days. There were 436 prolonged ICU stay cases and 1163 nonprolonged cases. Conclusion. This study showed that the threshold of a prolonged ICU stay is a good indicator of hospital utilization in ICH patients. Different hospitals have their own different care strategies that can be identified with a prolonged ICU stay. This indicator can be improved using quality control methods such as complications prevention and efficiency of ICU bed management. Patients’ stay in ICUs and in hospitals will be shorter if integrated care systems are established.

  19. Intracerebral hemorrhage for the palliative care provider: what you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, B Brent; Parks, Susan M

    2008-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) makes up 10%-30% of all strokes. Palliative care providers are often asked to get involved with ICH cases to aid with development of short-term and long-term goals. Prognosis can be calculated using the ICH score (based on Glasgow Coma Score score, ICH volume, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, age, and location of origin) or the Essen score (based on age, NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSS], and level of consciousness). Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status is important to discuss with families. Expert consensus states DNR is appropriate if the patient has two of the following: severe stroke, life-threatening brain damage, or significant comorbidities. The process of withdrawing ventilatory support can differ greatly from that of a medical intensive care unit (ICU) patient. Most ICH patients die within 24 hours following extubation. Symptoms of dyspnea and pain warrant use of opioids before and after terminal extubation. In addition, treating death rattle and postextubation stridor are important interventions. Family meetings are a vital intervention to help explain prognosis, establish a plan of care, and to get all family members on the same page. Family meetings can have a rapid effect, with 66% of families opting for withdrawal of life support to decide within 24 hours of such a meeting.

  20. Maternal anti-platelet β3 integrins impair angiogenesis and cause intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yougbaré, Issaka; Lang, Sean; Yang, Hong; Chen, Pingguo; Zhao, Xu; Tai, Wei-She; Zdravic, Darko; Vadasz, Brian; Li, Conglei; Piran, Siavash; Marshall, Alexandra; Zhu, Guangheng; Tiller, Heidi; Killie, Mette Kjaer; Boyd, Shelley; Leong-Poi, Howard; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Skogen, Bjorn; Adamson, S Lee; Freedman, John; Ni, Heyu

    2015-04-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a life-threatening disease in which intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the major risk. Although thrombocytopenia, which is caused by maternal antibodies against β3 integrin and occasionally by maternal antibodies against other platelet antigens, such as glycoprotein GPIbα, has long been assumed to be the cause of bleeding, the mechanism of ICH has not been adequately explored. Utilizing murine models of FNAIT and a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system, we found that ICH only occurred in fetuses and neonates with anti-β3 integrin-mediated, but not anti-GPIbα-mediated, FNAIT, despite similar thrombocytopenia in both groups. Only anti-β3 integrin-mediated FNAIT reduced brain and retina vessel density, impaired angiogenic signaling, and increased endothelial cell apoptosis, all of which were abrogated by maternal administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). ICH and impairment of retinal angiogenesis were further reproduced in neonates by injection of anti-β3 integrin, but not anti-GPIbα antisera. Utilizing cultured human endothelial cells, we found that cell proliferation, network formation, and AKT phosphorylation were inhibited only by murine anti-β3 integrin antisera and human anti-HPA-1a IgG purified from mothers with FNAIT children. Our data suggest that fetal hemostasis is distinct and that impairment of angiogenesis rather than thrombocytopenia likely causes FNAIT-associated ICH. Additionally, our results indicate that maternal IVIG therapy can effectively prevent this devastating disorder.

  1. Intrastriatal injection of autologous blood or clostridial collagenase as murine models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Beilei; Sheng, Huaxin; Wang, Haichen; Lascola, Christopher D; Warner, David S; Laskowitz, Daniel T; James, Michael L

    2014-07-03

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Lack of effective treatment and failure of large clinical trials aimed at hemostasis and clot removal demonstrate the need for further mechanism-driven investigation of ICH. This research may be performed through the framework provided by preclinical models. Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or clostridial collagenase. Since, each model represents distinctly different pathophysiological features related to ICH, use of a particular model may be selected based on what aspect of the disease is to be studied. For example, autologous blood injection most accurately represents the brain's response to the presence of intraparenchymal blood, and may most closely replicate lobar hemorrhage. Clostridial collagenase injection most accurately represents the small vessel rupture and hematoma evolution characteristic of deep hemorrhages. Thus, each model results in different hematoma formation, neuroinflammatory response, cerebral edema development, and neurobehavioral outcomes. Robustness of a purported therapeutic intervention can be best assessed using both models. In this protocol, induction of ICH using both models, immediate post-operative demonstration of injury, and early post-operative care techniques are demonstrated. Both models result in reproducible injuries, hematoma volumes, and neurobehavioral deficits. Because of the heterogeneity of human ICH, multiple preclinical models are needed to thoroughly explore pathophysiologic mechanisms and test potential therapeutic strategies.

  2. The clinical relevance of cerebral microbleeds in patients with cerebral ischemia and atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shamir; Planchard, Ryan; Zubair, Adeel; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Rydberg, Charlotte; Brown, Robert D; Flemming, Kelly D

    2016-02-01

    The clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in patients hospitalized with atrial fibrillation (AF) and cerebral ischemia is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CMB in this population and determine the future risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and cerebral infarction (CI). The medical records and brain imaging of patients hospitalized with cerebral ischemia due to AF between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Followup was obtained through medical record review, mailed survey, and acquisition of death certificates. Prevalence was calculated from those patients with a hemosiderin-sensitive MRI sequence. Recurrent CI and ICH were calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves censored at 3 years. Among 426 patients hospitalized with cerebral ischemia due to AF, 134 had an MRI with hemosiderin-sensitive sequences. The prevalence of CMB was 27.6%. At 3 years, 90.6% of CMB-negative patients were overall stroke free (ICH and CI) compared to 78.6% CMB-positive patients (p = 0.0591). Only one patient in the CMB-positive group had an ICH distant to the CMB. There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher recurrent CI, recurrent overall stroke rate, and mortality in patients with 5 or more CMB compared to 0-4 CMB. The rate of prospective CI in patients with prior cerebral ischemia due to AF is higher than the rate of ICH in patients with CMB. Further study is warranted to assess larger numbers of patients to determine appropriate antithrombotic use in this high-risk population.

  3. Incidental intracranial hemorrhage after uncomplicated birth: MRI before and after neonatal heart surgery

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    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Neuroradiology Dept., The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Clancy, R.R.; Licht, D.J. [Dept. of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahle, W.T. [Children' s Heart Hospital, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) before and after neonatal heart surgery. We carried out pre- and postoperative MRI looking for brain lesions in 24 full-term new-borns with known congenital heart disease. They underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), usually with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The first MRI was 1-22 days after birth. There were 21 children born after uncomplicated vaginal delivery and three delivered by cesarean section (CS). ICH was seen in 13 (62%) of the vaginal delivery group but in none of the CS group. We saw subdural bleeding along the inferior surface of the tentorium in 11 (52%) and supratentorially in six (29%) of the 21 children with ICH. Small hemorrhages were present in the choroid plexus in seven (33%), in the parenchyma in one (5%) and in the occipital horn in one (5%). There were 26 foci of bleeding in these 21 patients (1.2 per patient). None was judged by formal neurologic examination to be symptomatic from the hemorrhage. Follow-up MRI after cardiac surgery was obtained in 23 children, showing 37 foci of ICH (1.6 per patient), but all appeared asymptomatic. Postoperatively, ICH had increased in 10 children (43%), was unchanged in seven (30%) and was less extensive in six (26%). (orig.)

  4. Mast cell blocking reduces brain edema and hematoma volume and improves outcome after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Ramadan, Usama Abo; Lindsberg, Perttu J

    2007-04-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high mortality and disability, and there is no widely approved clinical therapy. Poor outcome after ICH results mostly from a mass effect owing to enlargement of the hematoma and brain swelling, leading to displacement and disruption of brain structures. Cerebral mast cells (MC) are resident inflammatory cells that are located perivascularly and contain potent vasoactive, proteolytic, and fibrinolytic substances. We previously found pharmacological MC stabilization and genetic MC deficiency to be associated with up to 50% reduction of postischemic brain swelling in rats. Here, we studied the role of MC and MC stabilization in ICH using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo digital imaging for calculating brain edema and hematoma volume. In a rat ICH model of autologous blood injection into the basal ganglia, four groups of Wistar rats received either saline or sodium cromoglycate (MC stabilizer, two groups) or compound 48/80 (MC degranulator). Evaluated 24 h later, MC stabilization had resulted in highly significantly better neurologic scores (Pbrain swelling (Pbrain swelling (P<0.05), and smaller hematoma growth (P<0.05) than WT. The role of MC deserves a close evaluation as a potential target in the development of novel forms of ICH therapy.

  5. Rheological behavior of clay-nanoparticle hybrid-added bentonite suspensions: specific role of hybrid additives on the gelation of clay-based fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngsoo; Son, You-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Kun; Phuoc, Tran X; Soong, Yee; Chyu, Minking K

    2011-09-01

    Two different types of clay nanoparticle hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticle clay hybrid (ICH) and Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) nanoparticle clay hybrid (ASCH), were synthesized and their effects on the rheological properties of aqueous bentonite fluids in steady state and dynamic state were explored. When ICH particles were added, bentonite particles in the fluid cross-link to form relatively well-oriented porous structure. This is attributed to the development of positively charged edge surfaces in ICH that leads to strengthening of the gel structure of the bentonite susensions. The role of ASCH particles on the interparticle association of the bentonite fluids is different from that of ICH and sensitive to pH. As pH of ASCH-added bentonite suspensions increased, the viscosity, yield stress, storage modulus, and flow stress decreased. In contrast, at low pH, the clay suspensions containing ASCH additives were coagulated and their rheological properties become close to those of ICH added bentonite fluids. A correlation between the net surface charge of the hybrid additives and the rheological properties of the fluids indicates that the embedded nanoparticles within the interlayer space control the variable charge of the edge surfaces of the platelets and determine the particles association behavior of the clay fluids.

  6. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) aggravates secondary inflammatory damage induced by hemin-NLRP3 pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Weng; Yan Tan; Xiang Chu; Xiao-Feng Wu; Rui Liu; Yue Tian; Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Inflammation plays a critical role in secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).However,the mechanisms of inflammatory injury following ICH are still unclear,particularly the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome,which are crucial to sterile inflammatory responses.In this study,we aim to test the hypothesis that NLRP3 signaling pathway takes a vital position in ICH-induced secondary inflammatory damage and detect the role of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) in this progress.Methods:ICH was induced in mice by microinjection of hemin into the striatum.The protein levels of NMDAR1,NMDAR1 phosphorylation,NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Western blot.The binding of NMDAR1 to NLRP3 was detected by immunoprecipitation.Results:The expression of NMDAR1,NMDAR1 phosphorylation,NLRP3 and IL-1 β were rapidly increased after ICH.Hemin treatment enhanced NMDAR1 expression and NMDAR1 phosphorylation,as well in cultured microglial cells treated by hemin.Hemin up-regulated NLRP3 and IL-1β level,which was reversed by MK801 (NMDAR antagonist) in vitro.Hemin also promoted the binding of NMDAR1 to NLRP3.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that NMDAR1 plays a pivotal role in hemin-induced NLRP3-mediated inflammatory damage through synergistic activation.

  7. Rapidly calcified all of multiple intracranial hemorrhages occurred in a patient with Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Rok Han, M.D., Ph.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 38-year-old female patient with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP who occurred in rapidly calcified all of multiple intracranial hemorrhage (ICH lesions. The patient was admitted with poor oral intake and confused mentality. Neurologic examination revealed drowsy consciousness but no motor weakness. She had been diagnosed ITP 5 years ago, however, she was not taking any medication at the time of presentation. Brain CT demonstrated that multiple ICHs, which were located in left frontal lobe, left temporal lobe and right cerebellar hemisphere. Platelet count was 10,000 cells/mm3. The patient was treated with conservative management, which included corticosteroids and platelet transfusion. Follow-up CT performed 12 days after the admission revealed that multiple ICHs were grossly resolving state. Interestingly, high attenuated lesions were seen all of multiple ICH sites, which were considered calcification. After 30 months after hemorrhage, follow-up brain CT showed prominent calcification of all of previous multiple ICH lesions. The patient was well- being state.

  8. Assessment of Serum UCH-L1 and GFAP in Acute Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changhong; Kobeissy, Firas; Alawieh, Ali; Li, Na; Li, Ning; Zibara, Kazem; Zoltewicz, Susie; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy; Larner, Stephen F.; Ding, Yuchuan; Hayes, Ronald L.; Ji, Xunming; Mondello, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and reliable diagnostic test to distinguish ischemic from hemorrhagic stroke in patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms is essential to optimize management and triage for thrombolytic therapy. The present study measured serum concentrations of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) and glial fibrillary astrocytic protein (GFAP) in acute stroke patients and healthy controls and investigated their relation to stroke severity and patient characteristics. We also assessed the diagnostic performance of these markers for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) from ischemic stroke (IS). Both UCH-L1 and GFAP concentrations were significantly greater in ICH patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). However, exclusively GFAP differed in ICH compared with IS (p < 0.0001). GFAP yielded an AUC of 0.86 for differentiating between ICH and IS within 4.5hrs of symptom onset with a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 96% using a cut-off of 0.34ng/ml. Higher GFAP levels were associated with stroke severity and history of prior stroke. Our results demonstrate that blood UCH-L1 and GFAP are increased early after stroke and distinct biomarker-specific release profiles are associated with stroke characteristics and type. We also confirmed the potential of GFAP as a tool for early rule-in of ICH, while UCH-L1 was not clinically useful. PMID:27074724

  9. Intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma in children with bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lois K; Dayan, Peter S; Gerardi, Michael J; Borgialli, Dominic A; Badawy, Mohamed K; Callahan, James M; Lillis, Kathleen A; Stanley, Rachel M; Gorelick, Marc H; Dong, Li; Zuspan, Sally Jo; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    To determine computerized tomography (CT) use and prevalence of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in children with and without congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. We compared CT use and ICH prevalence in children with and without bleeding disorders in a multicenter cohort study of 43 904 children bleeding disorders; all had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 to 15. These children had higher CT rates than children without bleeding disorders and GCS scores of 14 to 15 (risk ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 2.15 to 2.44). Of the children who underwent imaging with CT, 2 of 186 children with bleeding disorders had ICH (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 3.8) , compared with 655 of 14 969 children without bleeding disorders (4.4%; 95% CI, 4.1-4.7; rate ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.98). Both children with bleeding disorders and ICHs had symptoms; none of the children required neurosurgery. In children with head trauma, CTs are obtained twice as often in children with bleeding disorders, although ICHs occurred in only 1.1%, and these patients had symptoms. Routine CT imaging after head trauma may not be required in children without symptoms who have congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Anticoagulated Patients after Minor Head Trauma: The Role of Repeat Cranial Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, Clifford; Sidell, Margo; Ogaz, Raquel; Sharp, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Patients receiving anticoagulant medications who experience minor head injury are at increased risk of an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) developing, even after an initial computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain yields normal findings. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the frequency at which delayed bleeding occurs. Objective: To identify the frequency of delayed traumatic ICH in patients receiving warfarin or clopidogrel. Design: We performed a retrospective observational study of adult trauma encounters for anticoagulated patients undergoing head CT at 1 of 13 Kaiser Permanente Southern California Emergency Departments (EDs) between 2007 and 2011. Encounters were identified using structured data from electronic health and administrative records, and then records were individually reviewed for validation of results. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was ICH within 60 days of an ED visit with a normal head CT result. Results: Our sample included 443 (260 clopidogrel and 183 warfarin) eligible ED encounters with normal findings of initial head CT. Overall, 11 patients (2.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4%–4.4%) had a delayed ICH, and events occurred at similar rates between the clopidogrel group (6/260, 2.3%, CI 1.1%–5.0%) and warfarin group (5/183, 2.7%, CI 1.2%–6.2%). Conclusion: Trauma patients in the ED who are receiving warfarin or clopidogrel have approximately a 2.5% risk of delayed ICH after an initial normal finding on a head CT. PMID:26901269

  11. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 14 on Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 14: Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 6 on Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 6: Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions'' (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  13. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13 on Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13: Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  14. Left atrial appendage occlusion versus standard medical care in patients with atrial fibrillation and intracerebral haemorrhage: a propensity score-matched follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Wester, Per; Damgaard, Dorte; Airaksinen, Juhani; Lund, Juha; De Backer, Ole; Pakarinen, Sami; Odenstedt, Jacob; Vikman, Saila; Settergren, Magnus; Kongstad, Ole; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Krieger, Derk W

    2017-06-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) having a left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) versus patients receiving standard medical therapy. A total of 151 patients from the Nordic countries with AF and previous ICH who underwent LAAO using the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug or the AMPLATZER AMULET were compared to a propensity score-matched group of 151 patients receiving standard medical therapy. The two groups were matched so that their risks for stroke and bleeding were similar (CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores). The standard care patients were identified from the Danish Stroke Registry among 787 patients with AF and ICH. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, ischaemic stroke and major bleeding. Patients with AF and a prior ICH treated with LAAO had a lower risk of the composite outcome as compared to patients treated with standard medical care (events/1,000 years [95% confidence interval]: 53.3 [44.3-64.1] vs. 366.7 [298.2-450.9]; hazard ratio 0.16 [0.07-0.37]). LAAO is suggested to be of major clinical benefit in AF patients having sustained an ICH. These results have to be confirmed in a randomised clinical trial.

  15. Dialysis Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Cerebrovascular Accident Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Patel, Achint A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Kamat, Sunil; Annapureddy, Narender; Benjo, Alexandre; Thakar, Charuhas V

    2015-11-01

    The epidemiology of dialysis requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) admissions is poorly understood with previous studies being from a single center or year. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to evaluate the yearly incidence trends of AKI-D in hospitalizations with AIS and ICH from 2002 to 2011. We also evaluated the trend of impact of AKI-D on in-hospital mortality and adverse discharge using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity indices. We extracted a total of 3,937,928 and 696,754 hospitalizations with AIS and ICH, respectively. AKI-D occurred in 1.5 and 3.5 per 1000 in AIS and ICH admissions, respectively. Incidence of admissions complicated by AKI-D doubled from 0.9/1000 to 1.7/1000 in AIS and from 2.1/1000 to 4.3/1000 in ICH admissions. In AIS admissions, AKI-D was associated with 30% higher odds of mortality (aOR, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.48; Pcerebrovascular accident continues to grow and is associated with increased mortality and adverse discharge. This highlights the need for early diagnosis, better risk stratification, and preparedness for need for complex long-term care in this vulnerable population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4A on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4A: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4C on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4C: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4B on Microbiological Examination of nonsterile products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4B: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  19. Reshaping the carcinogenic risk assessment of medicines: international harmonisation for drug safety, industry/regulator efficiency or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2003-07-01

    The most significant institutional entity involved in the harmonisation of drug testing standards worldwide is the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), which comprises the three pharmaceutical industry associations and regulatory agencies of the EU, US and Japan. It is often claimed that such harmonisation will both accelerate the development and approval of new drugs and preserve safety standards, if not strengthen safety regimes. Drawing on extensive documentary research and interviews, this paper systematically examines whether the efforts by the ICH to improve industrial and regulatory efficiency by harmonising drug testing requirements is likely to raise, maintain or compromise safety standards in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The evidence suggests that, in the field of carcinogenicity testing, the ICH management of international harmonisation of medicines regulation is not achieving simultaneous improvements in safety standards and acceleration of drug development. Rather, the latter is being achieved at the expense of the former. Indeed, the ICH may be converting permissive regulatory practices of the past into new scientific standards for the future. These findings are significant as many expert scientific advisers to drug regulatory agencies seem to have accepted uncritically the conclusions reached by the ICH, which may affect a potential patient population of half a billion and tens of thousands of clinical trials.

  20. Regulatory T cells ameliorate intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Yan-Chun; Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Meng, Zhao-You; Zhao, Ting; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Liao, Mao-Fan; Wu, Li-Rong; Yang, Yuan-Rui; Liu, Juan; Duan, Chun-Mei; Li, Jie; Gong, Qiu-Wen; Liu, Liang; Yang, Mei-Hua; Xiong, Ao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2017-03-01

    Inflammation mediated by the peripheral infiltration of inflammatory cells plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced secondary injury. Previous studies have indicated that regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) might reduce ICH-induced inflammation, but the precise mechanisms that contribute to ICH-induced inflammatory injury remain unclear. Our results show that the number of Tregs in the brain increases after ICH. Inducing Tregs deletion using a CD25 antibody or Foxp3(DTR)-mice increased neurological deficient scores (NDS), the level of inflammatory factors, hematoma volumes, and neuronal degeneration. Meanwhile, boosting Tregs using a CD28 super-agonist antibody reduced the inflammatory injury. Furthermore, Tregs depletion shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype while boosting Tregs shifted this transition toward the M2 phenotype. In vitro, a transwell co-culture model of microglia and Tregs indicated that Tregs changed the polarization of microglia, decreased the expression of MHC-II, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased CD206 expression. IL-10 originating from Tregs mediated the microglia polarization by increasing the expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylates and inactivates Phosphatase and Tensin homologue (PTEN) in microglia, TGF-β did not participate in this conversion. Thus, Tregs ameliorated ICH-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis.

  1. Cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and anticoagulant-associated intracerebral haemorrhage risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eCharidimou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of antithrombotic drugs in an ageing population (including anticoagulants to prevent future ischaemic stroke in individuals with atrial fibrillation has been associated with a dramatic increase in the incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in users of antithrombotic drugs. Several lines of evidence suggest that cerebral small vessel disease (particularly sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a risk factor for this rare but devastating complication of these commonly used treatments. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs have emerged as a key MRI marker of small vessel disease and a potentially powerful marker of future ICH risk, but adequately powered, high quality prospective studies of CMBs and ICH risk on anticoagulation are not available. Further data are urgently needed to determine how neuroimaging and other biomarkers may contribute to individualised risk prediction to make anticoagulation as safe and effective as possible. In this review we discuss the available evidence on cerebral small vessel disease and CMBs in the context of antithrombotic treatments, especially regarding their role as a predictor of future ICH risk after ischaemic stroke, where risk-benefit judgements can be a major challenge for physicians. We will focus on patients with atrial fibrillation because these are frequently treated with anticoagulation. We briefly describe the rationale and design of a new prospective observational inception cohort study (Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke; CROMIS-2 which investigates the value of MRI markers of small vessel disease (including CMBs and genetic factors in assessing the risk of oral anticoagulation-associated ICH.

  2. Cerebral Microbleeds on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Anticoagulant-Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charidimou, Andreas; Shakeshaft, Clare; Werring, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of antithrombotic drugs in an aging population [including anticoagulants to prevent future ischemic stroke in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF)] has been associated with a dramatic increase in the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in users of antithrombotic drugs. Several lines of evidence suggest that cerebral small vessel disease (particularly sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy) is a risk factor for this rare but devastating complication of these commonly used treatments. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have emerged as a key MRI marker of small vessel disease and a potentially powerful marker of future ICH risk, but adequately powered, high quality prospective studies of CMBs and ICH risk on anticoagulation are not available. Further data are urgently needed to determine how neuroimaging and other biomarkers may contribute to individualized risk prediction to make anticoagulation as safe and effective as possible. In this review we discuss the available evidence on cerebral small vessel disease and CMBs in the context of antithrombotic treatments, especially regarding their role as a predictor of future ICH risk after ischemic stroke, where risk-benefit judgments can be a major challenge for physicians. We will focus on patients with AF because these are frequently treated with anticoagulation. We briefly describe the rationale and design of a new prospective observational inception cohort study (Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke; CROMIS-2) which investigates the value of MRI markers of small vessel disease (including CMBs) and genetic factors in assessing the risk of oral anticoagulation-associated ICH. PMID:23015806

  3. Changes in hemeoxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase in the peri-hematomal brain tissues of rats following intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiami Wu; Qingwei Meng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced hemorrhagic brain injury is very complicated, involving the position-occupying effect of oephalophyma, ischemio factors, the toxic effect of hematoma components, the destruction of blood-brain barrier, etc. The expression and effect of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cerebrovascular disease has been paid close attention.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of HO-1 and change of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the peri-hematomal brain tissue of rats following ICH.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Yijishan Hospital Affiliated to Wannan Medical College.MATERIALS: Forty healthy male SD rats, of clean grade, weighing from 250 to 300 g, were provided by Qinglongshan Animal Farm of Nanjing. The involved 40 rats were randomized into sham-operation group (n=5) and ICH group (n =35), and ICH group was divided into 7 subgroups with 5 rats in each: ICH 6, 12, 24, 48, 72,100 and 168 hours groups. Rabbit anti-rat HO-1 immunohistochemial kit ( Boster Co., Ltd., Wuhan) and SOD kit (Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing)were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurology, Yijishan Hospital Affiliated to Wannan Medical College Between April and July 2005. In the ICH group: Autologous blood of rats was injected into the head of caudate nucleus to create ICH animal models. In the sham-operation group, the same amount of normal saline was injected into the head of caudate nucleus of rats. The brains of rats in each group were harvested at different time points. The hematoma-side brain tissue was cut open in the coronal plane taking hematomal region as center, and the posterior part was fixed with 100 g/L neutral formaldehyde. 100 mg brain tissue was taken from anterior part. The number of positive cells in HO-1 and SOD activity in peri-hematomal brain tissue at different time after ICH were detected by immunohistochemical

  4. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 8 on Sterility Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 8: Sterility Test General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Sterility Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 10 on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 10: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter. The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  7. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 5 on Disintegration Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 5: Disintegration Test General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Disintegration Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  8. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 3: Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  9. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 2: Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  10. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on S2(R1) Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals intended for Human Use; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``S2(R1) Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use'' (ICH S2(R1)). This guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The ICH S2(R1) combines and replaces two ICH guidances, "S2A Specific Aspects for Regulatory Genotoxicity Tests for Pharmaceuticals'' and "S2B Genotoxicity: A Standard Battery for Genotoxicity Testing of Pharmaceuticals.'' ICH S2(R1) provides guidance to drug sponsors on which tests should be performed to assess potential genotoxicity of pharmaceuticals. It also provides guidance on testing conditions, data interpretation, and followup strategies if a positive response is seen in in vitro assays. This guidance is intended to provide drug sponsors with recommendations to ensure that drugs are appropriately tested for potential to cause genetic damage and to ensure efficient development of new drugs.

  11. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality following intracerebral hemorrhage: a three-year study in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtavar Khadigeh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is one of the common vascular insults with a relatively high rate of mortality. The aim of the current study was to determine the mortality rate and to evaluate the influence of various factors on the mortality of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Demographic characteristics along with clinical features and neuroimaging information on 122 patients with primary ICH admitted to Sina Hospital between 1999–2002 were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results Of 122 patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, 70 were men and 52 were women. Sixtynine percent of subjects were between 60 to 80 years of age. A history of hypertension was the primary cause in 67.2% of participants and it was found more frequent compared to other cardiovascular risk factors such as a history of ischemic heart disease (17.2%, diabetes mellitus (18% and cigarette smoking (13.1%. The overall mortality rate among ICH patients admitted to the hospital was 46.7%. About one third of the deaths occurred within the first two days after brain injury. Factor independently associated with in-hospital mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score (≤ 8, diabetes mellitus disease, volume of hematoma and and intraventricular hematoma. Conclusion Higher rate of mortality were observed during the first two weeks of hospitalization following ICH. Neuroimaging features along with GCS score can help the clinicians in developing their prognosis.

  12. The impact of neuronal Notch-1/JNK pathway on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal injury of rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maohua; Sun, Jun; Lu, Chuan; Chen, Xiandong; Ba, Huajun; Lin, Qun; Cai, Jianyong; Dai, Junxia

    2016-11-08

    Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway that regulates cell fate decisions during embryonic development. Notch activation endangers neurons by modulating NF-κB and HIF-1α pathways, however, the role of Notch signaling in activating JNK/c-Jun following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated. In this study, we used rat ICH models and thrombin-induced cell models to investigate the potential role of Notch-1/JNK signals. Our findings revealed that Notch-1 and JNK increased in hematoma-surrounding neurons tissues following ICH during ischemic conditions (all pNotch-1, p-JNK, and active caspase-3 were all up-regulated in cell viability-decreasing ICH cell models (all pNotch-1 or JNK suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and the expression of active caspase-3, and cell viability was obviously ameliorated. In conclusion, this work suggested Notch-1 activates JNK pathway to induce the active caspase-3, leading to neuronal injury when intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemia occurred. Thus the Notch-1/JNK signal pathway has an important role in ICH process, and may be a therapeutic target to prevent brain injury.

  13. Safety and efficacy of tenecteplase in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Daniel R; Karha, Juhana; Gibson, C Michael

    2003-05-01

    The use of intravenous thrombolytic agents has revolutionised the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, the improved mortality achieved with these drugs is tempered by the risk of serious bleeding complications, especially intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). Tenecteplase (TNKase, Genetech Inc.) is an engineered variant of alteplase (Activase, Genentech Inc.) designed to have increased fibrin specificity, greater efficacy and a longer half-life. The longer half-life of tenecteplase compared to alteplase allows for convenient single bolus administration of the drug. In addition, tenecteplase dosing is based on actual or estimated patient weight, which enhances both the safety and efficacy outcomes. Large clinical trials have demonstrated equivalence in mortality and ICH between tenecteplase and alteplase. Compared to alteplase, tenecteplase use leads to lower rates of bleeding complications and a decreased risk of ICH among low weight, elderly women.

  14. Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, V G; Mints, R G

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I-c(H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I-c(H) has zero at H = 0 instead of the traditional maximum of '0-type' junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction-vortex separation exceeds similar to W, the strip width, I-c(H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Arslan, Duran; Gümüş, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kumandaş, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver disease are at risk for developing secondary vitamin K deficiency because of fat malabsorbtion and inadequate dietary intake. In this study, we described 11 infants with cholestatic liver disease with different etiologies exhibiting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Six patients underwent surgical evacuation of ICH, following the administration of vitamin K and/or fresh frozen plasma. The possibility of cholestatic liver disease should be considered in the treatment of ICH due to vitamin K deficiency.

  16. Planning in the Face of Democracy. Mit Jacques Rancière über Raumplanung und Demokratie nachdenken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Rosemann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen vieler städtischer Planungskonflikte werden derzeit Funktionsweisen der liberalen Demokratie und ihrer Institutionen kritisiert. In meinem Text wird die Frage nach dem eigentlich Demokratischen von Raumproduktion und Stadtplanung gestellt und anhand der demokratietheoretischen Ideen Jacques Rancières diskutiert. Dieser sieht ‚Demokratie’ als den Moment, in dem die bestehende Ordnung durch einen Konflikt gestört und verhandelbar wird. Ich diskutiere einige zentrale Konzepte dieser politischen Theorie (la police, Demokratie und Postdemokratie raumtheoretisch und möchte sie damit für die Stadtforschung nutzbar machen. Dabei komme ich zu dem Ergebnis, dass aus einer radikaldemokratischen Perspektive liberaldemokratische (Stadt-Planung grundsätzlich nicht als Teil von Demokratie, sondern als postdemokratisch zu verstehen ist. Mit der Frage nach einer demokratiebewussten Planung überdenke ich in meinem Beitrag schließlich, wie die Rolle von Planung im Angesicht eines radikaldemokratischen Demokratiebegriffes normativ gedacht werden kann.

  17. Alternative Evaluation of the Properties of the Silica Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beňo J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Piaski kwarcowe stanowią podstawowe tworzywo na osnowę mas formierskich i rdzeniowych. Stąd istnieje bardzo wiele metod charakteryzujących ich jakość, co umożliwia poznanie ich zalet i wad. Mało jest jednak prac opisujących wpływ systemów transportowych odlewni oraz systemów suchej regeneracji mas na zmianę ich składu granulometrycznego oraz zawartości frakcji pylastych na właściwości mas. Celem niniejszej pracy jest ocena skłonności piasku kwarcowego do rozkruszania, (tworzenia frakcji pyłowych i zmianie granulometrii według nowo opracowanej metodyki uwzględniającej charakterystyczne cechy piasku wynikające z jego pochodzenia, kształty ziaren i charakteru powierzchni.

  18. Model zátěže

    OpenAIRE

    Lašo, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práca sa zoberá problematikou kvality elektrickej energie a modelovania záťaže. V práci je popísaná a vysvetlená problematika kvality elektrickej energie, princípu tvorenia modelu záťaže a jednotlivé typy záťaží a ich princípy. Ďalej sú popísané rôzne programy a ich hlavné výhody pri modelovaní v elektroenergetike, na záver sú vytvorené a popísané rôzne modely záťaži a ich simulácie v programe PSCAD. This thesis deals with power quality and load modeling. The issues of power qual...

  19. Aetiology of intracerebral haemorrage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Spolveri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous non traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH is usually caused by many different interacting factors, such as the use of alcohol or fibrinolitic drugs, congenital aneurysm, brain tumors, and blood dyscrasia. Age and hypertension-related small vessel diseases, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are the most common forms of vascular damage which can lead to ICH. Furthermore, a group of inherited cerebral small vessel diseases linked to ICH have been reported recently and the number of these forms is increasing. The presence of leukoaraiosis, lacunar infarcts and microbleeds has been suggested to indicate a higher risk for cerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, MRI and neuroimaging techniques contributed to the understanding and the diagnosis of this disease.

  20. The comparative method of language acquisition research: a Mayan case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and is especially useful in drawing attention to variation in contexts of use across languages. This article uses the Comparative Method to analyze the acquisition of verb suffixes in two Mayan languages: K'iche' and Yucatec. Mayan status suffixes simultaneously mark distinctions in verb transitivity, verb class, mood, and clause position. Two-year-old children acquiring K'iche' and Yucatec Maya accurately produce the status suffixes on verbs, in marked distinction to the verbal prefixes for aspect and agreement. We find evidence that the contexts of use for the suffixes differentially promote the children's production of cognate status suffixes in K'iche' and Yucatec.